PMID(sorted ascending)
kinetic characterization of galacto-oligosaccharide (gos) synthesis by three commercially important β-galactosidases.many β-galactosidases show large differences in galacto-oligosaccharide (gos) production and lactose hydrolysis. in this study, a kinetic model is developed in which the effect of lactose, glucose, galactose, and oligosaccharides on the onpg converting activity of various β-galactosidases is quantified. the use of onpg as a competing substrate to lactose yields more information than can be obtained by examining only the conversion of lactose itself. the reaction rate with lactose or oligosacchar ...201424124064
galactooligosaccharides formation during enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose: towards a prebiotic-enriched milk.the formation of galactooligosaccharides (gos) in skim milk during treatment with several commercial β-galactosidases (bacillus circulans, kluyveromyces lactis and aspergillus oryzae) was analysed in detail, at 4 and 40°c. the maximum gos concentration was obtained at a lactose conversion of approximately 40-50% with b. circulans and a. oryzae β-galactosidases, and at 95% lactose depletion for k. lactis β-galactosidase. using an enzyme dosage of 0.1% (v/v), the maximum gos concentration with k. ...201424128493
purification and partial characterization of nad aminohydrolase from aspergillus oryzae nrrl447.aspergillus oryzae aminohydrolase free acid phosphodiesterase catalyzes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to deamino-nad and ammonia. the enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a combination of acetone precipitation, anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. the enzyme was purified 230.5 fold. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme showed a single protein band of mw 94 kda. the enzyme displayed maximum activity at ph 5 and 40 °c wit ...201424158390
fed-batch synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides with aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase using optimal control strategy.fed-batch synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (gos) from lactose with β-galactosidase from aspergillus oryzae was evaluated experimentally and reaction yield was maximized via optimal control technique. the optimal lactose and enzyme feed flow rate profiles were determined using a model for gos synthesis previously reported by the authors. experimentally it was found that fed-batch synthesis allowed an increase on the maximum total gos concentration from 115 (batch synthesis) to 218 g l(-1) as ...201424167086
improvement of kojic acid production in aspergillus oryzae b008 mutant strain and its uses in fermentation of concentrated corn stalk hydrolysate.a strain designated m866, producing kojic acid with a high yield, was obtained by combining induced mutation using ion beam implantation and ethyl methane sulfonate treatment of a wild type strain of aspergillus oryzae b008. the amount of kojic acid produced by the strain m866 in a shaking flask was 40.2 g/l from 100 g/l of glucose, which was 1.7 times higher than that produced by wild strain (23.58 g/l). when the mixture of glucose and xylose was used as carbon source, the resulting kojic acid ...201424170020
identification of pyroglutamyl peptides in japanese rice wine (sake): presence of hepatoprotective pyroglu-leu.japanese rice wine, sake, is made from steamed rice, water, and lactic acid by "multiple parallel fermentation" with mold (aspergillus oryzae) and yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae). nineteen pyroglutamyl peptides were identified in commercially available sake. among them, pyroglu-leu and pyroglu-gln were the major constituents. pyroglu-leu has been demonstrated to attenuate hepatitis and colitis in animal models. commercial products (n = 5) contained pyroglu-leu at concentrations ranging from 40 ...201324175632
the aspergillus genome database: multispecies curation and incorporation of rna-seq data to improve structural gene annotations.the aspergillus genome database (aspgd; is a freely available web-based resource that was designed for aspergillus researchers and is also a valuable source of information for the entire fungal research community. in addition to being a repository and central point of access to genome, transcriptome and polymorphism data, aspgd hosts a comprehensive comparative genomics toolbox that facilitates the exploration of precomputed orthologs among the 20 currently available asperg ...201424194595
production and characterization of a new α-glucosidase inhibitory peptide from aspergillus oryzae α-glucosidase inhibitor was developed from aspergillus oryzae n159-1, which was screened from traditional fermented korean foods. the intracellular concentration of the inhibitor reached its highest level when the fungus was cultured in tryptic soy broth medium at 27℃ for five days. the inhibitor was purified using a series of purification steps involving ultrafiltration, sephadex g-25 gel permeation chromatography, strong cation exchange solid phase extraction, reverse-phase high performance ...201324198670
efficient formation of heterokaryotic sclerotia in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae.heterokaryon formation by hyphal fusion occurs during a sexual/parasexual cycle in filamentous fungi, and therefore, it is biotechnologically important for crossbreeding. in the industrial filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae, a parasexual cycle has been reported, and it was recently suggested that sexual reproduction should be possible. however, as a. oryzae enters into hyphal fusion with a much lower frequency than neurospora crassa, the process of heterokaryon formation has not been extensiv ...201424201891
improved α-amylase production by aspergillus oryzae after a double deletion of genes involved in carbon catabolite filamentous fungi, the expression of secretory glycoside hydrolase encoding genes, such as those for amylases, cellulases, and xylanases, is generally repressed in the presence of glucose. crea and creb have been observed to be regulating factors for carbon catabolite repression. in this study, we generated single and double deletion crea and/or creb mutants in aspergillus oryzae. the α-amylase activities of each strain were compared under various culture conditions. for the wild-type strain, ...201424213479
effects of direct-fed microbial supplementation on broiler performance, intestinal nutrient transport and integrity under experimental conditions with increased microbial challenge.1. the effects of aspergillus oryzae- and bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (dfm) were investigated on the performance, ileal nutrient transport and intestinal integrity of broiler chickens, raised under experimental conditions, with increased intestinal microbial challenge. 2. the first study was a 3 × 2 factorial experiment, with 3 dietary treatments (control (con), con + dfm and con + antibiotic growth promoter) with and without challenge. chicks were fed experimental diets from 1 ...201424219515
oxygen fluorescence quenching studies with single tryptophan-containing proteins.the work of lakowicz and weber [biochemistry 12, 4161 (1973)] demonstrated that molecular oxygen is a powerful quencher of tryptophan fluorescence in proteins. here we report studies of the oxygen quenching of several proteins that have a single, internal tryptophan residue. among these are apoazurin (pseudomonas aeruginosa), asparaginase (escherichia coli), ribonuclease t1 (aspergillus oryzae), and cod parvalbumin. both fluorescence intensity and phase lifetime quenching data are reported. by c ...199424233381
molecular identification of isolated fungi from stored apples in riyadh, saudi arabia.fungi causes most plant disease. when fruits are stored at suboptimal conditions, fungi grows, and some produce mycotoxin which can be dangerous for human consumption. studies have shown that the penicillium and monilinia species commonly cause spoilage of fruits, especially apples. several other genera and species were reported to grow to spoil fruits. this study was conducted to isolate and identify fruit spoilage by fungi on apples collected in riyadh, saudi arabia and conduct a molecular ide ...201324235866
purification and characterization of a prolyl endopeptidase isolated from aspergillus oryzae.a new fungal strain that was isolated from our library was identified as an aspergillus oryzae and noted to produce a novel proly endopeptidase. the enzyme was isolated, purified, and characterized. the molecular mass of the prolyl endopeptidase was estimated to be 60 kda by using sds-page. further biochemical characterization assays revealed that the enzyme attained optimal activity at ph 4.0 with acid ph stability from 3.0 to 5.0. its optimum temperature was 30 °c and residual activity after 3 ...201424241934
enzymatic synthesis of novel oligosaccharides from n-acetylsucrosamine using β-fructofuranosidase from aspergillus oryzae.mycelia of aspergillus oryzae nbrc100959 contain 2 types of β-fructofuranosidases, transfructosylation-catalyzing enzyme (βffasei), and hydrolysis-catalyzing enzyme (βffaseii). using βffasei extracted from the mycelia of strain nbrc100959, two novel oligosaccharides consisting of glcnac and fructose, β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2↔1)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside (n-acetyl-1-kestosamine, 1-kesnac) and β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-d-fructofuran ...201324246554
conjugation of deoxynivalenol by alternaria alternata (54028 nrrl), rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis (54029 nrrl) and aspergillus oryzae (5509 nrrl).deoxynivalenol (don, vomitoxin) is a trichothecene mycotoxin which can be considered to be an indicator of fusarium mycotoxin contamination in grain, feed and food. recent studies have described the presence of glucose conjugated don, which is a product of plant metabolism, but there is a lack of information available on don conjugation by fungi. the aim of the current study was, therefore, to investigate the ability of fungi to metabolize don into hydrolysable conjugated don. alternaria alterna ...201424263850
deglycosylation of isoflavones in isoflavone-rich soy germ flour by aspergillus oryzae kacc 40247.aspergillus oryzae kacc 40247 was selected as an efficient daidzein-producing fungus from strains of the genus aspergillus by using 5% (w/v) soy germ flour (sgf) as an isoflavone-glycoside-rich medium. the culture conditions, including sgf concentration, agitation speed, initial ph, temperature, and time, were optimized as follows: 7% (w/v) sgf, initial ph 6.0, 33 °c, 300 rpm, and 24 h in a 100 ml baffled flask. the determined amount of isoflavone aglycons in sgf using 50% ethyl acetate was the ...201324266868
enhanced β-galactosidase production of aspergillus oryzae mutated by uv and order to breed a high-yield β-galactosidase-producing strain, aspergillus oryzae was used as the parent strain and mutagenized with ultraviolet (uv) and uv plus lithium chloride (licl), respectively. after being mutagenized by uv, the β-galactosidase activity of mutant uv-15-20 reached 114.08 u/ml, which revealed a 49.22% increase compared with the original strain. a mutant uv-licl-38 with high β-galactosidase activity (121.42 u/ml) was obtained after compound mutagenesis of uv and licl; the ...201424274018
the henry reaction in [bmim][pf₆]-based microemulsions promoted by environmentally-friendly, enzyme-promoted procedure for the henry reaction was first studied using water-in-[bmim][pf6] microemulsions as reaction medium. the amano acylase from aspergillus oryzae showed better catalytic activity for the addition reactions of nitromethane with a series of aromatic aldehydes, and a highest yield of 90% was obtained.201324284489
production optimization and expression of pectin releasing enzyme from aspergillus oryzae po.protopectinase is an enzyme that solubilizes protopectin forming highly polymerized soluble pectin. protopectinase activity was detected from aspergillus oryzae po isolated from soil of persimmon orchard. response surface methodology of box-behnken design with three fermentation variables (temperature, nano3 and apple pomace concentration) was used to optimize protopectinase production of a. oryzae po, and protopectinase activity was improved to 270.0 u/ml. endo-polygalacturonase belonged to a-t ...201424299753
a comparative study of extraction techniques for maximum recovery of glutamate decarboxylase (gad) from aspergillus oryzae nsk.γ-amino butyric acid (gaba) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system that plays a vital role in regulating vital neurological functions. the enzyme responsible for producing gaba is glutamate decarboxylase (gad), an intracellular enzyme that both food and pharmaceutical industries are currently using as the major catalyst in trial biotransformation process of gaba. we have successfully isolated a novel strain of aspergillus oryzae nsk that possesses a relati ...201324321181
sequence analysis and heterologous expression of the wool cuticle-degrading enzyme encoding genes in fusarium oxysporum 26-1.two protease-like proteins, krta and krtc, were identified in fusarium oxysporum 26-1. genes coding these proteins, krta and krtc, were isolated and characterized. recombinant krta (rkrta) and krtc (rkrtc) were successfully expressed in aspergillus oryzae and secreted. the combination of rkrta and rkrtc completely removed the cuticle of wool fibers.201424360406
enzymatic transformation of polydatin to resveratrol by piceid-β-d-glucosidase from aspergillus oryzae.resveratrol is now gaining much attention because of its pharmacological properties. polygonum cuspidatum has the highest content of resveratrol in plants and is the best material offering resveratrol. however, the content of resveratrol in p. cuspidatum is much lower compared with its glycoside polydatin. in this study, enzymatic transformation of polydatin to resveratrol by piceid-β-d-glucosidase from aspergillus oryzae sp. 100 was investigated. the biotransformation conditions were optimized. ...201424362562
discovery and characterization of a new family of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos) are a recently discovered class of enzymes capable of oxidizing recalcitrant polysaccharides. they are attracting considerable attention owing to their potential use in biomass conversion, notably in the production of biofuels. previous studies have identified two discrete sequence-based families of these enzymes termed aa9 (formerly gh61) and aa10 (formerly cbm33). here, we report the discovery of a third family of lpmos. using a chitin-degrading exem ...201424362702
a novel method for beef potentiator preparation and identification of its characteristic aroma compounds.beef potentiator (bp) is the most popular savoury flavour and regarded as the soul of the modern food industry. in this work, bp was prepared by a novel method with aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus niger (bpsf). three other bps prepared using commercial enzymes (protamex, flavourzyme and papain; bpces) were used as controls to investigate its aroma characteristics and related compounds.201424374657
development of a pyrg mutant of aspergillus oryzae strain s1 as a host for the production of heterologous proteins.the ease with which auxotrophic strains and genes that complement them can be manipulated, as well as the stability of auxotrophic selection systems, are amongst the advantages of using auxotrophic markers to produce heterologous proteins. most auxotrophic markers in aspergillus oryzae originate from chemical or physical mutagenesis that may yield undesirable mutations along with the mutation of interest. an auxotrophic a. oryzae strain s1 was generated by deleting the orotidine-5'-monophosphate ...201324381522
quantitation and structural determination of glucosylceramides contained in sake lees.sake lees are solid parts filtered from the mash of sake, the traditional rice wine of japan, which is brewed with aspergillus oryzae and saccharomyces cerevisiae. the moisture-holding activity of sake lees has long been recognized in japan. however, the constituent responsible for this activity has not been elucidated. in this study, we first determined the structure of the glucosylceramides contained in sake lees. the glucosylceramides contained in sake lees were n-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl-l-o-β ...201424389795
physiological characterization of the high malic acid-producing aspergillus oryzae strain 2103a-68.malic acid is a c₄ dicarboxylic acid that is currently mainly used in the food and beverages industry as an acidulant. because of the versatility of the group of c₄ dicarboxylic acids, the chemical industry has a growing interest in this chemical compound. as malic acid will be considered as a bulk chemical, microbial production requires organisms that sustain high rates, yields, and titers. aspergillus oryzae is mainly known as an industrial enzyme producer, but it was also shown that it has a ...201424413918
the effect of urea on growth of moulds and biomass yield in solid-state cultivation.urea, added at 2 to 20 mg/g in solid bran medium supporting growth of aspergillus oryzae and rhizopus oligosporus, led to a higher concentration of nh4 (+) and ph but a decrease in biomass production.199524414664
increasing glutaminase activity in shoyu koji using a mixed culture of two koji moulds.for improved fermentation of shoyu (soy sauce), a useful koji-making system has been developed using a mixed tane-koji of two shoyu koji moulds, namely aspergillus oryzae k2 (length of conidiophores about 350 μm) and the late-conidiation strain, a. oryzae hg (length of conidiophores about 2500 μm). the mixed culture of strains k2 and hg had about twice the glutaminase activity of the single-strain cultures. in addition, the number of conidia in the mixed culture was about 10% of that in a cultur ...199424421198
hydrolysis of green tea residue protein using proteolytic enzyme derived from aspergillus amino acids are important chemical components which impact the taste of green tea infusion. the hydrolysis of water-insoluble protein in the green tea residue helps to increase the contents of free amino acids components except theanine. studies indicate that the hydrolysis of the tea protein could be restricted due to interaction of polyphenols with protein. the experiment indicates that the hydrolysis of tea protein by protease is the main trend when the polyphenols concentration is lower ...201324425904
comparative analysis of aspergillus oryzae with normal and abnormal color conidia.this study focuses on the characteristic of strains with anomalous color conidium and compares with normal color conidium. comparative analysis of enzymes activity and extracellular proteins revealed that a. oryzae with anomalous color conidium was not different from the strain with normal color conidium. in addition, a. oryzae with anomalous color conidium could not influence the palatability and quality of the soy sauce. these findings provide an insight into a. oryzae with anomalous color con ...201424426175
a promiscuous prenyltransferase from aspergillus oryzae catalyses c-prenylations of hydroxynaphthalenes in the presence of different prenyl donors.prenyltransferases of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (dmats) superfamily are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and show broad substrate specificity towards their aromatic substrates with a high regioselectivity for the prenylation reactions. most members of this superfamily accepted as prenyl donor exclusively dimethylallyl diphosphate (dmapp). one enzyme, anapt from neosartorya fischeri, was reported recently to use both dmapp and geranyl diphosphate (gpp) as prenyl do ...201424430210
high level production of β-galactosidase exhibiting excellent milk-lactose degradation ability from aspergillus oryzae by codon and fermentation optimization.a β-galactosidase gene from aspergillus oryzae was engineered utilizing codon usage optimization to be constitutively and highly expressed in the pichia pastoris smd1168h strain in a high-cell-density fermentation. after fermentation for 96 h in a 50-l fermentor using glucose and glycerol as combined carbon sources, the recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant had an activity of 4,239.07 u ml(-1) with o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside as the substrate, and produced a total of extracellula ...201424435763
optimisation of soy flour fermentation parameters to produce β-glucosidase for bioconversion into aglycones.the solid state fermentation (ssf) parameters of defatted soybean flour (dsf) with aspergillus oryzae ioc 3999/1998 or monascus purpureus nrrl 1992 was evaluated using a rotational central composite experimental design to optimise the production of β-glucosidase and convert glycosidic isoflavones in aglycones. variables investigated were initial ph of dsf, volume of water added to 10 g of dsf and incubation temperature. β-glucosidase activity was measured using the synthetic substrate, p-nitroph ...201424444906
canola cake as a potential substrate for proteolytic enzymes production by a selected strain of aspergillus oryzae: selection of process conditions and product characterization.oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (ssf) for the production of high value products. this work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of aspergillus oryzae cultivated under ssf. the influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum si ...201324455400
modes of inhibition of α -amylase and α -glucosidase by aqueous extract of morinda lucida benth leaf.diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. the management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. this may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. the purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. this was performed using α-amylase from aspergillus or ...201324455701
direct fermentation of raw starch using a kluyveromyces marxianus strain that expresses glucoamylase and alpha-amylase to produce ethanol.raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses α-amylase from aspergillus oryzae as well as α-amylase and glucoamylase from debaryomyces occidentalis. among the constructed k. marxianus strains, yrl 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than ...201424478139
cloning and expression of a family 10 xylanase gene (aoxyn10) from aspergillus oryzae in pichia pastoris.a full-length cdna sequence of aoxyn10, a gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase (gh) family 10 xylanase from aspergillus oryzae, was amplified from the total rna by 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cdna ends. the cdna sequence is 1,689 bp, containing 5', 3' untranslated regions and a 1,422 bp open reading frame (orf) that encodes a 21-aa signal peptide and a 452-aa mature peptide (designated aoxyn10). multi-alignment revealed that aoxyn10 contains two regions: a catalytic domain (cd) and a family ...201324492599
trimming of glucosylated n-glycans by human er α1,2-mannosidase the endoplasmic reticulum (er), folding of proteins modified by asparagine-linked (n-linked) glycosylation is precisely monitored by quality control machinery. upon exit from the calnexin/calreticulin cycle, glycoproteins are digested by α-mannosidases in the er, especially α1,2-mannosidase i (ermani). ermani removes the α1,2-linked mannose of the b-chain from properly folded er glycoproteins, whereas two or more α1,2-linked mannose residues are sequentially trimmed from improperly folded gly ...201424519966
protective effects of the fermented laminaria japonica extract on oxidative damage in llc-pk1 cells.this study investigated the protective effect of the butanol (buoh) fraction from fermented laminaria japonica extract (bflj) on aaph-induced oxidative stress in porcine kidney epithelial cells (llc-pk1 cells). l. japonica was fermented by aspergillus oryzae at 35±1°c for 72 h. freeze-dried fermented l. japonica was extracted with distilled water, and the extracted solution was mixed with ethanol and then centrifuged. the supernatant was subjected to sequential fractionation with various solvent ...201324551823
purification and evaluation of the enzymatic properties of a novel fructosyltransferase from aspergillus oryzae: a potential biocatalyst for the synthesis of sucrose 6-acetate.a novel fructosyltransferase (aoft) capable of synthesizing sucrose 6-acetate (s6a) from sucrose and glucose 6-acetate has been purified to homogeneity from aspergillus oryzae zz-01. its molecular mass was ~50 kda by sds-page; optimal activity was at 45 °c and it was stable from ph 4.5 to 7.5 with an optimum ph of 6. mg(2+), k(+) (5 mm), propanol, toluene (50%, v/v), tween 20 or triton x-100 (1%, w/v) increased the transfructosylation activity by 20, 17, 17, 10, 25 and 20%, respectively. an over ...201424563291
fungal hydrolysis in submerged fermentation for food waste treatment and fermentation feedstock preparation.potential of fungal hydrolysis in submerged fermentation by aspergillus awamori and aspergillus oryzae as a food waste treatment process and for preparation of fermentation feedstock has been investigated. by fungal hydrolysis, 80-90% of the initial amount of waste was reduced and degraded within 36-48 h into glucose, free amino nitrogen (fan) and phosphate. experiments revealed that 80-90% of starch can be converted into glucose and highest concentration of fan obtained, when solid mashes of a. ...201424583214
process characterization and influence of alternative carbon sources and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio on organic acid production by aspergillus oryzae dsm1863.l-malic acid and fumaric acid are c4 dicarboxylic organic acids and considered as promising chemical building blocks. they can be applied as food preservatives and acidulants in rust removal and as polymerization starter units. molds of the genus aspergillus are able to produce malic acid in large quantities from glucose and other carbon sources. in order to enhance the production potential of aspergillus oryzae dsm 1863, production and consumption rates in an established bioreactor batch-proces ...201424604500
functional analysis of histone deacetylase and its role in stress response, drug resistance and solid-state cultivation in aspergillus the eukaryotic cell, histone deacetylases (hdacs) play key roles in the regulation of fundamental cellular process such as development regulation, stress response, secondary metabolism and genome integrity. here, we provide a comprehensive phenotypic analysis using hdac disruptants in aspergillus oryzae. our study revealed that four hdacs, hdaa/aohda1, hdab/aorpd3, hdad/aohos2 and hst4/aohstd were involved in stress response, cell wall synthesis and chromatin integrity in a. oryzae. osmotic s ...201424613105
preparation of przewalskinic acid a from salvianolic acid b using a crude enzyme from an aspergillus oryzae strain.przewalskinic acid a is a rare, water-soluble, and highly biologically active ingredient found, thus far, only in the salvia przewalskii maxim herb; however, the content in s. przewalskii herb is very low. in order to obtain useful quantities of przewalskinic acid a, the biotransformatin of salvianolic acid b from salvia miltiorrhiza root (danshen in chinese) into przewalskinic acid a was studied using a crude enzyme produced from aspergillus oryzae d30s strain. the crude enzyme from the a. oryz ...201424615145
trypsin inhibitor from edible mushroom pleurotus floridanus active against proteases of microbial origin.protease inhibitors can be versatile tools mainly in the fields of medicine, agriculture and food preservative applications. fungi have been recognized as sources of protease inhibitors, although there are only few such reports on mushrooms. this work reports the purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the fruiting body of edible mushroom pleurotus floridanus (pfti) and its effect on the activity of microbial proteases. the protease inhibitor was purified up to 35-fold by d ...201424615526
antioxidant and antifungal activity of extracts of the aerial parts of thymus capitatus (l.) hoffmanns against four phytopathogenic fungi of citrus sinensis.many medicinal plants from the lamiaceae family can be easily found in algeria. these plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups. thymus capitatus is known in algeria as "zaatar" and has been commonly used as a spice, and reported to have many biological effects.201424644439
discovery and analysis of an active long terminal repeat-retrotransposable element in aspergillus oryzae.wild-type aspergillus oryzae rib40 contains two copies of the ao090005001597 gene. we previously constructed a. oryzae rib40 strain, rkuaf8b, with multiple chromosomal deletions, in which the ao090005001597 copy number was found to be increased significantly. sequence analysis indicated that ao090005001597 is part of a putative 6,000-bp retrotransposable element, flanked by two long terminal repeats (ltrs) of 669 bp, with characteristics of retroviruses and retrotransposons, and thus designated ...201424646755
biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production.rapeseed meal (rsm) hydrolysate was evaluated as substitute for commercial nutrient supplements in 1,3-propanediol (pdo) fermentation using the strain clostridium butyricum vpi 1718. rsm was enzymatically converted into a generic fermentation feedstock, enriched in amino acids, peptides and various micro-nutrients, using crude enzyme consortia produced via solid state fermentation by a fungal strain of aspergillus oryzae. initial free amino nitrogen concentration influenced pdo production in bat ...201424650530
new insights into heat induced structural changes of pectin methylesterase on fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling basis.heat-induced structural changes of aspergillus oryzae pectin methylesterase (pme) were studied by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling, whereas the functional enzyme stability was monitored by inactivation studies. the fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed at two ph value (4.5 and 7.0). at both ph values, the phase diagrams were linear, indicating the presence of two molecular species induced by thermal treatment. a red shift of 7 nm was observed at neutral ph ...201424657465
effects of codon optimization on the mrna levels of heterologous genes in filamentous fungi.filamentous fungi, particularly aspergillus species, have recently attracted attention as host organisms for recombinant protein production. because the secretory yields of heterologous proteins are generally low compared with those of homologous proteins or proteins from closely related fungal species, several strategies to produce substantial amounts of recombinant proteins have been conducted. codon optimization is a powerful tool for improving the production levels of heterologous proteins. ...201424682479
analyzing the relation between the microbial diversity of daqu and the turbidity spoilage of traditional chinese vinegar.vinegar is a traditional fermented condiment, and the microbial diversity of daqu makes the quality of vinegar products. recently, turbidity spoilage of vinegar sharply tampered with the quality of vinegar. in this study, the relation between the microbial diversity of daqu and turbidity spoilage of vinegar was analyzed by plating technique, pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge), and high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). the 16s rrna sequencing and dgge analysis indicated t ...201424691870
rapid delivery of diazepam from supersaturated solutions prepared using prodrug/enzyme mixtures: toward intranasal treatment of seizure emergencies.current treatments for seizure emergencies, such as status epilepticus, include intravenous or rectal administration of benzodiazepines. while intranasal delivery of these drugs is desirable, the small volume of the nasal cavity and low drug solubility pose significant difficulties. here, we prepared supersaturated diazepam solutions under physiological conditions and without precipitation, using a prodrug/enzyme system. avizafone, a peptide prodrug of diazepam, was delivered with--aspergillus o ...201424700272
strain development and optimized fermentation conditions for blood meal using aspergillus niger and aspergillus hydrolyze blood meal (bm) effectively, two mutants were generated using ultra-violet mutagenesis. single-factor experiments, the plackett-burman technique and response surface methodology were used to optimize the fermentation conditions. this study successfully generated a mutant and innovatively provided important parameters for utilizing bm by fermentation, which could be of industrial value.201424726870
motif-independent prediction of a secondary metabolism gene cluster using comparative genomics: application to sequenced genomes of aspergillus and ten other filamentous fungal species.despite their biological importance, a significant number of genes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis (smb) remain undetected due largely to the fact that they are highly diverse and are not expressed under a variety of cultivation conditions. several software tools including smurf and antismash have been developed to predict fungal smb gene clusters by finding core genes encoding polyketide synthase, nonribosomal peptide synthetase and dimethylallyltryptophan synthase as well as several othe ...201424727546
construction of brewing-wine aspergillus oryzae pyrg- mutant by pyrg gene deletion and its application in homology transformation.pyrg(-) host cells are indispensable for pyrg(-) based transformation system. isolations of pyrg(-) host cells by random mutations are limited by time-consuming, unclear genetic background and potential interferences of homogenous recombination. the purpose of this study was to construct brewing-wine aspergillus oryzae pyrg(-) mutant by site-directed mutation of pyrg gene deletion which would be used as a host for further transformation. pmd-pyrgab, a vector carrying pyrg deletion cassette, was ...201424742431
filamentous fungal diversity and community structure associated with the solid state fermentation of chinese maotai-flavor liquor.maotai-flavor liquor is produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (ssf) process under solid state conditions, including daqu (starter) making, stacking fermentation and alcohol fermentation stages. filamentous fungi produce many enzymes to degrade the starch material into fermentable sugar during liquor fermentation. this study investigated the filamentous fungal community associated with liquor making process. eight and seven different fungal species were identified by using cu ...201424742997
non-aflatoxigenicity of commercial aspergillus oryzae strains due to genetic defects compared to aflatoxigenic aspergillus flavus.aspergillus oryzae is generally recognized as safe, but it is closely related to a. flavus in morphology and genetic characteristics. in this study, we tested the aflatoxigenicity and genetic analysis of nine commercial a. oryzae strains that were used in korean soybean fermented products. cultural and hplc analyses showed that none of the commercial strains produced detectable amount of aflatoxins. according to the molecular analysis of 17 genes in the aflatoxin (af) biosynthetic pathway, the c ...201424759426
a large nonconserved region of the tethering protein leashin is involved in regulating the position, movement, and function of woronin bodies in aspergillus oryzae.the woronin body is a pezizomycotina-specific organelle that is typically tethered to the septum, but upon hyphal wounding, it plugs the septal pore to prevent excessive cytoplasmic loss. leashin (lah) is a large woronin body tethering protein that contains highly conserved n- and c-terminal regions and a long (∼2,500-amino-acid) nonconserved middle region. as the involvement of the nonconserved region in woronin body function has not been investigated, here, we functionally characterized indivi ...201424813188
dry entrapment of enzymes by epoxy or polyester resins hardened on different solid supports.embedding of enzymes was performed with epoxy or polyester resin by mixing in a dried enzyme preparation before polymerization was started. this fast and low-cost immobilization method produced enzymatically active layers on different solid supports. as model enzymes the well-characterized thermomyces lanuginosus lipase and a new threonine aldolase from ashbya gossypii were used. it was shown that t. lanuginosus lipase recombinantly expressed in aspergillus oryzae is a monomeric enzyme with a mo ...201424835099
targeted tandem duplication of a large chromosomal segment in aspergillus oryzae.we describe here the first successful construction of a targeted tandem duplication of a large chromosomal segment in aspergillus oryzae. the targeted tandem chromosomal duplication was achieved by using strains that had a 5'-deleted pyrg upstream of the region targeted for tandem chromosomal duplication and a 3'-deleted pyrg downstream of the target region. consequently,strains bearing a 210-kb targeted tandem chromosomal duplication near the centromeric region of chromosome 8 and strains beari ...201424837372
an evaluation of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid production in aspergillus date, edible fungi such as aspergillus flavus var. oryzae (a. oryzae) has been considered as safe. however, some strains can produce mycotoxins. thus, the biosynthetic ability to produce mycotoxins should be reevaluated to determine the safety of edible fungi. we analyzed the production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (cpa) from edible fungi such as a. oryzae isolated from various korean foods using multiplex pcr, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and high-performance liquid chromatogra ...201424853527
biochemical characterization of aspergillus oryzae native tannase and the recombinant enzyme expressed in pichia this study, the biochemical properties of the recombinant tannase from aspegillus oryzae were compared with those of the native enzyme. extracellular native tannase was purified from a commercial enzyme source. recombinant tannase highly expressed in pichia pastoris was prepared as an active extracellular protein. purified native and recombinant tannases produced smeared bands with apparent molecular masses of 45-80 kda and 45-75 kda, respectively, by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel ...201424856589
biocontrol activity of the local strain of metschnikowia pulcherrima on different postharvest pathogens.the strains of the yeast metschnikowia pulcherrima have strong biocontrol activity against various microorganisms. biocontrol activity of m. pulcherrima largely depends on its iron immobilizing pigment pulcherrimin. biocontrol activity of pulcherrimin producing strain, m. pulcherrima umy15, isolated from local vineyards, was tested on different molds that cause food spoilage. m. pulcherrima umy15 was a very effective biocontrol agent against penicillium roqueforti, p. italicum, p. expansum, and ...201424860671
over-expression of a proline specific aminopeptidase from aspergillus oryzae jn-412 and its application in collagen degradation.a strain that exhibited intracellular proline-specific aminopeptidase (pap) activity was isolated from soy sauce koji and identified as aspergillus oryzae jn-412. the gene coding pap was cloned and efficiently expressed in escherichia coli bl21 in a biologically active form. the highest specific activity reached 52.28 u mg(-1) at optimum cultivation conditions. the recombinant enzyme was purified 3.3-fold to homogeneity with a recovery of 36.7% from cell-free extract using ni-affinity column chr ...201424879594
phytase production by aspergillus oryzae in solid-state fermentation and its applicability in dephytinization of wheat bran [corrected].aspergillus oryzae sbs50 secreted a high titre of phytase in solid-state fermentation (ssf) using wheat bran at 30 °c after 96 h at the initial substrate to moisture ratio of 1:2 and a water activity of 0.95. the production of phytase increased when wheat bran was supplemented with sucrose and beef extract. further enhancement in enzyme production was recorded when the substrate was supplemented with the surfactant triton x-100 (145 u/g of dmb). an overall 29-fold improvement in phytase producti ...201424879597
aspergillus oryzae-based cell factory for direct kojic acid production from cellulose.kojic acid (5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-pyrone) is one of the major secondary metabolites in aspergillus oryzae. it is widely used in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. the production cost, however, is too high for its use in many applications. thus, an efficient and cost-effective kojic acid production process would be valuable. however, little is known about the complete set of genes for kojic acid production. currently, kojic acid is produced from glucose. the efficient production of koj ...201424885968
aspergillus oryzae csyb catalyzes the condensation of two β-ketoacyl-coas to form 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-alkyl-α-pyrone.the type iii polyketide synthases from fungi produce a variety of secondary metabolites including pyrones, resorcinols, and resorcylic acids. we previously reported that csyb from aspergillus oryzae forms α-pyrone csypyrone b compounds when expressed in a. oryzae. feeding experiments of labeled acetates indicated that a fatty acyl starter is involved in the reaction catalyzed by csyb. here we report the in vivo and in vitro reconstitution analysis of csyb. when csyb was expressed in escherichia ...201424895122
draft genome sequence of aspergillus oryzae 100-8, an increased acid protease production strain.aspergillus oryzae is a common fungus for traditional fermentation in asia, such as spirit, soybean paste, and soy sauce fermentation. we report the 36.7-mbp draft genome sequence of a. oryzae 100-8 and compared it to the published genome sequence of a. oryzae 3.042.201424903875
expression, purification and crystallization of a fungal type iii polyketide synthase that produces the csypyrones.csyb from aspergillus oryzae is a novel type iii polyketide synthase that catalyzes the formation of csypyrone b1 [4-(3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2h-pyran-6-yl)butyric acid] from fatty acyl-coa, malonyl-coa and acetoacetyl-coa. recombinant csyb expressed in escherichia coli was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. the crystals belonged to space p2₁, with unit-cell parameters a=70.0, b=104.8, c=73.5 å, β=114.4°.201424915080
biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member janibacter sp. strain htcc2649.mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. a predicted lipase (named maj1) from marine janibacter sp. strain htcc2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. maj1 was clustered in the family i.7 of esterase/lipase. the optimum activity of the ...201424927145
regioselective synthesis of cytarabine monopropionate by using a fungal whole-cell biocatalyst in nonaqueous medium.the utilization of a dehydrated fungal biocatalyst of aspergillus oryzae cells was successfully performed to achieve efficient acylation modification of a polar nucleoside cytarabine (ara-c). organic solvents showed evident influence on the reaction catalyzed by the a. oryzae whole-cells. except for hexane-pyridine, the catalytic activity and regioselectivity of the whole-cells clearly increased with increasing the polarity of the hydrophobic organic solvents used. the effects of some crucial fa ...201424957351
comparative chemistry of aspergillus oryzae (rib40) and a. flavus (nrrl 3357).aspergillus oryzae and a. flavus are important species in industrial biotechnology and food safety and have been some of the first aspergilli to be fully genome sequenced. bioinformatic analysis has revealed 99.5% gene homology between the two species pointing towards a large coherence in the secondary metabolite production. in this study we report on the first comparison of secondary metabolite production between the full genome sequenced strains of a. oryzae (rib40) and a. flavus (nrrl 3357). ...201224957367
genome-scale analysis of the high-efficient protein secretion system of aspergillus oryzae.the koji mold, aspergillus oryzae is widely used for the production of industrial enzymes due to its particularly high protein secretion capacity and ability to perform post-translational modifications. however, systemic analysis of its secretion system is lacking, generally due to the poorly annotated proteome.201424961398
supplementation with aspergillus oryzae-fermented kochujang lowers serum cholesterol in subjects with hyperlipidemia.kochujang, a traditional fermented red pepper paste, is known for its hypocholesterolemic effect; however, these studies used non-commercial preparations of kochujang. in this study, we examined whether commercially-made kochujang in which aspergillus oryzae (also known as koji) was used as a microorganism for fermentation has the same cholesterol-lowering effects.201524961447
upgrading the antioxidant potential of cereals by their fungal fermentation under solid-state cultivation conditions.solid-state fermentation (ssf) at 30°c for 72 h with four generally recognized as safe (gras) filamentous fungi (aspergillus oryzae ncim 1212, aspergillus awamori mtcc no. 548, rhizopus oligosporus ncim 1215 and rhizopus oryzae rck2012) showed high efficiency for the improvement of water-soluble total phenolic content (tpc) and antioxidant properties including abts(●+) [2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] and dpph(●) (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging capacities of ...201424964826
speradines f-h, three new oxindole alkaloids from the marine-derived fungus aspergillus oryzae.a rare hexacyclic oxindole alkaloid, speradine f (1), together with two novel tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids, speradines g (2) and h (3), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus aspergillus oryzae. their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and x-ray diffraction analysis. this study is the first report on cyclopiazonic acid (cpa)-type alkaloids with a hexacyclic skeleton.201424966178
safety evaluation of filamentous fungi isolated from industrial doenjang koji.a few starters have been developed and used for doenjang fermentation but often without safety evaluation. filamentous fungi were isolated from industrial doenjang koji, and their potential for mycotoxin production was evaluated. two fungi were isolated; one was more dominantly present (90%). both greenish (snu-g) and whitish (snu-w) fungi showed 97% and 95% internal transcribed spacer sequence identities to aspergillus oryzae/flavus, respectively. however, the smai digestion pattern of their ge ...201424986679
assessing medium constituents for optimal heterologous production of anhydromevalonolactone in recombinant aspergillus oryzae.anhydromevalonolactone (amvl) is a bioactive natural product that arises from a molecular biology technique using aspergillus oryzae as a heterologous host. amvl has been used as a precursor for the synthesis of insect pest control reagents and has numerous applications in the biotechnological and medical industries. in this study, the plackett-burman design and the central composite design, which offer efficient and feasible approaches, were complemented to screen significant parameters and ide ...201425006541
[gene cloning, expression of a feruloyl esterase a and purification of its hydrolysis products].to express feruloyl esterase a from aspergillus oryzae in pichia pastoris expression system and study its hydrolysis function, explore the conditions and effects of purification for ferulic acid extracts by macroporos resin. using the total rna from a. oryzae cicc 40186 as the template, we amplified coding sequence aorfaea encoding a mature feruloyl esterase a (aorfaea) by rt-pcr technique. then, the coding sequence aorfaea was successfully expressed in pichia pastoris gs115 mediated by an expre ...201425007578
a comparative study on the degradation of gallic acid by aspergillus oryzae and phanerochaete chrysosporium.recently, as an emerging persistent dissolved organic pollutant (dop), gallic acid (ga) and its efficient decomposition methods have received global attention. the present work aimed to compare the effect of aspergillus oryzae 5992 and phanerochaete chrysosporium 40719 on degradation of different concentrations of ga. the a. oryzae grew well and achieved a ga removal rate up to 99% in media containing 1-4% ga, much higher than p. chrysosporium. the activity of laccase and lignin peroxidase excre ...201425026596
telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation in aspergillus oryzae.we truncated the short arm of chromosome 3 to delete the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene homolog cluster using telomeric repeats in aspergillus oryzae. the predicted deletion was confirmed by southern blot analyses. this telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation method enables the development of an artificial chromosome in a. oryzae.201525034635
targeted metabolomics for aspergillus oryzae-mediated biotransformation of soybean isoflavones, showing variations in primary metabolites.this study aimed to investigate the biotransformation of soybean isoflavones to hydroxyisoflavones, and the primary and secondary metabolite change during aspergillus oryzae kacc40247-mediated fermentation by gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry and lc-ms with multivariate analysis. the mass spectrometric analysis revealed that acetylglycosides and glycosides decreased during the first 12 h of fermentation, while the aglycones increased up to that time point. this was followed by ...201425036500
plant-available inorganic nutrient levels are increased in rice-derived distillery effluents inoculated with microbes.the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of microbes on plant-available inorganic nutrients and a phytohormone in rice-derived distillery effluents.201425040155
trichoderma reesei xyn vi--a novel appendage-dependent eukaryotic glucuronoxylan hydrolase.expression of a trichoderma reesei gene coding for a putative gh30 xylanase in aspergillus oryzae led to isolation and purification of a novel xylanase exhibiting catalytic properties different from those of the previously characterized gh30 xylanase xyn iv of t. reesei. the novel enzyme, named xyn vi, exhibited catalytic properties similar to appendage-dependent gh30 glucuronoxylanases previously recognized only in bacteria. xyn vi showed high specific activity only on xylans or xylooligosaccha ...201425041335
a combination of acid lactase from aspergillus oryzae and yogurt bacteria improves lactose digestion in lactose maldigesters synergistically: a randomized, controlled, double-blind cross-over trial.lactose digestion can be improved in subjects with impaired or completely absent intestinal lactase activity by administration of lactase preparations and particularly of acid lactase, which is active in the stomach, or by yogurt containing live lactic acid bacteria. it is the question, if lactose digestion can be further enhanced by combining these two approaches.201525042846
comparison of the genomes and transcriptomes associated with the different protease secretions of aspergillus oryzae 100-8 and 3.042.aspergillus oryzae is used to produce traditional fermented foods and beverages. a. oryzae 3.042 produces a neutral protease and an alkaline protease but rarely an acid protease, which is unfavourable to soy-sauce fermentation. a. oryzae 100-8 was obtained by n(+) ion implantation mutagenesis of a. oryzae 3.042, and the protease secretions of these two strains are different. sequencing the genome of a. oryzae 100-8 and comparing it to the genomes of a. oryzae 100-8 and 3.042 revealed some differ ...201425048221
effects of dietary fermented seaweed and seaweed fusiforme on growth performance, carcass parameters and immunoglobulin concentration in broiler chicks.this study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (undaria pinnatifida) by-product and seaweed fusiforme (hizikia fusiformis) by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (ig) in broilers. fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by bacillus subtilis and aspergillus oryzae. in a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including co ...201425050025
gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based component profiling and quality prediction for japanese sake.sake is a japanese traditional alcoholic beverage, which is produced by simultaneous saccharification and alcohol fermentation of polished and steamed rice by aspergillus oryzae and saccharomyces cerevisiae. about 300 compounds have been identified in sake, and the contribution of individual components to the sake flavor has been examined at the same time. however, only a few compounds could explain the characteristics alone and most of the attributes still remain unclear. the purpose of this st ...201425060729
crystal structure of a feruloyl esterase belonging to the tannase family: a disulfide bond near a catalytic triad.feruloyl esterase (fae) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the ferulic and diferulic acids present in plant cell wall polysaccharides, and tannase catalyzes the hydrolysis of tannins to release gallic acid. the fungal tannase family in the esther database contains various enzymes, including faes and tannases. despite the importance of faes and tannases in bioindustrial applications, three-dimensional structures of the fungal tannase family members have been unknown. here, we determined the crystal stru ...201425066066
expression of key hydrolases for soy sauce fermentation in zygosaccharomyces rouxii.several key hydrolases in soy sauce fermentation such as proteases, peptidases, and glutaminases are supplied by aspergillus sojae or aspergillus oryzae. the genes encoding these hydrolases were successfully expressed in salt-tolerant yeast zygosaccharomyces rouxii. these transformants are expected to supply extra hydrolases during soy sauce fermentation process.201525073685
rapid reconstitution of biosynthetic machinery for fungal metabolites in aspergillus oryzae: total biosynthesis of aflatrem.reconstitution of the biosynthetic machinery for fungal secondary metabolites in aspergillus oryzae provides an opportunity both for stepwise determination of the biosynthetic pathways and the total biosynthesis of fungal natural products. however, to maximize the utility of the reconstitution system, a simple and rapid strategy for the introduction of heterologous genes into a. oryzae is required. in this study, we demonstrated an effective method for introducing multiple genes involved in the ...201425087641
[the effect of enzymatic treatment using proteases on properties of persistent sodium current in ca1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampus].we investigated the effect of proteases, widely used for neuron isolation in electrophysiological studies, on the amplitude and kinetic characteristics of persistent sodium current (i(nap)) in hippocampal ca1 pyramidal neurons. properties of i(nap) were studied on neurons isolated by mechanical treatment (control group) and by mechanical and enzymatic treatment using pronase e (from streptomyces griseus) or protease type xxiii (from aspergillus oryzae). we show that in neurons isolated with pron ...201425097934
a matter of structure: structural comparison of fungal carbonic anhydrases.carbonic anhydrases (cas) are metalloenzymes that catalyze the interconversion of carbon dioxide (co2) and hydrogen carbonate. cas are distributed over all the three domains of life and are divided into five distinct evolutionarily unrelated gene families (α, β, γ, δ, ζ). in the large fungal kingdom, the majority of fungi encode multiple copies of β-cas, with some also possessing genes for α-class cas. hemiascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts encode one or two β-cas, while most of the filamen ...201425109265
optimization of the condition for adsorption of gallic acid by aspergillus oryzae mycelia using box-behnken design.fresh biomass of aspergillus oryzae (a. oryzae) cgmcc5992 can effectively remove gallic acid from aqueous solution. to improve the removal rate of gallic acid, this study first identified the important factors affecting the removal rate of gallic acid with univariate analysis, and then used four-factor and three-level box-behnken design (bbd) with the removal rate of gallic acid as response value, to obtain the optimum conditions for the removal of gallic acid as follows: 6.95 h treatment time, ...201525109471
fungal lectins: a growing family.fungi are members of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that include yeasts and molds, as well as the most familiar member, mushrooms. fungal lectins with unique specificity and structures have been discovered. in general, fungal lectins are classified into specific families based on their amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures. in this chapter, we provide an overview of the approximately 80 types of mushroom and fungal lectins that have been isolated and studied to date. in pa ...201425117221
improvement of aspergillus oryzae nrrl 3484 by mutagenesis and optimization of culture conditions in solid-state fermentation for the hyper-production of extracellular cellulase.spore suspensions of aspergillus oryzae nrrl 3484 were subjected to mutagenesis using ultraviolet-irradiation followed by chemical treatments to improve the biosynthesis of cellulase. ten mutant strains namely ueac7, uear5, unac4, unac16, unar19, unbc7, unbr3, unbr10, unbr23 and unbr25 were selected and their extracellular cellulase activities were assayed. mutant unac4 gave the highest cellulase production [2,455 ± 28 u/g-dry substrate (ds) for filter paper-ase (fp-ase)] in a yield 4-fold excee ...201425119245
cloning and expression of a. oryzae β-glucosidase in pichia pastoris.a β-glucosidase gene (bgl) from aspergillus oryzae gif-10 was cloned, sequenced and expressed. its full-length dna sequence was 2,903 bp and included three introns. the full-length cdna sequence contained an open reading frame of 2,586 nucleotides, encoding 862 amino acids with a potential secretion signal. the a. oryzae gif-10 bgl was functionally expressed in pichia pastoris. after 7-day induction, protein yield reached 321 mg/ml. using salicin as the substrate, the specific activity of the pu ...201425123895
c7-prenylation of tryptophanyl and o-prenylation of tyrosyl residues in dipeptides by an aspergillus terreus prenyltransferase.during our search for novel prenyltransferases, a putative gene ateg_04218 from aspergillus terreus raised our attention and was therefore amplified from strain dsm 1958 and expressed in escherichia coli. biochemical investigations with the purified recombinant protein and different aromatic substrates in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate revealed the acceptance of all the tested tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides. structure elucidation of the main enzyme products by nmr and ms anal ...201525125042
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