a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic bioavailability study of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin c.kiwifruit are a rich source of vitamin c and also contain numerous phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, which may influence the bioavailability of kiwifruit-derived vitamin c. the aim of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin c using a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic study design. nine non-smoking males (aged 18-35 years) received either a chewable tablet (200 mg vitamin c) or the equivalent dose from gold kiwifruit (actinidia ch ...201324284610
draft genome of the kiwifruit actinidia chinensis.the kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop with remarkably high vitamin c content. here we report the draft genome sequence of a heterozygous kiwifruit, assembled from ~140-fold next-generation sequencing data. the assembled genome has a total length of 616.1 mb and contains 39,040 genes. comparative genomic analysis reveals that the kiwifruit has undergone an ancient hexaploidization event (γ) shared by core eudicots and two more recent whole-g ...201324136039
a randomized steady-state bioavailability study of synthetic versus natural (kiwifruit-derived) vitamin c.whether vitamin c from wholefoods has equivalent bioavailability to a purified supplement remains unclear. we have previously showed that kiwifruit provided significantly higher serum and tissue ascorbate levels than synthetic vitamin c in a genetically vitamin c-deficient mouse model, suggesting a synergistic activity of the whole fruit. to determine if these results are translatable to humans, we carried out a randomized human study comparing the bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit wit ...201324067392
biochemical and structural characterisation of dehydroquinate synthase from the new zealand kiwifruit actinidia of the novel aspects of kiwifruit is the presence of a high level of quinic acid which contributes to the flavour of the fruit. quinic acid metabolism intersects with the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of primary and secondary aromatic metabolites. the gene encoding the enzyme which catalyses the second step of the shikimate pathway, dehydroquinate synthase (dhqs), from the new zealand kiwifruit actinidia chinensis was identified, cloned and expressed. a ...201323916589
kiwifruit: our daily prescription for health.kiwifruit are unequalled, compared with other commonly consumed fruit, for their nutrient density, health benefits, and consumer appeal. research into their health benefits has focussed on the cultivars actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' (green kiwifruit) and actinidia chinensis 'hort 16a', zespri(®) (gold kiwifruit). compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins c, e, k, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting i ...201323746068
total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ripe green and golden kiwifruit.three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (actinidia deliciosa l.) and golden (actinidia chinensis l.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. the aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. the pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 m hcl ...201328239098
diversity and relative levels of actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like allergens in 15 varieties of kiwifruit (actinidia).in the last 30 years the incidence of kiwifruit allergy has increased with the three major allergenic proteins being identified as actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like protein (tlp). we report wide variation in the levels of actinidin and tlp in 15 kiwifruit varieties from the four most widely cultivated actinidia species. acidic and basic isoforms of actinidin were identified in actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and actinidia arguta 'hortgem tahi', while only a basic isoform of actinidin was ide ...201323289429
meiotic chromosome pairing in actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa.polyploids are defined as either autopolyploids or allopolyploids, depending on their mode of origin and/or chromosome pairing behaviour. autopolyploids have chromosome sets that are the result of the duplication or combination of related genomes (e.g., aaaa), while allopolyploids result from the combination of sets of chromosomes from two or more different taxa (e.g., aabb, aabbcc). allopolyploids are expected to show preferential pairing of homologous chromosomes from within each parental sub- ...201223196697
metabolic profiling and outer pericarp water state in zespri,, and hayward kiwifruits.the metabolic profiling of aqueous extracts of zespri gold ( actinidia chinensis ) and (a controlled crossbreed from different species of actinidia deliciosa ) kiwifruits and the water state of the outer pericarp of entire fruits were monitored over the season by means of high-field nmr spectroscopy and t(2) relaxation time measurements, respectively, and compared with the corresponding ones of hayward kiwifruits previously investigated. a more complete assignment of the (1)h spectrum with ...201323083310
green and gold kiwifruit peel ethanol extracts potentiate pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice via a gabaergic mechanism.kiwifruit is one of the most popular fruits worldwide, and it has various biological properties, including antioxidant, anti-allergic, and cardiovascular protective effects. the peel of kiwifruit, which is a by-product of processing, is a good source of flavonoids; however, its bioactivity has not been widely investigated. in this study, we evaluated the hypnotic effects of green (grpe, actinidia deliciosa) and gold (gope, actinidia chinensis) kiwifruit peel ethanol extracts and their solvent fr ...201323017407
evaluation of antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of three actinidia (actinidia kolomikta, actinidia arguta, actinidia chinensis) extracts in vitro.the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, vitamin c content, and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from different kiwifruit varieties (actinidia kolomikta, actinidia arguta, actinidia chinensis) were determined in this study. multiple scavenging activity assays including the hydroxyl radical, o(2) (-)·radical, dpph, and the abts(+) radical scavenging activity assays were used to identify the antioxidant activities of actinidia extracts. the cell viability of hepg2 and ht-29 c ...201222754311
the effect of 2n gametes on sex ratios in can sometimes lead to complications. in some crops, 2n gametes have been exploited by plant breeders to transfer genetic variation between taxa of different ploidy levels. however, their role and use in dioecious genera have received relatively little attention. in the dioecious genus actinidia (kiwifruit), seedling populations usually segregate equally for females and males as sex is determined by an xx female/xy male system. while fertilization involving 2n egg cells is not expected to aff ...201222739644
bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit in non-smoking males: determination of 'healthy' and 'optimal' intakes.vitamin c is an essential nutrient in humans and must be obtained through the diet. the aim of this study was to determine vitamin c uptake in healthy volunteers after consuming kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis var. hort. 16a), and to determine the amount of fruit required to raise plasma vitamin c to 'healthy' (i.e. >50 µmol/l) and 'optimal' or saturating levels (i.e. >70 µmol/l). leucocyte and urinary vitamin c levels were also determined. a total of fifteen male university students with below a ...201225191543
fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, actinidia chinensis 'hort16a'.with the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, actinidia chinensi ...201122204446
consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces severity and duration of selected upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and increases plasma vitamin c concentration in healthy older the elderly, immunosenescence and malnourishment can contribute to increased risk and severity of upper respiratory tract infections (urti). gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis 'hort16a') contains nutrients important for immune function and mitigation of symptoms of infection, including vitamins c and e, folate, polyphenols and carotenoids. the objective of the present study was to evaluate whether regular consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces symptoms of urti in older people, and determine t ...201222172428
identification, functional characterization, and regulation of the enzyme responsible for floral (e)-nerolidol biosynthesis in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).flowers of the kiwifruit species actinidia chinensis produce a mixture of sesquiterpenes derived from farnesyl diphosphate (fdp) and monoterpenes derived from geranyl diphosphate (gdp). the tertiary sesquiterpene alcohol (e)-nerolidol was the major emitted volatile detected by headspace analysis. contrastingly, in solvent extracts of the flowers, unusually high amounts of (e,e)-farnesol were observed, as well as lesser amounts of (e)-nerolidol, various farnesol and farnesal isomers, and linalool ...201222162874
vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) berries.indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. this inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'hort16a') exhibiting a pre-harvest 'shrivel' disorder in california, and normal development in new zealand. dye labelling and m ...201222155631
allergenic lipid transfer proteins from plant-derived foods do not immunologically and clinically behave homogeneously: the kiwifruit ltp as a allergy is increasingly common worldwide. tools for allergy diagnosis measuring ige improved much since allergenic molecules and microarrays started to be used. ige response toward allergens belonging to the same group of molecules has not been comprehensively explored using such approach yet.201122114713
low-temperature-modulated fruit ripening is independent of ethylene in 'sanuki gold' kiwifruit.fruit ripening in response to treatments with propylene, 1-methycyclopropene (1-mcp), and low temperature was characterized in 'sanuki gold' kiwifruit, actinidia chinensis planch. propylene treatment immediately induced rapid fruit softening, increased ac-pg (polygalacturonase) and ac-exp (expansin) mrna accumulation, and stimulated an increase in the soluble solid concentration (ssc) and a decrease in titratable acidity (ta). after 3 d exposure to propylene, ethylene production and ac-pl (pecta ...201222058408
mapping, complementation, and targets of the cysteine protease actinidin in kiwifruit.cysteine proteases (cps) accumulate to high concentration in many fruit, where they are believed to play a role in fungal and insect defense. the fruit of actinidia species (kiwifruit) exhibit a range of cp activities (e.g. the actinidia chinensis variety yellowa shows less than 2% of the activity of actinidia deliciosa variety hayward). a major quantitative trait locus for cp activity was mapped to linkage group 16 in a segregating population of a. chinensis. this quantitative trait locus coloc ...201222039217
induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in actinidia chinensis.some otherwise promising selections of actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. we have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading.201221980192
botanical briefs: kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis). 201121699120
hydraulic responses of whole vines and individual roots of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) following root severance.whole vine (k(plant)) and individual root (k(root)) hydraulic conductances were measured in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planch. var. chinensis 'hort16a') vines to observe hydraulic responses following partial root system excision. heat dissipation and compensation heat pulse techniques were used to measure sap flow in trunks and individual roots, respectively. sap flux and measurements of xylem pressure potential (ψ) were used to calculate k(plant) and k(root) in vines with zero and ∼80% of r ...201121636692
determining consumer purchase intentions: the importance of dry matter, size, and price of kiwifruit.knowledge of the relative importance of food quality attributes in determining consumer purchase intention is critical for robust assessment of economic opportunities for industry growth. the aim of this study is to demonstrate how conjoint analysis methodology that incorporates tasting of fruit can be used to collect such information. three hundred japanese consumers took part in research designed to measure the importance of dry matter (dm), size, and price of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa "h ...201121535857
dissecting the role of climacteric ethylene in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) ripening using a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase knockdown line.during climacteric fruit ripening, autocatalytic (type ii) ethylene production initiates a transcriptional cascade that controls the production of many important fruit quality traits including flavour production and softening. the last step in ethylene biosynthesis is the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) to ethylene by the enzyme acc oxidase (aco). ten independent kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) lines were generated targeting suppression of fruit ripening-related aco gen ...201121511911
identification and characterisation of f3gt1 and f3ggt1, two glycosyltransferases responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).much of the diversity of anthocyanins is due to the action of glycosyltransferases, which add sugar moieties to anthocyanidins. we identified two glycosyltransferases, f3gt1 and f3ggt1, from red-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) that perform sequential glycosylation steps. red-fleshed genotypes of kiwifruit accumulate anthocyanins mainly in the form of cyanidin 3-o-xylo-galactoside. genes in the anthocyanin and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway were identified and shown to be expressed in fru ...201121175894
ethylene-regulated (methylsulfanyl)alkanoate ester biosynthesis is likely to be modulated by precursor availability in actinidia chinensis genotypes.the limiting steps of ethylene-dependent (methylsulfanyl)alkanoate ester biosynthesis have been investigated in this study, using closely related actinidia chinensis genotypes and the commercial cultivar 'hort16a'. quantification of methylsulfanyl-compounds from the headspace of ethylene-producing kiwifruits revealed little variation in their volatile composition but remarkable differences in the magnitude of the fruit volatile levels. to test whether the variations in fruit volatile levels can ...201121071110
advances in understanding pectin methylesterase inhibitor in kiwi fruit: an immunological order to gain insight into the in situ properties and localisation of kiwi pectin methylesterase inhibitor (pmei), a toolbox of monoclonal antibodies (ma) towards pmei was developed. out of a panel of ma generated towards kiwi pmei, three ma, i.e. ma-ki9a8, ma-ki15c12 and ma-ki15g7, were selected. thorough characterisation proved that these ma bind specifically to kiwi pmei and kiwi pmei in complex with plant pme and recognise a linear epitope on pmei. extract screening of green kiwi (actinid ...201121046145
modified carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase8 expression correlates with altered branching in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).• carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (ccd) genes have been demonstrated to play an integral role in the control of branch development in model plants, including arabidopsis, pea (pisum sativum), petunia (petunia hybrida) and rice (oryza sativa). • actinidia chinensis is a woody perennial plant grown for commercial production of kiwifruit. ccd7 and ccd8 genes were isolated from a. chinensis and these genes are predominantly expressed in the roots of kiwifruit. acccd7 and acccd8 were able to compleme ...201020659299
(methylsulfanyl)alkanoate ester biosynthesis in actinidia chinensis kiwifruit and changes during cold storage.four 3-(methylsulfanyl)propionate esters, ethyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)prop-2-enoate, two 2-(methylsulfanyl)acetate esters and their possible precursors 2-(methylsulfanyl)ethanol, 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanol and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal were quantified from the headspace of actinidia chinensis 'hort 16a' kiwifruit pulp by gc-ms-tof analysis. the majority of these compounds were specific for eating-ripe fruit and their levels increased in parallel with the climacteric rise in ethylene, accumulating t ...201020189207
a gene-rich linkage map in the dioecious species actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) reveals putative x/y sex-determining chromosomes.the genus actinidia (kiwifruit) consists of woody, scrambling vines, native to china, and only recently propagated as a commercial crop. all species described are dioecious, but the genetic mechanism for sex-determination is unknown, as is the genetic basis for many of the cluster of characteristics making up the unique fruit. it is, however, an important crop in the new zealand economy, and a classical breeding program would benefit greatly by knowledge of the trait alleles carried by both fema ...200919284545
trinucleotide repeats as bait for vectorette pcr: a tool for developing genetic mapping markers.trinucleotide repeats are common within gene coding regions and could serve as beacons to locate genes. five of the most common trinucleotide repeats in an actinidia (kiwifruit) expressed sequence tag (est) database were found to be (acc)(4), (cac)(4), (cca)(4), (ctc)(4), and (tgg)(4). these repeats, with or without an artificial 5'-end tail, were tested by vectorette pcr against genomic dna from actinidia chinensis. eighty-nine randomly selected clones showed an average insert size of 383 bp, w ...200919277911
specific detection of potentially allergenic kiwifruit in foods using polymerase chain reaction.kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa and actinidia chinensis) is allergenic to sensitive patients, and, under japanese regulations, it is one of the food items that are recommended to be declared on food labeling as much as possible. to develop pcr-based methods for the detection of trace amounts of kiwifruit in foods, two primer pairs targeting the its-1 region of the actinidia spp. were designed using pcr simulation software. on the basis of the known distribution of a major kiwifruit allergen (acti ...200717288438
evaluation of ige binding to proteins of hardy (actinidia arguta), gold (actinidia chinensis) and green (actinidia deliciosa) kiwifruits and processed hardy kiwifruit concentrate, using sera of individuals with food allergies to green kiwifruit.allergy to green kiwifruit has become common since the fruit was introduced in north america and europe 30 years ago. gold kiwifruit, more recently introduced commercially, has been shown to bind ige from some individuals allergic to green kiwifruit. hardy kiwifruit is a third species that is now cultivated in north america with potential application as a fresh fruit and in processed foods.200616481086
vigor-controlling rootstocks affect early shoot growth and leaf area development of kiwifruit.patterns of shoot development and the production of different types of shoots were compared with scion leaf area index (lai) to identify how eight clonal actinidia rootstocks influence scion development. rootstocks selected from seven actinidia species (a. chrysantha merri., a. deliciosa (a. chev.) c. f. liang et a.r. ferguson, a. eriantha benth., a. hemsleyana dunn, a. kolomikta (maxim. et rupr.) maxim., a. kolomikta c.f. liang and a. polygama (sieb. et zucc.) maxim.) were grafted with the scio ...200616414929
comparison of the allergenicity of actinidia deliciosa (kiwi fruit) and actinidia chinensis (gold kiwi).actinidia chinensis (gold kiwi) is a newly available fruit which has been shown to have in vitro immunoglobulin e (ige) cross-reactivity with green kiwi. this is the first study to investigate clinical reactivity of gold kiwi. five patients clinically allergic to green kiwi were investigated by skin test and double-blind placebo controlled food challenge (dbpcfc) with gold kiwi fruit. ige-binding patterns of individual sera from the five challenged patients and a pool of sera from a further nine ...200516343086
pigments in the fruit of red-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis and actinidia deliciosa).kiwifruit cultivars (actinidia chinensis and a. deliciosa) generally have fruit with yellow or green flesh when ripe. a small number of genotypes also have red pigments, usually restricted to the inner pericarp but varying in intensity and in distribution within the fruit. carotenoids, chorophylls, and anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit pericarp of such red-fleshed kiwifruit selections. pigments were analyzed by hplc and identified by comparison with authentic standards and by liquid chr ...200516302772
cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci within the dioecious, polyploid genus actinidia (actinidiaceae).microsatellite marker transfer across species in the dioecious genus actinidia (kiwifruit) could offer an efficient and time-effective technique for use during trait transfer for vine and fruit improvement in breeding programmes. we evaluated the cross-species amplification of 20 est-derived microsatellite markers that were fully informative in an actinidia chinensis mapping family. we tested all 20 markers on 120 genotypes belonging to 21 species, 5 with varieties and/or chromosome races. these ...200516211378
genotypic differences in chlorophyll, lutein, and beta-carotene contents in the fruits of actinidia species.chlorophyll, lutein, and beta-carotene contents in actinidia fruits were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in various genotypes, including five actinidia deliciosa, seven actinidia chinensis, two actinidia rufa, five actinidia arguta, and three interspecific hybrids. the concentrations of chlorophyll, lutein, and beta-carotene in the fruit of a. deliciosa hayward were 1.65, 0.418, and 0.088 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively. of a. deliciosa cultivars, koryoku showed signific ...200516076125
ige sensitization profiles toward green and gold kiwifruits differ among patients allergic to kiwifruit from 3 european countries.kiwifruits have become a major elicitor of plant food allergy. until recently, the only species of kiwifruit grown commercially was the common green-fleshed actinidia deliciosa cv hayward. in 1999, the yellow-fleshed cultivar actinidia chinensis cv hort16a was introduced into the international market.200415536427
hydraulic conductance and rootstock effects in grafted vines of kiwifruit.whole-plant hydraulic conductance, shoot growth, and leaf photosynthetic properties were measured on kiwifruit vines with four clonal rootstocks to examine the relationship between plant hydraulic conductance and leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and to test the hypothesis that reduced hydraulic conductance can provide an explanation for reductions in plant vigour caused by rootstocks. the rootstocks were selected from four species of actinidia and grafted with actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'h ...200415133051
est-derived microsatellites from actinidia species and their potential for increase the speed and reduce the cost of constructing a genetic map of actinidia species (kiwifruit), for use in both breeding and functional genomics programmes, we sampled microsatellites from expressed sequence tags (ests) to evaluate their frequency of occurrence and level of polymorphism. perfect dinucleotide repeats were the microsatellites selected, and these were found to be numerous in both the 5' and 3' ends of the genes represented. the microsatellites were of various lengths, the ...200415067386
characterization of elemental composition in kiwifruit grown in northern iran.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) has different varieties such as hayward, bruno, monty, and abbott. these varieties are different in taste, odor, shape, and some chemical compositions. this work reports the elemental analysis of cu, fe, mn, zn, ca, mg, k, and na in the different varieties of hayward, bruno, monty, and abbott grown in northern iran. results from elemental analysis were determined using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy. distributions and amounts of metals for different v ...200312720400
color in fruit of the genus actinidia: carotenoid and chlorophyll compositions.the carotenoid and chlorophyll contents in the fruit of four species of actinidia were measured to determine the chemical basis of color in kiwifruit and related actinidia species. the species studied were the two commercial fruits actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward and a yellow-fleshed genotype actinidia chinensis cv. hort16a (known commercially as zespri gold kiwifruit), the yellow fruit of actinida polygama, and the orange fruit of actinida macrosperma. as reported previously, ripe fruit of a. d ...200211754554
polygalacturonase gene expression in kiwifruit: relationship to fruit softening and ethylene kiwifruit, much of the softening process occurs prior to the respiratory climacteric and production of ethylene. this fruit therefore represents an excellent model system for dissecting the process of softening in the absence of endogenous ethylene production. we have characterized the expression of three polygalacturonase (pg) cdna clones (ckpga, b and c) isolated from fruit of actinidia chinensis. expression of ckpga and b was detected by northern analysis only in fruit producing endogenous ...200010794531
sucrose-phosphate synthase steady-state mrna increases in ripening kiwifruit.early during fruit ripening in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa [a. chev.], c.f. liang and a.r. ferguson cv. hayward), starch is broken down to sucrose and hexose sugars. concomitantly, sucrose-phosphate synthase (sps, ec activity measured with saturating substrate increased, suggesting that sps is induced in response to a higher requirement for sucrose synthesis. a 2584 bp long partial cdna clone encoding sps was isolated from ripening kiwifruit. cdna fragments encoding t ...19989520277
expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes in actinidia chinensis fruit.the fruit of actinidia chinensis, a diploid relative of kiwifruit, showed an increased rate of ripening in response to the application of exogenous ethylene. moreover, late in ripening the fruit produced a burst of ethylene biosynthesis. thus ripening is climacteric, and there is a clear temporal separation of ethylene sensitivity and ethylene production. rnase protection assays were used to monitor transcript levels of ethylene biosynthetic genes during fruit development and ethylene-induced ri ...19979177311
development of flat and fan-shaped fruit in actinidia chinensis var. chinensis and actinidia deliciosa.we describe and quantify development of flat and fan-shaped fruit of actinidia chinensis var. chinensis from inception to maturity. flat fruit arise from particularly large and flat floral meristems. after bract initiation, the terminal flower remains elliptic in cross section, produces elliptic whorls of floral organs, and forms a flat-shaped ovary. the allometry of the ovary does not change from inception to maturity. fan-shaped fruit develop from exceptionally flat floral meristems. they resu ...199419700463
differences in the interaction of the catalytic groups of the active centres of actinidin and papain. rapid purification of fully active actinidin by covalent chromatography and characterization of its active centre by use of two-protonic-state reactivity probes.1. a rapid method of isolation of fully active actinidin, the cysteine proteinase from actinidia chinensis (chinese gooseberry or kiwifruit), by covalent chromatography, was devised. 2. the active centre of actinidin was investigated by using n-propyl 2-pyridyl disulphide, 4-(n-aminoethyl 2'-pyridyl disulphide)-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as reactivity probes. 3. the presence in actinidin in weakly acidic media of an interactive system containing a nucleophili ...19817034724
identification and quantitative analysis of sugars and non-volatile organic acids in chinese gooseberry fruit (actinidia chinensis planch.). 19751160363
kiwifruit alleviates learning and memory deficits induced by pb through antioxidation and inhibition of microglia activation in vitro and in vivo.lead (pb) exposure, in particular during early postnatal life, increases susceptibility to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative outcomes. the detrimental effect of pb exposure is basically due to an increasing ros production which overcomes the antioxidant systems and finally leads to cognitive dysfunction. kiwifruit is rich in the antioxidants like vitamin c and polyphenols. this study aims to investigate the effects and mechanism of kiwifruit to alleviate learning and memory deficits in ...201728386309
characterization of genes encoding key enzymes involved in anthocyanin metabolism of kiwifruit during storage period.'hongyang' is a red fleshed kiwifruit with high anthocyanin content. in this study, we mainly investigated effects of different temperatures (25 and 0°c) on anthocyanin biosynthesis in harvested kiwifruit, and characterized the genes encoding key enzymes involved in anthocyanin metabolism, as well as evaluated the mode of the action, by which low temperature regulates anthocyanin accumulation in 'hongyang' kiwifruit during storage period. the results showed that low temperature could effectively ...201728344589
postharvest application of brassica meal-derived allyl-isothiocyanate to kiwifruit: effect on fruit quality, nutraceutical parameters and physiological response.the use of natural compounds to preserve fruit quality and develop high value functional products deserves attention especially in the growing industry of processing and packaging ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit. in this work, potential mechanisms underlying the effects of postharvest biofumigation with brassica meal-derived allyl-isothiocyanate on the physiological responses and quality of 'hayward' kiwifruits were studied. fruits were treated with 0.15 mg l(-1) of allyl-isothiocyanate vapours for ...201728298689
horizontal gene transfer gone wild: promiscuity in a kiwifruit pathogen leads to resistance to chemical control. 201728262000
characterization of metabolites in different kiwifruit varieties by nmr and fluorescence is known from our previous studies that kiwifruits, which are used in common human diet, have preventive properties of coronary artery disease. this study describes a combination of (1)h nmr spectroscopy, multivariate data analyses and fluorescence measurements in differentiating of some kiwifruit varieties, their quenching and antioxidant properties. a total of 41 metabolites were identified by comparing with literature data chenomx database and 2d nmr. the binding properties of the extracte ...201728189049
corrigendum to "nutrient compositions and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit (actinidia) and their relationship with flesh color and commercial value" [food chem. 218 (2017) 294-304]. 201728159291
synthesis and characterization of hollow porous molecular imprinted polymers for the selective extraction and determination of caffeic acid in fruit samples.hollow porous molecular imprinted polymers (hpmips) were prepared using caffeic acid (ca) as template, 4-vinylpyridine (4-vp) as functional monomer, and mcm-48 as sacrificial support. large surface area (562.7m(2)/g) of hpmips resulted in high binding capacity (27.26mg/g) and fast kinetic binding (40min) in comparison with solid mips. equilibrium data fitted well to freundlich equation, and adsorption process with multi-diffusion mechanisms could be described by pseudo-second order model. select ...201728159273
kiwifruit svp2 gene prevents premature budbreak during dormancy. 201728158721
negative act d 8 indicates systemic kiwifruit allergy among kiwifruit-sensitized children. 201728140468
sucrose phloem unloading follows an apoplastic pathway with high sucrose synthase in actinidia fruit.phloem unloading plays a pivotal role in photoassimilate partitioning and the accumulation of sugars in sink organs, e.g. fruit. here, we investigated the pathway of sucrose unloading in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciasa cv. qinmei) using a combination of electron microscopy, transport of the phloem-mobile symplastic tracer carboxyfluorescein and enzyme activity and gene expression assays. our structural investigation revealed that the sieve element-companion cell complex of bundles feeding the fru ...201728131340
gbs-based deconvolution of the surviving north american collection of cold-hardy kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) germplasm.plant germplasm collections can be invaluable resources to plant breeders, provided they are well-characterized. after 140 years of acquisition and curation efforts by a wide and largely non-coordinated array of private and institutional actors, the current us collection of cold-hardy kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) is rife with misclassifications, misnomers, and mix-ups. to facilitate the systematic improvement and resource-efficient curation of these species of long-recognized horticultural potenti ...201728125645
hairiness: the missing link between pollinators and pollination.functional traits are the primary biotic component driving organism influence on ecosystem functions; in consequence, traits are widely used in ecological research. however, most animal trait-based studies use easy-to-measure characteristics of species that are at best only weakly associated with functions. animal-mediated pollination is a key ecosystem function and is likely to be influenced by pollinator traits, but to date no one has identified functional traits that are simple to measure and ...201628028464
ileal digesta nondietary substrates from cannulated pigs are major contributors to in vitro human hindgut short-chain fatty acid has been assumed that short-chain fatty acids (scfas) in the colon originate mainly from dietary fiber fermentation. however, scfas in the colon are also produced from the fermentation of nondietary material.201728003537
characterization of starch degradation related genes in postharvest kiwifruit.starch is one of the most important storage carbohydrates in plants. kiwifruit typically accumulate large amounts of starch during development. the fruit retain starch until commercial maturity, and its postharvest degradation is essential for consumer acceptance. the activity of genes related to starch degradation has, however, rarely been investigated. based on the kiwifruit genome sequence and previously reported starch degradation-related genes, 17 novel genes were isolated and the relations ...201627983700
influence of geographical location of orchards on green kiwifruit bioactive components.italy is one of the world's major kiwifruit producers and exporters with orchards located in different areas from the north to the south of the peninsula. this study sought to investigate for the first time the possible influence of the geographical location of kiwifruit orchards on some fruit components, selected because of their involvement in beneficial or negative effects on human health. the fruits harvested in 16 italian areas were analyzed, and the results obtained show that the observed ...201627933987
actinidia arguta supplementation protects aorta and liver in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia.there are no published results focusing on the study of hardy kiwifruit as a supplementation to the atherogenic diet. we hypothesized that hardy kiwifruit (actinidia arguta (a. arguta)) from poland possess better pro-healthy action than two asian varieties (hayward and bidan). we tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic reactions of rats loaded with 1% cholesterol and supplemented with 5% of hardy kiwifruit (a. arguta), hayward, or bidan in their diets. the experiment was performed on 7 ...201627865618
the development and effectiveness of an ecological momentary intervention to increase daily fruit and vegetable consumption in low-consuming young develop and test the effectiveness of a mobile-phone based ecological momentary intervention (emi) to increase fruit and vegetable (fv) consumption in low-consuming young adults.201727642037
optimization of polyphenol removal from kiwifruit juice using a macroporous resin.the separation of polyphenols from kiwifruit juice is essential for enhancing sensory properties and prevent the browning reaction in juice during processing and storage.201627701746
hollow molecular imprinted polymers towards rapid, effective and selective extraction of caffeic acid from fruits.rapid and selective extraction and enrichment of trace bioactive analytes from complex matrices were of significant importance for efficient and accurate quantification. here, novel hollow molecular imprinted polymers (hmips) were prepared using caffeic acid (ca) as template, 4-vinylpyridine (4-vp) as functional monomer, and fe3o4@sio2 as sacrificial support. fourier transform infrared spectrometer (ft-ir), transmission electron microscopy (tem), nitrogen adsorption and thermo-gravimetric analys ...201627720422
is kiwifruit allergy a matter in kiwifruit-cultivating regions? a population-based study.although kiwifruit is known as a common cause of food allergy, population-based studies concerning the prevalence of kiwifruit allergy do not exist. we aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ige-mediated kiwifruit allergy in 6-18-year-old urban schoolchildren in a region where kiwifruit is widely cultivated.201727732749
nutrient compositions and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit (actinidia) and their relationship with flesh color and commercial value.the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of china domestic kiwifruit and imported kiwifruit with different prices and the relationships of retail price among cultivars, nutritional qualities and flesh color were investigated. results showed that cultivar was the main factor influencing nutritional quality, though the product region could also affect the cultivar characteristics to some extent. additionally, nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit had no relationship to ...201727719912
effects of diet on sleep quality.there is much emerging information surrounding the impact of sleep duration and quality on food choice and consumption in both children and adults. however, less attention has been paid to the effects of dietary patterns and specific foods on nighttime sleep. early studies have shown that certain dietary patterns may affect not only daytime alertness but also nighttime sleep. in this review, we surveyed the literature to describe the role of food consumption on sleep. research has focused on the ...201627633109
[not available].los kiwis, tanto la variedad verde (actinidia deliciosa) como la de color amarillo (sungold®) (a. chinensis), destacan entre las frutas de consumo habitual por su composición nutricional. son excepcionalmente ricos en vitamina c, ya que los kiwis verdes duplican la cantidad que tienen fresas o naranjas, y el kiwi de color amarillo incluso la triplica. además, los kiwis tienen un elevado contenido en vitaminas e, k, folatos, carotenoides, potasio, fibra y otros fitoquímicos, que proporcionan no s ...201627571859
optimising survey effort to monitor environmental variables: a case study using new zealand kiwifruit orchards.environmental monitoring is increasingly used to assess spatial and temporal trends in agricultural sustainability, and test the effectiveness of farm management policies. however, detecting changes in environmental variables is often technically and logistically challenging. to demonstrate how survey effort for environmental monitoring can be optimised, we applied the new statistical power analysis r package simr to pilot survey data. specifically, we identified the amount of survey effort requ ...201627567933
impact of cultivation conditions, ethylene treatment, and postharvest storage on selected quality and bioactivity parameters of kiwifruit "hayward" evaluated by analytical and chemometric, semiorganic, and conventional "hayward" kiwifruits, treated with ethylene for 24 h and stored during 10 days, were assessed by uv spectrometry, fluorometry, and chemometrical analysis for changes in selected characteristics of quality (firmness, dry matter and soluble solid contents, ph, and acidity) and bioactivity (concentration of polyphenols via folin-ciocalteu and p-hydroxybenzoic acid assays). all of the monitored qualitative parameters and characteristics related to bioactivity w ...201627472553
novel approach of using nutraceutic-directed caloric antioxidant density and ion-ratio for evaluating fruit's health kinds of indigenous fruits and five imported fruits were compared for their "health quality." methods including the calorific, antioxidant, and ion ratios were carried out. results indicated the order of content (in mg/100g) was: ca(2+) , murcott orange (218.2) > kiwifruit (200.0) > pineapple (138.5) > golden kiwi (117.6); mg(2+) , pitaya (192.2), banana (88.0), kiwifruit (63.4), and golden kiwi (58.4); zn(2+) , pitaya (19.53) > pear (10.8) > kiwifruit (6.09) > irwin mango (4.58). cu(2+) , ...201627467811
comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among fruits and vegetable this study, a comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among 90 plant resources, including fruits and vegetables, has been performed. protease activities of plant extracts were assayed at different ph values (ph 3.0, ph 7.5 and ph 10.5) using casein as a substrate. ten fruits and thirteen vegetables show protease activities above 10u/g. pineapple, fig and papaya, which are used for commercial protease production, exhibited high protease activities. additionally, high pr ...201627451238
classification of kiwifruit grades based on fruit shape using a single camera.this study aims to demonstrate the feasibility for classifying kiwifruit into shape grades by adding a single camera to current chinese sorting lines equipped with weight sensors. image processing methods are employed to calculate fruit length, maximum diameter of the equatorial section, and projected area. a stepwise multiple linear regression method is applied to select significant variables for predicting minimum diameter of the equatorial section and volume and to establish corresponding est ...201627376292
influence of ph on the structure and function of kiwi pectin methylesterase inhibitor.pectin methylesterase is a pectin modifying enzyme that plays a key role in plant physiology. it is also an important quality-related enzyme in plant-based food products. the pectin methylesterase inhibitor (pmei) from kiwifruit inhibits this enzyme activity and is widely used as an efficient tool for research purposes and also recommended in the context of fruit and vegetable processing. using several methodologies of protein biochemistry, including circular dichroism and fluorescence spectrosc ...201627335009
optimal pretreatment determination of kiwifruit drying via online monitoring.pre-treating is a crucial stage of drying process. the best pretreatment for hot air drying of kiwifruit was investigated using a computer vision system (cvs), for online monitoring of drying attributes including drying time, colour changes and shrinkage, as decision criteria and using clustering method. slices were dried at 70 °c with hot water blanching (hwb), steam blanching (sb), infrared blanching (ir) and acid ascorbic 1% w/w (aa) as pretreatments each with three durations of 5, 10 and 15  ...201627322542
exploiting genotyping by sequencing to characterize the genomic structure of the american cranberry through high-density linkage mapping.the application of genotyping by sequencing (gbs) approaches, combined with data imputation methodologies, is narrowing the genetic knowledge gap between major and understudied, minor crops. gbs is an excellent tool to characterize the genomic structure of recently domesticated (~200 years) and understudied species, such as cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.), by generating large numbers of markers for genomic studies such as genetic mapping.201627295982
investigation of absorption and scattering characteristics of kiwifruit tissue using a single integrating sphere system.for a quantitative understanding of light interaction with fruit tissue, it is critical to obtain two fundamental parameters: the absorption coefficient and the scattering coefficient of the tissue. this study was to investigate the optical properties of kiwifruit tissue at the wavelength of 632.8 nm. the total reflectance and total transmittance of kiwifruit tissue from three parts (including the flesh part, the seed part, and the seed-base part) were measured using a single integrating sphere ...201627256682
bacterial disease management: challenges, experience, innovation and future prospects: challenges in bacterial molecular plant pathology.plant diseases caused by bacterial pathogens place major constraints on crop production and cause significant annual losses on a global scale. the attainment of consistent effective management of these diseases can be extremely difficult, and management potential is often affected by grower reliance on highly disease-susceptible cultivars because of consumer preferences, and by environmental conditions favouring pathogen development. new and emerging bacterial disease problems (e.g. zebra chip o ...201627238249
overexpression of actinidia deliciosa pyruvate decarboxylase 1 gene enhances waterlogging stress in transgenic arabidopsis thaliana.ethanolic fermentation is classically associated with waterlogging tolerance when plant cells switch from respiration to anaerobic fermentation. pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc), which catalyzes the first step in this pathway, is thought to be the main regulatory enzyme. here, we cloned a full-length pdc cdna sequence from kiwifruit, named adpdc1. we determined the expression of the adpdc1 gene in kiwifruit under different environmental stresses using qrt-pcr, and the results showed that the increas ...201627191596
influence of cultivation parameters on the mineral composition of kiwi fruit from corsica.the effect of four cultivation parameters (postmaturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °c, and input of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) on the mineral composition of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa var. hayward) from corsica were evaluated. the kiwi fruit were harvested on three dates at two-week intervals and some fruit were stored for three and four months. the kiwi fruit orchard was fertilized with controlled levels of nitrogen (five levels) and potassium (three levels) during one grow ...201627135990
actinidia chlorotic ringspot-associated virus: a novel emaravirus infecting kiwifruit integrating next-generation sequencing (ngs), bioinformatics, electron microscopy and conventional molecular biology tools, a new virus infecting kiwifruit vines has been identified and characterized. being associated with double-membrane-bound bodies in infected tissues and having a genome composed of rna segments, each one containing a single open reading frame in negative polarity, this virus shows the typical features of members of the genus emaravirus. five genomic rna segments were iden ...201727125218
heavy metal levels in kiwifruit orchard soils and trees and its potential health risk assessment in shaanxi, china.concentrations of five heavy metals (cr, cu, cd, hg, and pb) in orchard soils and kiwifruit tissues (root, twig, leave, fruit) collected from shaanxi province in china were measured, and the potential health risk for human through the fruit consumption was assessed. the orchard soils were in no pollution for cr, cu, hg, and pb, with their pollution index (pi) ≤1, while 10.0 % of the soil samples were under cd contamination. furthermore, kiwifruit tended to have a higher cd and hg accumulation (a ...201627068913
endotypes of pollen-food syndrome in children with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: a molecular classification.pollen-food syndrome (pfs) is heterogeneous with regard to triggers, severity, natural history, comorbidities, and response to treatment. our study aimed to classify different endotypes of pfs based on ige sensitization to panallergens.201626999633
analysis of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma by desiccated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.a new method for desiccated headspace (dhs) sampling of aqueous sample to gc-ms for the analysis of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma in different kiwifruit cultivars has been developed based on the complete hydrate formation between the sample solvent (water) with anhydrous salt (calcium chloride) at an elevated temperature (above the boiling point of the aqueous sample) in a non-contact format, which overcame the water-effect challenge to directly introduce aqueous sample into ...201626922094
integrated analysis of metabolites and proteins reveal aspects of the tissue-specific function of synthetic cytokinin in kiwifruit development and ripening.fruit development and ripening depends on highly coordinated phyto-hormonal activities. although the role of synthetic cytokinin n-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-n'-phenylurea (cppu) in promoting fruit growth has been established, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanism is still lacking. here, we characterize the effect of cppu application 20d after full bloom at pre- and post-harvest biology of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa [a. chev.] c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson var. deliciosa cv. 'hayward'). data ...201626915585
coupling of physiological and proteomic analysis to understand the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening syndrome.kiwifruit [actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson, cv. "hayward"] is classified as climacteric fruit and the initiation of endogenous ethylene production following harvest is induced by exogenous ethylene or chilling exposure. to understand the biological basis of this "dilemma," kiwifruit ripening responses were characterized at 20°c following treatments with exogenous ethylene (100 μl l(-1), 20°c, 24 h) or/and chilling temperature (0°c, 10 days). all treatments elicited kiw ...201626913040
characterization of physiochemical and microbiological properties, and bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa).the objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as the bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of two varieties (bruno and monty) of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa) at two stages of maturation. the flour made with kiwi fruit peel from both varieties showed higher levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity that the flour made with bagasse from both varieties. the flour made with green kiwi fruit skin from the ...201626775997
chitosan coating of red kiwifruit (actinidia melanandra) for extending of the shelf life.commercial production of red kiwifruit (actinidia melanandra) has been unsuccessful because of its short shelf life. here in this study, we used chitosan to extend the shelf life of red kiwifruit berries. chitosan (with 70-75% deacetylation degree and low molecular weight) was dissolved in acetic acid (at ph 2.0-2.3) to obtain gel material, which was used for coating of the fruit. the coated and uncoated samples were kept for 26 days at room temperature (20±2°c). the changes in the weight loss, ...201626772912
papain induced occupational asthma with kiwi and fig allergy.papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. here, we present a case of occupational, ige-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. a 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the t ...201626739411
effects of topical kiwifruit on healing of chronic bedsore.kiwifruit (actindia deliciosa) is demonstrated to have antibacterial and pro-angiogenic effect. moreover, this fruit contains proteolytic enzymes (actinidin) and ascorbic acid. considering these properties and based on the results of recent animal studies, we carried out this study to evaluate the effects of kiwifruit on bedsore in clinical settings. forty patients with stage 2-3 sacral bedsores, preferably paraplegic, quadriplegic, and/or hemiplegic, were allocated into two groups of experiment ...201526730042
kiwifruit cysteine protease actinidin compromises the intestinal barrier by disrupting tight junctions.the intestinal epithelium forms a barrier that food allergens must cross in order to induce sensitization. the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the plant-derived food cysteine protease--actinidin (act d1) on the integrity of intestinal epithelium tight junctions (tjs).201626701113
random tagging genotyping by sequencing (rtgbs), an unbiased approach to locate restriction enzyme sites across the target genome.genotyping by sequencing (gbs) is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. the number of gbs samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for ...201526633193
the digestion of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) fibre and the effect of kiwifruit on the digestibility of other dietary nutrients.the effect of dietary kiwifruit inclusion level on the digestibility of kiwifruit fibre and dietary nutrients was studied. ileal cannulated pigs (50±1.9 kg) were fed a fibre-free diet for seven days (n=14) followed by kiwifruit-containing diets (133 or 266 g kiwifruit/kg dry matter) (n=7) for 44 days followed by the fibre-free diet (n=14) for seven days. faecal and ileal samples were collected on days 5, 11, 21, 35, 49 and 56. the soluble kiwifruit fibre was highly digested in the foregut (80%), ...201626616986
effects of soy phytoestrogens and new zealand functional foods on bone zealand is a rich source of food components that may have bioactivity on bone. docosahexaenoic acid (dha) from fish oil has been shown to maintain bone in ovariectomised (ovx) rats. kiwifruit, a source of fibre and carotenoids, may also affect bone via a prebiotic as well as direct cell-based mechanisms. we aimed to 1) ascertain the effects of dha on two cell models, including interactions with soy isoflavones; 2) and investigate the specific effects of carotenoids from kiwifruit as well as ...201526598831
bioactivity and nutritional properties of hardy kiwi fruit actinidia arguta in comparison with actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and actinidia eriantha 'bidan'.the aim of this research is to identify and compare the bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacities and binding potentials to human protein in different varieties of hardy kiwi (actinidia (a.) arguta), 'hayward' (actinidia deliciosa) and less - known 'bidan' (actinidia eriantha). polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, vitamin c, lutein, zeaxanthin and dietary fibers were significantly higher in cultivar 'm1' among the a. arguta than in 'hayward'. the binding properties of studied kiwi frui ...201626593493
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