TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
actinidin, a protease from kiwifruit, induces changes in morphology and adhesion of t84 intestinal epithelial cells.actinidin belongs to the papain-like family of cysteine proteases and is a major kiwifruit allergen. in this study, the effect of actinidin on cellular morphology and adhesion of t84 intestinal cells was investigated. both rounding and detachment of t84 cells were observed upon actinidin treatment. the morphological changes and cell desquamation was protease-dependent, as well as time- and concentration-dependent. changes of intercellular adhesion and adhesion of epithelial cells to collagen upo ...201222257750
composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics in 25 wild or cultivated berry species.sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic content in fruit of 25 wild and cultivated berry species were identified and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatograph. the composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic compounds in various species of vaccinium, rubus, ribes, and fragaria genus was evaluated. additonally, total phenolics of less known berry species of the morus, amelanchier, sorbus, sambucus, rosa, lycium, actinidia, and aronia genus were determined in wild growin ...201222924969
immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indigenous and ethnoveterinary medicines.herbs/botanical plants are considered as god's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "sanjeevani booti" described in hindu mythology. the traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional ...201224175417
development and validation of a direct competitive monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay for the sensitive and selective analysis of the phytoregulator forchlorfenuron.forchlorfenuron is a synthetic phytohormone with cytokinin-like activity used worldwide as a plant growth regulator to increase fruit size in a number of crops, mostly in kiwifruit and grape vines. a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the determination of forchlorfenuron has been characterized and optimized. the selected immunoreagents afforded a highly selective assay with a limit of detection of 10 ng l(-1) in buffer. this direct competitive elisa was valid ...201222526663
the evaluation of chinese therapeutic food for the treatment of moderate dyslipidemia.the clinical efficacy of the chinese therapeutic food (specifically hawthorn fruit and chinese kiwifruit-extract compound) on dyslipidemia was evaluated in this placebo-controlled, double blind, paired clinical trial conducted in melbourne, australia. forty-three participants diagnosed with moderate dyslipidemia and met the study criteria were randomly assigned to group a or b, with baseline characteristics matched. twenty-seven participants completed all the tests, the blood lipid profile inclu ...201222474507
anaphylactic shock due to kiwifruit.a 44-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency department (ed) with an episode of severe anaphylaxis displaying generalized urticaria and dyspnea 1 hour after consuming a kiwifruit. initially, the patient reported discrete itching of his abdominal skin and was in moderate respiratory distress. the patient's wheal response and itch were attenuated 30 minutes after emergency treatment with intravenous antianaphylaxis drugs. however, he had symptoms of the chest distress, dizzy, and dysph ...201222386357
a report from the american heart association scientific sessions 2011 (november 12-16, 2011, orlando, florida, usa).diet and lifestyle have a direct impact on cardiovascular health and may help improve the condition in many patients suffering from or at risk for cardiac diseases, and remote and in-person behavioral interventions were shown to prompt weight loss in obese individuals (appel, l.j., late-breaking clinical trial presentation), thus helping reduce the cardiovascular risk. in that regard, and as an example, kiwifruit was noted to lower 24-hour blood pressure (svendsen, m. et al., abst 16175), wherea ...201222384460
modelling chlorophyll fluorescence of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa).kiwi fruit displays chlorophyll fluorescence. a physical model was developed to reproduce the observed original fluorescence for the whole fruit, from the emission of the different parts of the kiwi fruit. the spectral distribution of fluorescence in each part of the fruit, was corrected to eliminate distortions due to light re-absorption and it was analyzed in relation to photosystem ii-photosystem i ratio. kiwi fruit also displays variable chlorophyll-fluorescence, similar to that observed fro ...201222337099
effect of acid fruit juices combined with electric or sonic toothbrushing on root dentin permeability--an in vitro study.the purpose of this in vitro study was to quantify the alterations on human root dentin permeability after exposure to different acid fruit juices and to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing with electric or sonic toothbrush after acid exposure. the root dentin of 50 extracted third molars was exposed with a high speed bur. crowns were sectioned above the cementoenamel junction and root fragments were used to prepare dentin specimens. specimens were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to the ...201223338258
characterisation of bound volatile compounds of a low flavour kiwifruit species: actinidia eriantha.aroma compounds in fruit are known to occur in free and glycosidically bound forms. the bound volatile fraction of a low flavour kiwifruit species, actinidia eriantha, was studied. the fruit have a bland and grassy flavour. glycosidic precursors were isolated from juice by adsorption onto an amberlite xad-2 column. after enzymatic hydrolysis with rapidase ar2000, the released aglycones were analysed by gc-ms. alcohols, terpenoids and phenolics were the most numerously represented compound classe ...201223107675
an efficient method for purification of nonspecific lipid transfer protein-1 from rice seeds using kiwifruit actinidin proteolysis and ion exchange chromatography.plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are small basic proteins that transport phospholipids between membranes and are subdivided into two subfamilies, nsltp(1) (9 kda) and nsltp(2) (7 kda). ltps have potential application in the defense reactions against pathogens and the drug delivery systems. many efforts have been made for purification of different nsltps from various plants; however, most of them used successive purification procedures. we have developed a relatively simple and efficient ...201222987614
topical effectiveness of kiwifruit versus fibrinolysin ointment on removal of necrotic tissue of full-thickness burns in male rats.formation of necrotic tissues is a major issue affecting treatment of full-thickness burns. this study was designed to compare topical effectiveness of applying kiwifruit versus fibrinolysin on removal of necrotic tissue of burns. ten adult male wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. for group 1, the right-side wounds were treated with kiwifruit and the other side with fibrinolysin. for group 2, the wounds on the right side were treated with kiwifruit or fibrinolysin, and the left s ...201223210763
studies related to norway spruce galactoglucomannans: chemical synthesis, conformation analysis, nmr spectroscopic characterization, and molecular recognition of model compounds.galactoglucomannan (ggm) is a polysaccharide mainly consisting of mannose, glucose, and galactose. ggm is the most abundant hemicellulose in the norway spruce (picea abies), but is also found in the cell wall of flax seeds, tobacco plants, and kiwifruit. although several applications for ggm polysaccharides have been developed in pulp and paper manufacturing and the food and medical industries, attempts to synthesize and study distinct fragments of this polysaccharide have not been reported prev ...201223008171
fruit transpiration in kiwifruit: environmental drivers and predictive most fruit crops, storage quality varies greatly between regions and seasons, causing significant commercial loss. understanding the sources of this variability will contribute to the knowledge of fruit developmental physiology and may also benefit commercial fruit production via altered managements that reduce it or forecasts that predict it. a causal-chain relationship is proposed to help elucidate the sources of variability in fruit storage quality: the weather →(i)→ fruit transpiration →( ...201223136639
kiwifruit remnants from digestion in vitro have functional attributes of potential importance to health.the physicochemical properties of plant cell walls in the gut are important in modulating processes that influence health. we investigated the physicochemical properties of kiwifruit cell walls digested under gastric and gastroileal conditions in vitro. soluble and insoluble undigested polymer fractions were measured, the hydration properties of the digested pulp, and the capacity to retard diffusion and mixing in a simulated small intestinal segment. undigested polymer (dietary fibre) fractions ...201222980789
evaluation of ige reactivity of active and thermally inactivated actinidin, a biomarker of kiwifruit allergy.actinidin, an abundant cysteine protease from kiwifruit, is a specific biomarker of isolated allergy to kiwifruit. this study evaluates the ige-binding properties of biologically active and thermally inactivated actinidin. employing two different activity assays (caseinolytic assay and zymogram with gelatin) we showed that actinidin obtained from kiwifruit extract under native conditions represents a mixture of inactive and active enzyme. the structural integrity of actinidin was confirmed by sd ...201222227218
kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) changes intestinal microbial profile.kiwifruit is high in pectic polysaccharides and dietary fiber. this study aimed to find out how the ingestion of kiwifruit will affect intestinal microbiota populations, namely lactobacillus, bacteroides, clostridium, bifidobacterium, and enterococcus.201223990838
characterizing kiwifruit carbohydrate utilization in vitro and its consequences for human faecal is well accepted that our gut bacteria have coevolved with us in relation to our genetics, diet and lifestyle and are integrated metabolically with us to affect our gut health adversely or beneficially. "who is there" may vary quite widely between individuals, as might "how they do it", but "what they make" may be less variable. many different individual species of bacteria can perform the same saccharolytic functions and so the availability of substrate (host or diet-derived) along with the ...201223072625
hplc-msn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species.berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. more than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with hplc-ms(n) in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog ...201222980782
kiwifruit decreases blood pressure and whole-blood platelet aggregation in male modifications to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as blood pressure (bp) and smoking have been emphasized. fruits and vegetables may modify such risk factors. the major aim of this randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the effects of (1) kiwifruits and (2) an antioxidant-rich diet compared with (3) a control group on bp and platelet aggregation (that is, whole-blood platelet aggregation) after 8 weeks in male smokers (age 44-74 years, n=102). the kiwifruit ...201222258209
in vitro and in vivo antifungal properties of cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit.higher plants possess several mechanisms of defense against plant pathogens. proteins actively synthesized in response to those stresses are called defense-related proteins which, among others, include certain protease inhibitors. it is of particular relevance to investigate plant natural defense mechanisms for pathogen control which include cystatins-specific inhibitors of cysteine proteases.201222653546
functional properties of some new zealand fruit extracts towards selected probiotic and pathogenic bacteria.the functional properties of aqueous extracts of four fruits commonly consumed in new zealand, namely blueberry, strawberry, green kiwifruit and feijoa, towards the growth of probiotic and pathogenic bacteria were investigated in this study. a concentration range of 0.1-30.0 g/l was evaluated in a high-throughput assay to determine their effects. in general, the four fruit extracts exerted growth-stimulating effects on the probiotic bacteria, except with bifidobacterium longum, whereas they were ...201222968373
a novel polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip) from lathyrus sativus l. seeds.polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (pgips) are extracellular plant proteins bound to the plant cell wall containing leucine-rich repeats (lrr). they play an important role in plant defence being able to inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (epgs), the first enzymes secreted by phytopathogenic fungi during plant infection. in the present work, a novel pgip (lspgip) has been isolated from lathyrus sativus seeds. lspgip exhibited an inhibitory activity towards epgs from aspergillus niger and rh ...201222762184
in vitro utilization of gold and green kiwifruit oligosaccharides by human gut microbial populations.we examined the effects of whole kiwifruit on gut microbiota using an in vitro batch model of gastric-ileal digestion and colonic fermentation. faecal fermentations of gold and green kiwifruit, inulin and water (control) digests were performed for up to 48 h. as compared to the control, gold and green kiwifruit increased bifidobacterium spp. by 0.9 and 0.8 log(10) cfu/ml, respectively (p < 0.001), and the bacteroides-prevotella-porphyromonas group by 0.4 and 0.5 log(10) cfu/ml, respectively. inu ...201222576129
reactive oxygen species are involved in pollen tube initiation in kiwifruit.the role of reactive oxygen species (ros) during pollen tube growth has been well established, but its involvement in the early germination stage is poorly understood. ros production has been reported in germinating tobacco pollen, but evidence for a clear correlation between ros and germination success remains elusive. here, we show that ros are involved in germination and pollen tube formation in kiwifruit. using labelling with dihydrofluorescein diacetate (h(2) fda) and nitroblue tetrazolium ...201221973108
pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) isolates from recent bacterial canker of kiwifruit outbreaks belong to the same genetic lineage.intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. one emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa and a. chinensis) caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa). the disease first occurred in china and japan in the 1980s and in korea and italy in the 1990s. a more severe form of the disease broke out in italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiw ...201222590555
in vitro antibacterial activity of cysteine protease inhibitor from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).the need for replacing traditional pesticides with alternative agents for the management of agricultural pathogens is rising worldwide. in this study, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cpi), 11 kda in size, was purified from green kiwifruit to homogeneity. we examined the growth inhibition of three plant pathogenic gram-negative bacterial strains by kiwi cpi and attempted to elucidate the potential mechanism of the growth inhibition. cpi influenced the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria agrobacte ...201224426085
consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces severity and duration of selected upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and increases plasma vitamin c concentration in healthy older the elderly, immunosenescence and malnourishment can contribute to increased risk and severity of upper respiratory tract infections (urti). gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis 'hort16a') contains nutrients important for immune function and mitigation of symptoms of infection, including vitamins c and e, folate, polyphenols and carotenoids. the objective of the present study was to evaluate whether regular consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces symptoms of urti in older people, and determine t ...201222172428
identification, functional characterization, and regulation of the enzyme responsible for floral (e)-nerolidol biosynthesis in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).flowers of the kiwifruit species actinidia chinensis produce a mixture of sesquiterpenes derived from farnesyl diphosphate (fdp) and monoterpenes derived from geranyl diphosphate (gdp). the tertiary sesquiterpene alcohol (e)-nerolidol was the major emitted volatile detected by headspace analysis. contrastingly, in solvent extracts of the flowers, unusually high amounts of (e,e)-farnesol were observed, as well as lesser amounts of (e)-nerolidol, various farnesol and farnesal isomers, and linalool ...201222162874
vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) berries.indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. this inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'hort16a') exhibiting a pre-harvest 'shrivel' disorder in california, and normal development in new zealand. dye labelling and m ...201222155631
meiotic chromosome pairing in actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa.polyploids are defined as either autopolyploids or allopolyploids, depending on their mode of origin and/or chromosome pairing behaviour. autopolyploids have chromosome sets that are the result of the duplication or combination of related genomes (e.g., aaaa), while allopolyploids result from the combination of sets of chromosomes from two or more different taxa (e.g., aabb, aabbcc). allopolyploids are expected to show preferential pairing of homologous chromosomes from within each parental sub- ...201223196697
mapping, complementation, and targets of the cysteine protease actinidin in kiwifruit.cysteine proteases (cps) accumulate to high concentration in many fruit, where they are believed to play a role in fungal and insect defense. the fruit of actinidia species (kiwifruit) exhibit a range of cp activities (e.g. the actinidia chinensis variety yellowa shows less than 2% of the activity of actinidia deliciosa variety hayward). a major quantitative trait locus for cp activity was mapped to linkage group 16 in a segregating population of a. chinensis. this quantitative trait locus coloc ...201222039217
induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in actinidia chinensis.some otherwise promising selections of actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. we have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading.201221980192
evaluation of antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of three actinidia (actinidia kolomikta, actinidia arguta, actinidia chinensis) extracts in vitro.the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, vitamin c content, and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from different kiwifruit varieties (actinidia kolomikta, actinidia arguta, actinidia chinensis) were determined in this study. multiple scavenging activity assays including the hydroxyl radical, o(2) (-)·radical, dpph, and the abts(+) radical scavenging activity assays were used to identify the antioxidant activities of actinidia extracts. the cell viability of hepg2 and ht-29 c ...201222754311
the effect of 2n gametes on sex ratios in can sometimes lead to complications. in some crops, 2n gametes have been exploited by plant breeders to transfer genetic variation between taxa of different ploidy levels. however, their role and use in dioecious genera have received relatively little attention. in the dioecious genus actinidia (kiwifruit), seedling populations usually segregate equally for females and males as sex is determined by an xx female/xy male system. while fertilization involving 2n egg cells is not expected to aff ...201222739644
bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit in non-smoking males: determination of 'healthy' and 'optimal' intakes.vitamin c is an essential nutrient in humans and must be obtained through the diet. the aim of this study was to determine vitamin c uptake in healthy volunteers after consuming kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis var. hort. 16a), and to determine the amount of fruit required to raise plasma vitamin c to 'healthy' (i.e. >50 µmol/l) and 'optimal' or saturating levels (i.e. >70 µmol/l). leucocyte and urinary vitamin c levels were also determined. a total of fifteen male university students with below a ...201225191543
low-temperature-modulated fruit ripening is independent of ethylene in 'sanuki gold' kiwifruit.fruit ripening in response to treatments with propylene, 1-methycyclopropene (1-mcp), and low temperature was characterized in 'sanuki gold' kiwifruit, actinidia chinensis planch. propylene treatment immediately induced rapid fruit softening, increased ac-pg (polygalacturonase) and ac-exp (expansin) mrna accumulation, and stimulated an increase in the soluble solid concentration (ssc) and a decrease in titratable acidity (ta). after 3 d exposure to propylene, ethylene production and ac-pl (pecta ...201222058408
bacterial canker on kiwifruit in italy: anatomical changes in the wood and in the primary infection sites.the bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. many aspects of p. syringae pv. actinidiae biology and epidemiology still require in-depth investigation. the infection by and spread of p. syringae pv. actinidiae in xylem and phloem was investigated by carrying out artificial inoculation experiments with histological and dendrochronological analyses of naturally diseased plants in italy. we found that the bacter ...201222713076
pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae: a re-emerging, multi-faceted, pandemic pathogen.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of green-fleshed kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) and yellow-fleshed kiwifruit (a. chinensis). a recent, sudden, re-emerging wave of this disease has occurred, almost contemporaneously, in all of the main areas of kiwifruit production in the world, suggesting that it can be considered as a pandemic disease. recent in-depth genetic studies performed on p. syringae pv. actinidiae strains have revealed that this pathovar is ...201222353258
phylogenetic relationships among global populations of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.abstract pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of canker in kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) vines, was first detected in japan in 1984, followed by detections in korea and italy in the early 1990s. isolates causing more severe disease symptoms have recently been detected in several countries with a wide global distribution, including italy, new zealand, and china. in order to characterize p. syringae pv. actinidiae populations globally, a representative set of 40 isolates from new zea ...201222877312
analytical determination of bioactive compounds as an indication of fruit quality.the aim of this investigation was to determine the bioactive compounds in kiwifruit as an indication of quality after extraction using methanol and ethyl acetate. using ftir and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and electrospray ionization/ms, the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, and tannins, and the level of the antioxidant activity by 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric-reducing/ antioxidant p ...201223451390
proteomic changes in actinidia chinensis shoot during systemic infection with a pandemic pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strain.a pandemic, very aggressive population of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is currently causing severe economic losses to kiwifruit crops worldwide. upon leaf attack, this gram-negative bacterium systemically reaches the plant shoot in a week period. in this study, combined 2-de and nanolc-esi-lit-ms/ms procedures were used to describe major proteomic changes in actinidia chinensis shoot following bacterial inoculation in host leaf. a total of 117 differentially represented protein spots were ...201323099348
draft genome of the kiwifruit actinidia chinensis.the kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop with remarkably high vitamin c content. here we report the draft genome sequence of a heterozygous kiwifruit, assembled from ~140-fold next-generation sequencing data. the assembled genome has a total length of 616.1 mb and contains 39,040 genes. comparative genomic analysis reveals that the kiwifruit has undergone an ancient hexaploidization event (γ) shared by core eudicots and two more recent whole-g ...201324136039
a randomized steady-state bioavailability study of synthetic versus natural (kiwifruit-derived) vitamin c.whether vitamin c from wholefoods has equivalent bioavailability to a purified supplement remains unclear. we have previously showed that kiwifruit provided significantly higher serum and tissue ascorbate levels than synthetic vitamin c in a genetically vitamin c-deficient mouse model, suggesting a synergistic activity of the whole fruit. to determine if these results are translatable to humans, we carried out a randomized human study comparing the bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit wit ...201324067392
biochemical and structural characterisation of dehydroquinate synthase from the new zealand kiwifruit actinidia of the novel aspects of kiwifruit is the presence of a high level of quinic acid which contributes to the flavour of the fruit. quinic acid metabolism intersects with the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of primary and secondary aromatic metabolites. the gene encoding the enzyme which catalyses the second step of the shikimate pathway, dehydroquinate synthase (dhqs), from the new zealand kiwifruit actinidia chinensis was identified, cloned and expressed. a ...201323916589
kiwifruit: our daily prescription for health.kiwifruit are unequalled, compared with other commonly consumed fruit, for their nutrient density, health benefits, and consumer appeal. research into their health benefits has focussed on the cultivars actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' (green kiwifruit) and actinidia chinensis 'hort 16a', zespri(®) (gold kiwifruit). compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins c, e, k, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting i ...201323746068
total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ripe green and golden kiwifruit.three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (actinidia deliciosa l.) and golden (actinidia chinensis l.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. the aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. the pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 m hcl ...201328239098
diversity and relative levels of actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like allergens in 15 varieties of kiwifruit (actinidia).in the last 30 years the incidence of kiwifruit allergy has increased with the three major allergenic proteins being identified as actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like protein (tlp). we report wide variation in the levels of actinidin and tlp in 15 kiwifruit varieties from the four most widely cultivated actinidia species. acidic and basic isoforms of actinidin were identified in actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and actinidia arguta 'hortgem tahi', while only a basic isoform of actinidin was ide ...201323289429
a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic bioavailability study of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin c.kiwifruit are a rich source of vitamin c and also contain numerous phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, which may influence the bioavailability of kiwifruit-derived vitamin c. the aim of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin c using a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic study design. nine non-smoking males (aged 18-35 years) received either a chewable tablet (200 mg vitamin c) or the equivalent dose from gold kiwifruit (actinidia ch ...201324284610
[establishment of high frequency regeneration via leaf explants of 'red sun' kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis)].a high efficient in vitro regeneration protocol was developed from leaf explants of the female 'red sun' kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) and the multiplication coefficient and rooting rate of adventitious buds were also optimized. this method does not require formation of callus tissues which leads to somaclonal variations. the results show that the adventitious buds developing directly from explants tissue were noticed after 30 d of culture. the maximum regeneration frequency of adventitious bu ...201324701825
metabolic profiling and outer pericarp water state in zespri,, and hayward kiwifruits.the metabolic profiling of aqueous extracts of zespri gold ( actinidia chinensis ) and (a controlled crossbreed from different species of actinidia deliciosa ) kiwifruits and the water state of the outer pericarp of entire fruits were monitored over the season by means of high-field nmr spectroscopy and t(2) relaxation time measurements, respectively, and compared with the corresponding ones of hayward kiwifruits previously investigated. a more complete assignment of the (1)h spectrum with ...201323083310
green and gold kiwifruit peel ethanol extracts potentiate pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice via a gabaergic mechanism.kiwifruit is one of the most popular fruits worldwide, and it has various biological properties, including antioxidant, anti-allergic, and cardiovascular protective effects. the peel of kiwifruit, which is a by-product of processing, is a good source of flavonoids; however, its bioactivity has not been widely investigated. in this study, we evaluated the hypnotic effects of green (grpe, actinidia deliciosa) and gold (gope, actinidia chinensis) kiwifruit peel ethanol extracts and their solvent fr ...201323017407
using fundamental knowledge of induced resistance to develop control strategies for bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. 201323437017
genomic analysis of the kiwifruit pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae provides insight into the origins of an emergent plant disease.the origins of crop diseases are linked to domestication of plants. most crops were domesticated centuries--even millennia--ago, thus limiting opportunity to understand the concomitant emergence of disease. kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) is an exception: domestication began in the 1930s with outbreaks of canker disease caused by p. syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) first recorded in the 1980s. based on snp analyses of two circularized and 34 draft genomes, we show that psa is comprised of distinct clade ...201323935484
biochemical and immunological characterization of a recombinantly-produced antifungal cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).plant proteinase inhibitors are considered important defense molecules against insect and pathogen attack. the cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cpi) from green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) belongs to the cystatin family and shows potent antifungal activity (in vitro and in vivo). however, the low abundance of this molecule in fruit (6μg/g of fresh fruit) seems to limit further investigations on the interaction between phytocystatin and photopathogenic fungi. in this paper the cdna of the kiwi c ...201323830694
an r2r3 myb transcription factor determines red petal colour in an actinidia (kiwifruit) hybrid colour in kiwifruit results from the presence of anthocyanin pigments. their expression, however, is complex, and varies among genotypes, species, tissues and environments. an understanding of the biosynthesis, physiology and genetics of the anthocyanins involved, and the control of their expression in different tissues, is required. a complex, the mbw complex, consisting of r2r3-myb and bhlh transcription factors together with a wd-repeat protein, activates anthocyanin 3-o-galactosyltransfe ...201323324587
structural and bioinformatic analysis of the kiwifruit allergen act d 11, a member of the family of ripening-related proteins.the allergen act d 11, also known as kirola, is a 17 kda protein expressed in large amounts in ripe green and yellow-fleshed kiwifruit. ten percent of all kiwifruit-allergic individuals produce ige specific for the protein. using x-ray crystallography, we determined the first three-dimensional structures of act d 11, produced from both recombinant expression in escherichia coli and from the natural source (kiwifruit). while act d 11 is immunologically correlated with the birch pollen allergen be ...201323969108
characterization of the complete genome of a novel citrivirus infecting actinidia chinensis.a ssrna virus from kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) was identified as a member of the family betaflexiviridae. it was mechanically transmitted to the herbaceous indicators nicotiana benthamiana, n. clevelandii, n. glutinosa and n. occidentalis. the complete genome was comprised of three orfs and a 3'poly (a) tail. phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome indicated it was a novel member of the genus citrivirus (family betaflexiviridae). the complete nucleotide sequence differed from that of citrus le ...201323494225
pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from recent outbreaks of kiwifruit bacterial canker belong to different clones that originated in china.a recently emerged plant disease, bacterial canker of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa and a. chinensis), is caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa). the disease was first reported in china and japan in the 1980s. a severe outbreak of psa began in italy in 2008 and has spread to other european countries. psa was found in both new zealand and chile in 2010. to study the evolution of the pathogen and analyse the transmission of psa between countries, genomes of strains from china and jap ...201323555547
influence of cultivation parameters on the composition of volatile compounds and physico-chemical characteristics of kiwi fruit.the effect of four cultivation parameters (post-maturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °c and input of nitrogen or potassium fertilisers) on the physico-chemical characteristics and composition of volatile compounds in kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa) were evaluated. five physico-chemical parameters were selected, namely, ph, total acidity, dry matter, conductivity and refractive index. to our knowledge, no published data are available concerning the influence of nitrogen or potassium fertil ...201322936621
characterisation of kiwifruit and asparagus enzyme extracts, and their activities toward meat proteins.two plant enzyme extracts from kiwifruit and asparagus were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse commercially available substrates and proteins present in both beef connective tissue and topside myofibrillar extracts. the results show significant differences in protease activity depending on the assay used. protease assays with connective tissue and meat myofibrillar extracts provide a more realistic evaluation of the potential of the enzymes for application in meat tenderization. overall, t ...201323122154
a biophysical model of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berry development.a model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of fishman and génard used for peach fruit. that model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. first, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit ...201324123250
kiwifruit, carbohydrate availability, and the glycemic appreciable proportion, about 10%, of the dry weight of kiwifruit consists of primary cell walls. about 80% of dry matter is available carbohydrate consisting of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, and about 10% is digestible protein. the cell wall component, being nonstarch polysaccharide, is undigested in the stomach and small intestine, so the component increases in relative concentration in the gut lumen where its physicochemical properties may be important in modulating carbohydrate digestio ...201323394992
kiwifruit and mineral nutrition.dietary minerals are essential nutrients that drive key cellular and physiological functions. each mineral is absorbed in the gut via unique, complex pathways that can involve a cascade of receptors and binding proteins. foods can both provide dietary minerals and contain components that impact the bioavailability of minerals in the digestive system. kiwifruit exceeds most other fruits in its content of key micronutrients including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, and folate. it ...201323394991
kiwifruit modulation of gastrointestinal motility.disorders of gastrointestinal motility are common, resulting in a decreased quality of life of individuals, and an economic burden. gastrointestinal motility is categorized according to location within the gastrointestinal tract: stomach, small intestine, and colon, with the colon being the dominant compartment in determining overall gastrointestinal transit. constipation results from gastrointestinal dysmotility and is a significant chronic health issue globally. clinical studies in a range of ...201323394990
modification of the colonic is becoming clear that the ecology and functionality of the human gut microbiota are extremely diverse and complex. the microbiota have coevolved with us metabolically to live symbiotically and to share the workload of extracting nutrients and energy from the diet. it is also clear that a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grain cereals is good for general health and gut health and that this is due partly to the phytochemicals and partly to the nondigestible carbohydrates (or dietary f ...201323394989
digestion of kiwifruit fiber.dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet the impact of dietary kiwifruit on nutrient availability has not been reported. the digestion of kiwifruit has been investigated but only in in vitro digestion studies. ...201323394988
kiwifruit, mucins, and the gut barrier.kiwifruit has long been regarded in china, where it originated from, for its health properties and particularly in relation to digestion and general gut health. there are a number of physical and chemical properties of the fruit, including its dietary fiber content, the presence of raphides, its high water holding capacity and actinidin content, that suggest that kiwifruit may be effective in influencing gut mucin production and thus enhancing the integrity of the gut barrier. the mucous layer, ...201323394987
influence of kiwifruit on protein kiwifruit consumption has long been thought to assist in the digestion of food proteins due to the presence of the proteolytic enzyme actinidin. this chapter reviews the recent findings of both in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of green kiwifruit (which contain the enzyme actinidin) on the gastro- and small-intestinal digestion of a range of common food proteins and protein-rich foods including milk, meat, fish, eggs, legumes, and cereal proteins. clear evidence is provided that g ...201323394986
the bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit.vitamin c is an essential component of the diet for humans, and an adequate intake is important not only for the prevention of scurvy but also to limit the risk of developing chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. to achieve a regular and adequate intake, daily consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables is recommended. the vitamin c content of food varies widely, however, and plasma levels generally reflect the amount consumed, regardless of its origin. kiwifruit are one of the premie ...201323394985
secondary metabolite components of kiwifruit.both green and gold kiwifruit contain high concentrations of vitamin c, and much of the "health story" of kiwifruit involves this vitamin. kiwifruit also contain other compounds that are bioactive and beneficial to health. in this chapter, the secondary metabolite composition of kiwifruit is presented. although there are limited compositional data for kiwifruit published in the scientific literature, the concentrations of 42 compounds have been documented. included are compounds that are often a ...201323394984
kiwifruit consumption favourably affects plasma lipids in a randomised controlled trial in hypercholesterolaemic men.the unique composition of green kiwifruit has the potential to benefit cvd risk. the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of consuming two green kiwifruits daily in conjunction with a healthy diet on plasma lipids and other metabolic markers and to examine response according to apoe genotype in hypercholesterolaemic men. after undergoing a 4-week healthy diet, eighty-five hypercholesterolaemic men (ldl-cholesterol (ldl-c) > 3.0 mmol/l and tag < 3 mmol/l) completed an 8-week ran ...201323151354
kiwifruit allergy across europe: clinical manifestation and ige recognition patterns to kiwifruit allergens.kiwifruit is a common cause of food allergy. symptoms range from mild to anaphylactic reactions.201323141741
lc-ms-ms determination and pharmacokinetic study of the novel anti-tumor candidate drug teoa in rats.2α, 3α, 24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (teoa) is a prominent ursane-type triterpenoid isolated from the root of actinidia deliciosa, which has numerous pharmacological activities. to date, there is no report on the pharmacokinetic characterization of teoa in biological samples. a specific, sensitive and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms-ms) method is reported for the fast assay of teoa in rat plasma. plasma sample preparation was based on liquid-liquid extraction w ...201323139245
changes in the bound aroma profiles of 'hayward' and 'hort16a' kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) during ripening and gc-olfactometry analysis.bound volatiles are recognised as a potential source of aroma compounds in fruits. in this study, the bound volatiles of actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and a. chinensis 'hort16a' were studied at three different ripening stages. the bound volatile content tended to increase as the fruit ripened from under-ripe to ripe, and then decreased in over-ripe fruit. glycosides of (z)-3-hexen-1-ol and hexanol (green-note volatiles) were present in considerable amounts. β-glucosidase activity in 'hayward' an ...201323199989
identification and thermal stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato anthocyanins in aqueous solutions with various ph values and fruit juices.thirteen anthocyanins were identified in the purple-fleshed sweet potato cultivar jihei no. 1. the main anthocyanins were 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside derivatives from cyanidin and peonidin, acylated with p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, or caffeic acid. a unique anthocyanin, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside was also found. the thermal stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato anthocyanins (pspas) followed a first-order kinetics model. aqueous solutions with various ph (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) and fruit j ...201323194545
molecular cloning and characterization of a cdna encoding kiwifruit l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, a key gene of inositol formation.l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (mips; ec is the key enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of myo-inositol, leading to numerous cellular functions. we isolated an open reading frame of actinidia deliciosa mips (admips), which is 1,533 bp long and codes for 510 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 56.3 kda. sequence analysis revealed its high similarity with mips proteins from other organisms. gene expression and enzyme activity were highest in flower and young fruit. tra ...201323065229
maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genomes and complex inheritance of chloroplast genomes in actinidia lind.: evidences from interspecific crosses.the inheritance pattern of chloroplast and mitochondria is a critical determinant in studying plant phylogenetics, biogeography and hybridization. to better understand chloroplast and mitochondrial inheritance patterns in actinidia (traditionally called kiwifruit), we performed 11 artificial interspecific crosses and studied the ploidy levels, morphology, and sequence polymorphisms of chloroplast dna (cpdna) and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of parents and progenies. sequence analysis showed that th ...201323337924
mood improvement in young adult males following supplementation with gold kiwifruit, a high-vitamin c food.enhanced intakes of fruit and vegetables have been associated with improved psychological well-being. we investigated the potential mood-enhancing effects of kiwifruit, a fruit rich in vitamin c and a number of other important micronutrients. young adult males (n 35) were supplemented with either half or two kiwifruit/d for 6 weeks. profile of mood states questionnaires were completed at baseline and following the intervention. no effect on overall mood was observed in the half a kiwifruit/d gro ...201325191573
in silico identification of ige-binding epitopes of osmotin protein.the identification of b-cell epitopes is an important step to study the antigen- antibody interactions for diagnosis and therapy. the present study aimed to identify b- cell epitopes of osmotin using bioinformatic tools and further modify these regions to study the allergenic property. b-cell epitopes were predicted based on amino acid physicochemical properties. three single point mutations m1, m2, and m3 and a multiple point mutant (m123) were selected to disrupt the ige binding. these mutants ...201323349964
kiwifruit allergies.while kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value, a small proportion of the world's population appears to be allergic to the fruit. ige-mediated kiwifruit allergy is often associated with birch and grass pollinosis as well as with latex allergy. isolated allergy to kiwifruit is also relatively common and often severe. eleven green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) allergens recognized to date are termed as act d 1 through act d 11. bet v 1 homologue (act d 8) and profilin (act d 9 ...201323394996
effects of kiwifruit on innate and adaptive immunity and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections.maintenance of an adequate and properly regulated immune system is essential for health and well-being. components in food may modulate immune responses in a positive way (immunonutrition), and some of these components are present in kiwifruit. kiwifruit contains vitamin c, carotenoids, polyphenols, and dietary fiber, and these are all potentially beneficial to the immune system. research that has contributed to our understanding of the beneficial effects that kiwifruit may have on immune respon ...201323394995
kiwifruit as a modulator of dna damage and dna repair.kiwifruit are a rich source of vitamin c and other antioxidants. we have demonstrated the capacity of kiwifruit to protect cellular dna against oxidative damage in single-dose human experiments and in longer term supplementation trials using the comet assay to measure both dna-strand breaks and oxidized bases. enhanced antioxidant status following a single large dose of kiwifruit is shown by an increased resistance of lymphocyte dna to oxidation by h(2)o(2)in vitro. after 3 weeks (or more) of su ...201323394994
cardioprotective properties of kiwifruit.beneficial effects of consumption of fruit and vegetables on the cardiovascular system have been reported. fruit and vegetable components affect the cardiovascular system in both antioxidant and nonantioxidant ways. the mechanisms of their actions are, however, still not well understood. the compounds present in fruits and vegetables may function individually or in concert to protect lipoproteins and vascular cells from oxidation or by other mechanisms such as reducing plasma lipid levels, high ...201323394993
dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of three cytokinin compounds in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.the paper presents a novel approach for the determination of three cytokinin compounds, thidiazuron (tdz), 1,3-diphenylurea (1,3-dpu) and forchlorfenuron (cppu), in fruit and vegetables samples using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (lc-esi-tofms). analytes were extracted from the sample matrix with ethanol, and the extract, after dilution with water, was submitted to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (dllme). once acetonitrile and 1, ...201324148418
clonal differences in antioxidant activity and bioactive constituents of hardy kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) and its year-to-year variability.hardy kiwifruit (actinidia arguta) is a new species, commercially grown in recent years. total phenolics (tpc), vitamin c (taa) content, antioxidant activity (aa) and their year-to-year variability in seven hardy kiwifruit clones were evaluated. tpc was determined using the folin-ciocalteu reagent assay. taa was estimated by determination of l-ascorbic acid and l-dehydroascorbic acid levels using high-performance liquid chromatography. aa was measured using diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (dpph), 2,2 ...201323070974
expression patterns and promoter characteristics of the gene encoding actinidia deliciosa l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase involved in the response to light and abiotic stresses.the gene encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (gpp) plays a central role in ascorbic acid (asa) biosynthesis in plants. here, we report asa contents, gpp expression, and functioning of its promoter in response to light, exogenous stress-signalling hormones, or abiotic stresses in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). to identify the upstream region of gpp required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of promoter deletion derivatives. each construct was analyzed by agrobacterium-medi ...201323070919
the effects of fruit maturation, delayed storage and ethylene treatment on the incidence of low-temperature breakdown of 'hayward' kiwifruit.low-temperature breakdown (ltb), a disorder inducing quality loss, during and after cold storage of 'hayward' kiwifruit was investigated. harvested kiwifruits during fruit maturation or after delayed storage (ds) at 20 °c for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks and 1 µl l⁻¹ ethylene treatment for 24 h were stored at -0.5 °c for 24 weeks and additional ripening at 20 °c for 5 days. fruit quality indices and ltb incidence and severity were determined before and after treatments.201322777890
structural characterization of the thermally tolerant pectin methylesterase purified from citrus sinensis fruit and its gene sequence.despite the longstanding importance of the thermally tolerant pectin methylesterase (tt-pme) activity in citrus juice processing and product quality, the unequivocal identification of the protein and its corresponding gene has remained elusive. tt-pme was purified from sweet orange [ citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] finisher pulp (8.0 mg/1.3 kg tissue) with an improved purification scheme that provided 20-fold increased enzyme yield over previous results. structural characterization of electrophoret ...201324328246
light and abiotic stresses regulate the expression of gdp-l-galactose phosphorylase and levels of ascorbic acid in two kiwifruit genotypes via light-responsive and stress-inducible cis-elements in their promoters.ascorbic acid (asa) plays an essential role in plants by protecting cells against oxidative damage. gdp-l-galactose phosphorylase (ggp) is the first committed gene for asa synthesis. our research examined asa levels, regulation of ggp gene expression, and how these are related to abiotic stresses in two species of actinidia (kiwifruit). when leaves were subjected to continuous darkness or light, aba or meja, heat, or a hypoxic environment, we found some correlation between the relative levels of ...201323775440
low-temperature conditioning induces chilling tolerance in 'hayward' kiwifruit by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and regulating en-dogenous hormones understand the mechanisms leading to the enhanced chilling tolerance of kiwifruit by low-temperature conditioning (ltc, 12 °c for 3 days), this study investigated the effect of ltc on chilling tolerance and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities and endogenous hormones.201323633231
effects of kivia powder on gut health in patients with occasional constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluate the efficacy of kivia powder on supporting overall gut health through the relief of the discomfort of occasional constipation.201323758673
isolation and developmental expression analysis of l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase in four actinidia species.myo-inositol (mi) is an important polyol involved in cellular signal transduction, auxin storage, osmotic regulation, and membrane formation. it also serves as a precursor for the production of pinitol, ascorbic acid, and members of the raffinose family. the first committed step for mi formation is catalyzed by l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (mips). we isolated mips cdna sequences from actinidia eriantha, actinidia rufa, and actinidia arguta and compared them with that of actinidia delicios ...201324184456
characterisation of the polyphenol content in the kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) exocarp for the calibration of a fruit-sorting optical sensor.kiwifruit contains high amounts of anti-oxidants beneficial to health. its quality is influenced by ripening time, genotype, cultivation techniques, climate and storage conditions after harvest.201323716352
in vitro toxicity of silver nanoparticles to kiwifruit pollen exhibits peculiar traits beyond the cause of silver ion release.the vast use of silver nanoparticles (agnps) mandates thorough investigation of their impact on biosystems at various levels. the cytotoxicity of pvp coated-agnps to pollen, the aploid male gametophyte of higher plants, has been assessed here for the first time. the negative effects of agnps include substantial decreases in pollen viability and performance, specific ultrastructural alterations, early changes in calcium content, and unbalance of redox status. ag⁺ released from agnps damaged polle ...201323702492
volume-based pollen size analysis: an advanced method to assess somatic and gametophytic ploidy in flowering plants.pollen size is often used as a biological parameter to estimate the ploidy and viability of mature pollen grains. in general, pollen size quantification is performed one- or two-dimensionally using image-based diameter measurements. as these approaches are elaborate and time consuming, alternative approaches that enable a quick, reliable analysis of pollen size are highly relevant for plant research. in this study, we present the volume-based particle size analysis technique as an alternative me ...201323686220
hydraulic resistance of developing actinidia fruit.xylem flows into most fruits decline as the fruit develop, with important effects on mineral and carbohydrate accumulation. it has been hypothesized that an increase in xylem hydraulic resistance (rt) contributes to this process. this study examined changes in rt that occur during development of the berry of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa), identified the region within the fruit where changes were occurring, and tested whether a decrease in irradiance during fruit development caused an increase ...201323658370
metabolic analysis of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berries from extreme genotypes reveals hallmarks for fruit starch metabolism.tomato, melon, grape, peach, and strawberry primarily accumulate soluble sugars during fruit development. in contrast, kiwifruit (actinidia lindl. spp.) and banana store a large amount of starch that is released as soluble sugars only after the fruit has reached maturity. by integrating metabolites measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, enzyme activities measured by a robot-based platform, and transcript data sets during fruit development of actinidia deliciosa genotypes contrasting i ...201324058160
extremely low doses of arsenic affect in vitro pollen germination.this study deals with the effects of extremely low doses or high dilutions of pharmacological compounds on in vitro pollen germination of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).201324030446
tapetum and middle layer control male fertility in actinidia deliciosa.dioecism characterizes many crop species of economic value, including kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). kiwifruit male sterility occurs at the microspore stage. the cell walls of the microspores and the pollen of the male-sterile and male-fertile flowers, respectively, differ in glucose and galactose levels. in numerous plants, pollen formation involves normal functioning and degeneration timing of the tapetum, with calcium and carbohydrates provided by the tapetum essential for male fertility. t ...201323965617
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