PMID(sorted descending)
antibacterial activity of essential oils mixture against psa.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit. it is very difficult to treat pandemic disease. the prolonged treatment with antibiotics, has resulted in failure and resistance and alternatives to conventional antimicrobial therapy are needed. the aim of our study was to analyse the phenotypic characteristics of psa, identify new substances from natural source i.e. essential oils (eos) able to contain the kiwifruit canker and investigate their pote ...201625782920
identification, synthesis, and safety assessment of forchlorfenuron (1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea) and its metabolites in kiwifruits.identification and evaluation of safety of forchlorfenuron ((1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea)), 1, metabolites after biotransformation in kiwifruit is the objective of this study. to elucidate properties of these metabolites, liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (lc-it-tof-ms) was applied, with metid solution and formula predictor software in positive mode. cytotoxicity of forchlorfenuron and its metabolites were tested through sulforhodamine b assays agains ...201525757044
tackling the bottleneck in bacterial signal transduction research: high-throughput identification of signal molecules.signal transduction processes are typically initiated by the interaction of signal molecules with sensor domains. the current lack of information on the signal molecules that feed into regulatory circuits forms a major bottleneck that hampers the understanding of regulatory processes. mckellar et al. report a high-throughput approach for the identification of signal molecules, which is based on thermal shift assays of recombinant sensor domains in the absence and presence of compounds from comme ...201525708679
a high-throughput screen for ligand binding reveals the specificities of three amino acid chemoreceptors from pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.chemoreceptors play a central role in chemotaxis, allowing bacteria to detect chemical gradients and bias their swimming behavior in order to navigate toward favorable environments. the genome of the kiwifruit pathogen, pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) strain nz-v13 encodes 43 predicted chemoreceptors, none of which has been characterized. we developed a high-throughput fluorescence-based thermal shift assay for identifying the signal molecules that are recognized by a given chemorecept ...201525656450
natural variation in monoterpene synthesis in kiwifruit: transcriptional regulation of terpene synthases by nac and ethylene-insensitive3-like transcription factors.two kiwifruit (actinidia) species with contrasting terpene profiles were compared to understand the regulation of fruit monoterpene production. high rates of terpinolene production in ripe actinidia arguta fruit were correlated with increasing gene and protein expression of a. arguta terpene synthase1 (aatps1) and correlated with an increase in transcript levels of the 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (dxs). actinidia chinensis terpene sy ...201525649633
molecular characterization of allergens in raw and processed kiwifruit.the prevalence of allergy to kiwifruit is increasing in europe since the last two decades. different proteins have been identified as kiwifruit allergens; even though with geographic differences, act d 1, a cysteine protease protein of 30 kda, and act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein of 24 kda, are normally considered the most important. the aim of this study was (i) to identify at molecular level the sensitization pattern in a group of well-characterized patients allergic to kiwifruit and (ii) to ...201525640609
in the solanaceae, a hierarchy of bhlhs confer distinct target specificity to the anthocyanin regulatory complex.the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is regulated by a transcription factor complex consisting of an r2r3 myb, a bhlh, and a wd40. although r2r3 mybs belonging to the anthocyanin-activating class have been identified in many plants, and their role well elucidated, the subgroups of bhlh implicated in anthocyanin regulation seem to be more complex. it is not clear whether these potential bhlh partners are biologically interchangeable with redundant functions, or even if heterodimers are involved. ...201525628328
yeast surface display is a novel tool for the rapid immunological characterization of plant-derived food allergens.high-throughput characterization of allergens relies often on phage display technique which is subject to the limitations of a prokaryotic expression system. substituting the phage display platform with a yeast surface display could lead to fast immunological characterization of allergens with complex structures. our objective was to evaluate the potential of yeast surface display for characterization of plant-derived food allergens. the coding sequence of mature actinidin (act d 1) was cloned i ...201525537533
the effect of kiwifruit consumption on blood pressure in subjects with moderately elevated blood pressure: a randomized, controlled study.kiwifruit contains bioactive substances that may lower blood pressure (bp) and improve endothelial function. we examined the effects of adding kiwifruit to the usual diet on 24-h ambulatory bp, office bp and endothelial function.201525483553
contact urticaria on eczematous skin by kiwifruit allergy. in vivo component-resolved diagnosis.kiwifruit allergy has been responsible for a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild reactions, such as localised oral symptoms, to severe systemic symptoms, such as anaphylaxis. no cases of isolated contact urticaria (icu) due to ige-mediated allergy to kiwifruit have been reported in the literature so far. here we describe the first three cases of icu due to kiwi and we hypothesise about a kiwifruit allergen not described yet.201525456531
ozone-induced kiwifruit ripening delay is mediated by ethylene biosynthesis inhibition and cell wall dismantling regulation.ozone treatments are used to preserve quality during cold storage of commercially important fruits due to its ethylene oxidizing capacity and its antimicrobial attributes. to address whether or not ozone also modulates ripening by directly affecting fruit physiology, kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. 'hayward') were stored in very low ethylene atmosphere at 0°c (95% rh) in air (control) or in the presence of ozone (0.3μll(-1)) for 2 or 4 months and subsequently ripened at 20°c (90% rh) for up t ...201425443835
ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. however, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. we engineered e. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) from pseudomonas syringae. efe converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. the production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. the resu ...201425393892
hydrogen sulfide extends the postharvest life and enhances antioxidant activity of kiwifruit during storage.exogenous hydrogen sulfide (h₂s) treatment can prolong the postharvest life of cut flowers and strawberries. little work has been done to explore the effects of h₂s on respiratory climacteric fruits such as kiwifruits during storage. therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of h₂s treatment at concentrations of 15–1000 µmol l⁻¹ on the postharvest life of kiwifruit during 25 °c storage and the role of h₂s in regulating the antioxidant defensive system of kiwifruit.201425328925
molecular characteristics of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in korea and a multiplex pcr assay for haplotype differentiation.the molecular features of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in korea were compared with strains isolated in japan and italy. sequencing of eight p. syringae pv. actinidiae and three p. syringae pv. theae strains revealed a total of 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 4,818 bp of the concatenated alignment of nine genes. a multiplex pcr assay was developed for the detection of p. syringae pv. actinidiae and for the specific detection of recent haplotype strains other than ...201425288991
proteomic analysis of mg132-treated germinating pollen reveals expression signatures associated with proteasome inhibition.chemical inhibition of the proteasome has been previously found to effectively impair pollen germination and tube growth in vitro. however, the mediators of these effects at the molecular level are unknown. by performing 2de proteomic analysis, 24 differentially expressed protein spots, representing 14 unique candidate proteins, were identified in the pollen of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) germinated in the presence of the mg132 proteasome inhibitor. qpcr analysis revealed that 11 of these pr ...201425265451
the impact of cold storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'hort16a' kiwifruit.fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. in this study, the effects of cold storage on volatile ester levels of 'hort16a' (actinidia chinensis planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. cold storage (1.5°c) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl h ...201525236191
[agrobacterium-mediated transformation of ljamp2 gene into 'red sun' kiwifruit and its molecular identification].bacterial canker caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is one of the most important diseases of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) and leads to considerable yield losses. in order to obtain transgenic plants with resistance for 'red sun' kiwifruit to canker disease, a non-specific lipid transfer protein-like antimicrobial protein gene (ljamp2) from motherwort (leonurus japonicus) was introduced into 'red sun' kiwifruit through agrobacterium-mediated transformation. after two days of co-cult ...201425212010
effects of topical kiwifruit on healing of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcer.kiwifruit (actindia deliciosa) is demonstrated to have antibacterial and pro-angiogenic effects. it also contains proteolytic enzymes (actinidin) and ascorbic acid. in this study, the effects of kiwifruit on neuropathic diabetic foot ulcer healing in clinical settings were evaluated.201425197293
mood improvement in young adult males following supplementation with gold kiwifruit, a high-vitamin c food.enhanced intakes of fruit and vegetables have been associated with improved psychological well-being. we investigated the potential mood-enhancing effects of kiwifruit, a fruit rich in vitamin c and a number of other important micronutrients. young adult males (n 35) were supplemented with either half or two kiwifruit/d for 6 weeks. profile of mood states questionnaires were completed at baseline and following the intervention. no effect on overall mood was observed in the half a kiwifruit/d gro ...201325191573
bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit in non-smoking males: determination of 'healthy' and 'optimal' intakes.vitamin c is an essential nutrient in humans and must be obtained through the diet. the aim of this study was to determine vitamin c uptake in healthy volunteers after consuming kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis var. hort. 16a), and to determine the amount of fruit required to raise plasma vitamin c to 'healthy' (i.e. >50 µmol/l) and 'optimal' or saturating levels (i.e. >70 µmol/l). leucocyte and urinary vitamin c levels were also determined. a total of fifteen male university students with below a ...201225191543
high-temperature inhibition of biosynthesis and transportation of anthocyanins results in the poor red coloration in red-fleshed actinidia plants, the role of anthocyanins trafficking in response to high temperature has been rarely studied, and therefore poorly understood. red-fleshed kiwifruit has stimulated the world kiwifruit industry owing to its appealing color. however, fruit in warmer climates have been found to have poor flesh coloration, and the factors responsible for this response remain elusive. partial correlation and regression analysis confirmed that accumulative temperatures above 25 °c (t25) was one of the domin ...201525143057
crystal structure of kiwellin, a major cell-wall protein from kiwifruit.kiwellin is a cysteine-rich, cell wall-associated protein with no known structural homologues. it is one of the most abundant proteins in kiwifruit (actinidia spp.), and has been shown to be recognised by ige of some patients allergic to kiwifruit. cleavage of kiwellin into an n-terminal 4 kda peptide called kissper and a core domain called kith is mediated by actinidin in vitro, and isolation of the kissper peptide from green-fleshed kiwifruit extracts suggested it may result from in vivo proce ...201425093947
manipulation of flavour and aroma compound sequestration and release using a glycosyltransferase with specificity for terpene alcohols.glycosides are an important potential source of aroma and flavour compounds for release as volatiles in flowers and fruit. the production of glycosides is catalysed by udp-glycosyltransferases (ugts) that mediate the transfer of an activated nucleotide sugar to acceptor aglycones. a screen of ugts expressed in kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) identified the gene adgt4 which was highly expressed in floral tissues and whose expression increased during fruit ripening. recombinant adgt4 enzyme glycos ...201425088478
[monolith column solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography in online mode for the determination of forchlorfenuron in fruits].a novel method based on the monolithic column solid-phase extraction (spe) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography in online mode was developed for the determination of trace forchlorfenuron in fruits. the enrichment factor of spe for forchlorfenuron was 214. the method was fully validated. it showed a linear range of 0.01-50.00 microg/l and a limit of detection of 25 ng/l, with the relative standard deviation (rsd) of 3.9%. the proposed method was successfully applied for the determ ...201425069331
prevalence, distribution, and diversity of escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, and salmonella in kiwifruit orchards and processing plants.the aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and diversity of three foodborne bacteria in kiwifruit orchards and processing plants. fourteen kiwifruit orchards and two processing plants in shaanxi province were visited for sampling in 2012. fruit samples and environmental samples in orchards and plants were taken for isolation of escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, and salmonella. all isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection ...201425054781
characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin from fruit of different maturities and extraction methods.studies on gold kiwifruit pectins are limited. in this work, the characterization of pectin isolated from two different stages of maturity of gold kiwifruit, namely early harvested fruit (ehf) and main harvested fruit (mhf) isolated by three methods (acid, water, enzymatic) was carried out. pectins isolated from mhf were higher in galacturonic acid content (52-59% w/w) and weight-average molecular weights (mw, 1.7-3.8 × 10(6)g/mol) compared with ehf pectins (29-49% w/w and 0.2-1.7 × 10(6)g/mol r ...201525053083
determination of forchlorfenuron in fruits by solid phase or quechers extraction and lc-uv or lc/ms/ms.forchlorfenuron, n-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-n'-phenylurea, is a plant growth regulator used to increase the size of kiwifruit, apples, table grapes, and peaches and to promote increased yields of potatoes, rice, and wheat. this study reports the comparison of the performances of two extraction methods [quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (quechers) and spe] and two analytical methods (lc-uv and a lc/ms/ms) when determining forchlorfenuron in apples, kiwis, and grapes. both extraction m ...201425051647
influence of green and gold kiwifruit on indices of large bowel function in healthy rats.the effects of kiwifruit on large bowel health were investigated in healthy rats. four-week old sprague-dawley rats were given diets containing 10% homogenized green kiwifruit, gold kiwifruit or 10% glucose solution (control) over 4 or 6 wk. green kiwifruit increased the fecal output compared to control. growth of certain bacterial species in cecum was influenced by both green and gold kiwifruit. a significant increase in cecal lachnospiraceae in rats fed the green kiwifruit diet was observed at ...201425048562
the effect of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) cysteine protease actinidin on the occludin tight junction network in t84 intestinal epithelial cells.actinidin, a kiwifruit cysteine protease, is a marker allergen for genuine sensitization to this food allergen source. inhalatory cysteine proteases have the capacity for disruption of tight junctions (tjs) enhancing the permeability of the bronchial epithelium. no such properties have been reported for allergenic food proteases so far. the aim was to determine the effect of actinidin on the integrity of t84 monolayers by evaluating its action on the tj protein occludin. immunoblot and immunoflu ...201425042511
detailed characterization of act d 12 and act d 13 from kiwi seeds: implication in ige cross-reactivity with peanut and tree nuts.act d 12 (11s globulin) and act d 13 (2s albumin) are two novel relevant allergens from kiwi seeds that might be useful to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and the management of kiwifruit-allergic patients.201425041438
act d 12 and act d 13: two novel, masked, relevant allergens in kiwifruit seeds. 201424990823
a framework to gauge the epidemic potential of plant pathogens in environmental reservoirs: the example of kiwifruit economically important diseases on crops and forest trees emerge recurrently. an understanding of where new pathogenic lines come from and how they evolve is fundamental for the deployment of accurate surveillance methods. we used kiwifruit bacterial canker as a model to assess the importance of potential reservoirs of new pathogenic lineages. the current kiwifruit canker epidemic is at least the fourth outbreak of the disease on kiwifruit caused by pseudomonas syringae in the mere 50 years ...201524986268
overexpression of the kiwifruit svp3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.svp-like mads domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. previously, four svp genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. kiwifruit svp3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it w ...201424948678
structure characterization and anti-tyrosinase mechanism of polymeric proanthocyanidins fractionated from kiwifruit provide information on the structure, activity, and structure-activity relationship of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) pericarp proanthocyanidins (pas), they were separated into three fractions. these fractions were further identified by maldi-tof ms and hplc-esi-ms methods. spectra results revealed that they are complex mixtures of b-type propelargonidins, procyanidins, procyanidins gallate, and prodelphinidins. enzymatic activity analysis showed that these compounds strongly inhibit the act ...201424939165
application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. the juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. to process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. the membranes are being used for these purposes. these processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. membrane separation ...201524915352
isolation and partial characterization of bacteriophages infecting pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker.the phytopathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit. in the last years, it has caused severe economic losses to actinidia spp. cultivations, mainly in italy and new zealand. conventional strategies adopted did not provide adequate control of infection. phage therapy may be a realistic and safe answer to the urgent need for novel antibacterial agents aiming to control this bacterial pathogen. in this study, we described the isolation an ...201424810619
pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the aegean region, turkey.the purpose of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the aegean region of turkey. a total of 1423 samples of fresh fruit and vegetables were collected from 2010 to 2012. the samples were analysed to determine the concentrations of 186 pesticide residues. the analyses utilized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (uplc/ms/ms) and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (gc-ecd) confirmed by gas chro ...201424799252
programmed cell death in kiwifruit stigmatic arms and its relationship to the effective pollination period and the progamic phase.kiwifruit is a crop with a highly successful reproductive performance, which is impaired by the short effective pollination period of female flowers. this study investigates whether the degenerative processes observed in both pollinated and non-pollinated flowers after anthesis may be considered to be programmed cell death (pcd).201424782437
do sun- versus shade-grown kiwifruits perform differently upon storage? an overview of fruit maturity and nutraceutical properties of whole and fresh-cut produce.fresh-cut produce represents a good method to save about 25% of the kiwifruit not useful to meet the fresh fruit-marketing standard due to improper size and shape. for that reason, fresh-cut kiwifruit has been extensively studied. however, the comprehension of the influence of some aspects of cultivation might further increase the shelf life as well as the nutritional values of that fruit. this study explored the hypothesis that kiwifruits grown fully exposed to sunlight or partially shaded diff ...201424762186
triterpene acids from apple peel inhibit lepidopteran larval midgut lipases and larval growth.fruit extracts from apple, kiwifruit, feijoa, boysenberry, and blueberry were screened for the presence of lipase inhibitory compounds against lepidopteran larval midgut crude extracts. from 120 extracts, six showed significant inhibition with an extract from the peel of malus × domestica cv. "big red" showing highest levels of inhibition. because this sample was the only apple peel sample in the initial screen, a survey of peels from seven apple cultivars was undertaken and showed that, despite ...201424753088
variation in gastric ph may determine kiwifruit's effect on functional gi disorder: an in vitro study.consumption of kiwifruit is reported to relieve symptoms of functional gastrointestinal (gi) disorder. the effect may be related to the proteases in kiwifruit. this in vitro study aimed to measure protein hydrolysis due to kiwifruit protease under gastric and duodenal conditions. a sequence of experiments incubated meat protein, with and without kiwifruit, with varying concentrations of pepsin and hydrochloric acid, at 37 °c for 60 min over the ph range 1.3-6.2 to simulate gastric digestion. duo ...201424732018
pre-anthesis cppu low dosage application increases 'hayward' kiwifruit weight without affecting the other qualitative and nutritional 2008, in central italy, a low dosage of cppu solution, 4 μl l(-1) (6 hl/ha), was sprayed on the canopy of vines of 'hayward' kiwifruit, at the "break of sepals", about one week before anthesis, to study its effects on fruit weight/size and on qualitative and nutritional characteristics. at harvest, cppu, with respect to control, significantly increased the fresh weight by about 12% (+12.6 g fruit(-1)) and consequently the yield per vine, without affecting fruit shape, firmness, dry matter (%) ...201424731335
restriction-site variation of pcr-amplified chloroplast dna regions and its implication for the evolution and taxonomy of actinidia.twenty six restriction sites from five pcr-amplified chloroplast dna sequences (rbcl, psba, rpob, and two spacers flanking the trnl gene) were mapped and analysed in 20 actinidia taxa, encompassing all four sections into which the genus is divided. at least three species out of the 20 examined have been found to have originated through natural interspecific hybridisation on the basis of the discrepancy between morphological and biochemical traits and the cpdna profiles of pairs of species. a wid ...199824710877
[establishment of high frequency regeneration via leaf explants of 'red sun' kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis)].a high efficient in vitro regeneration protocol was developed from leaf explants of the female 'red sun' kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) and the multiplication coefficient and rooting rate of adventitious buds were also optimized. this method does not require formation of callus tissues which leads to somaclonal variations. the results show that the adventitious buds developing directly from explants tissue were noticed after 30 d of culture. the maximum regeneration frequency of adventitious bu ...201324701825
daily kiwifruit consumption did not improve blood pressure and markers of cardiovascular function in men with hypercholesterolemia.increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a key lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. kiwifruit has previously been shown to have favorable effects on blood pressure (bp), likely through inhibiting angiotensin i-converting enzyme activity. we hypothesized that the replacement of 2 fruit servings in a healthy diet with 2 green kiwifruit a day would significantly improve bp and other markers of cardiovascular function, including heart rate, stroke volume, card ...201424655490
alt a 1 from alternaria interacts with pr5 thaumatin-like proteins.alt a 1 is a protein found in alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. we found that spores of alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. nevertheless, the expression of alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi pr5. pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way tha ...201424642375
hydrogen-rich water delays postharvest ripening and senescence of kiwifruit.the effect of hydrogen-rich water (hrw) on prolonging the shelf life of kiwifruit and possible underlying mechanisms were assessed. our results revealed that hrw (30%, 80%, and 100%) displayed different effects in inhibiting the rot of kiwifruit. among these treatments, 80% hrw had the most significant effect by decreasing the rot incidence and preserving the firmness of kiwifruit. this conclusion was supported by the fact that 80% hrw treatment could effectively alleviate pectin solubilization ...201424629944
synergistic defensive function of raphides and protease through the needle effect.raphides, needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals in tissues of many plants, have been thought to play defensive roles against herbivores without detailed bioassays for their defensive roles and modes of function using purified raphides. in order to examine the defensive roles and modes of function of raphides in a clear experimental system, we performed bioassays giving the larvae of the eri silkmoth, samia ricini (saturniidae), leaves of their host plant, the castor oil plant, ricinus communis ...201424621613
proteolytic activities of kiwifruit actinidin (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) on different fibrous and globular proteins: a comparative study of actinidin with papain.actinidin, a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteases, is abundant in kiwifruit. to date, a few studies have been provided to investigate the proteolytic activity and substrate specificity of actinidin on native proteins. herein, the proteolytic activity of actinidin was compared to papain on several different fibrous and globular proteins under neutral, acidic and basic conditions. the digested samples were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sd ...201424604128
proteomic analysis of the actinidia deliciosa leaf apoplast during biotrophic colonization by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.for plant pathogenic bacteria, adaptation to the apoplast is considered as key in the establishment of the parasitic lifestyle. pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa), the causal agent of the bacterial canker of kiwifruit, uses leaves as the entry site to colonize plants. through a combined approach based on 2-de, nanolc-esi-lit-ms/ms and quantitative pcr, we investigated psa colonization of the actinidia deliciosa "hayward" leaf apoplast during the bacterial biotrophic phase. a total of 58 d ...201424530627
the kiwifruit emerging pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae does not produce ahls but possesses three luxr solos.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) is an emerging phytopathogen causing bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit plants worldwide. quorum sensing (qs) gene regulation plays important roles in many different bacterial plant pathogens. in this study we analyzed the presence and possible role of n-acyl homoserine lactone (ahl) quorum sensing in psa. it was established that psa does not produce ahls and that a typical complete luxi/r qs system is absent in psa strains. psa however possesses thre ...201424498215
identification of bacteriophages for biocontrol of the kiwifruit canker phytopathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a reemerging pathogen which causes bacterial canker of kiwifruit (actinidia sp.). since 2008, a global outbreak of p. syringae pv. actinidiae has occurred, and in 2010 this pathogen was detected in new zealand. the economic impact and the development of resistance in p. syringae pv. actinidiae and other pathovars against antibiotics and copper sprays have led to a search for alternative management strategies. we isolated 275 phages, 258 of which were active ...201424487530
modeling the effects of light and sucrose on in vitro propagated plants: a multiscale system analysis using artificial intelligence technology.plant acclimation is a highly complex process, which cannot be fully understood by analysis at any one specific level (i.e. subcellular, cellular or whole plant scale). various soft-computing techniques, such as neural networks or fuzzy logic, were designed to analyze complex multivariate data sets and might be used to model large such multiscale data sets in plant biology.201424465829
an extremely rare trigger of kounis syndrome: actinidia chinensis. 201424456873
dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (ge). in this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on ge and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (spi), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as t ...201424431326
in vitro antibacterial activity of cysteine protease inhibitor from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).the need for replacing traditional pesticides with alternative agents for the management of agricultural pathogens is rising worldwide. in this study, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cpi), 11 kda in size, was purified from green kiwifruit to homogeneity. we examined the growth inhibition of three plant pathogenic gram-negative bacterial strains by kiwi cpi and attempted to elucidate the potential mechanism of the growth inhibition. cpi influenced the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria agrobacte ...201224426085
hypolipidaemic foods in china.with the changes in dietary pattern in china, in recent years, hyperlipidaemia has become an important problem in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases, especially the cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. from studies on laboratory animals and people with hyperlipidaemia, a number of hypolipidaemic foods and beverages have been identified, of relevance to traditional chinese food culture. their absence from the diet may, in part account for the increasing prevalence of hyperlipidaemia i ...199624394619
survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin c, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). for comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. over ...201424360417
structural characterization of the thermally tolerant pectin methylesterase purified from citrus sinensis fruit and its gene sequence.despite the longstanding importance of the thermally tolerant pectin methylesterase (tt-pme) activity in citrus juice processing and product quality, the unequivocal identification of the protein and its corresponding gene has remained elusive. tt-pme was purified from sweet orange [ citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] finisher pulp (8.0 mg/1.3 kg tissue) with an improved purification scheme that provided 20-fold increased enzyme yield over previous results. structural characterization of electrophoret ...201324328246
establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality rna from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops.strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. this work describes the successful modification of a total rna extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total rna from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) amplification of gapdh housekeeping gene from iso ...201424321691
meiotic chromosome pairing behaviour of natural tetraploids and induced autotetraploids of actinidia chinensis.non-preferential chromosome pairing was identified in tetraploid actinidia chinensis and a higher mean multivalent frequency in pollen mother cells was found in colchine-induced tetraploids of a. chinensis compared with naturally occurring tetraploids. diploid and tetraploid actinidia chinensis are used for the development of kiwifruit cultivars. diploid germplasm can be exploited in a tetraploid breeding programme via unreduced (2n) gametes and chemical-induced chromosome doubling of diploid cu ...201424306317
a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic bioavailability study of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin c.kiwifruit are a rich source of vitamin c and also contain numerous phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, which may influence the bioavailability of kiwifruit-derived vitamin c. the aim of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin c using a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic study design. nine non-smoking males (aged 18-35 years) received either a chewable tablet (200 mg vitamin c) or the equivalent dose from gold kiwifruit (actinidia ch ...201324284610
actinidin from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.the present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. for this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). ...201424252432
effects of daidzein and kiwifruit on bone mineral density and equol production in ovariectomised this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of daidzein (dz) and kiwifruit on bone and equol production in ovariectomised (ovx) rats. female sprague-dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups: sham operated, ovx control, ovx fed 0.1% dz-supplemented diet (ovx + dz), ovx fed 0.1% dz and green kiwifruit (grk)-supplemented diet (ovx + dz + grk) and ovx fed 0.1% dz and gold kiwifruit (gok)-supplemented diet (ovx + dz + gok). there were no significant differences in whole bod ...201424251973
photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) leaves: effect of light during growth on photoinhibition and recovery.photoinhibition of photosynthesis was induced in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c. f. liang et a. r. ferguson) leaves grown at two photon flux densities (pfds) of 700 and 1300 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) in a controlled environment, by exposing the leaves to pfd between 1000 and 2000 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) at temperatures between 10 and 25°c; recovery from photoinhibition was followed at the same range of temperatures and at a pfd between 0 and 500 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1). in either case the time-cour ...198824221873
increase of rooting ability in the woody species kiwi (actinidia deliciosa a. chev.) by transformation with agrobacterium rhizogenes rol genes.the woody species kiwi (actinidia deliciosa a. chev.), a male and late flowering clone of the cv hayward, has been transformed by a t-dna fragment encompassing rol a, b, c genes of a. rhizogenes. transgenic plants, regenerated from leaf disc callus, showed the typical "hairy root" phenotype as described in herbaceous species. explants from these plants (both leaf discs or 3 to 4 node leafy microcuttings) showed an increased ability to produce roots. since root formation is one of the limiting fa ...199124221659
agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of kiwi fruit.genetically transformed kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa) plants were obtained from hypocotyl and stem segments co-cultured with agrobacterium tumefaciens strain eha101 harboring a binary vector, plan411 or plan421, which contained the neomycin phosphotransferase ii (nptii) gene and the β-glucuronidase (gus) gene. after co-culturing with the a. tumefaciens, the hypocotyl or stem segments were cultured on a selection medium containing 25μg/ml kanamycin and 500μg/ml claforan. after one month in cul ...199124221658
photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) leaves: recovery and its dependence on temperature.recovery of photoinhibition in intact leaves of shade-grown kiwifruit was followed at temperatures between 10° and 35° c. photoinhibition was initially induced by exposing the leaves for 240 min to a photon flux density (pfd) of 1 500 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) at 20° c. in additional experiments to determine the effect of extent of photoinhibition on recovery, this period of exposure was varied between 90 and 400 min. the kinetics of recovery were followed by chlorophyll fluorescence at 77k. recovery was ...198824221471
photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) leaves: effect of temperature.photoinhibition of photosynthesis was induced in attached leaves of kiwifruit grown in natural light not exceeding a photon flux density (pfd) of 300 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1), by exposing them to a pfd of 1500 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1). the temperature was held constant, between 5 and 35° c, during the exposure to high light. the kinetics of photoinhibition were measured by chlorophyll fluorescence at 77k and the photon yield of photosynthetic o2 evolution. photoinhibition occurred at all temperatures but was gr ...198824221470
a genome-specific repeat sequence from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa).six members of a family of moderately repetitive dna sequences from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) have been cloned and characterized. the repeat family is composed of elements that have a unit length of 463 bp, are highly methylated, occur in tandem arrays of at least 50 kb in length, and constitute about 0.5% of the kiwifruit genome. individual elements diverge in nucleotide sequence by up to 5%, which suggests that the repeat sequence is evolving rapidly. homologous sequences ...199124221161
inhibitory effects of kiwifruit extract on human platelet aggregation and plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity.previous human studies suggest that supplementation with kiwifruits lowers several cardiovascular risk factors such as platelet hyperactivity, blood pressure and plasma lipids. the cardiovascular health benefit of fruit and vegetables is usually attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals therein; however, kiwifruit's cardioprotective factors are not well studied. in this study, we investigated the effects of kiwifruit extract on human blood platelet aggregation and plasma angiotensin-co ...201424219176
plant regeneration from protoplasts of long-term callus cultures of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayword (kiwifruit).plant regeneration of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayword was obtained from protoplasts isolated from petiole derived long-term callus cultures. protoplasts were cultured in liquid medium over agarose gelled medium. regenerated green callus, plated on solid medium, could develop shoots that rooted spontaneously in hormone-less medium. the plants obtained are growing fast in soil and present a normal phenotype.199124213668
relationships between the leaf and fruit mineral compositions of actinidia deliciosa var. hayward according to nitrogen and potassium fertilization.the variations of the elements that are examined most frequently during foliar analysis were determined for kiwi as a function of different nitrogen and potassium fertilizer loads. the values recorded demonstrated the existence of a relation between the leaves and the fruit. two groups of elements were identified that exhibited different responses. the first group comprised elements that, in leaves and fruits, presented a different evolution as a function of at least one of the fertilizers. this ...201424206717
somatic embryogenesis in leaves and leaf-derived protoplasts of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayward (kiwifruit).the obtention of embryogenic competence in actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayward is reported. axillary buds from shoots submitted to cold (4°c) and starvation for 1.5 months, developed leaves with embryogenic competence. these leaves, cultured in darkness for 1.5 months on a medium containing zeatin as a sole growth regulator, originated compact structures from which embryos developed. the plating orientation and sectioning of leaves strongly affected the expression of the embryogenic p ...199224203147
photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) leaves: effect of growth temperature on photoinhibition and recovery.intact leaves of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson) from plants grown in a range of controlled temperatures from 15/10 to 30/25°c were exposed to a photon flux density (pfd) of 1500 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) at leaf temperatures between 10 and 25°c. photoinhibition and recovery were followed at the same temperatures and at a pfd of 20 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1), by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence at 77 k and 692 nm, by measuring the photon yield of photosynthetic o2 evolution ...198924201841
the use of transient gus expression to develop an agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer system for kiwifruit.we have monitored transient gus expression 4-5 days after cocultivation of leaf explants with agrobacterium, in order to optimise parameters of cocultivation and so develop an efficient, reproducible gene transfer system in kiwifruit. factors that were important included the health of the explant, the strain of agrobacterium, and the binary vector used. pre-culture of the leaf explants before cocultivation inhibited gene transfer at the cut edge. placing the explants on moist filter paper during ...199324196178
dna dodecaploid plants detected among somaclones of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayward.ninety two adventitious shoots (somaclones) were regenerated from leaf-derived callus of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. hayward. each somaclone was multiplied in vitro through axillary bud culture to produce several individual clonal shoots. a total of 671 shoots were exflasked but only 223 (33%) resulted in rooted plants. these represented 46 of the original 92 somaclones. shoot apices from representative plants of each of the 46 somaclones were analysed by flow cytometry to detect chan ...199524186768
photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) leaves: changes in susceptibility to photoinhibition and recovery during the growth season.kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa (a. chev.) c.f. liang et a.r. ferguson) plants grown in an outdoor enclosure were exposed to the natural conditions of temperature and photon flux density (pfd) over the growing season (october to may). temperatures ranged from 14 to 21° c while the mean monthly maximum pfd varied from 1000 to 1700 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1), although the peak pfds exceeded 2100 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). at intervals, the daily variation in chlorophyll fluorescence at 692 nm and 77k and the ...199224186739
isolation and developmental expression analysis of l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase in four actinidia species.myo-inositol (mi) is an important polyol involved in cellular signal transduction, auxin storage, osmotic regulation, and membrane formation. it also serves as a precursor for the production of pinitol, ascorbic acid, and members of the raffinose family. the first committed step for mi formation is catalyzed by l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (mips). we isolated mips cdna sequences from actinidia eriantha, actinidia rufa, and actinidia arguta and compared them with that of actinidia delicios ...201324184456
oryzalin combined with adventitious regeneration for an efficient chromosome doubling of trihaploid kiwifruit.chromosome doubling of one parthenogenetic trihaploid from cultivar hayward ofactinidia deliciosa was investigated. two antimitotic agents, colchicine and oryzalin, appliedin vitro on shoots and leaves at different concentrations were compared with regard to their efficiency. survival and regeneration rates were determined and ploidy level of regenerated plantlets was evaluated by flow cytometry. differences were observed between the two antimitotic agents depending on whether shoots or leaves w ...199624178664
carbohydrate metabolism during postharvest ripening in kiwifruit.mature fruit (kiwifruit) of actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa (a. chev.), (c.f.) liang and ferguson cv. haywood (chinese gooseberry) were harvested and allowed to ripen in the dark at 20° c. changes were recorded in metabolites, starch and sugars, adenine nucleotides, respiration, and sucrose and glycolytic enzymes during the initiation of starch degradation, net starch-to-sucrose conversion and the respiratory climacteric. the conversion of starch to sucrose was not accompanied by a consistent ...199224178320
microcallus formation from leaf mesophyll protoplasts in the genus actinidia lindl.microcallus (more than 60 cells) formation was obtained from leaf mesophyll protoplasts of 6 species and varieties in the genus actinidia lindl. (kiwifruit). the best results were achieved by using liquid over agarose culture for a. arguta var. arguta, liquid and agarose disc type culture for a. arguta var. purpurea, agarose disc type culture for a. arguta cv. issaï and a. deliciosa and liquid agarose bead type- and disc type culture for a. kolomikta and a. polygama. several factors influencing ...199624178270
the relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.we examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (cps) derived from pineapple (ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of cps from the latex of papaya (carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, heligmosomoides bakeri. both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on h. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little ef ...201524176056
taqib polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (cetp) gene influences lipid responses to the consumption of kiwifruit in hypercholesterolaemic men.fruit and vegetables are key elements of a cardioprotective diet, but benefits on plasma lipids, especially hdl-cholesterol (hdl-c), are inconsistent both within and between studies. in the present study, we investigated whether four selected hdl-c-related polymorphisms (cholesteryl ester transfer protein (cetp) taq1b, apoa1 - 75g/a, hepatic lipase (lipc) - 514c → t, and endothelial lipase (lipg) i24582) modulate the plasma lipid response to a kiwifruit intervention. this is a retrospective anal ...201424176024
immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indigenous and ethnoveterinary medicines.herbs/botanical plants are considered as god's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "sanjeevani booti" described in hindu mythology. the traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional ...201224175417
dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of three cytokinin compounds in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.the paper presents a novel approach for the determination of three cytokinin compounds, thidiazuron (tdz), 1,3-diphenylurea (1,3-dpu) and forchlorfenuron (cppu), in fruit and vegetables samples using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (lc-esi-tofms). analytes were extracted from the sample matrix with ethanol, and the extract, after dilution with water, was submitted to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (dllme). once acetonitrile and 1, ...201324148418
draft genome of the kiwifruit actinidia chinensis.the kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop with remarkably high vitamin c content. here we report the draft genome sequence of a heterozygous kiwifruit, assembled from ~140-fold next-generation sequencing data. the assembled genome has a total length of 616.1 mb and contains 39,040 genes. comparative genomic analysis reveals that the kiwifruit has undergone an ancient hexaploidization event (γ) shared by core eudicots and two more recent whole-g ...201324136039
comparative pathogenicity, biocontrol efficacy, and multilocus sequence typing of verticillium nonalfalfae from the invasive ailanthus altissima and other hosts.verticillium wilt, caused by verticillium nonalfalfae, is currently killing tens of thousands of highly invasive ailanthus altissima trees within the forests in pennsylvania, ohio, and virginia and is being considered as a biological control agent of ailanthus. however, little is known about the pathogenicity and virulence of v. nonalfalfae isolates from other hosts on ailanthus, or the genetic diversity among v. nonalfalfae from confirmed ailanthus wilt epicenters and from locations and hosts n ...201424134719
a biophysical model of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berry development.a model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of fishman and génard used for peach fruit. that model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. first, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit ...201324123250
antimicrobial peptides against pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and erwinia amylovora: chemical synthesis, secondary structure, efficacy, and mechanistic investigations.we report on structurally modified dodecapeptide amides (kyklfkkilkfl-nh2) and two analogs of a hexapeptide amide (wrwycr-nh2) with antibacterial activity against the gram negative pathogens pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) and erwinia amylovora (ea). dodecapeptide minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) ranged from 3.2 to 15.4 µm, with the unmodified peptide being the most potent against both pathogens. the unmodified dodecapeptide also had 32-58% α-helicity in membrane mimetic enviro ...201424122768
inflammatory status modulates plasma lipid and inflammatory marker responses to kiwifruit consumption in hypercholesterolaemic men.kiwifruit has the potential to improve markers of metabolic dysfunction, but the response may be influenced by inflammatory state. we aimed to investigate whether inflammatory state would modulate the effect of consuming two green kiwifruit daily on plasma lipids and markers of inflammation.201424099724
effect of ultrasound treatment on the water state in kiwifruit during osmotic dehydration.the present work investigates how ultrasound pretreatment modulates the effects of osmotic dehydration (od) on the water state and microstructure of kiwifruit. kiwifruit slices (10mm thick) were subjected to ultrasonic waves in a water bath at a frequency of 35 khz for 10, 20 and 30 min. od process was then carried out by immersing the samples in 61.5% sucrose solution equilibrated at 25°c for a contact period of 0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. the partition of water into the cellular tissue stru ...201424099537
a randomized steady-state bioavailability study of synthetic versus natural (kiwifruit-derived) vitamin c.whether vitamin c from wholefoods has equivalent bioavailability to a purified supplement remains unclear. we have previously showed that kiwifruit provided significantly higher serum and tissue ascorbate levels than synthetic vitamin c in a genetically vitamin c-deficient mouse model, suggesting a synergistic activity of the whole fruit. to determine if these results are translatable to humans, we carried out a randomized human study comparing the bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit wit ...201324067392
metabolic analysis of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) berries from extreme genotypes reveals hallmarks for fruit starch metabolism.tomato, melon, grape, peach, and strawberry primarily accumulate soluble sugars during fruit development. in contrast, kiwifruit (actinidia lindl. spp.) and banana store a large amount of starch that is released as soluble sugars only after the fruit has reached maturity. by integrating metabolites measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, enzyme activities measured by a robot-based platform, and transcript data sets during fruit development of actinidia deliciosa genotypes contrasting i ...201324058160
extremely low doses of arsenic affect in vitro pollen germination.this study deals with the effects of extremely low doses or high dilutions of pharmacological compounds on in vitro pollen germination of kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa).201324030446
kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) changes intestinal microbial profile.kiwifruit is high in pectic polysaccharides and dietary fiber. this study aimed to find out how the ingestion of kiwifruit will affect intestinal microbiota populations, namely lactobacillus, bacteroides, clostridium, bifidobacterium, and enterococcus.201223990838
structural and bioinformatic analysis of the kiwifruit allergen act d 11, a member of the family of ripening-related proteins.the allergen act d 11, also known as kirola, is a 17 kda protein expressed in large amounts in ripe green and yellow-fleshed kiwifruit. ten percent of all kiwifruit-allergic individuals produce ige specific for the protein. using x-ray crystallography, we determined the first three-dimensional structures of act d 11, produced from both recombinant expression in escherichia coli and from the natural source (kiwifruit). while act d 11 is immunologically correlated with the birch pollen allergen be ...201323969108
tapetum and middle layer control male fertility in actinidia deliciosa.dioecism characterizes many crop species of economic value, including kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa). kiwifruit male sterility occurs at the microspore stage. the cell walls of the microspores and the pollen of the male-sterile and male-fertile flowers, respectively, differ in glucose and galactose levels. in numerous plants, pollen formation involves normal functioning and degeneration timing of the tapetum, with calcium and carbohydrates provided by the tapetum essential for male fertility. t ...201323965617
genomic analysis of the kiwifruit pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae provides insight into the origins of an emergent plant disease.the origins of crop diseases are linked to domestication of plants. most crops were domesticated centuries--even millennia--ago, thus limiting opportunity to understand the concomitant emergence of disease. kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) is an exception: domestication began in the 1930s with outbreaks of canker disease caused by p. syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) first recorded in the 1980s. based on snp analyses of two circularized and 34 draft genomes, we show that psa is comprised of distinct clade ...201323935484
biochemical and structural characterisation of dehydroquinate synthase from the new zealand kiwifruit actinidia of the novel aspects of kiwifruit is the presence of a high level of quinic acid which contributes to the flavour of the fruit. quinic acid metabolism intersects with the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of primary and secondary aromatic metabolites. the gene encoding the enzyme which catalyses the second step of the shikimate pathway, dehydroquinate synthase (dhqs), from the new zealand kiwifruit actinidia chinensis was identified, cloned and expressed. a ...201323916589
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