PMID(sorted ascending)
localization of the tri- and digalactosyl diglyceride in the thylakoid membrane with serological methods.trigalactosyl diglyceride was isolated from leaves of urtica dioica and characterized by thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and by its fatty acid composition. an antiserum to the trigalactolipid was obtained by immunization of rabbits. by means of inhibition experiments with oligosaccharides and mono- and digalactosyl glycerol it was demonstrated that the antibodies are directed towards the alpha-galactosyl-(1 leads to 6)-alpha-galactosyl-(1 leads to 6)-beta-galactosyl-(1 leads to ...197662464
food induced esterase phenocopies in the snail cepaea nemoralis.hepatopancreatic extracts from the snail cepaea nemoralis, assayed straight from the field, often contain three or four heavily staining esterase zones which migrate to the cathodal end of polyacrylamide disc gels during electrophoresis. previous breeding results showed that the heavily straining zones appeared allelic but to incorporate these multibanded phenotypes, a super gene of five closely linked loci was tentatively proposed. further breeding work again failed to demonstrate multiple zone ...19891061709
[weal-formation by utrica dioica. an intravital reaction? (author's transl)].the question concerning the intravital and postmortal mechanism of urticarial weal after contact with nettles (urtica dioica) was investigated in corpses, animal experiments and voluntary trials. no nettle weals could be induced in corpses or postmortally in experiments with albino rats (witstar strain). when animals were exposed to nettle-stings immediately before decapitation only 2 od 12 rats developed weals postmortally. however, the diameter of such weals was only 30% of that of weals produ ...19751217202
hypoglycemic effect of plants used in mexico as antidiabetics.the objective of this work is to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of 12 "antidiabetic" plants used in mexico. the studies were performed using 27 healthy rabbits with the gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or decoction of the "antidiabetic" plant before the induction of temporary hyperglycemia by subcutaneous injection of 50% dextrose solution (4 ml/kg of weight) at the beginning of the experiment and after 60 min. blood glucose was determined every 60 min for a period of 5 h. tolbu ...19921308793
the mannose-specific plant lectins from cymbidium hybrid and epipactis helleborine and the (n-acetylglucosamine)n-specific plant lectin from urtica dioica are potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus replication in vitro.a series of four mannose(man)-, three n-acetylglucosamine (glcnac)n-, ten n-acetylgalactosamine/galactose(galnac/gal)-, one 5-acetylneuraminic acid (alpha-2,3-gal/galnac)- and one 5-acetylneuroaminic acid(alpha-2,6-gal/gal-nac)-specific plant agglutinins were evaluated for their antiviral activity in vitro. the mannose-specific lectins from the orchid species cymbidium hybrid (ca), epipactis helleborine (eha) and listera ovata (loa) were highly inhibitory to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ( ...19921329650
the gene for stinging nettle lectin (urtica dioica agglutinin) encodes both a lectin and a chitinase.chitin-binding proteins are present in a wide range of plant species, including both monocots and dicots, even though these plants contain no chitin. to investigate the relationship between in vitro antifungal and insecticidal activities of chitin-binding proteins and their unknown endogenous functions, the stinging nettle lectin (urtica dioica agglutinin, uda) cdna was cloned using a synthetic gene as the probe. the nettle lectin cdna clone contained an open reading frame encoding 374 amino aci ...19921375935
mouse t-lymphocyte activation by urtica dioica agglutinin. i.--delineation of two lymphocyte subsets.urtica dioica agglutinin (uda) is a mouse t-lymphocyte-specific mitogen endowed with proliferative characteristics different from cona, the prototypic t-lymphocyte mitogen. in particular, uda induces 2-3-fold-reduced thymidine incorporation as compared to cona. in an attempt to define the basis of this reduced proliferation, we analysed whether uda binds to a unique subset of t lymphocytes or whether it activates only a t-cell subset. cytofluorimetric analysis showed that this lectin binds unifo ...19921439141
mouse t-lymphocyte activation by urtica dioica agglutinin. ii.--original pattern of cell activation and cytokine production induced by uda.urtica dioica agglutinin (uda) is a t-lymphocyte-specific polyclonal activator that differs from cona, the classical mouse t-cell mitogen, by inducing a late and limited proliferation of a distinct t-cell subset recruited among both cd4+ and cd8+ lymphocytes. we investigated the possibility that the particular kinetics may originate from uda-specific activation processes in which the known early mandatory signals were completed only after an extended delay. we report that the time of contact req ...19921439142
a technique for detecting antifungal activity of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.a technique was developed for the detection of antifungal activity of proteins after discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under native conditions. the antifungal activity is detected as growth inhibition zones in a homogeneous fungal lawn, grown in an agar layer spread on top of the polyacrylamide gel. the position of proteins with antifungal activity can be determined on a diffusion blot prepared from the same gel. the technique is illustrated for three antifungal plant proteins, i. ...19911889394
contact urticaria due to the common stinging nettle (urtica dioica)--histological, ultrastructural and pharmacological studies.a frequent cause of contact urticaria is skin exposure to the common stinging nettle (urtica dioica). the urticaria is accompanied by a stinging sensation lasting longer than 12 h. little is known of the cellular and molecular mechanism of stinging-nettle urticaria. after preliminary pharmacological analysis of pro-inflammatory activity in nettle stings, the cellular response of mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells and mast cells was examined in six people 5 min and 12 h after nettle conta ...19912025924
glycaemic effects of traditional european plant treatments for diabetes. studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.twelve plants used for the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in northern europe were studied using normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice to evaluate effects on glucose homeostasis. the plants were administered in the diet (6.25% by weight) and/or as decoctions or infusions in place of drinking water, to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. treatment for 28 days with preparations of burdock (arctium lappa), cashew (anacardium occidentale), dandelion (taraxacum officinal ...19892743711
[experience in treating digestive organ diseases with medicinal plants].results are reported of treatment of chronic hyposecretory gastritis, chronic hepatocholecystitis and angiocholitis by a herbal complex. the herbal composition included achillea millefolium, urtica dioica, cichorium (aboveground part), polygonum, matricaria chamomilla (flowers), helichrysum arenarium, calendula (flowers), corn stigmas, humulus lupulus (racemes) in proportion 3:3:1:1:2:1:1:2:1 respectively. the herbal decoction is to be taken 3 times daily before meals. diet n 5 (pevzner scheme) ...20092750130
[biologically active compounds from the aqueous extract of urtica dioica].from the water extract of the roots of urtica dioica (stinging nettle) a polysaccharide fraction was isolated which revealed activity in the carrageenan rat paw edema model and lymphocyte transformation test. ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration of this fraction afforded 4 different polysaccharides, one of which reduced dose dependent hemolysis in the classical pathway of the complement test. the urtica dioica lectin (uda) was reisolated and found to stimulate the proliferation of huma ...19892813580
quantification of arteriolar density and embolization by microspheres in rat myocardium.we developed a technique for in vitro determination of arteriolar densities. hearts, obtained from anesthetized rats and perfused by the langendorff method, were fully dilated with adenosine and were arrested with an elevated potassium concentration. after a stabilization period, the hearts were perfused with a buffered fixative for some minutes to obtain a nonvital vasculature. after fixation, perfusion was switched back to control for some minutes. the hearts were then perfused with a medium c ...19883354693
carbohydrate binding properties of the stinging nettle (urtica dioica) rhizome lectin.the interaction of the stinging nettle rhizome lectin (uda) with carbohydrates was studied by using the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition, equilibrium dialysis, and uv difference spectroscopy. the carbohydrate binding site of uda was determined to be complementary to an n,n',n"-triacetylchitotriose unit and proposed to consist of three subsites, each of which has a slightly different binding specificity. uda also has a hydrophobic interacting region adjacent to the carb ...20133740853
microtubules in root hairs.the microtubules of root hairs of raphanus sativus, lepidium sativum, equisetum hyemale, limnobium stoloniferum, ceratopteris thalictroides, allium sativum and urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. the microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in allium and urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. numerical parameters of microtubules in raphanus, equisetum and lim ...20144066793
choline acetyltransferase in the nettle urtica dioica l.extracts of acetone-dried powders prepared from nettle leaves were shown to catalyse the synthesis of acetylcholine. the specific activity of the enzyme in these extracts is of the same order as that of extracts from mammalian sources, such as ox brain, and the effects of temperature and ph are similar to those reported for mammalian choline acetyltransferase. synthesis is not restricted to the younger leaves but appears to be continuous up to senescence.19734737362
allergic skin test reactivity to marijuana in the a general allergy consultation practice in arizona and western new mexico, 129 patients were tested for immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactivity to marijuana pollen and tobacco leaf, as well as to a battery of other antigens. in all, 90 patients were diagnosed as allergic (atopic) and, of these, 63 (70 percent) were found to be skin test reactive to marijuana pollen and 18 (20 percent) to tobacco leaf. the incidence of skin test reactivity to marijuana was not significantly different f ...19836613109
the synthesis of acetylcholine by plants.choline acetyltransferase was demonstrated in nettles (urtica dioica), peas (pisum sativum), spinach (spinacia oleracea), sunflower (helianthus annuus) and blue--green algae by using a sepharose--coash affinity column. the column effected a 1500-fold purification of the enzyme from nettle homogenates and was required for demonstrating activity in the other higher plants. demonstration of the enzyme in blue-green algae suggests that acetylcholine was a biochemical necessity in the earliest photos ...19816796060
smooth muscle stimulating substances in the stinging nettle tree obetia pinnatifida. 19817222086
expression of lectin, interleukin-2 and histopathologic blood group binding sites in prostate cancer and its correlation with integrated optical density and syntactic structure analysis.the binding of several biotinylated biologic probes was determined in sections of 20 surgical specimens of prostate cancer and of 21 biopsy specimens of hyperplastic prostate. whereas neither the immunomodulatory, galactoside-specific lectin from viscum album nor the human beta-galactoside-specific lectin (m(r) 14 kd) or its specific antibody discerned any remarkable differences, the lectin from urtica dioica (uda) and interleukin-2, the in vitro production of which is enhanced by this lectin, e ...19957542001
the effect of extracts of the roots of the stinging nettle (urtica dioica) on the interaction of shbg with its receptor on human prostatic membranes.extracts from the roots of the stinging nettle (urtica dioica) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. the mechanisms underlying this treatment have not been elucidated. we set out to determine whether specific extracts from u. dioica had the ability to modulate the binding of sex hormone-binding globulin to its receptor on human prostatic membranes. four substances contained in u. dioica were examined: an aqueous extract; an alcoholic extract; u. dioica agglutinin, and stigma ...19957700987
plant constituents interfering with human sex hormone-binding globulin. evaluation of a test method and its application to urtica dioica root extracts.a test system is described, which allows the search for compounds interfering with human sex hormone-binding globulin (shbg) even in complex plant extracts. the method has been evaluated and applied to urtica dioica root extracts. the lignan secoisolariciresinol (5) as well as a mixture of isomeric (11 e)-9,10,13-trihydroxy-11-octadecenoic and (10 e)-9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acids (3 and 4, resp.) were demonstrated to reduce binding activity of human shbg. methylation of the mixture of ...19957702715
genotoxicity testing of different types of beverages in the drosophila wing somatic mutation and recombination test.five wines and one brandy of spanish origin as well as three herbal teas and ordinary black tea were tested for genotoxicity in the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (smart) which makes use of the two recessive wing cell markers multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr3) on the left arm of chromosome 3 of drosophila melanogaster. 3-day-old larvae trans-heterozygous for these two markers were fed the beverages at different concentrations and for different feeding periods using drosophi ...19948206441
the n-terminal cysteine-rich domain of tobacco class i chitinase is essential for chitin binding but not for catalytic or antifungal activity.the vacuolar chitinases of class i possess an n-terminal cysteine-rich domain homologous to hevein and chitin-binding lectins such as wheat germ agglutinin and urtica dioica lectin. to investigate the significance of this domain for the biochemical and functional characteristics of chitinase, chimeric genes encoding the basic chitinase a of tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) with and without this domain were constructed and constitutively expressed in transgenic nicotiana sylvestris. the chitinases wer ...19938208848
antinutritive effects of wheat-germ agglutinin and other n-acetylglucosamine-specific lectins.incorporation of n-acetylglucosamine-specific agglutinins from wheat germ (triticum aestivum; wga), thorn apple (datura stramonium) or nettle (urtica dioica) rhizomes in the diet at the level of 7 g/kg reduced the apparent digestibility and utilization of dietary proteins and the growth of rats, with wga being the most damaging. as a result of their binding and endocytosis by the epithelial cells of the small intestine, all three lectins were growth factors for the gut and interfered with its me ...19938399111
[phytoperfusion of the bladder after adenomectomy].for continuous irrigation of the bladder after prostatic adenomectomy herb infusion (urtica dioica l. 12-15 g/l, hypericum perforatum l. 8-12 g/l. marticaria recutita l. 8-10 g/l, folia plantaginis majoris 7-10 g/l, herba millefolii 4-6 g/l, folia betula 3-5 g/l. artemisia vulgaris l. 1-2 g/l, folia fragaria vesca 3-4 g/l, water 11 maximum) was dripped through a thin suprapubic and urethral drainages. such phytoperfusion of the urinary bladder used in 22 patients reduced postoperative blood loss ...19958571476
the j beta segment of the t cell receptor contributes to the v beta-specific t cell expansion caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin b and urtica dioica superantigens.we have used a new polymerase chain reaction-based technique to analyze at the clonal level the cdr3 diversity and the j beta usage associated with the v beta-dependent t cell receptor (tcr) recognition of two superantigens: the staphylococcal enterotoxin b and the urtica dioica agglutinin. our results show that subset of j beta elements is preferentially expanded in a given v beta family, independently of the nature of the superantigen. by contrast, the cdr3 loop does not contribute significant ...19968605929
the biological activity of acetylated sphingosylphosphorylcholine derivatives.taking into account their stereochemical similarity with 1-o-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylcholine (paf), which is known to exhibit a diverse spectrum of biological actions, including platelet aggregating and glycogenolytic activity, the acetylated derivatives of sphingosylphosphorylcholine and sphingomyelin were synthesized and tested for their ability to promote washed rabbit platelet aggregation and glycogenolysis in tetrahymena pyriformis cells. sphingomyelin (spm) and sphingosylpho ...19968624845
ex-vivo in-vitro inhibition of lipopolysaccharide stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion in human whole blood by extractum urticae dioicae extract of urtica dioica folium (ids 23, rheuma-hek), monographed positively for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases and with known effects in partial inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in vitro, was investigated with respect to effects of the extract on the lipopolysaccharide (lps) stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human whole blood of healthy volunteers. in the assay system used, lps stimulated human whole blood showed a straight increase of tumor ne ...19968740085
[anti-inflammatory effect of urtica dioica folia extract in comparison to caffeic malic acid].urtica dioica extract is a traditionary used adjuvant therapeutic in rheumatoid arthritis. the antiphlogistic effects of the urtica dioica folia extract ids 23 (extractum urticae dioicae foliorum) and the main phenolic ingredient caffeic malic acid were tested concerning the inhibitory potential on biosynthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites in vitro. the caffeic malic acid was isolated from urtica folia extract using gel exclusion- and high performance liquid chromatography and identified by m ...19968821518
an investigation of some turkish herbal medicines in salmonella typhimurium and in the comet assay in human lymphocytes.medicinal plants play a major role in the life of turkish people and of late medicinal plant usage has increased in many countries. green plants in general contain mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, but there is little information about the biological activities of herbal medicine. in the present study, therefore, various turkish medicinal herbs were investigated for their genotoxic potential in the salmonella typhimurium microsomal activation assay and the alkaline single cell gel electroph ...19968875742
carbohydrate-protein interaction studies by laser photo cidnp nmr methods.the side chains of tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine are able to produce cidnp (chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) signals after laser irradiation in the presence of a suitable radical pair-generating dye. elicitation of such a response in proteins implies surface accessibility of the respective groups to the light-absorbing dye. in principle, this technique allows the monitoring of the effect of ligand binding to a receptor and of site-directed mutagenesis on conformational aspec ...19979249155
the inhibiting effects of urtica dioica root extracts on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in the mouse.extracts of stinging nettle roots (urtica dioica l. urticaceae) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph). we established a bph-model by directly implanting an urogenital sinus (ugs) into the ventral prostate gland of an adult mouse. five differently prepared stinging nettle root extracts were tested in this model. the 20% methanolic extract was the most effective with a 51.4% inhibition of induced growth.19979270373
phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental morocco. the patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). on average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. this proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. ...19979324004
lignans from the roots of urtica dioica and their metabolites bind to human sex hormone binding globulin (shbg).polar extracts of the stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) roots contain the ligans (+)-neoolivil, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, and 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran. these compounds were either isolated from urtica roots, or obtained semisynthetically. their affinity to human sex hormone binding globulin (shbg) was tested in an in vitro assay. in addition, the main intestinal transformation products of plant lignans in humans, enterodiol and ent ...19979434605
regulation of gelatinase b (mmp-9) in leukocytes by plant lectins.the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of plant lectins on the production of gelatinase a (mmp-2) and gelatinase b (mmp-9) by mononuclear white blood cells was investigated by substrate zymography. leukocyte cultures from 24-h old buffy coats were spontaneously activated and produced high levels of gelatinase b. using such cultures the suppressing activity of the datura stramonium, viscum album, bauhinia purpurea, triticum aestivum and maackia amurensis lectins on gelatinase b induction were demo ...19989607327
site-directed mutagenesis of active site residues in a class i endochitinase from chestnut seeds.despite the intensive research on plant chitinases, largely bolstered by their antifungal properties, little is known at present about the structure-activity relationships of these enzymes. here we report the identification of essential active site residues in endochitinase ch3, a class i enzyme abundant in chestnut seeds. knowledge-based protein modeling as well as structural and sequence comparisons were performed to identify potential catalytic residues. different mutated proteins were then g ...19989719683
pollen calendar of the city of salamanca (spain). aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.we report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of salamanca (spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. the pollen was captured with burkard spore-traps, based on hirst's volumetric method. determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously st ...19989885728
saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro.we wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro.199910068345
processing, targeting, and antifungal activity of stinging nettle agglutinin in transgenic tobacco.the gene encoding the precursor to stinging nettle (urtica dioica l. ) isolectin i was introduced into tobacco (nicotiana tabacum). in transgenic plants this precursor was processed to mature-sized lectin. the mature isolectin is deposited intracellularly, most likely in the vacuoles. a gene construct lacking the c-terminal 25 amino acids was also introduced in tobacco to study the role of the c terminus in subcellular trafficking. in tobacco plants that expressed this construct, the mutant prec ...199910364393
methyl jasmonate induces expression of a novel brassica juncea chitinase with two chitin-binding domains.we have cloned a 1.3 kb brassica juncea cdna encoding bjchi1, a novel acidic chitinase with two chitin-binding domains that shows 62% identity to nicotiana tabacum chia1 chitinase. bjchi1 is structurally unlike chia1 that has one chitin-binding domain, but resembles chia5 chitinase uda1, the precursor of urtica dioica agglutinin: however there is only 36.9% identity between them. we propose that bjchi1 should be classified under a new class, chia7. the spacer and the hinge region of bjchi1 are p ...199910527425
antiproliferative effect of a polysaccharide fraction of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots upon epithelial cells of the human prostate (lncap).in germany, plant extracts are often used in the treatment of early stages of benign prostate hyperplasia (bph). the effects of different concentrations of the polysaccharide fraction of the 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (poly-m) on the cellular proliferation of lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (lncap) cells were determined by measurement of the genomic dna content of the samples. all concentrations of poly-m showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the lncap cells duri ...199910563375
antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root (urtica dioica) the present study the activity of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (urtica dioica l., urticaceae) on the proliferative activity of human prostatic epithelial (lncap) and stromal (hpcps) cells was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. a concentration-dependent and significant (p < 0.05) antiproliferative effect of the extract was observed only on lncap cells during 7 days, whereas stromal cell growth remained unaltered. the inhibition was time-dependent with the maximum of gro ...200010705733
current lead natural products for the chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection.a large variety of natural products have been described as anti-hiv agents, and for a portion thereof the target of interaction has been identified. cyanovirin-n, a 11-kda protein from cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) irreversibly inactivates hiv and also aborts cell-to-cell fusion and transmission of hiv, due to its high-affinity interaction with gp120. various sulfated polysaccharides extracted from seaweeds (i.e., nothogenia fastigiata, aghardhiella tenera) inhibit the virus adsorption proces ...200010934347
acute diuretic, natriuretic and hypotensive effects of a continuous perfusion of aqueous extract of urtica dioica in the rat.this study was performed on anaesthetized male wistar rats that received a continuous intravenous perfusion during 1.25 h of an aqueous extract of aerial parts of urtica dioica l. (urticaceae) at a low dose of 4 mg/kg/h or at a high dose of 24 mg/kg/h, or furosemide (control diuretic) at a dose of 2 mg/kg/h. as compared with a control period in each rat, the arterial blood pressure was reduced proportionally to the dose of the perfusion of the plant extract (15 and 38%, p<0.001, respectively). t ...200011025144
effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in nod mice.the antihyperglycemic effect of the antidiabetis herbal preparation ((myrtilli folium (vaccinium myrtillus l.), taraxaci radix (taraxacum officinale web.), cichorii radix (cichorium intybus l.), juniperi fructus (juniperus communis l.), centaurii herba (centaurium umbellatum gilib.), phaseoli pericarpium (phaseolus vulgaris), millefollii herba (achillea millefolium l.), morii folium (morus nigra l.), valeriane radix (valleriana officinalis l.), urticae herba et radix (urtica dioica l.)), patent ...200111297848
the influence of suspended particles on the acute toxicity of 2-chloro-4-nitro-aniline, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol on the valve movement response of the zebra mussel (dreissena polymorpha).the dreissena-monitor is a biological early warning system for the continuous monitoring of river water quality, based on the valve movements of two groups of 42 zebra mussels (dreissena polymorpha). laboratory experiments with cd, pcp, and 2-chloro-4-nitro-aniline were conducted in combination with suspended particles (a mixture of stinging nettle powder, bentonite, and quartz powder). an increase of suspended particles up to a nominal concentration of 540 mg/l within 5 min did not evoke any re ...200111525492
factors associated with utilization of nonproven cancer therapies in turkey. a study of 135 patients from a single their search for a cure, a significant number of cancer patients use nonproven treatment (npt) methods. however, little is known about patient and disease characteristics associated with the use of these methods. in this trial, we evaluated the prevalence of and the factors associated with the usage of nonproven cancer remedies in a teaching hospital in turkey. a self-administered questionnaire was given to 135 cancer patients attending the outpatient clinics of a medical oncology department. ...200111585272
poaceae in the natural diet of the snail helix aspersa müller (gastropoda, pulmonata).the natural diet of helix aspersa was studied in two populations by analysing faeces. picris echioides, carduus tenuifloris, urtica dioica, galium molugo (dicotyledons) and poaceae (monocotyledons) were the principal resources of the studied populations. the species of poaceae ingested by helix aspersa in july were determined by analysing the phytoliths present in the faeces. festuca rubra, dactylis glomerata and bromus hordeaceus seemed to be attractive for the snails whereas elytrigia repens w ...200111725705
immunosuppressant effect of ids 30, a stinging nettle leaf extract, on myeloid dendritic cells in vitro.dendritic cells are important antigen presenting cells that play a role in the initiation of rheumatoid arthritis (ra). the stinging nettle leaf extract ids 30 (hox alpha) has been recommended for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases. we investigated the immunomodulating effect of ids 30 extract on the maturation of hematopoietic dendritic cells.200211950004
effects of the antirheumatic remedy hox alpha--a new stinging nettle leaf extract--on matrix metalloproteinases in human chondrocytes in vitro.inflammatory joint diseases are characterized by enhanced extracellular matrix degradation which is predominantly mediated by cytokine-stimulated upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (mmp) expression. besides tumour necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha), interleukin-1beta (il-1beta) produced by articular chondrocytes and synovial macrophages, is the most important cytokine stimulating mmp expression under inflammatory conditions. blockade of these two cytokines and their downstream effectors are ...200211962753
cardiovascular effects of urtica dioica l. (urticaceae) roots extracts: in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies.urtica dioica (urticaceae) is a plant principally used in the traditional medicine of oriental marocco as antihypertensive remedy (j. ethnopharmacol., 58 (1997), 45). the aim of this work was to evaluate a possible direct cardiovascular action of the plant and to investigate its mechanism of action. in aortic preparations with intact and functional endothelial layer, pre-contracted with kcl 20 mm or norepinephrine 3 microm, the crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the plant roots, as well as ...200212020933
phytotherapeutic agents in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.the rationale and efficacy of phytotherapeutic agents in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph) are continuously debated. while plant extracts are prescribed and reimbursable treatment options in europe, they are officially classified merely as dietary supplements in the united states. the most commonly used preparations originate from the species serenoa repens, pygeum africanum, hypoxis rooperi, pinus, picea, urtica dioica, and secale cere ...200012084323
tobacco-expressed brassica juncea chitinase bjchi1 shows antifungal activity in vitro.we have previously isolated a brassica juncea cdna encoding bjchi1, a novel chitinase with two chitin-binding domains, and have shown that its mrna is induced by wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment (k.-j. zhao and m.-l. chye, plant mol. biol. 40 (1999) 1009-1018). by the presence of two chitin-binding domains, bjchi1 resembles the precursor of uda (urtica dioica agglutinin) but, unlike uda, bjchi1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. here, we indicate t ...200212175020
in vitro antioxidant activity of non-cultivated vegetables of ethnic albanians in southern italy.a total of 27 extracts from non-cultivated and weedy vegetables traditionally consumed by ethnic albanians (arbëreshë) in the vulture area (southern italy) were tested for their free radical scavenging activity (frsa) in the dpph (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical) screening assay, for their in vitro non-enzymatic inhibition of bovine brain lipid peroxidation and for their inhibition of xanthine oxidase (xo). in both antioxidant assays strong activity was shown for leopoldia comosa (bulbs, s ...200212203269
cardiovascular effects of urtica dioica l. in isolated rat heart and aorta.urtica dioica l. or nettle (urticaceae) is widely used in oriental morocco to treat hypertension. aqueous extract of nettle (aen) also exerts a hypotensive action in the rat in vivo. the aim of this work was to characterize the specific cardiac and vascular effects of aen. in the isolated langendorff perfused rat heart, aen (1 and 2 g/l) markedly decreased heart rate and increased left ventricular pressure. higher concentration (5 g/l) even led to cardiac arrest. although carbachol mimicked the ...200212237804
respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis may benefit from hydration and a diet low in sodium, omega-6 fatty acids, and transfatty acids, but high in omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., fish, almonds, walnuts, pumpkin, and flax seeds), onions, and fruits and vegetables (at least five servings a day). physicians may need to be more cautious when prescribing antibiotics to children in their first year of life when they are born to families with a history of atopy. more research is needed to establish whet ...200212391710
remarkable, overlooked and new microfungi in north rhine-westphalia, germany.during our investigations of the micro flora in nrw in the years of 1999 and 2000 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of micro fungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. some of them are new for germany: podosphaera xanthii on coreopsis verticillata; cercospora traversiana on trigonella foenum-graecum; passalora dubia on atriplex hortensis; ophiobolus cirsii on carduus spec.; periconia britannica on polemonium coeruleum; ascochyta leptospora on a ...200112425026
glutathione s-transferases and malondialdehyde in the liver of nod mice on short-term treatment with plant mixture extract p-9801091.changes in the concentration of glutathione s-transferases (gsts) and malondialdehyde (mda) were assessed in the liver of normal and diabetic nod mice with and without treatment with the plant extract p-9801091. the plant extract p-9801091 is an antihyperglycaemic preparation containing myrtilli folium (vaccinium myrtillus l.), taraxaci radix (taraxacum of fi cinale web.), cichorii radix (cichorium intybus l.), juniperi fructus (juniperus communis l.), centaurii herba (centaurium umbellatum gili ...200312722130
complementary alternative treatments used by patients with cancer in eastern turkey.interest in complementary-alternative medicine therapies is growing rapidly in turkey. therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine the types and prevalence of alternative therapies used by the patients with a diagnosis of cancer, and to determine factors influencing the choices of their therapies in erzurum, turkey. approximately 10-minute face-to-face interviews were conducted with each subject in the radiation oncology department. the factors associated with the use of alternative ...200312832956
modulatory effect of urtica dioica l. (urticaceae) leaf extract on biotransformation enzyme systems, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in mice.the effects of two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body wt given orally for 14 days) of an ethanol-water (80%-20%) extract of urtica dioica l. and butylated hydroxyanisole (bha) were investigated, for phase i and phase ii enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and sulfhydryl groups in the liver of swiss albino mice (8-9 weeks old). a modulatory effect of two doses and bha was also observed for the activities of glutathione s-transferase, dt-diaphorase, superoxide dismuta ...200312834006
some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish.immunostimulant effects of the dietary intake of various medicinal plant extracts on fish, rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), were investigated. for this purpose fish were fed with diets containing aqueous extracts of mistletoe (viscum album), nettle (urtica dioica), and ginger (zingiber officinale). food containing lyophilized extracts of these plants as 0.1 and 1% was used at a rate of 2% of body weight per day for three weeks. at the end of the experimental period, various parameters of non ...200312902058
effect of urtica dioica agglutinin and arabidopsis thaliana chia4 chitinase on the protozoan phytomonas françai.the genus phytomonas is responsible for many diseases in different crop plant species. the finding that chitin is an exposed cell surface polysaccharide in phytomonas françai and the observation that chitinases can inhibit fungal growth raises expectations about the potential effect of plant chitinases on the p. françai cell membrane surface. the plant chitinases urtica dioica agglutinin (uda) and arabidopsis thaliana chia4 (atchit4) proteins were over-expressed in bacteria and the interaction b ...200313129600
the role of urtica dioica and nigella sativa in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.the role of nigella sativa l. (ranunculaceae) (ns) and urtica dioica l. was investigated (ud) in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride (ccl4) induced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. fifty sprague-dawley rats were allocated into fi ve groups (i, iia and b, iiia and b) and ccl4 was injected biweekly to all groups. group i (control, ccl4 only), group iia and b (ns fixed oil and volatile oil), group iiia and b (ud fixed oil and ud decoction extract) rats were killed at the end of week 12 and histopat ...200313680830
induction of insulin secretion by a component of urtica dioica leave extract in perifused islets of langerhans and its in vivo effects in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.the blood glucose lowering effect of urtica dioica (stinging nettle) as a medicinal plant has been noted in old writings such as those of avicenna. recently, there has also been other investigators that indicated the hypoglycemic effect of urtica dioica. but so far, the mechanism of this effect has not been deduced. in this report, a perifusion system is arranged in which an exact number of langerhans islets were exposed to several fractions of extracts of urtica dioica by tlc. the active ingred ...200314522431
effects of nigella sativa l. and urtica dioica l. on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and some liver enzymes in ccl4-treated rats.this study was designed to investigate the effects nigella sativa l. (ns) and urtica dioica l. (ud) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and some liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)-treated rats. a total of 60 healthy male sprague-dawley rats were utilized in this study. the rats were randomly allotted into one of four experimental groups: a (ccl4-only treated), b (ccl4 + ud treated), c (ccl4 + ns treated) and d (ccl4 + ud + ns treated), each containing 15 animals. all grou ...200314567515
antihyperglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of urtica dioica.when administered 30 min before glucose loading, the aqueous extract of urtica dioica (nettle) (250 mg/kg) showed a strong glucose lowering effect. the decrease of glycemia has reached to 33+/-3.4% of the control value 1 h after glucose loading. this effect was persistent during 3 h. in contrast, nettle did not show hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. the amount of glucose absorbed in a segment jejunum in situ was 8.05+/-0.68 mg in presence of nettle extract vs. 11.11+/-0.75 mg ...200314630172
effects of nigella sativa l. and urtica dioica l. on selected mineral status and hematological values in ccl4-treated rats.this study was designed to investigate the effects of nigella sativa l. (ns), known as black seed, or/and urtica dioica l. (ud), known as stinging nettle root, treatments on serum na, k, cl, and ca levels and some hematological values of ccl4-treated rats. sixty healthy male sprague-dawley rats, weighing 250-300 g, were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 experimental groups: a (ccl4-only treated), b (ccl4+ud treated), c (ccl4+ns treated), and d (ccl4+ud+ns treated), each containing 15 animals. all gr ...200314716106
antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle (urtica dioica l.).in this study, water extract of nettle (urtica dioica l.) (wen) was studied for antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic properties. the antioxidant properties of wen were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. wen had powerful antioxidant activity. the 50, 100 and 250 microg amounts of wen showed 39, 66 and 98% inhibition on perox ...200415013182
antioxidant properties of some medicinal plants: prangos ferulacea (apiaceae), sedum sempervivoides (crassulaceae), malva neglecta (malvaceae), cruciata taurica (rubiaceae), rosa pimpinellifolia (rosaceae), galium verum subsp. verum (rubiaceae), urtica dioica (urticaceae).antioxidant and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) radical scavenging activities, reducing powers and the amount of total phenolic compounds of aqueous and/or methanolic extracts of some medicinal plants used in eastern turkey were studied. these plants are prangos ferulacea (casir), sedum sempervivoides (horoz lelesi), malva neglecta (ebemgumeci), cruciata taurica (sarilik otu), rosa pimpinellifolia (koyun gozu), galium verum subsp. verum (madavur otu), urtica dioica (isirgan). the highest pe ...200415133249
platelet anti-aggregant property of some moroccan medicinal is known that blood platelets may present some dysfunction linked to cardiovascular pathologies such as arterial hypertension. the aim of this work is to examine the in vitro anti-aggregant effect of five medicinal plants among which three were reported as antihypertensive in oriental morocco: arbutus unedo (ericaceae), urtica dioïca (urticaceae), and petroselinum crispum (apiaceae). the two other plants were cistus ladaniferus (cistaceae) and equisetum arvense (equisetaceae). the results obt ...200415325737
complementary and alternative interventions in asthma, allergy, and review which herbs are most commonly used as complementary and alternative medicine (cam) for treatment of asthma, allergy, and immunologic conditions.200415330011
traditional medicine in sakarya province (turkey) and antimicrobial activities of selected species.traditional medicine in north-west of turkey (sakarya province) were studied during a 2 months field study by interviewing local informants from several villages. plant species used to treat infections were tested for antimicrobial activity. information was collected for 46 plant species from 30 families and for 5 animal species. twenty four of the plant species were cultivated. most used families were asteraceae, cucurbitaceae, lamiaceae and rosaceae and the most used plants were artemisia absi ...200415507351
functional analyses of the chitin-binding domains and the catalytic domain of brassica juncea chitinase bjchi1.we previously isolated a brassica juncea cdna encoding bjchi1, a novel chitinase with two chitin-binding domains. synthesis of its mrna is induced by wounding, methyl jasmonate treatment, aspergillus niger infection and caterpillar (pieris rapae) feeding, suggesting that the protein has a role in defense. in that it possesses two chitin-binding domains, bjchi1 resembles the precursor of urtica dioica agglutinin but unlike that protein, bjchi1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-tra ...200415604744
traditional phytotherapy in central italy (marche, abruzzo, and latium).in this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of central italy (marche, abruzzo, and latium) have been reported and compared. the usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. among the wild plant mainly sti ...200515664457
inhibition of alpha-glucosidase by aqueous extracts of some potent antidiabetic medicinal herbs.diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalant diseases of adults. agents with alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity have been useful as oral hypoglycemic drugs for the control of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2; noninsulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus (niddm). investigation of some medicinal herbs: urtica dioica, taraxacum officinale, viscum album, and myrtus communis with alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity was conducted to identify a prophylactic effect for diabetes in vitro. all plant ...200515704495
the role of urtica dioica (urticaceae) in the prevention of oxidative stress caused by tourniquet application in rats.tourniquets are used in extremity surgery and provide a relatively bloodless field, thereby minimizing blood loss and helping identify the vital structures. however, they may cause an ischemia-reperfusion injury with potentially harmful local and systemic consequences. many therapeutic effects such as diuretic, natriuretic, hypotensive, anti-rheumatic, anti-prostatic, and in-vitro anti-oxidant effects of the urtica dioica (ud) have been determined. in the present study, we aimed to investigate t ...200515718813
evaluating the efficiency of a combination of pygeum africanum and stinging nettle (urtica dioica) extracts in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph): double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled spite of its historical use, published data about phytotherapic products is characterized by the absence of well conducted studies, leading to conflictive and indefinite results about efficiency and safety of theses drugs. in that sense, we have analyzed the results of a combination of pygeum africanum and stinging nettle (urtica dioica) extracts in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph), based in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled protocol.200515748367
carabid larvae as predators of weed seeds: granivory in larvae of amara eurynota (coleoptera: carabidae).up to date we do not have much information about predation on seeds by larvae of ground beetles. one of the reasons why such knowledge is important is that granivorous larvae contribute to predation of weed seeds. in this study, the food requirements of larvae of autumn breeding carabid species amara eurynota (panzer) were investigated in the laboratory and a hypothesis, that they are granivorous was tested. insect diet (tenebrio molitor larvae), three seed diets (seeds of artemisia vulgaris, tr ...200415759391
antiviral activity in vitro of urtica dioica l., parietaria diffusa m. et k. and sambucus nigra l.parietaria diffusa m. et k., urtica dioica l. (urticaceae) and sambucus nigra l. (caprifoliaceae) are plants usually used in popular medicine of central italy for treating numerous diseases, first of all herpes zoster. several plant products have been described as potential antiviral agents, with special attention being devoted to those having retroviruses as etiological agents, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids), in which a retrovirus, the designated human immunodeficiency viru ...200515814267
the effect of exercise and nettle supplementation on oxidative stress markers in the rat brain.chronic swimming training and phytotherapeutic supplementation are assumed to alleviate oxidative damage, and support cell survival in the brain. the effect of forced, chronic swimming training, and enriched lab chow containing 1% (w/w) dried nettle (urtica dioica) leaf were investigated for oxidative stress, inflammation and neurotrophic markers in wistar rat brains. the rats were divided into groups subjected to swimming training (6 weeks) or to nettle supplementation (8 weeks) or to a combina ...200515862920
the use of complementary and alternative (non-conventional) medicine in cancer patients in turkey.the purpose of this study was to define various methods of complementary and alternative medicine (cam) used by cancer patients and their characteristics in turkey. the sample consisted of 100 cancer patients who were monitored in the oncology outpatient and inpatient departments of two hospitals. almost all participating patients were receiving conventional treatment, 36% of which were also using cam methods. female patients and individuals with lower educational background showed a tendency to ...200515899593
[the frequency of pollen allergy at the population of sarajevo region during the 2002 year].the frequency of pollen alergy in the sample of population of sarajevo region during the 2002 year has been investigated. the age and gender population has been different. for determination of allergy has been use of standard test carryed out in the respective laboratories of clinical center of university of sarajevo. the testing has been on the pollen of weed plant species and grass (graminejae) pollen. in the mixture of pollen weed plant species have been following plants: plantago lanceolata ...200516018386
carbohydrate-binding agents cause deletions of highly conserved glycosylation sites in hiv gp120: a new therapeutic concept to hit the achilles heel of hiv.mannose-binding proteins derived from several plants (i.e. hippeastrum hybrid and galanthus nivalis agglutinin) or prokaryotes (i.e. cyanovirin-n) inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) replication and select for drug-resistant viruses that show profound deletion of n-glycosylation sites in the gp120 envelope (balzarini, j., van laethem, k., hatse, s., vermeire, k., de clercq, e., peumans, w., van damme, e., vandamme, a.-m., bolmstedt, a., and schols, d. (2004) j. virol. 78, 10617-10627; bal ...200516183648
molecular cloning and tissue-specific transcriptional regulation of the first peroxidase family member, udp1, in stinging nettle (urtica dioica).a full-length cdna clone, designated udp1, was isolated from urtica dioica (stinging nettle), using a polymerase chain reaction based strategy. the putative udp1 protein is characterized by a cleavable n-terminal signal sequence, likely responsible for the rough endoplasmic reticulum entry and a 310 amino acids mature protein, containing all the important residues, which are evolutionary conserved among different members of the plant peroxidase family. a unique structural feature of the udp1 per ...200516219430
sugar-binding proteins potently inhibit dendritic cell human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection and dendritic-cell-directed hiv-1 transfer.both endocytic uptake and viral fusion can lead to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) transfer to cd4+ lymphocytes, either through directional regurgitation (infectious transfer in trans [i-it]) or through de novo viral production in dendritic cells (dcs) resulting in a second-phase transfer to cd4+ lymphocytes (infectious second-phase transfer [i-spt]). we have evaluated in immature monocyte-derived dcs both pathways of transfer with regard to their susceptibilities to being blocked by ...200516227272
isolation and characterisation of beauveria bassiana isolates from phylloplanes of hedgerow vegetation.a leaf imprinting technique combined with a selective medium was used to document the natural occurrence of beauveria bassiana on phylloplanes of typical hedgerow plants (grasses, stinging nettle and hawthorn) in may, july and september in a hedgerow in denmark. the density of b. bassiana (as measured by numbers of colony forming units) was greatest in september and on lower nettle leaves. b. bassiana was isolated from phylloplanes in a different hedgerow the following year and a similar picture ...200616378721
inhibition of adrenaline-induced aggregation of human platelets by pakistani medicinal plants.the effects of extracts of pakistani plants claiming medicinal value were observed on adrenaline-induced aggregation of human platelets according to the method of born (1962). the extracts manifested significant inhibitory activity in doses of 0.625 mgm(-1) to 2.5 mgml(-1) in this in vitro model. the potency of the plant extracts in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by adrenaline is in the following order: sida pakistanica, ic50 = 0.90 mgml(-1) > tribulus terrestris, ic50 = 0.97 mgml(-1) > ...199116414694
hepatoprotective effects of nigella sativa l and urtica dioica l on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated investigate the effects of nigella sativa l (ns) and urtica dioica l (ud) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in ccl(4)-treated rats.200516425366
effect of urtica dioica extract intake upon blood lipid profile in the rats.aqueous (150 mg/kg/day) and to a lesser extent petroleum ether (20 mg/kg/day) extract of urtica dioica given for 30 days to rats fed with normal or high-fat diet, improved the blood lipid profile. significant decreases in total cholesterol, ldl cholesterol, ldl/hdl cholesterol ratio and plasma total apo b were observed. assessment of got, gpt and ldh activities showed that no liver damage has occurred during the study period.200616540261
inhibition of rat platelet aggregation by urtica dioica leaves extracts.platelet hyperactivity plays an important role in arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis. the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different extracts of urtica dioica leaves on platelet aggregation. rat platelets were prepared and incubated in vitro with different concentrations of the tested extracts and aggregation was induced by different agonists including thrombin (0.5 u/ml), adp (10 microm), epinephrine (100 microm) and collagen (5 mg/ml). the crude aqueous extract i ...200616619332
effect of urtica dioica on bacterial translocation in mechanic icter model. 200616680282
antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessment of some plants used as remedy in turkish folk medicine.ethanolic and aqueous extracts from five plant species used in turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities: agrostemma githago l., potentilla reptans l., thymbra spicata var. spicata l., urtica dioica l. and viscum album var. album l. we assayed the effects of the administration of plant extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, hdl-c, ldl-c, glucose, ast and alt concentrations in mice fed with cholesterol-rich diet. in additi ...200616713156
complementary/alternative medicine use in a pediatric oncology unit in turkey.important in the cancer therapy is the increasingly use of complementary/alternative medicine (cam). the current study aims to establish the extent of use, the types of therapies employed, factors influencing, the reasons for choosing and the cost of cam used in pediatric cancer patients in our clinic in ankara, turkey.200716900485
spatial distribution of aglais urticae (l.) and its host plant urtica dioica (l.) in an agricultural landscape: implications for bt maize risk assessment and post-market monitoring.over the past decades, genes of bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (berliner) (bt) coding for protein toxins have been engineered into maize for protection against the european corn borer (ostrinia nubilalis (hbn.)). however, these transgenic plants may have an impact on non-target organisms. in particular, a potential hazard was identified for non-target lepidopteran larvae, if they consume bt maize pollen on their host plants. risk can be defined as a function of the effect of an event (haza ...200616978572
allergenic proteins in urtica dioica, a member of the urticaceae allergenic family.allergy to the pollen of flowering plant species significantly affects the health of people in many parts of the world. pollens of related genera usually share common antigens and are often, but not always, cross-reactive. several studies have shown that parietaria pollen is one of the most common causes of pollinosis in the mediterranean area, whereas urtica has no allergenic significance.200617042140
carbohydrate-binding agents efficiently prevent dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (dc-sign)-directed hiv-1 transmission to t lymphocytes.exposure of hiv-1 to dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (dc-sign)-expressing b-lymphoblast raji cells (raji/dc-sign) but not to wild-type raji/0 cells results in the capture of hiv-1 particles to the cells as measured by the quantification of cell-associated p24 antigen. cocultivation of hiv-1-captured raji/dc-sign cells with uninfected cd4+ t lymphocyte c8166 cells results in abundant formation of syncytia within 36 h after cocultivation. short preexp ...200717056872
an ethnobotanical study on the usage of wild medicinal herbs from kopaonik mountain (central serbia).an ethnobotanical survey was carried out on the territory of the highest mountain in central serbia, kopaonik, which is characterized by great plant diversity. in total, 83 wild species from 41 families and 96 preparations for use in human therapy were recorded. among those wild plants which are most commonly used for medicinal purposes, hypericum perforatum l., urtica dioica l., achillea millefolium l., matricaria chamomilla l., sambucus nigra l., and thymus serpyllum l. were particularly highl ...200717145148
screening of herbal extracts for activation of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor.the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors play a pivotal role in metazoan lipid and glucose homeostasis. synthetic activators of pparalpha (fibrates) and ppargamma (glitazones) are therefore widely used for treatment of dislipidemia and diabetes, respectively. there is growing evidence for herbal compounds to influence nuclear receptor signalling e.g. the ppars. we recently reported carnosic acid and carnosol, both being diterpenes found in the labiate herbs sage and rosemary, to be activa ...200617152989
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