TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient.small colony variants (scv) are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. enterococcus faecalis scv have been seldom described, and only one case of enterococcus faecium scv has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by scv e. faecium in an immunocompetent patient.201626862434
vinegar treatment prevents the development of murine experimental colitis via inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis.this study investigated the preventive effects of vinegar and acetic acid (the active component of vinegar) on ulcerative colitis (uc) in mice. vinegar (5% v/v) or acetic acid (0.3% w/v) treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index and histopathological scores, attenuated body weight loss, and shortened the colon length in a murine experimental colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (dss). further mechanistic analysis showed that vinegar inhibited inflammation through supp ...201626795553
development and characterization of potent cyclic acyldepsipeptide analogues with increased antimicrobial activity.the problem of antibiotic resistance has prompted the search for new antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action. analogues of the a54556 cyclic acyldepsipeptides (adeps) represent an attractive class of antimicrobial agents that act through dysregulation of caseinolytic protease (clpp). previous studies have shown that adeps are active against gram-positive bacteria (e.g., mrsa, vre, prsp (penicillin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae)); however, there are currently few studies examining gram-n ...201626818454
establishment and analysis of in vitro biomass from salvia corrugata vahl. and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.demethylfruticuline a and fruticuline a, the most abundant compounds from the surface extract of salvia corrugata vahl., have shown antibacterial, antitumor and cytotoxic activities. in order to obtain these icetexane diterpenes from in vitro cultures of s. corrugata, protocols were developed for callus production, micropropagation and shoot regeneration. analysis of the regenerated shoots showed the presence of both icetexanes, micropropagated plants contained only fruticuline a, while the call ...201626753532
redefining healthy urine: a cross-sectional exploratory metagenomic study of people with and without bladder dysfunction.we used the pathoscope platform to perform species level analyses of publicly available, 16s rrna pyrosequenced, asymptomatic urine data to determine relationships between microbiomes, and clinical and functional phenotypes.201626807926
monitoring the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy with periodic renewal of the photosensitizer on intracanal enterococcus faecalis biofilms.photodynamic therapy (pdt) can eliminate microorganisms in a root canal. however, the parameters for disinfection remain undefined. this study assessed the effectiveness of a pdt protocol against intracanal enterococcus faecalis biofilms.201626796030
functional dissection of the crors two-component system required for resistance to cell wall stressors in enterococcus faecalis.bacteria use two-component signal transduction systems (tcss) to sense and respond to environmental changes via a conserved phosphorelay between a sensor histidine kinase and its cognate response regulator. the opportunistic pathogen enterococcus faecalis utilizes a tcs comprised of the histidine kinase cros and the response regulator cror to mediate resistance to cell wall stresses such as cephalosporin antibiotics, but the molecular details by which crors promotes cephalosporin resistance have ...201626883822
bacteriospermia and its impact on basic semen parameters among infertile men.introduction. semen analysis is considered as the surrogate marker for male fecundity while assessing infertile men. there are several reasons for altered semen quality and bacteriospermia could be one among them. thereby the aim of our work is to study the semen culture and its impact on semen parameters among infertile men. materials and methods. semen samples were collected from men attending infertility clinic. semen parameters were analysed based on who guidelines. also, samples were subjec ...201626880908
electrochemical disinfection of simulated ballast water on pbo2/graphite felt electrode.a novel pbo2/graphite felt electrode was constructed by electrochemical deposition of pbo2 on graphite felt and characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (xrd) and scanning electron microscopy (sem) analysis. the prepared electrode is a viable technology for inactivation of escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis, and artemia salina as indicator organisms in simulated ballast water treatment, which meets the international maritime organization (imo) regulation d-2. the effects of contact time an ...201626880130
isoflavone metabolism by a collection of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with biotechnological interest.almost all soy isoflavones exist as glycosides, daidzin, genistin, and glycitin. we analyzed the capacity of 92 strains of lactic acid bacteria (lab) and bifidobacteria with biotechnological interest to process the glycosylated isoflavones daidzin, genistin, and glycitin in their more bioavailable aglycones and their metabolites as dihydrodaidzein (dhd), o-desmethylangolensin, and equol. representative strains of the four genera studied lactobacillus, enterococcus, lactococcus, and bifidobacteri ...201626878882
cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis in patients with intravenous drug use.intravenous drug users have a high risk of infective endocarditis and reduced survival. cardiac surgery may be recommended for these patients, but redo surgery is controversial. this study describes the characteristics and outcomes of intravenous drug users accepted for surgery during a 12-year period.201626826713
γ-cyclodextrin capped silver nanoparticles for molecular recognition and enhancement of antibacterial activity of chloramphenicol.computational studies were conducted to identify the favourable formation of the inclusion complex of chloramphenicol with cyclodextrins. the results of molecular docking and molecular dynamics predicted the strongest interaction of chloramphenicol with γ-cyclodextrin. further, the inclusion complex of chloramphenicol with γ-cyclodextrin was experimentally prepared and a phenomenon of inclusion was verified by using different characterization techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, differ ...201626824520
surveillance for linezolid resistance via the zyvox® annual appraisal of potency and spectrum (zaaps) programme (2014): evolving resistance mechanisms with stable susceptibility rates.the objective of this study was to report the linezolid in vitro activity observed during the zyvox(®) annual appraisal of potency and spectrum (zaaps) programme for 2014.201627013481
susceptibility of contemporary isolates to fosfomycin: a systematic review of the literature.the aim of this review was to evaluate the susceptibility of contemporary gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria to fosfomycin. pubmed and scopus databases were systematically searched to identify studies published in print or electronically from january 2010 until june 2015. in total, 84 studies were selected. susceptibility to fosfomycin of staphylococcus aureus ranged between 33.2% and 100% (frequency=91.7%, 95% confidence interval 88.7-94.9%), of enterococcus spp. from 30% to 100% (enteroc ...201627013000
comparison of telavancin and vancomycin lock solutions in eradication of biofilm-producing staphylococci and enterococci from central venous catheters.results of a study of the activity of antibiotic lock solutions of vancomycin and telavancin against biofilm-forming strains of staphylococcus epidermidis, enterococcus faecalis, and staphylococcus aureus are reported.201626896504
screening of the enterocin-encoding genes and antimicrobial activity in enterococcus the current study, a total of 135 enterococci strains from different sources were screened for the presence of the enterocin-encoding genes enta, entp, entb, entl50a, and entl50b. the enterocin genes were present at different frequencies, with enta occurring the most frequently, followed by entp and entb; entl50a and l50b were not detected. the occurrence of single enterocin genes was higher than the occurrence of multiple enterocin gene combinations. the 80 isolates that harbor at least one ...201626907753
prevalence and risk factors of early fecal carriage of enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus spp and their antimicrobial resistant patterns among healthy neonates born in a hospital setting in central saudi investigate the prevalence, antibiotic resistant profiles, and risk factors of early fecal carriage of enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) and staphylococci among 150 healthy saudi neonates born in a hospital setting in central saudi arabia.201626905350
evolution of resistance to cationic biocides in streptococcus mutans and enterococcus faecalis.the aim of this study was to investigate whether streptococcus mutans and enterococcus faecalis develop resistance to the cationic biocides chlorhexidine (chx), cetylpyridinium chloride (cpc), and 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (mdpb).201626904979
genetic environment of the transferable oxazolidinone/phenicol resistance gene optra in enterococcus faecalis isolates of human and animal origin.aim of this study was to analyse 17 non-related enterococcus faecalis isolates of human and animal origin for the genetic environment of the novel oxazolidinone/phenicol resistance gene optra.201626903276
evaluation of polymorphisms in pbp4 gene and genetic diversity in penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible enterococcus faecalis from hospitals in different states in brazil.the aim of the present study was to verify whether penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible enterococcus faecalis (prasef) occurred in brazil prior to the beginning of the 21st century, and to verify whether ampicillin susceptibility can predict susceptibility to other β-lactams in e. faecalis with this inconsistent phenotype. the presence of polymorphisms in the pbp4 gene and genetic diversity among the isolates were investigated. of 21 prasef analyzed, 5 (23.8%) and 4 (19.0%) were imipenem ...201626903013
clinical characteristics and antimicrobial patterns in complicated intra-abdominal infections: a 6-year epidemiological study in southern china.complicated intra-abdominal infection (ciais) are a common and important cause of morbidity worldwide. in this study, the clinical features, microbiological profiles, antimicrobial patterns and treatments of 3233 ciai patients (mean age, 47.6 years; 54.7% male) with 3531 hospitalisations from 2008-2013 were retrospectively investigated. the most commonly isolated bacteria were escherichia coli (47.6%), klebsiella pneumoniae (16.9%), enterococcus faecalis (10.4%) and pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8%) ...201626899413
incidence of virulence determinants in clinical enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolates collected in evaluate the prevalence of some virulence genes among 510 clinical enterococcus spp. isolates and to assess the association of those genes with the species, infection site, and patient group (inpatients/outpatients).201626849965
antibacterial effect of hydroalcoholic extract of punica granatum linn. petal on common oral microorganisms.objectives. this study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of punica granatum linn. (p. granatum) petal on streptococcus sanguinis, streptococcus mutans, streptococcus salivarius, streptococcus sobrinus, and enterococcus faecalis. materials and methods. in this in vitro study, p. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (chx), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (bhia) ...201626884763
antibiofilm efficacy of honey and bee-derived defensin-1 on multi-species wound biofilm.many clinically relevant biofilms are polymicrobial. examining the effect of antimicrobials in a multi-species biofilm consortium is of great clinical importance. the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of different honey types against bacterial wound pathogens grown in multi-species biofilm and to test the antibiofilm activity of honey defensin-1 in its recombinant form. modified lubbock chronic wound biofilm formed by four bacterial species (staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus ag ...201626861950
field study on evaluation of the efficacy and usability of two disinfectants for drinking water treatment at small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms.the hygienic quality of drinking water for cattle originated from different sources together with the efficacy and usability of two types of disinfectants against waterborne pathogens were assessed for small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms. a total of 120 drinking water samples were collected from water troughs representing three different water sources commonly used for cattle drinking (tap, underground and surface water; n = 65, 25, and 30, respectively). collected samples were cultured ...201626861741
photoactivated disinfection (pad) of dental root canal system - an ex-vivo investigate the efficacy of photo activated disinfection (pad) in reducing colony-forming unit (cfu) counts of enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) in infected dental root canals. the study compared the efficacy of pad with conventional endodontic treatment (cet) and also a combination of cet along with pad.201626858548
antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of cuminum cyminum as an intracanal medicament compared to chlorhexidine gel.the aims of this study were i) to define the chemical constituents of cuminum cyminum (cumin) essential oil, ii) to compare the antimicrobial activity of this oil to that of chlorhexidine (chx) and co-trimoxazole on planktonic and biofilm forms of bacteria isolated from the teeth with persistent endodontic infection and iii ) to compare the cytotoxicity of these medicaments on l929 fibroblasts.201626843877
[in vitro activity of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections].in vitro activity of the combination of ampicillin- ceftriaxone against 30 enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections in patients admitted to hospital de clínicas josé de san martin in the city of buenos aires was assessed. ampicillin- ceftriaxone synergies were determined by microdilution in müeller-hinton (mh) broth with and without subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone. synergy was detected in 22/30 isolates. a decrease in both minimum inhibitory concentration (mi ...201626857425
an analysis in vivo of intracanal bacterial load before and after chemo-mechanical preparation: a comparative analysis of two irrigants and two activation techniques.the goals of this randomized double-blind trial were to assess the antimicrobial activity in vivo of sodium hypochlorite (naocl) vs. chlorhexidine gluconate (chx) used in combination either with endoactivator® or irri s® files in patients with apical periodontitis.201626855714
antibacterial activity of diode laser and sodium hypochlorite in enterococcus faecalis-contaminated root canals.the aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection ability of 980-nm diode laser in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (naocl) as a common root canal irrigant in canals infected with enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis).201626843870
effectiveness of different disinfection protocols on the reduction of bacteria in enterococcus faecalis biofilm in teeth with large root canals.this study compared the effectiveness of different disinfection protocols in reducing bacteria in an enterococcus faecalis biofilm in teeth with large root canals.201626830428
the effects of silver nanoparticles on antimicrobial activity of proroot mineral trioxide aggregate (mta) and calcium enriched mixture (cem).although, mineral trioxide aggregate (mta) and new experimental cement (cem) are good root filling cements, but had no or low antimicrobial activities. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of addition of silver nanoparticles (snp) to these two cements on antimicrobial effects against five most dental infection related microorganisms.201626855701
killing of vre enterococcus faecalis by commensal strains: evidence for evolution and accumulation of mobile elements in the absence of competition.enterococci are members of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and most animals that, over the past 3 decades, have emerged as leading causes of multidrug resistant hospital acquired infection (hai). in addition to their general hardiness, many traits have entered enterococcal lineages through horizontal gene transfer, which has led to the evolution of pathogenic hospital-associated lineages uniquely adapted for survival and proliferation in the antibiotic perturbed ecology of the gastrointesti ...201626939857
ampicillin in combination with ceftaroline, cefepime, or ceftriaxone demonstrates equivalent activities in a high-inoculum enterococcus faecalis infection model.ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination therapy has become a predominant treatment for serious enterococcus faecalis infections, such as endocarditis. unfortunately, ceftriaxone use is associated with future vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization. we evaluated e. faecalis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model against simulated human concentration-time profiles of ampicillin plus ceftaroline, cefepime, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin. ampicillin-cefepime and ampicillin-ceftaroline demonstrated activ ...201626926624
lipoteichoic acid of enterococcus faecalis inhibits the differentiation of macrophages into osteoclasts.enterococcus faecalis is associated with persistent endodontic infection and refractory apical periodontitis. recently, we have shown that heat-killed e. faecalis attenuates osteoclast differentiation. because lipoteichoic acid (lta) is a major virulence factor of gram-positive bacteria, we investigated the effect of lta from e. faecalis (eflta) on osteoclast differentiation.201626920932
envelope structures of gram-positive bacteria.gram-positive organisms, including the pathogens staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pneumoniae, and enterococcus faecalis, have dynamic cell envelopes that mediate interactions with the environment and serve as the first line of defense against toxic molecules. major components of the cell envelope include peptidoglycan (pg), which is a well-established target for antibiotics, teichoic acids (tas), capsular polysaccharides (cps), surface proteins, and phospholipids. these components can underg ...201626919863
the impact of host metapopulation structure on the population genetics of colonizing bacteria.many key bacterial pathogens are frequently carried asymptomatically, and the emergence and spread of these opportunistic pathogens can be driven, or mitigated, via demographic changes within the host population. these inter-host transmission dynamics combine with basic evolutionary parameters such as rates of mutation and recombination, population size and selection, to shape the genetic diversity within bacterial populations. whilst many studies have focused on how molecular processes underpin ...201626916623
synthesis and biological activities of lanthanide (iii) nitrate complexes with n-(2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl) methylene) nicotinohydrazide schiff base.the field of coordination chemistry has registered a phenomenal growth during last few decades. it is well known that precious metals have been used for medicinal purposes for at least 3500 years. at that time, precious metals were believed to benefit health because of their rarity, but research has now well established the link between medicinal properties of inorganic drugs and specific biological properties.201626916500
in vitro antibacterial activity of a silicone-based endodontic sealer and two conventional sealers.the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the modification in the silver component is capable of providing guttaflow 2 with antibacterial activity against enterococcus faecalis compared with epoxy resin-based (ah plus) and zinc oxide and eugenol-based (endofill) sealers. the antibacterial activity was evaluated using a reference strain of e. faecalis (atcc 29212). freshly mixed sealers were subjected to the agar diffusion test (adt), while the direct contact test (dct) was performed after ma ...201626910015
rapid evolution of microbe-mediated protection against pathogens in a worm host.microbes can defend their host against virulent infections, but direct evidence for the adaptive origin of microbe-mediated protection is lacking. using experimental evolution of a novel, tripartite interaction, we demonstrate that mildly pathogenic bacteria (enterococcus faecalis) living in worms (caenorhabditis elegans) rapidly evolved to defend their animal hosts against infection by a more virulent pathogen (staphylococcus aureus), crossing the parasitism-mutualism continuum. host protection ...201626978164
chemical composition, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of the essential oil from the tunisian ononis angustissima l. (fabaceae).the chemical composition, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of ononis angustissima from south tunisia has been evaluated. the oil yield was 0.04% (w/w). the chemical composition, determined by gc and gc-ms is reported for the first time. forty-five components, accounting for 93.7% of the total oil have been identified. the oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.2%), followed by sesquiterpene hydroca ...201626972463
deletion of fabn in enterococcus faecalis results in unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophy and decreased release of inflammatory cytokines.the gram-positive bacterium enterococcus faecalis can cause life-threatening infections and is resistant to several commonly used antibiotics. the type ii fatty acid pathway in bacteria is discussed as a potential target for antimicrobial therapy. however, it was shown that inhibition or deletion of its enzymes can be rescued in gram-positive bacteria by supplementation with fatty acids. here we show that by deletion of the fabn gene, which is essential for unsaturated fatty acid (ufa) synthesis ...201627009913
thymidylate limitation potentiates cephalosporin activity toward enterococci via an exopolysaccharide-based mechanism.multidrug resistant enterococci are major causes of nosocomial infections. prior therapy with cephalosporins increases the risk of developing an enterococcal infection due to the intrinsic resistance of enterococci to these antibiotics. while progress has been made toward understanding the genetic and biochemical mechanisms of cephalosporin resistance, available data indicate that as-yet-unidentified resistance factors must exist. here, we describe results of a screen to identify small molecules ...201627008338
in silico dissection of type vii secretion system components across bacteria: new directions towards functional characterization.type vii secretion system (t7ss) is one of the factors involved in virulence of mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv. numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. an extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information is required to obtain a global view of diverse characteristics and pathogenicity-related aspects of this machinery. the present study suggests that differences in structural components ...201626949095
time is of the essence: the impact of delayed antibiotic therapy on patient outcomes in hospital-onset enterococcal bloodstream infections.with increasing prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre), appropriate antibiotic therapy for enterococcal bloodstream infections (ebsi) can be delayed. data regarding the impact of delayed therapy on ebsi outcomes are conflicting, and the time delay most strongly associated with poor outcomes has not been defined.201626945013
occurrence of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible enterococcus spp. in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation.reclaiming municipal wastewater for agricultural, environmental, and industrial purposes is increasing in the united states to combat dwindling freshwater supplies. however, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial quality of reclaimed water. in particular, no previous studies have evaluated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) in reclaimed water used at spray irrigation sites in the united states. to address this knowledge gap, we investigated the occurrence, concentr ...201626942838
point-of-use water disinfection using ultraviolet and visible light-emitting diodes.improvements in point-of-use (pou) drinking water disinfection technologies for remote and regional communities are urgently needed. conceptually, uv-c light-emitting diodes (leds) overcome many drawbacks of low-pressure mercury tube based uv devices, and uv-a or visible light leds also show potential. to realistically evaluate the promise of led disinfection, our study assessed the performance of a model 1.3 l reactor, similar in size to solar disinfection bottles. in all, 12 different commerci ...201626967007
heat-killed enterococcus faecalis ef-2001 ameliorates atopic dermatitis in a murine model.recent reports have shown the immunomodulatory effect of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria. atopic dermatitis (ad) is an allergic skin disease, caused by immune dysregulation among other factors. the aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat-killed enterococcus faecalis ef-2001 (ef-2001) on ad. we established an in vivo ad model by repeated local exposure of dermatophagoides farinae extract (dfe; house dust mite extract) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (dncb) to the ears of mice. after oral ...201626959058
influence of working length and foraminal enlargement on foramen morphology and sealing ability.the present study evaluated the influence of the working length and foraminal enlargement on the sealing ability and anatomy of the apical region of the root.201627054864
detection of vancomycin resistance among enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus aureus.vancomycin remains the drug of choice for resistant gram positive infections caused by enterococcus spp and methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa). increased use of vancomycin has led to frank resistance and increase in mic (mic creep). vancomycin intermediate staphylococcus aureus (visa), vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus (vrsa) & vancomycin resistant enterococci (vre) are important emerging nosocomial pathogens resulting in treatment failures.201627042459
maternal antibiotic treatment impacts development of the neonatal intestinal microbiome and antiviral immunity.microbial colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract (git) begins at birth, is shaped by the maternal microbiota, and is profoundly altered by antibiotic treatment. antibiotic treatment of mothers during pregnancy influences colonization of the git microbiota of their infants. the role of the git microbiota in regulating adaptive immune function against systemic viral infections during infancy remains undefined. we used a mouse model of perinatal antibiotic exposure to examine the effect ...201627036912
oritavancin activity tested against molecularly characterized staphylococci and enterococci displaying elevated linezolid mic results.oritavancin (mic50/90, 0.03/0.06 to 0.12 μg/ml) had potent activity against linezolid-resistant staphylococci, as well as enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium (oritavancin mic50/90, 0.015/0.12 μg/ml against both species). all linezolid-resistant isolates were inhibited by oritavancin at ≤0.12 μg/ml. these results confirmed the absence of cross-resistance between linezolid and oritavancin in staphylococci and enterococci.201627001823
quantification of lipoteichoic acid contents and cultivable bacteria at the different phases of the endodontic retreatment.the infectious content of root canals, including bacteria and lipoteichoic acid (lta), cause injuries to the periapical tissues. the purpose of this clinical study was to quantify the levels of both lta and cultivable bacteria at the different phases of endodontic retreatment (er) of teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. it also aimed to investigate the presence of gram-positive microorganisms before and after chemomechanical preparation (cmp) and intracanal medication (icm).201627000273
indomethacin injury to the rat small intestine is dependent upon biliary secretion and is associated with overgrowth of enterococci.nsaiduse is limited due to the drugs' toxicity to the gastrointestinal mucosa, an action incompletely understood. lower gut injury induced bynsaids is dependent on bile secretion and is reported to increase the growth of a number of bacterial species, including an enterococcal species,enterococcus faecalis this study examined the relationships between indomethacin (indo)-induced intestinal injury/bleeding, small bowel overgrowth (sbo) and dissemination of enterococci, and the contribution of bil ...201627033447
synthesis variants of quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial efficacy in dental materials.resin-based dental materials allow bacterial growth on their surface and lack antibacterial activity, leading to functional and esthetic failure. quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (qpei) nanoparticles (nps) incorporated in resin-based composite at 2% wt/wt have demonstrated prolonged and complete inhibition of bacterial growth. this study focused on optimization of qpei np synthesis to reduce the concentration required for bacterial growth inhibition. the objective here was to enhance antimi ...201627032864
posaida: presence of staphylococcus aureus/mrsa and enterococcus/vre in danish ambulances. a cross-sectional study.every year approximately one out of ten danish patients contracts a healthcare associated infection (hai). staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus are prominent in the group of pathogenic bacteria that underlie hais, causing unnecessary inconvenience and prolonging hospitalization. bacterial colonization often occurs due to indirect patient-to-patient transmission, caused by poor hygiene compliance. this study aims to determine the level of contamination with s. aureus/mrsa and enterococcus/vre o ...201627029410
l-lactic acid production by combined utilization of agricultural bioresources as renewable and economical substrates through batch and repeated-batch fermentation of enterococcus faecalis rky1.enterococcus faecalis rky1 was used to produce l-lactic acid from hydrol, soybean curd residues (scr), and malt. hydrol was efficiently metabolized to l-lactic acid with optical purity of >97.5%, though hydrol contained mixed sugars such as glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltodextrin. combined utilization of hydrol, scr, and malt was enough to sustain lactic acid fermentation by e. faecalis rky1. in order to reduce the amount of nitrogen sources and product inhibition, cell-recycle repeated- ...201626970921
invasive enterococcal infections in poland: the current epidemiological situation.the aim of this study was to investigate human invasive isolates of enterococci, obtained through prospective surveillance in poland. the consecutive enterococcal isolates were collected in 30 hospitals between may 2010 and june 2011, and studied by species identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and, for enterococcus faecium by detection of markers specific for the hospital meroclone, multilocus vntr analysis (mlva) and multilocus sequence typing (mlst). additionally, the genomic d ...201626946510
antibacterial and cytotoxic triterpenoids from the roots of combretum racemosum.a new pentacyclic triterpenoid glucoside, together with fourteen known compounds, was isolated from the roots of combretum racemosum. combretaceae). the structure of the new compound was established as 28-o-β-d-glucopyranosyl-2α,3β,21β,23-tetrahydroxyolean-18-en-28-oate (1) on the basis of detailed spectroscopic data including ms, 1d, and 2d nmr. the inhibitory activity of compounds 1-15 against promyelocytic leukemia hl-60 and human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia k562 cell lines was evaluated. c ...201626946378
enterococcus faecalis ebp pili are important for cell-cell aggregation and intraspecies gene transfer.enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that ranks among the leading causes of biofilm-associated infections. we previously demonstrated that the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pili (ebp) of e. faecalis play a major role in biofilm formation, adherence to abiotic surfaces and experimental infections. in this study, derivatives of e. faecalis strain og1 were engineered to further characterize functions of ebp pili. loss of pili resulted in a 36-fold decrease in the number of clos ...201626967674
molecular diagnosis of urinary tract infections by semi-quantitative detection of uropathogens in a routine clinical hospital setting.the objective of our study was the development of a semi-quantitative real-time pcr to detect uropathogens. two multiplex pcr reactions were designed to detect escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., enterobacter spp., citrobacter spp., proteus mirabilis, enterococcus faecalis, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. 16s based pcr was performed in parallel to detect gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. firstly to identify non-targeted agents of infection in the same urine specimen, and secondly to quantify ...201626954694
co-location of the oxazolidinone resistance genes optra and cfr on a multiresistance plasmid from staphylococcus identify and characterize the oxazolidinone/phenicol resistance gene optra in staphylococcus isolates.201626953332
resistance to antimicrobial agents among enterococci isolated from fecal samples of wild marine species in the southern coast of brazil.the purpose of this study was to evaluate species distribution, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and presence of resistance genes in enterococci isolated from fecal samples of wild marine species, including seabirds (n=12), sea turtles (n=8), and mammals (n=3) found alive or dead in southern coast of brazil. enterococci were classified based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, tested for antibiotic susceptibility, and the presence of tet(s), tet(m), tet(l), mrsc, and erm(b) genes by p ...201626952995
antimicrobial action of calcium hydroxide-based endodontic sealers after setting, against e. faecalis biofilm.enterococcus faecalis are gram positive bacteria that can mostly resist endodontic therapy, inducing persistent infection in the root canal system. endodontic sealers with antimicrobial activity may help eliminate residual microorganisms that survive endodontic treatment. the present study aimed at comparing the antimicrobial activity of acroseal, sealapex and ah plus endodontic sealers in an in vitro biofilm model. bovine dentin specimens (144) were prepared, and twelve blocks for each sealer a ...201626981759
cysteamine enhances biofilm eradication efficacy of calcium hydroxide.calcium hydroxide (ca[oh]2) is a widely used interappointment dressing, but its antibacterial property is compromised by dentin. hence, the addition of chlorhexidine (chx) with ca(oh)2 has been proposed. however, the antimicrobial efficacy of this mixture compared with ca(oh)2 alone is currently still debatable. cysteamine is a mucolytic agent used to reduce the viscosity of mucus through the disruption of proteins, which are also important components of the extracellular matrix of biofilms. the ...201626951960
effects of dentin debris on the antimicrobial properties of sodium hypochlorite and etidronic acid.the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dentin powder on the concentration, ph, and antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (naocl) alone and combined with etidronic acid (hebp).201626951957
comparative analysis of protaper and waveone systems to reduce enterococcus faecalis from root canal system in primary molars--an in vitro assess, in vitro, the ability of the protaper(™) and waveone(™) systems to reduce enterococcus faecalis contamination in primary molars.201626950813
comparison of hospital room surface disinfection using a novel ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (uvgi) generator.the estimated 721,800 hospital acquired infections per year in the united states have necessitated development of novel environmental decontamination technologies such as ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (uvgi). this study evaluated the efficacy of a novel, portable uvgi generator (the torch, chlordisys solutions, inc., lebanon, nj) to disinfect surface coupons composed of plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, chrome-plated light switch cover, and a porcelain tile that were inoculated with ...201627028152
spatial organization of cell wall-anchored proteins at the surface of gram-positive bacteria.bacterial surface proteins constitute an amazing repertoire of molecules with important functions such as adherence, invasion, signalling and interaction with the host immune system or environment. in gram-positive bacteria, many surface proteins of the "lpxtg" family are anchored to the peptidoglycan (pg) by an enzyme named sortase. while this anchoring mechanism has been clearly deciphered, less is known about the spatial organization of cell wall-anchored proteins in the bacterial envelope. h ...201627025379
[persistence of a st6 clone of enterococcus faecalis genotype vanb2 in two hospitals in aragon (spain)].in order to study the evolution of the outbreak that occurred between 2009 and 2010 in 3 hospitals in zaragoza, all vancomycin-resistant clinical enterococcus faecalis isolates identified between 2011 and 2013 at these hospitals were characterised.201627059750
fungal naphtho-γ-pyrones: potent antibiotics for drug-resistant microbial pathogens.four naphtho-γ-pyrones (fonsecinones a and c and aurasperones a and e) were identified as potential antibacterial agents against escherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (esbl)-producing e. coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterococcus faecalis, and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) in an in vitro antibacterial screen of 218 fungal metabolites. fonsecinone a (2) exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of 4.26, 17.04, an ...201627063778
in vitro inactivation of enterococcus faecalis with a led device.non-coherent light-emitting diodes (leds) are effective in a large variety of clinical indications; however, the bactericidal activity of leds is unclear, although the effectiveness of such lights is well known. currently, no studies have examined the effects of nir-led on bacteria. the aims of this study were to verify the antibacterial activity of 880-nm led irradiation on a bacterial suspension of enterococcus faecalis and to compare it with the actions of sodium hypochlorite (naocl) and the ...201627107704
first japanese case of infectious endocarditis due to enterococcus faecalis small-colony variants.a male patient was admitted to our hospital due to infectious endocarditis. he had been treated with levofloxacin for 6 weeks, sulbactam/cefoperazone for 4 weeks, and benzylpenicillin for 2 days prior to valve replacement surgery. gram-positive cocci, with morphology consistent with γ-streptococcus, were detected in blood cultures obtained at admission, as well as in vegetation obtained from the aortic valve. however, the strain could not be identified using biochemical methods. sequencing of th ...201627094238
antimicrobial activity of tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate versus sodium hypochlorite against enterococcus faecalis.background. this study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate (taed-sp) in comparison to 2.5% and 5% sodium hypochlorite (naocl) against enterococcus faecalis. methods. a standard suspension of e. faecalis was inoculated on 60 plates containing mueller-hinton agar culture medium. four sterile disks of beckman filtration paper were placed on each plate. taed-sp, 5% and 2.5% naocl were placed on three disks. sterile physiologic saline was placed on the ...201627092214
q69 (an e. faecalis-infecting bacteriophage) as a biocontrol agent for reducing tyramine in dairy products.biogenic amines (bas) are low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds with biological activity, formed from amino acids by decarboxylation. bas are naturally present in all living organisms playing essential roles. however, their accumulation in food through the metabolic activity of certain microorganisms constitutes a toxicological hazard. among foods, cheeses accumulate some of the highest concentrations of bas since they provide an ideal environment for their accumulation. most of the methods ...201627092117
[the effect of a combined nanoparticulate/calcium hydroxide medication on the biofilm of enterococcus faecalis in starvation phase].to evaluate the efficacy of ca(oh)2 with a silver nanoparticle suspension to eliminate the biofilm of enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) in starvation phase.201627063301
comparison of clinical outcomes and risk factors in polymicrobial versus monomicrobial enterococcal bloodstream infections.enterococcal bloodstream infections (ebsis) are frequently polymicrobial but scant data describe the outcomes and risk factors of polymicrobial ebsi. this study describes the outcomes and risk factors of polymicrobial versus monomicrobial ebsi.201627079241
temporal variabilities in genetic patterns and antibiotic resistance profiles of enterococci isolated from human feces.temporal variabilities in the genetic patterns and antibiotic resistance profiles of enterococci were monitored over a 7-month period. enterococcus faecalis isolates (103 strains) collected from feces showed only one genetic pattern and antibiotic resistance profile within 0 d and 30 d. in contrast, after 60 d and 90 d, the genetic patterns and antibiotic resistance profiles of all e. faecalis isolates (8 strains) clearly differed within 30 d. these results indicate that the genetic patterns and ...201627265342
emergence of vana gene among vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a tertiary care hospital of north - east india.vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) have become one of the most challenging nosocomial pathogens with the rapid spread of the multi-drug resistant strain with limited therapeutic options. it is a matter of concern due to its ability to transfer vancomycin resistant gene to other organisms. the present study was undertaken to determine the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and the vana gene among the isolates in a tertiary care hospital of north-east india.201627241650
enterococcus faecalis promotes osteoclast differentiation within an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture investigate the effects of heat-killed enterococcus faecalis atcc 29212 and p25rc clinical strain (derived from an obturated root canal with apical periodontitis) on osteoclast differentiation within an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture system.201627262294
topical formulation comprising fatty acid extract from cod liver oil: development, evaluation and stability studies.the purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. in vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract e ...201627258290
antimicrobial and physicochemical characterization of biodegradable, nitric oxide-releasing nanocellulose-chitosan packaging membranes.biodegradable composite membranes with antimicrobial properties consisting of nanocellulose fibrils (cnfs), chitosan, and s-nitroso-n-acetyl-d-penicillamine (snap) were developed and tested for food packaging applications. as a nitric oxide donor, snap was encapsulated into completely dispersed chitosan in 100 ml of 0.1 n acetic acid and was thoroughly mixed with cnfs to produce a composite membrane. the fabricated membranes had a uniform dispersion of chitosan and snap within the cnfs, which wa ...201627258235
effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota.starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. the objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. thirty horses were assigned to treatments: control (hay only), hc (high corn), ho (high oats), lc (low corn), lo (low oats), and lw (low pelleted wheat middlings). horses received an all-forage diet (2 wk; d -14 to d -1) befo ...201627128793
nondermal irritating hyperosmotic nanoemulsions reduce treatment times in a contamination model of wound healing.increased microbial burden within the wound often complicates wound healing and may lead to subsequent infection or delayed healing. here, we investigate a novel topical for addressing wound contamination that utilizes hyperosmotic saccharides with a cell membrane disrupting emulsion. these hyperosmotic nanoemulsions (hne) were administered topically in a full-thickness biopsy model of wound healing. results show that hne were well tolerated in noninfected animals with no indications of dermal i ...201627090977
complete genome sequence of enterococcus faecalis ld33, a bacteriocin-producing strain.enterococcus faecalis ld33 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in inner mongolia of china. its complete genome sequence was carried out using the illumina hiseq and the pacbio rsii platform. the genome only has a circular chromosome and a gc content of 37.58%. other core information shown in the genome sequencing results further insight on this bacterium's genetic elements for bacteriocin production and the genes related to respiratory chain.201627090021
effect of the quorum-sensing luxs gene on biofilm formation by enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is the species of bacterium most frequently isolated from the root canals of teeth that exhibit chronic apical periodontitis refractory to endodontic treatment. in this study, we evaluated the effect of the s-ribosylhomocysteine lyase (luxs) quorum-sensing gene on e. faecalis biofilm formation by constructing a knockout mutant. the biofilms formed by both e. faecalis and its luxs mutant strain were evaluated using the mtt method. important parameters that influence biofilm ...201627080421
a silenced vana gene cluster on a transferable plasmid caused an outbreak of vancomycin-variable enterococci.we report an outbreak of vancomycin-variable vana(+) enterococci (vve) able to escape phenotypic detection by current guidelines and demonstrate the molecular mechanisms for in vivo switching into vancomycin resistance and horizontal spread of the vana cluster. forty-eight vana(+) enterococcus faecium isolates and one enterococcus faecalis isolate were analyzed for clonality with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and their vana gene cluster compositions were assessed by pcr and whole-geno ...201627139479
comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of two antibiotics sparfloxacin and augmentin as experimental root canal irrigating solutions against enterococcus faecalis - an invitro of the main goals of endodontic treatment is root canal disinfection and to prevent subsequent chances of reinfection. adjuvant to instrumentation, root canal irrigants are required to eliminate the bacteria found on the root canal walls and lateral canals within the dentinal tubules.201627135003
a novel in vitro co-culture model comprised of caco-2/rbl-2h3 cells to evaluate anti-allergic effects of food factors through the intestine.the prevalence of type i allergic diseases such as food allergy and allergic rhinitis has increased. therefore, many studies have focused on food factors with anti-allergic activities in recent years. in order to investigate the effect of food factors on mast cell activation, a rbl-2h3 cell monoculture system has been widely used, in which various food factors have been reported to inhibit degranulation of rbl-2h3 cells. however, some orally administered food factors do not interact directly wit ...201627131754
the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and n-acetylcysteine to prevent microbial colonization and biofilm development on urinary catheter surface: results from a preliminary study.we evaluated, in a preliminary study, the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and n-acetylcysteine to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheter. we used 20 urinary catheters: 5 catheters were incubated with enterococcus faecalis (control group); 5 catheters were incubated with e. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and n-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 1); 5 catheters were incubated with e. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and n-ace ...201627127655
light-activated polymethylmethacrylate nanofibers with antibacterial activity.the creation of an antibacterial material with triggerable properties enables us to avoid the overuse or misuse of antibacterial substances and, thus, prevent the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. as a potential light-activated antibacterial material, polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) nanofibers doped with silver nanoparticles (agnps) and meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (tpp) were prepared by electrospinning. tpp was chosen as an effectively reactive oxygen species (ros) producer. antibacterial te ...201627127048
solar inactivation of enterococci and escherichia coli in natural waters: effects of water absorbance and depth.the decay of sewage-sourced escherichia coli and enterococci was measured at multiple depths in a freshwater marsh, a brackish water lagoon, and a marine site, all located in california. the marine site had very clear water, while the waters from the marsh and lagoon contained colored dissolved organic matter that not only blocked light but also produced reactive oxygen species. first order decay rate constants of both enterococci and e. coli were between 1 and 2 d(-1) under low light conditions ...201627119980
sealing ability of mta, cpm, and mbpc as root-end filling materials: a bacterial leakage study.objectives to evaluate the sealing ability of three root-end filling materials (white mta, cpm, and mbpc) using an enterococcus faecalis leakage model. material and methods seventy single-root extracted human teeth were instrumented and root-ends were resected to prepare 3 mm depth cavities. root-end preparations were filled with white mta, cpm, and mbpc cements. enterococcus faecalis was coronally introduced and the apical portion was immersed in bhi culture medium with phenol red indicator. th ...201627119763
solubility and bacterial sealing ability of mta and root-end filling materials.objective to evaluate solubility and sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (mta) and root-end filling materials. material and methods the materials evaluated were: mta, calcium silicate cement with zirconium oxide (csc/zro2), and zinc oxide/eugenol (zoe). solubility test was performed according to ansi/ada. the difference between initial and final mass of the materials was analyzed after immersion in distilled water for 7 and 30 days. retrograde cavities in human teeth with single straig ...201627119759
antimicrobial activity and substantivity of uncaria tomentosa in infected root canal dentin.the aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial activity and substantivity of uncaria tomentosa willd dc (cat's claw, cc) in root dentin contaminated with enterococcus faecalis. forty-eight human premolars were contaminated with e. faecalis (atcc 29212) and randomly divided into four groups according to the irrigant used during chemomechanical preparation (cmp): cc group: 2% cc gel; chx group: 2% chlorhexidine digluconate gel (chx); naocl group: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (naocl); and ss g ...201627119588
potent antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of bacteriogenically synthesized gold-silver nanoparticles against pathogenic bacteria and their physiochemical characterizations.the objective of this study was to develop a bimetallic nanoparticle with enhanced antibacterial activity that would improve the therapeutic efficacy against bacterial biofilms. bimetallic gold-silver nanoparticles were bacteriogenically synthesized using γ-proteobacterium, shewanella oneidensis mr-1. the antibacterial activities of gold-silver nanoparticles were assessed on the planktonic and biofilm phases of individual and mixed multi-cultures of pathogenic gram negative (escherichia coli and ...201627117745
boron-doped diamond oxidation of amoxicillin pharmaceutical formulation: statistical evaluation of operating parameters, reaction pathways and antibacterial activity.the electrochemical oxidation of a commercial amoxicillin formulation over a boron-doped diamond (bdd) anode was investigated. the effect of initial cod concentration (1-2 g/l), current density (30-50 ma/cm(2)), treatment time (15-90 min), initial ph (3-9) and electrolyte concentration (2-4 g/l nacl) on cod removal was assessed through a factorial design methodology. for the range of conditions in question, the first three single effects, as well as the interaction between cod and time were the ...201627117507
acute severe aortic regurgitation: imaging with pathological correlation.acute aortic regurgitation (ar) is an important finding associated with a wide variety of disease processes. its timely diagnosis is of utmost importance. delay in diagnosis could prove fatal.201627114975
anterior mitral valve aneurysm: a rare sequelae of aortic valve endocarditis.summaryin intravenous drug abusers, infective endocarditis usually involves right-sided valves, with staphylococcus aureus being the most common etiologic agent. we present a patient who is an intravenous drug abuser with left-sided (aortic valve) endocarditis caused by enterococcus faecalis who subsequently developed an anterior mitral valve aneurysm, which is an exceedingly rare complication. a systematic literature search was conducted which identified only five reported cases in the literatu ...201627249815
treatment of mdr urinary tract infections with oral fosfomycin: a retrospective options for treating mdr organisms have led clinicians to turn to older antimicrobial agents that may display activity against such infections. one such agent is fosfomycin, an oral drug with activity against a variety of gram-positive and -negative bacteria, but only approved for use in the usa for urinary tract infection (uti) due to escherichia coli and enterococcus faecalis. the purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of fosfomycin treatment of mdr uti and identify predictor ...201627246234
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