reactivation of the hydrogenase from desulfovibrio gigas by hydrogen. influence of redox potential.the specific activity of the periplasmic hydrogenase from desulfovibrio gigas is increased approximately 10-fold in the h2 utilization assay with benzyl viologen by several hours of incubation under an atmosphere of h2. after a variable lag phase during which residual traces of o2 are removed, the reversible activation is exponential. the extent of activation is dependent on ph and the redox potential of the incubation medium. a tentative model based on the existence of a monoelectronic redox ce ...19846384213
primary structure of the two (4 fe-4 s) clusters ferredoxin from desulfovibrio desulfuricans (strain norway 4).the primary structure of a ferredoxin isolated from d. desulfuricans norway strain, which we called ferredoxin ii (fd ii) has been elucidated. this ferredoxin is a dimer constituted of two identical subunits of molecular weight 6000. in ferredoxin ii two (4 fe-4 s) centers are present per subunit instead of one (fe-s) center as is the case for the other ferredoxins isolated from desulfovibrio and for fd i from the same organism. the comparison of amino-acid sequences shows that ferredoxin ii pre ...19836403056
structure of oxidized flavodoxin from anacystis nidulans.the structure of oxidized flavodoxin from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans has been determined at 2.5 a resolution with phases calculated from ethylmercury phosphate and dimercuriacetate derivatives. the determination of partial sequences, including a total of 85 residues, has assisted in the interpretation of the electron density. preliminary refinement of a partial model (1072 atoms) has reduced r to 0.349 for the 10.997 reflections between 2.0 and 5.0 a with 1 greater than 2 sigma. the p ...19836406674
[utilization of carbon monoxide by bacteria of the genus desulfovibrio]. 19836418781
hydrogen-using bacteria in a methanogenic acetate enrichment a study of the anaerobic utilization of acetate, an enrichment culture of sewage sludge organisms was initiated with calcium acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. a mixed bacterial population became established from which 14 anaerobic species were isolated. two of the isolates were methanogenic bacteria but only one of these, methanosarcina barkeri, utilised acetate as an energy source in axenic culture. the other methanogenic isolate, a methanobacterium sp., utilised h2/co2 but not a ...19846423605
examination of protein sequence homologies: i. eleven escherichia coli l7/l12-type ribosomal "a" protein sequences from eubacteria and complete and four partial sequences of escherichia coli l7/l12-type ribosomal "a" proteins obtained from various bacteria (e. coli, bacillus subtilis, micrococcus lysodeikticus, rhodopseudomonas spheroides, desulfovibrio vulgaris, streptomyces griseus, bacillus stearothermophilus, clostridium pasteurianum, arthrobacter glacialis, and vibrio costicola) and spinach chloroplast have been reexamined using a computer program that searches for homologous tertiary structures. comparison matrices ...19846443314
electrochemical transducers for the measurement of biological compounds. 19846471821
physiological function of hydrogen metabolism during growth of sulfidogenic bacteria on organic substrates.desulfovibrio vulgaris madison and thermodesulfobacterium commune contained functionally distinct hydrogenase activities, one which exchanged 3h2 into 3h2o and was inhibited by carbon monoxide and a second activity which produced h2 in the presence of co. cell suspensions of d. vulgaris used either lactate, pyruvate, or co as the electron donor for h2 production in the absence of sulfate. both sulfidogenic species produced and consumed hydrogen as a trace gas during growth on lactate or pyruvate ...19846480553
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction study of the 3-fe ferredoxin ii from the bacterium desulfovibrio gigas.the 3-fe ferredoxin (fdii) from the bacterium desulfovibrio gigas has been crystallized at ph 5.0 and 23 degrees c in two different crystal forms. one form is monoclinic, space group c2, with unit cell parameters a = 40.78 a, b = 44.98 a, c = 26.47 a, beta = 104.6 degrees, and one monomer of the fdii tetramer per asymmetric unit. the molecule can be either the monomer of molecular weight 6400 or a dimer of twice this molecular weight with 2-fold symmetry coincident with the 2-fold axis of the cr ...19846502709
semi-micro methods for analysis of labile sulfide and of labile sulfide plus sulfane sulfur in unusually stable iron-sulfur proteins.details are provided for a reproducible procedure for determination of labile sulfide in iron-sulfur (fe-s) proteins in the range of 1 to 3 nmol. analyses are also presented on the most stable fe-s protein so far reported. in this case denaturation with guanidine.hcl was used in the presence of dithiothreitol. the values obtained then also include any sulfane sulfur (s0) present.19836614472
crystallographic study of rubredoxin from the bacterium desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain 27774.rubredoxin from desulfovibrio desulfuricans (strain 27774) has been isolated and crystallized. preliminary amino acid and crystallographic analyses indicate that this rubredoxin is the smallest rubredoxin isolated so far. the amino acid analysis indicates that the molecule is composed of 45 to 48 residues and contains histidine, which is unusual for rubredoxins from anaerobic bacteria. the x-ray diffraction pattern from these crystals reveals they belong to space group p1 with cell parameters: a ...19836644818
glutathione reductase in evolution.the disulfide reducing activities of gssg-and coassg-reductases were measured on partially purified extracts from a variety of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. glutathione-reductase was found in varying amounts in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes, used in this study, with the exception of the two strict anaerobes clostridium tartarivorum and desulfovibrio vulgaris, and the two primitive archaebacteria methanosarcina barkeri and halobacterium halobium. coassg-reductase was found in some eukaryotes and p ...19836644831
characterization of the fe-s cluster in aconitase using low temperature magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy.beef heart aconitase has been studied by low temperature magnetic circular dichroism (mcd) spectroscopy in the wavelength region 300 to 1900 nm. together with parallel electron paramagnetic resonance and activity measurements, these data enable correlations between fe-s cluster-type and enzymic activity in aconitase. in samples not exposed to extraneous fe, the fe-s cluster in aconitase exhibits the characteristic properties of a 3fe center in both the as isolated and dithionite-reduced states. ...19846698964
serological characteristics within the genus desulfovibrio.antisera were prepared against one strain each of desulfovibrio desulfuricans, d. vulgaris and d. salexigens. the antisera were tested for cross reactivity against 36 heterologous desulfovibrio strains by both agglutination titration and by double immunodiffusion percipitin plates. generally no cross-reaction was demonstrated by agglutination even between heterologous strains of the same species, suggesting that the surface antigens of desulfovibrio are highly specific. in immunodiffusion plates ...19806772102
the anaerobic dissimilation of benzoate by pseudomonas aeruginosa coupled with desulfovibrio vulgaris, with sulphate as terminal electron acceptor. 19806778744
[carbon monoxide utilization by anaerobic bacteria]. 19826815248
energy coupling to nitrite respiration in the sulfate-reducing bacterium desulfovibrio use of a membrane fraction prepared from desulfovibrio gigas grown in a lactate-sulfate medium, synthesis of atp was demonstrated to be coupled to the oxidation of molecular hydrogen and reduction of either nitrite or hydroxylamine. this phosphorylation was uncoupled from electron transport by pentachlorophenol, methyl viologen, and gramicidin, but not by oligomycin. the extrusion of protons from the cells was shown to be coupled to the hydrogen-nitrite respiratory system, and, assuming the l ...19836822477
characterization of a new type of dissimilatory sulfite reductase present in thermodesulfobacterium commune.a new type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase, desulfofuscidin, was isolated from the nonsporeforming thermophilic sulfate-reducing microorganism thermodesulfobacterium commune. the molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated at 167,000 by sedimentation equilibrium, and the protein was pure by both disc electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. the bisulfite reductase was a tetramer and had two types of subunits with an alpha(2)beta(2) structure and an individual molecular weight of 47,000. th ...19836826522
[effect of carbon monoxide on the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their oxidation of this substrate].the effect of carbon monoxide on the growth of six strains of sulfatee-reducing bacteria have been studied as well as the ability of bacterial suspensions and extracts to oxidize co. it was shown that sulfate-reducing bacteria possess a comparably high resistance to carbon monoxide. there are difference in the sensitivity of certain species and strains of sulphat-reducing bacteria to the content of co in the gas phase. the cell suspensions and extracts are capable of oxidizing 100% co in gaseous ...19836838935
raman spectra of flavin bound in flavodoxins and in other flavoproteins. evidence for structural variations in the flavin-binding region.the resonance coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (cars) spectra for a number of flavoproteins are found to be fingerprints for the particular type of flavoprotein. one group studied were the bacterial flavodoxins: desulfovibrio vulgaris, desulfovibrio desulfuricans, azotobacter vinelandii, megasphaera elsdenii, clostridium kluyverii and clostridium formicoaceticum. the other examples were the enzymes lactate monooxygenase and glucose oxidase. fmn complexed to vibrio harveyi luciferase, and a ...19836840072
nonlinear estimation of monod growth kinetic parameters from a single substrate depletion curve.monod growth kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting sigmoidal substrate depletion data to the integrated monod equation, using nonlinear least-squares analysis. when the initial substrate concentration was in the mixed-order region, nonlinear estimation of simulated data sets containing known measurement errors provided accurate estimates of the mu max, ks, and y values used to create these data. nonlinear regression analysis of sigmoidal substrate depletion data was also evaluated for h2- ...19836870238
characterization of periplasmic hydrogenase from desulfovibrio vulgaris miyazaki k.periplasmic hydrogenase [hydrogen:ferricytochrome c3 oxidoreductase, ec] from desulfovibrio vulgaris miyazaki k (mk) was purified to homogeneity. its chemical and immunological properties were examined and compared with those of other desulfovibrio hydrogenases. the pure enzyme showed a specific activity of 1,000 mumol h2 evolution min-1 (mg protein)-1. the enzyme had a molecular weight of 50,000 as estimated by gel filtration and consisted of a single polypeptide chain. the absorption ...19836874662
preliminary crystallographic data on a ferredoxin from desulfovibrio desulfuricans (norway strain).the ferredoxin (fd i) (mr2 x 6000, one (4 fe-4 s) cluster per subunit) from the sulphate-reducing bacteria desulfovibrio desulfuricans norway 4 has been crystallized. the space group is p4(2)32 with a = 71.8 a. the two monomers of the molecule are probably related by a dyad axis.19836876178
energetics of growth of a defined mixed culture of desulfovibrio vulgaris and methanosarcina barkeri: maintenance energy coefficient of the sulfate-reducing organism in the absence and presence of its partner.the maintenance energy coefficient of desulfovibrio vulgaris was studied by using a chemostat, with methanosarcina barkeri or sulfate as the electron acceptor; lithium lactate or sodium pyruvate served as the electron donor. the experiments showed that the growth energetics of d. vulgaris or m. barkeri were greatly affected by maintenance energy coefficients. when d. vulgaris grew on lactate or pyruvate medium with sulfate, these coefficients reached 4.40 and 2.80 mm g-1 h-1, respectively; on la ...19836885720
purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a nickel enzyme from clostridium thermocaceticum.carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (co dehydrogenase) has been purified from the homoacetate-fermenting bacterium, clostridium thermoaceticum. by use of 63ni, it has been determined that the dehydrogenase is a metallo nickel enzyme. nickel was rapidly taken up by the organism and most of the ingested metal was found to be incorporated into co dehydrogenase. as estimated by gel filtration, the native enzyme has a molecular weight of 410,000. ferredoxin and a membrane-bound b-type cytochrome, both obt ...19806893049
factors affecting the production of hydrogenase by desulfovibrio examination of conditions for the growth of desulfovibrio desulfuricans, with the aim of optimizing hydrogenase production, is reported. an ammonium sulfate-lactate-yeast extract medium gave 5 to 10 times as much hydrogenase activity as a peptone-yeast extract medium. it made little if any difference whether the gas used for sparging was nitrogen, hydrogen, or a mixture thereof but increasing the rate of sparging and agitation did result in a slight decrease in activity. control of ph during ...19807006764
purification and properties of the periplasmic hydrogenase from desulfovibrio desulfuricans.the periplasmic hydrogenase of desulfovibrio desulfuricans was isolated and purified. cells were washed with tris-edta and the enzyme precipitated from the wash with ammonium sulfate. absorption chromatography on deae and hydroxyapatite yielded the enzyme at better than 95% purity as judged by gel electrophoresis. the hydrogenase catalyzed the production of more than 9000 mumol h2/min mg protein(-1) from reduced methyl viologen at 37 degrees c. it is very stable and resists inactivation by heat ...19807006765
corrosion of mild and stainless steel by four tropical desulfovibrio desulfuricans strains.the corrosion potential of four tropical desulfovibrio desulfuricans isolates was determined using a semicontinuous batch culture technique in a 56-day test incubated at 37 degrees c. the corrosion potentials for mild and stainless steel of marine or brackish water isolates (0.55 and 0.0026 mg cm-2 day-1) were observed to be approximately twice those of freshwater isolates (0.23 and 0.0014 mg cm-2 day-1). under comparable experimental conditions of severe anaerobic corrosion, stainless steel was ...19817011522
proton translocation associated with nitrite respiration in desulfovibrio desulfuricans.proton translocation by desulfovibrio desulfuricans cells, cultured anaerobically with nitrate as terminal oxidant, was studied by the oxidant-pulse method. nitrate-grown d. desulfuricans translocated protons rapidly and reproducibly with hydrogen as reductant and nitrite as electron acceptor. h+/2e- ratios were typically in the range 1.8-2.2. proton translocation following pulses of nitrite was also observed with endogenous substrate in freshly harvested cells and with lactate or formate as ele ...19817016854
a cobalt porphyrin containing protein reducible by hydrogenase isolated from desulfovibrio desulfuricans (norway). 19817036994
microcalorimetric studies of the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria: comparison of the growth parameters of some desulfovibrio species.we performed a comparative study of the growth energetics of some species of desulfovibrio by measuring microcalorimetric and molar growth yield values. lactate and pyruvate were used as energy sources for sulfate reduction. on lactate-sulfate media desulfovibrio desulfuricans norway, desulfovibrio gigas, and desulfovibrio africanus exhibited molar growth yields of 4.1 +/- 0.6, 3.7 +/- 1.7, and 1.8 +/- 0.1 g/mol, respectively, whereas on pyruvate-sulfate media the molar growth yields were higher ...19827056697
core dimensions in the 3fe cluster of desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin ii by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.we have obtained the iron k-edge extended x-ray adsorption fine structure spectra of the 3fe ferredoxin ii of desulfovibrio gigas in the oxidized and reduced states. for both states, interpretation of the exafs data suggests that the fe-s first shell coordination distance is near 2.25 a, in agreement with crystallographic studies of model compounds and proteins containing 2fe-2s and 4fe-4s centers, as well as with a recent crystallographic study of azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin i (ghosh, d., ...19827085594
complete amino acid sequence of the 4fe-4s, thermostable ferredoxin from clostridium thermoaceticum.the complete amino acid sequence of the 4fe-4s ferredoxin from the thermophilic bacterium clostridium thermoaceticum has been determined. the protein is extremely thermostable and is the only known clostridial ferredoxin to contain a single [4fe-4s] cluster. the sequence totals 63 residues and includes the first tryptophan (trp-26) reported for a clostridial ferredoxin, and other amino acids not commonly found in clostridial or clostridial-like ferredoxins: methionine (met-1), histidine (his-33) ...19827115670
non-heme iron proteins of desulfovibrio: the primary structure of ferredoxin i from desulfovibrio africanus.three different ferredoxins have been isolated from the sulfate reducing bacterium, desulfovibrio africanus. the present paper describes the complete amino acid sequence of d. africanus ferredoxin i. this sequence was determined using automatic protein sequencing in liquid phase and in solid phase. the 61 amino acid residues of the sequence have been aligned with the aid of peptides obtained by cyanogen bromide, cleavage and by tryptic hydrolysis. this ferredoxin which contains 4 cysteine residu ...19827126685
a novel iron protein from desulfovibrio gigas.the isolation, purification, and partial characterization of a novel iron-containing protein from the sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacterium, desulfovibrio gigas, is described. the highly insoluble protein was isolated from the cell debris following osmotic shock of the bacteria. the insoluble fraction consistently contained about 90% of the cell-associated iron. elemental analysis of a crude protein preparation gave 5.3% iron, 2.9% sulfur and 11.9% nitrogen. an independent colorimetric iron analy ...19827150664
reconstitution of liver nadh: cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase and of desulfovibvio vulgaris flavodoxin with 1-carba-1-deazaflavin.flavin-free cytochrome b5 reductase was reconstituted with 1-deazaflavin and 5-deazaflavin mononucleotides and dinucleotides. the 5-deazaenzyme functioned in transhydrogenation reactions but lacked electron transferase activity. the 1-deazaenzyme was fully competent for both input and output reactions. the flavin reduction rate was lowered about sevenfold upon n-1 substitution of fad, but hydrogen abstraction from nadh remained the limiting step. autoxidation of the reduced enzyme was more rapid ...19827151784
microbial transformations of inorganic sulphur compounds in soil under conditions of heterocontinuous cultivation.development and activity of the association of the sulphur cycle bacteria, represented by thiobacillus thioparus and desulfovibrio sp., were followed in chernozem soil continuously supplemented with sodium thiosulphate. the technique of heterocontinuous cultivation made it possible (i) to determine changes in the individual components of microflora involved in successive metabolic steps, their time and space sequence, (ii) to follow changes in the transformations of substrate and formation of me ...19827173746
[thiosulfate as an intermediate product of bacterial sulfate reduction].sulfur compounds produced at intermediate stages during transformation of sulfate to sulfide were analyzed in experiments with a culture of sulfate reducing bacteria. small quantities of thiosulfate can accumulate in the medium at the beginning of growth of the sulfate reducing bacterium. the data are discussed and compared with the results of chambers and trudinger (1975) who could not detect thiosulfate in similar experiments.19807207258
syntrophic association of a butyrate-degrading bacterium and methanosarcina enriched from bovine rumen anaerobic butyrate-degrading bacterium, morphologically similar to syntrophomonas wolfei, was isolated in coculture with desulfovibrio strain g11 from an enrichment of bovine rumen fluid. a methanosarcina species was the major h2-using organism in the enrichment. the results are discussed in relationship to the absence of methanospirillum hungatei, the h2-using methanogen usually found in association with s. wolfei, and the finding of methanosarcina rather than methanobrevibacter ruminantium ...19817224635
localization of dehydrogenases, reductases, and electron transfer components in the sulfate-reducing bacterium desulfovibrio gigas.various dehydrogenases, reductases, and electron transfer proteins involved in respiratory sulfate reduction by desulfovibrio gigas have been localized with respect to the periplasmic space, membrane, and cytoplasm. this species was grown on a lactate-sulfate medium, and the distribution of enzyme activities and concentrations of electron transfer components were determined in intact cells, cell fractions prepared with a french press, and lysozyme spheroplasts. a significant fraction of formate ...19817240092
kinetics of methyl viologen reduction by hydrogen catalyzed by hydrogenase from desulfovibrio vulgaris. 19817252493
desulforedoxin: preliminary x-ray diffraction study of a new iron-containing protein. 19807253026
[utilization of some analogues of glycerophosphate by the sulphate-reducing bacteria "desulfovibrio vulgaris" (author's transl)].utilization of dihydroxyacetate phosphate, glyceraldehyde phosphate, 2-phosphoglyceric and 3-phosphoglyceric acids by the sulphate-reducing bacteria desulfovibrio vulgaris has been studied. on the grounds of stoichiometric relations of reactants and thermodynamic considerations, suitable mechanisms have been proposed for the above reactions.19817258898
[geomicrobiological studies. xiv. heavy metal tolerance of desulfurizing bacteria under various ecological conditions].tolerance and adaptation to heavy metals of desulfovibrio- and desulfotomaculum-strains of different origin have been investigated in enrichment cultures under different conditions of sulphate supply. three groups of low, medium, and high toxicity were found with as, v, and mo in the first, ni, sb, co, and hg in the second, and cd, zn, u, and cu in the third group. if the so"4-supply was restricted to heavy metal sulphates with a relation of 1:1 of heavy metal- and so"4 -ions (2:3 with sb2(so4)3 ...19817269648
d-lactate dehydrogenase of desulfovibrio vulgaris.d-lactate dehydrogenase, the starting enzyme for carbon and energy metabolism in dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria, has been purified 36-fold from the soluble fraction of the sonicate of desulfovibrio vulgaris, miyazaki. the enzyme is specific for d-lactate (km = 0.8 mm) and dl-2-hydroxybutyrate (probably its d-isomer) as the electron donor substrate. it reduces, in the presence of lactate, various artificial electron acceptors such as 1-methoxyphenazinium methyl sulfate, ferricyanide, tet ...19817275946
resonance raman spectra of three-iron centers in ferredoxins from desulfovibrio gigas.the resonance raman spectra of ferredoxins (fd) i and ii from desulfovibrio gigas are reported using 4579 a ar+ laser excitation. the (3fe-3s) center in fd ii has a characteristic resonance raman spectrum, readily distinguishable from those of (2fe-2s) or (4fe-4s) clusters. reduction of fd ii produces a marked alteration in the resonance raman spectrum. fd i is shown to contain both (3fe-3s) and (4fe-4s) fd-type clusters. the results illustrate the potential of resonance raman spectroscopy in fe ...19817275978
proton magnetic resonance studies of azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin i. evidence for a difference in coordination of the 3fe centers in azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin i and desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin ii.proton magnetic resonance studies have been made of azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin i. this protein contains a low potential 3fe-3s center (emp = -424 mv) and a high potential 4fe-4s center (emp = +320 mv). a series of five single proton resonances are visible downfield of 11 ppm in the isolated form of the protein. on reduction of the protein the three most downfield resonances are no longer visible and no new resonances are observed. these resonances are assigned to alpha-ch cysteinyl proton ...19817298654
the isolation of a hexaheme cytochrome from desulfovibrio desulfuricans and its identification as a new type of nitrite reductase.desulfovibrio desulfuricans (atcc 27774), a strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria, is able to perform anaerobic nitrate respiration in which nitrate is first reduced to nitrite by the action of nitrate reductase, and nitrite reductase then catalyzes the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia. the nitrite reductase was found to be a membrane-bound enzyme and has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. the purified enzyme has a minimal mr = 66,000 as judged by sodium dodecyl sul ...19817309757
[cellular study of a lysogenic desulfovibrio desulfuricans culture after mitomycin c induction].ultrathin sections through the cells of desulfovibrio desulfuricans, strain b, were examined using electron microscopy after inducing the formation of phages with mitomycin c at a concentration of 4 micrograms/ml. changes were found in the size of the cells, their cell wall and nucleoids. the cells contained phage particles of different maturity. the electron microscopic study of the induced phage has shown that it does not differ in morphology from the phage of this culture discovered by us ear ...19817321914
cysteine synthesis by desulfovibrio vulgaris extracts.extracts of desulfovibrio vulgaris were found to contain serine transacetylase and cysteine synthase activities. when extracts were incubated with bisulfite and o-acetylserine, or acetyl coenzyme a plus l-serine, under a hydrogen atmosphere, cysteine was formed. pyruvate served as a reductant for bisulfite reduction to sulfide and concomitantly provided the acetyl moiety for acetyl coenzyme a formation. consequently, when extracts were incubated with pyruvate, bisulfite, and l-serine, cysteine s ...19807364731
redox reactions of the hydrogenase-cytochrome c3 system from desulfovibrio gigas with the synthetic analogue of ferredoxin active site [fe4s4 (s-ch2-ch2oh)4]2-. 19807370033
the association of hydrogenase and dithionite reductase activities with the nitrite reductase of desulfovibrio desulfuricans. 19807387702
flavodoxin and rubredoxin from desulphovibrio salexigens.a flavodoxin and a rubredoxin have been isolated from the sulfate-reducing bacterium desulphovibrio salexigens (strain british guiana, nicb 8403). their amino acid composition and spectral characteristics did not differ markedly from the homologous proteins presented in other desulphovibrio spp. flavodoxin was shown to be active in the electron transport of the sulfite reductase system.19807388008
application of mössbauer spectroscopy to wet bacterial cells.although mössbauer spectroscopy has been applied only to samples in the dry or frozen state, we present evidence showing that this spectroscopy is applicable to biological iron compounds in the wet state if they are tightly bound to the cell membrane or cell wall.19807390989
[electrokinetic properties of sulfate-reducing bacteria].sulfate-reducing bacteria settle down at a high rate on metal surfaces and considerably accelerated corrosion, the concentration of bacteria on metals depending on the potential of the metal and that of bacteria. the electrophysical properties of bacteria depend on the ph of the medium. the maximal value of zeta potential is reached at the ph of 6.4; it decreases upon addition of acid or alkali to the medium and reaches zero at the ph of 2.5. the surface charge density and the electrophoretic mo ...19807392983
protein-ligand interactions in lumazine protein and in desulfovibrio flavodoxins from resonance coherent anti-stokes raman spectra.the resonance coherent anti-stokes raman technique was used to obtain vibrational spectra of flavin in flavodoxins from desulfovibrio gigas and desulfovibrio vulgaris and of the simpler 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine chromophore in the blue fluorescence lumazine protein from the bioluminescent bacterium photobacterium phosphoreum. in the region examined, 1100-1700 cm-1, the raman spectrum of the lumazine is less crowded than that of the flavin and this facilitates assignment of observed frequenc ...19807426621
are sulfur isotope ratios sufficient to determine the antiquity of sulfate reduction?sulfur isotope fractionation values have been measured in sedimentary sulfides of varying ages, the 'antiquity and evolutionary status of bacterial sulfate reduction...' has been inferred from these measurements by schidlowski (1979). however, under experimental conditions, the isotope values vary widely due to inadequately controlled variables. thus the direct extrapolation of sulfur isotope fractionation values measured in the laboratory to those measured in sedimentary rocks is unwarranted. n ...19807454252
comparative studies of two ferredoxins from desulfovibrio desulfuricans norway.two ferredoxins isolated from desulfovibrio desulfuricans norway have been purified and characterized. the less acidic, designated as ferredoxin i, contains four iron atoms, four acid-labile sulfur groups and six cysteine residues per molecule. ferredoxin ii is more acidic and abundant than ferredoxin i, but is very unstable to o2. ferredoxin i and ferredoxin ii differ according to amino acid composition but are homologous with respect to their n-terminal amino acid sequence. the absorption spec ...19807459376
microcalorimetric studies of the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria: energetics of desulfovibrio vulgaris growth.the metabolism of desulfovibrio vulgaris hildenborough grown on medium containing lactate or pyruvate plus a high concentration of sulfate (36 mm) was studied. molecular growth yields were 6.7 +/- 1.3 and 10.1 +/- 1.7 g/mol for lactate and pyruvate, respectively. under conditions in which the energy source was the sole growth-limiting factor, we observed the formation of 0.5 mol of hydrogen per mol of lactate and 0.1 mol of hydrogen per mol of pyruvate. the determination of metabolic end product ...19817462143
characterization of a new type of ferredoxin from desulfovibrio africanus.a new ferredoxin designated ferredoxin iii has been isolated from desulfovibrio africanus grown on media high in iron. native ferredoxin iii is a dimer constituted by two identical subunits of approx. 7500. it is distinguished from the two other ferredoxins (i and ii) isolated from this microorganism by its amino acids composition, n-terminal sequence, spectral properties and iron-sulfur content. the amino acid composition of d. africanus ferredoxin iii is typical of ferredoxins with an excess o ...19817470499
crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related aldehyde oxido-reductase from d. gigas.the crystal structure of the aldehyde oxido-reductase (mop) from the sulfate reducing anaerobic gram-negative bacterium desulfovibrio gigas has been determined at 2.25 a resolution by multiple isomorphous replacement and refined. the protein, a homodimer of 907 amino acid residues subunits, is a member of the xanthine oxidase family. the protein contains a molybdopterin cofactor (mo-co) and two different [2fe-2s] centers. it is folded into four domains of which the first two bind the iron sulfur ...19957502041
comparison of phylogenetic relationships based on phospholipid fatty acid profiles and ribosomal rna sequence similarities among dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria.twenty-five isolates of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria were clustered based on similarity analysis of their phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (plfa). of these, 22 showed that phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence similarity of their 16s rrna directly paralleled the plfa relationships. desulfobacter latus and desulfobacter curvatus grouped with the other desulfobacter spp. by 16s rrna comparison but not with the plfa analysis as they contained significantly more monoenoic ...19947519575
characterization of a ferredoxin from desulfovibrio vulgaris (hildenborough) that interacts with rna.the purification and characterization of a ferredoxin from desulfovibrio vulgaris (hildenborough) is described. the protein can be isolated in two forms; the major form is strongly complexed to rna, while a minor form is free from nucleic acid. bound rna cannot be removed by digestion with nucleases, or by heating to 70 degrees c, and it can only be partially removed by rechromatography. the ultraviolet/visible spectrum shows typical absorption maxima at 280 nm and 400 nm for the rna-free ferred ...19957543409
phylogenetic relationships of thiomicrospira species and their identification in deep-sea hydrothermal vent samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16s rdna fragments.denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) of pcr-amplified 16s rdna fragments was used to explore the genetic diversity of hydrothermal vent microbial communities, specifically to determine the importance of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria therein. dgge analysis of two different hydrothermal vent samples revealed one pcr band for one sample and three pcr bands for the other sample, which probably correspond to the dominant bacterial populations in these communities. three of the four 16s rdna fra ...19957545384
characterization of lawsonia intracellularis gen. nov., sp. nov., the obligately intracellular bacterium of porcine proliferative enteropathy.a novel obligately intracellular bacterium, ileal symbiont intracellularis, which was obtained from the intestines of pigs with proliferative enteropathy disease, was grown in pure cocultures with tissue cultures of rat cells. an examination of the 16s ribosomal dna gene sequence revealed that the isolates which we obtained are members of the delta subdivision of the proteobacteria and that the sequences of these organisms exhibit a level of similarly of 91% with the sequence of desulfovibrio de ...19957547305
interfacial properties of the polyheme cytochrome c3 superfamily from order to compare the interfacial behavior of the polyheme cytochromes c which belong to the cytochrome c3 superfamily, the monomolecular film technique was used to determine whether and how these metalloproteins interact with (phospho)lipids). measurements of the variations of surface pressure and surface potential versus time have shown differences in their penetration capacity into phosphatidylcholine, dicaprin, and phosphatidylglycerol films. the desulfovibrio vulgaris hildenborough cytoch ...19957547860
structure of the tetraheme cytochrome from desulfovibrio desulfuricans atcc 27774: x-ray diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance studies.the three-dimensional x-ray structure of cytochrome c3 from a sulfate reducing bacterium, desulfovibrio desulfuricans atcc 27774 (107 residues, 4 heme groups), has been determined by the method of molecular replacement [frazão et al. (1994) acta crystallogr. d50, 233-236] and refined at 1.75 a to an r-factor of 17.8%. when compared with the homologous proteins isolated from desulfovibrio gigas, desulfovibrio vulgaris hildenborough, desulfovibrio vulgaris miyazaki f, and desulfomicrobium baculatu ...19957548038
characterization of the prismane protein from desulfovibrio vulgaris (hildenborough) by low-temperature magnetic circular dichroic spectroscopy.the prismane protein of desulfovibrio vulgaris (hildenborough) contains a putative [6fe-6s] cluster. this novel iron-sulfur cluster has been characterized here by magnetic circular dichroism (mcd) spectroscopy. three paramagnetic redox states of the cluster, [6fe-6s]5+, [6fe-6s]4+ and [6fe-6s]3+, each show a distinctive low-temperature mcd spectrum which is unlike that observed for any other iron-sulfur clusters. magnetization data for the prismane protein in these three redox states indicate gr ...19957556199
evidence for anaerobic syntrophic benzoate degradation threshold and isolation of the syntrophic benzoate anaerobic, motile, gram-negative, rod-shaped, syntrophic, benzoate-degrading bacterium, strain sb, was isolated in pure culture with crotonate as the energy source. benzoate was degraded only in association with an h2-using bacterium. the kinetics of benzoate degradation by cell suspensions of strain sb in coculture with desulfovibrio strain g-11 was studied by using progress curve analysis. the coculture degraded benzoate to a threshold concentration of 214 nm to 6.5 microm, with no further ...19957574591
application of antisera raised against sulfate-reducing bacteria for indirect immunofluorescent detection of immunoreactive bacteria in sediment from the german baltic sea.polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against sulfate-reducing bacteria (srb) could detect several distinct populations of bacteria in sediment from the german baltic sea. the depth distribution of immunoreactive bacteria was determined by an indirect immunofluorescence filter method. anti-desulfovibrio desulfuricans dsm 1926 serum showed maximum bacterial numbers at a depth of 18 cm, with a concentration of 60 x 10(6) cells cm-3. with anti-desulfovibrio baculatus dsm 2555 serum, counts were highest ...19957574651
sulphate-reducing bacteria in bovine faeces.sulphate-reducing bacteria (srb) were found in all of 200 bovine faeces examined. the number of srb in bovine faeces ranged from 5 x 10(2) to 6 x 10(8) bacteria g-1. of 50 isolates identified, all were assigned to the genus desulfovibrio.19957576512
resonance raman study on the iron-sulfur centers of desulfovibrio gigas aldehyde oxidoreductase.resonance raman spectra of the molybdenum containing aldehyde oxidoreductase from desulfovibrio gigas were recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature with various excitation wavelengths. the spectra indicate that all the iron atoms are organised in [2fe-2s] type centers consistent with cysteine ligations. no vibrational modes involving molybdenum could be clearly identified. the features between 280 and 420 cm-1 are similar but different from those of typical plant ferredoxin-like [2fe-2s] cluster. ...19957578237
molecular biological analysis of a bidirectional hydrogenase from 8.9-kb segment with hydrogenase genes from the cyanobacterium anabaena variabilis has been cloned and sequenced. the sequences show homology to the methyl-viologen-reducing hydrogenases from archaebacteria and, even more striking, to the nad(+)-reducing enzymes from alcaligenes eutrophus and nocardia opaca as well as to the nadp(+)-dependent protein from desulfovibrio fructosovorans. the cluster from a. variabilis contains genes coding for both the hydrogenase heterodimer (hoxh and hoxy) and ...19957588754
thermal stability of the polyheme cytochrome c3 superfamily.the cytochrome c3 superfamily includes desulfovibrio polyheme cytochromes c. we report the characteristic thermal stability parameters of the desulfovibrio desulfuricans norway (d.d.n.) cytochromes c3 (m(r) 13,000 and m(r) 26,000) and the desulfovibrio vulgaris hildenborough (d.v.h.) cytochrome c3 (m(r) 13,000) and high molecular mass cytochrome c (hmc), as obtained with the help of electronic spectroscopy, voltammetric techniques and differential scanning calorimetry. the polyheme cytochromes a ...19957589483
anaerobic protoporphyrin biosynthesis does not require incorporation of methyl groups from was recently reported (h. akutsu, j.-s. park, and s. sano, j. am. chem. soc. 115:12185-12186, 1993) that in the strict anaerobe desulfovibrio vulgaris methyl groups from exogenous l-methionine are incorporated specifically into the 1 and 3 positions (fischer numbering system) on the heme groups of cytochrome c3. it was suggested that under anaerobic conditions, protoporphyrin ix biosynthesis proceeds via a novel pathway that does not involve coproporphyrinogen iii as a precursor but instead m ...19957592323
purification and characterization of a benzylviologen-linked, tungsten-containing aldehyde oxidoreductase from desulfovibrio gigas.desulfovibrio gigas ncimb 9332 cells grown in ethanol-containing medium with 0.1 microm tungstate contained a benzylviologen-linked aldehyde oxidoreductase. the enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and found to be a homodimer with a subunit m(r) of 62,000. it contained 0.68 +/- 0.08 w, 4.8 fe, and 3.2 +/- 0.2 labile s per subunit. after acid iodine oxidation of the purified enzyme, a fluorescence spectrum typical for form a of molybdopterin was obtained. acetaldehyde, propionaldehy ...19957592385
drastic influence of a single heme axial ligand replacement on the thermostability of cytochrome c3.the thermostability of wild type desulfovibrio vulgaris hildenborough tetraheme cytochrome c3 and its h22m, h25m, h35m and h70m mutants was studied by circular dichroism technique in the far uv and soret regions. it was shown that wild type cytochrome is extremely thermostable and retains structural and functional properties up to 110 degrees c. mutations do not change overall secondary structure and local structure of the hemes vicinity. all mutants are much more unstable to heat denaturation t ...19957598701
nmr studies and redox titration of the tetraheme cytochrome c3 from desulfomicrobium baculatum. identification of the low-potential heme.the tetraheme cytochromes c3 isolated from two strains of desulfomicrobium baculatum were studied by monitoring the spectral changes undergone during redox titrations followed by 1h nmr. the evolution of the three-protein intensity signals at low field allowed the partial identification of the heme methyl resonances in the spectrum of the fully oxidized state. the chemical shift variation shown by the protons of the aromatic sidechains as well as of the substituents of the higher-potential heme ...19957601130
substitution of azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase small-subunit cysteines by serines can create insensitivity to inhibition by o2 and preferentially damages h2 oxidation over h2 evolution.mutants in which conserved cysteines 294, 297 or 64 and 65 of the azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase small subunit were replaced by serines were studied. cysteines 294 and 297 are homologous to cysteines 246 and 249 of the desulfovibrio gigas hydrogenase, and these cysteines are ligands to the [3fe-4s] clusters (a. volbeda, m.-h. charon, c. piras, e. c. hatchikian, m. frey, and j. c. fontecilla-camps, nature (london) 373:580-587, 1995). cysteine 65 is homologous to cysteine 20 of the d. gigas hy ...19957608067
isolation and characterization of the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the sulfate-reducing bacterium desulfovibrio africanus.we report the first purification and characterization of a pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (por) from a sulfate-reducing bacterium, desulfovibrio africanus. the enzyme as isolated is highly stable in the presence of oxygen and exhibits a specific activity of 14 u/mg. d. africanus por is a 256 kda homodimer which contains thiamine pyrophosphate (tpp) and iron-sulfur clusters. epr spectroscopic study of the enzyme indicates the presence of three [4fe-4s]2+/1- centers/subunits. the midpoint pote ...19957612653
involvement of a single periplasmic hydrogenase for both hydrogen uptake and production in some desulfovibrio species.various sulphate-reducing bacteria differing in the number of genes encoding hydrogenase were shown to ferment lactate in coculture with methanospirillum hungatei, in the absence of sulphate. the efficiency of interspecies h2 transfer carried out by these species of sulphate-reducing bacteria does not appear to correlate with the distribution of genes coding for hydrogenase. desulfovibrio vulgaris groningen, which possesses only the gene for [nife] hydrogenase, oxidizes hydrogen in the presence ...19957652207
expression of desulfovibrio gigas desulforedoxin in escherichia coli. purification and characterization of mixed metal isoforms.the dsr gene from desulfovibrio gigas encoding the nonheme iron protein desulforedoxin was cloned using the polymerase chain reaction, expressed in escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. the physical and spectroscopic properties of the recombinant protein resemble those observed for the native protein isolated from d. gigas. these include an alpha 2 tertiary structure, the presence of bound iron, and absorbance maxima at 370 and 506 nm in the uv/visible spectrum due to ligand-to-iron cha ...19957657596
formation and properties of a stable 'high-potential' copper-iron-sulphur cluster in a ferredoxin.a ferredoxin isolated from desulfovibrio africanus contains a [3fe-4s] cluster that reversibly binds a copper atom, yielding a stable product with a greatly increased reduction potential. the reaction is readily detected in protein molecules adsorbed as a film on an electrode surface. electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) and magnetic circular dichroism (mcd) spectra of oxidized and reduced bulk solution products support their assignment as [cu3fe-4s]2+ (s = 1/2) and [cu3fe-4s]1+ (s = 2) respect ...19947664060
novel methionine ligand position in cytochrome c553 and implications for sequence alignment. 19957664119
crystal structure of desulforedoxin from desulfovibrio gigas determined at 1.8 a resolution: a novel non-heme iron protein structure.the crystal structure of desulforedoxin from desulfovibrio gigas, a new homo-dimeric (2 x 36 amino acids) non-heme iron protein, has been solved by the siras method using the indium-substituted protein as the single derivative. the structure was refined to a crystallographic r-factor of 16.9% at 1.8 a resolution. native desulforedoxin crystals were grown from either peg 4k or lithium sulfate, with cell constants a = b = 42.18 a, c = 72.22 a (for crystals grown from peg 4k), and they belong to sp ...19957666420
control of the redox potential in c-type cytochromes: importance of the entropic contribution.the enthalpic and entropic components of the redox free energy variation of cytochrome c553 from desulfovibrio vulgaris hildenborough and its mutant y64v, flavocytochrome b2 from saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the different hemes of cytochromes c3 from desulfovibrio vulgaris miyazaki and desulfovibrio desulfuricans norway have been determined in 0.1 m tris-hcl ph 7.0 (7.6 for cytochromes c3) at 25 degrees c by using nonisothermal potentiometric titrations. the set of available experimental data d ...19957669764
the effects of mutating aspartate-95 and aspartate-127 on the thermodynamic properties of desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin. 19957672414
monitoring the enrichment and isolation of sulfate-reducing bacteria by using oligonucleotide hybridization probes designed from environmentally derived 16s rrna sequences.a fluorescently labeled version of a population-specific oligonucleotide hybridization probe was used to monitor the enrichment and isolation of a sulfate-reducing bacterium from a multispecies anaerobic bioreactor. the organism was originally identified as a molecular isolate that was phylogenetically related to desulfovibrio vulgaris by amplification and sequencing of part of its 16s rrna sequence. the sequence, in turn, was used to design a population-specific probe. the anaerobic medium used ...19937683181
profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16s rrna.we describe a new molecular approach to analyzing the genetic diversity of complex microbial populations. this technique is based on the separation of polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments of genes coding for 16s rrna, all the same length, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge). dgge analysis of different microbial communities demonstrated the presence of up to 10 distinguishable bands in the separation pattern, which were most likely derived from as many different species con ...19937683183
use of rrna fluorescence in situ hybridization for measuring the activity of single cells in young and established biofilms.we describe the in situ use of rrna-targeted fluorescent hybridization probes in combination with digital microscopy to quantify the cellular content of ribosomes in relationship to the growth rate of single cells of a specific population of sulfate-reducing bacteria in multispecies anaerobic biofilms. using this technique, we inferred that this population was growing with an average generation time of 35 h in a young biofilm, whereas the doubling time in an established biofilm was significantly ...19937685999
the operon for the fe-hydrogenase in desulfovibrio vulgaris (hildenborough): mapping of the transcript and regulation of expression.the genes for the subunits of the fe-only hydrogenase from desulfovibrio vulgaris are transcribed as a 1.9 kb mrna; the operon contains no other genes besides those encoding the two subunits. the transcriptional start site of the operon was mapped. determination of hydrogenase activity and hydrogenase mrna levels indicates a growth-phase dependent regulation of hydrogenase expression at transcriptional level. however, it has not yet been possible to localize the sequences required for regulation ...19937686524
phylogenetic analysis of syntrophobacter wolinii reveals a relationship with sulfate-reducing bacteria.a 16s rrna sequence analysis of syntrophobacter wolinii was done by using pcr amplification of the 16s rrna-genes from dna isolated from the s. wolinii-desulfovibrio sp. coculture. phylogenetic analysis using the obtained sequence revealed that s. wolinii was not related to bacteria growing syntrophically on other fatty acids than propionate, but was related to sulfate-reducing bacteria. the closest related bacteria are desulfomonile tiedjei and desulfoarculus baarsii.19937692834
total synthesis of a simple metalloprotein-desulforedoxin.desulforedoxin is a protein purified from cellular extracts of desulfovibrio gigas. it is a small (7.9 kda) dimeric protein that contains a distorted rubredoxin like center (one single iron coordinated by four cysteinyl residues). due to the simplicity of the polypeptide chain and of the iron center, an attempt was made to chemically produce this protein. a 36 amino acid polypeptide chain was synthesized based on the known sequence of native desulforedoxin. the iron center was then reconstituted ...19957695623
siroamide: a prosthetic group isolated from sulfite reductases in the genus desulfovibrio.while isolating siroheme from enzymes or whole cells of desulfovibrio species, it was discovered that the main product after metal removal and esterification was not the octamethyl ester derivative of sirohydrochlorin, but a monoamide, heptamethyl ester derivative. the structure of this derivative was established by mass spectrometry and nmr. nuclear overhauser enhancement measurements in combination with chemical shift analogy arguments indicate that the 2(1)-acetate has been stereospecifically ...19957711045
structural organization of the ni and (4fe-4s) centers in the active form of desulfovibrio gigas hydrogenase. analysis of the magnetic interactions by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.the desulfovibrio gigas hydrogenase is a typical (nife) hydrogenase containing a ni center and three fes centers, one [3fe-4s] and two [4fe-4s] clusters. when the enzyme is activated under hydrogen gas, the ni center becomes paramagnetic, giving a characteristic electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) signal with g values at 2.19, 2.14 and 2.01, the ni-c signal. two redox states of the enzyme can be prepared, in which the [4fe-4s] clusters are either diamagnetic or paramagnetic. in this latter sta ...19957718585
conformational gating of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from desulfovibrio vulgaris (hildenborough). synthesis, characterization, and stopped-flow kinetics studies of 1,5-iaedans-labeled desulfoviridin.the siroheme prosthetic center in the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (desulfoviridin) from desulfovibrio vulgaris (hildenborough) readily binds exogenous ligands in the reduced state, but it does not do so in the oxidized state. in contrast, free oxidized siroheme in solution is observed to bind ligands rapidly. this can only be explained by a structural barrier that precludes ligand binding to the enzyme in the oxidized state but is removed after reduction. these observations suggest a redox-l ...19947727372
determination of the [fe4s4]cys4 cluster geometry of desulfovibrio africanus ferredoxin i by 1h nmr spectroscopy.1d and 2d 1h nmr studies of the fe4s4 cluster containing ferredoxin i from desulfovibrio africanus have been carried out with the aim of determining the geometry of the cluster linkages with the 4 cys side chains that bind the cluster. this required the cys beta ch resonances of the oxidised protein to be sequence-specifically and stereo-specifically assigned, and this was accomplished by a combination of tocsy and noe measurements, allied to model building based on x-ray structures of related f ...19957729544
electrochemical studies on nitrite reductase towards a biosensor.a c-type hexaheme nitrite reductase (nir) isolated from nitrate-grown cells of desulfovibrio desulfuricans (dd) atcc 27774 catalyses the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia. previous electrochemical studies demonstrated that a simple electrocatalytic mechanism can be applied to this system (moreno, c., costa, c., moura, i., legall, j., liu, m. y., payne, w. j., van dijk, c. and moura, j. j. g. (1992) eur.j.biochem. 212, 79-86). its substrate specificity, availability and stability under ...19957733953
sequence analysis of subunits of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase from a denitrifying bacterium: the integral membrane subunit provides a prototype for the dihaem electron-carrying arm of a redox loop.three genes, narh, narj and nari, of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase operon of the denitrifying bacterium thiosphaera pantotropha have been identified and sequenced. the derived gene products show high sequence similarity to the equivalent (beta, putative delta and gamma) subunits of the two membrane-bound nitrate reductases of the enteric bacterium escherichia coli. all iron-sulphur cluster ligands proposed for the e. coli beta subunits are conserved in t. pantotropha narh. secondary struc ...19957746153
metabolism of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes.dissimilatory sulfate reduction is carried out by a heterogeneous group of bacteria and archaea that occur in environments with temperatures up to 105 degrees c. as a group together they have the capacity to metabolize a wide variety of compounds ranging from hydrogen via typical organic fermentation products to hexadecane, toluene, and several types of substituted aromatics. without exception all sulfate reducers activate sulfate to aps; the natural electron donor(s) for the ensuing aps reducta ...19947747930
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