survival of vibrio alginolyticus in seawater and retention of virulence of its starved cells.the aim of this study was to evaluate the survival responses of four strains of vibrio alginolyticus in seawater under starvation conditions. we used microcosms containing sterilised seawater and incubated at ambient temperature (22-25 degrees c). v. alginolyticus maintained its culturability for at least nine months. long-term-starved cells showed an absence or a decrease in their enzymatic activities. resuscitation assays of viable but non-culturable (vbnc) cells were conducted and the recover ...200717524473
effect of the addition of four potential probiotic strains on the survival of pacific white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) following immersion challenge with vibrio parahaemolyticus.four bacterial strains isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of adult shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, vibrio alginolyticus utm 102, bacillus subtilis utm 126, roseobacter gallaeciensis slv03, and pseudomonas aestumarina slv22, were evaluated for potential use as probiotics for shrimp. in vitro studies demonstrated antagonism against the shrimp-pathogenic bacterium, vibrio parahaemolyticus ps-017. feeding shrimp with diets containing the potential probiotics showed the best feed conversion ratio ...200717544437
vibrios of the spotted rose snapper lutjanus guttatus steindachner, 1869 from northwestern characterize and identify vibrios present in wild and cultured juvenile snappers (lutjanus guttatus) in northwestern mexico.200717578416
[taxonomic composition of bacteria associated with cultivated mollusks crassostrea lugubris and perna viridis and with the water of the gulf of nha trang lagoon, vietnam].one hundred and four strains of heterotrophic bacteria have been isolated and characterized from two species of bivalve mollusks cultivated in the gulf of nha trang (vietnam) and from the water of a mariculture farm. the isolates have been identified on the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and chemotaxonomic properties, as well as by the content of g+c bases in dna. in the microflora of mollusks, vibrio alginolyticus was predominant; the pathogenic species v. harveyi and v. sp ...200717583223
comparison of four antibiotics with indigenous marine bacillus spp. in controlling pathogenic bacteria from shrimp and artemia.use of antibiotics for the control of bacterial diseases in shrimp culture has caused several adverse impacts to the industry. this has resulted in the search for alternative environment friendly approaches to overcome bacterial infections. this study was conducted to investigate the use of beneficial bacteria as an alternative to antibiotics. ten pathogenic bacterial species isolated from shrimp, penaeus monodon, and artemia cysts were tested for susceptibility to indigenous marine bacillus sub ...200717584435
isolation, sequencing and characterization of cluster genes involved in the biosynthesis and utilization of the siderophore of marine fish pathogen vibrio fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus mvp01, the isolated 11-gene cluster consisted of two divergently transcribed, fe(3+) and ferric uptake regulator (fur) regulated operons, pvsabcde and psua-pvuabcde, sharing high similarity with that related to siderophore biosynthesis and transportation locus in v. parahaemolyticus. siderophore biosynthesis or utilization was blocked when pvsa and pvsd of the pvsabcde operon or pvua, pvub and pvue of the psua-pvuabcde operon was single-gene in-frame mutated ...200717593352
molecular cloning and expression analysis of interferon-gamma inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (gilt)-like cdna from disk abalone (haliotis discus discus).interferon gamma (ifn-gamma) inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (gilt) has been described as a key enzyme in processing and presentation of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii restricted antigen (ag) by catalyzing disulfide bond (s-s) reduction in mammals. abalone gilt-like (abgilt) full-length cdna was isolated from the normalized disk abalone cdna library. the 807-bp abgilt cdna consists of an open reading frame of 684-bp, encoding 228 amino acid residues. the predicted abgilt pro ...200717599346
rapid and specific identification of 5 human pathogenic vibrio species by multiplex polymerase chain reaction targeted to dnaj gene.a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method, specifically designed for application in routine diagnostic laboratories, was developed for identifying 5 human pathogen vibrio species: vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, vibrio mimicus, and vibrio alginolyticus. this assay directed toward the dnaj gene was tested on a total of 355 strains representing 13 vibrio species and 17 non-vibrio species. specific pcr fragments were produced in isolates belonging to the 5 targ ...200717614235
research and characterization of pathogenic vibrios from bathing water along the conero riviera (central italy).the occurrence and pathogenicity of vibrios in bathing water were investigated along the conero riviera (adriatic sea, central italy). vibrio spp. enumeration was performed on thiosulfate-citrate-bile-salts-sucrose-agar by the membrane filter method, and identification was done through a biochemical protocol. all isolates were tested for the presence of cytotoxicity, protease, lipase, elastase, gelatinase, urease, haemolytic activity, ctx, tdh and trh genes by conventional methods. in all, 200 v ...200717619048
cloning and expression of the gene encoding an extracellular alkaline serine protease from vibrio alginolyticus strain hy9901, the causative agent of vibriosis in lutjanus erythopterus (bloch).a 750-bp internal fragment of the alkaline serine protease gene (asp) from the vibrio alginolyticus strain hy9901 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the flanking sequences of the 5'- and 3'- ends of the asp gene were characterized by reverse and nested pcr. sequence analysis showed that the asp gene contained an 1893-bp orf encoding 630 amino acids. the deduced amino acid sequence of the asp (alkaline serine protease) precursor showed significant homology with several bacterial al ...200717640252
cloning and expression of gene encoding the thermostable direct hemolysin from vibrio alginolyticus strain hy9901, the causative agent of vibriosis of crimson snapper (lutjanus erythopterus).the main aims of this study were to clone and express complete open reading frame (orf) of thermostable direct haemolysin gene (tdh) from vibrio alginolyticus strain hy9901 in escherichia coli, and further evaluate the virulence of expressed tdh on mouse and crimson snapper.200717650188
[pathogenic vibrios in oysters (crassostrea rhizophorae) served at restaurants in rio de janeiro: a public health warning].forty oyster samples (crassostrea rhizophorae) served raw in 15 restaurants in the city of rio de janeiro were evaluated in order to investigate the presence of vibrio spp. the oyster samples were analyzed and subjected to enrichment in alkaline peptone water with the addition of 1 and 3% nacl and incubated at 37 degrees c for 24 hours. following this, the cultures were seeded onto thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose agar (tcbs) and the suspected colonies were subjected to biochemical characterizat ...200717653465
a secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (slpi)-like protein from litopenaeus vannamei haemocytes.a partial clone coding for a two-wap domain protein was isolated from a litopenaeus vannamei haemocytes cdna library. the complete sequence was obtained by race, and the full-length cdna sequence is 0.8 kb long and encodes for a 116-amino acid protein. the domain composition is similar to the mammalian wfdc5 (wap four disulfide core) and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (slpi). modifications in expression were determined by real-time pcr, after injection of vibrio alginolyticus, suggesti ...200717664073
identification of a novel endochitinase from a marine bacterium vibrio proteolyticus strain no. 442.chitin binding proteins prepared from vibrio proteolyticus were purified and the n-terminal amino-acid sequence of a protein from a 110-kda band on sds-page was found to be 85-90% identical to the 22nd-41st residues of the n-termini of chitinase a precursor proteins from other vibrios. we cloned the corresponding gene, which encodes a putative protein of 850 amino acids containing a 26-residue signal sequence. the chitinase precursor from v. proteolyticus was 78-80% identical to those from vibri ...200717690022
characterization of the vibrio alginolyticusfur gene and localization of essential amino acid sites in fur by site-directed mutagenesis.the expression of iron-regulated genes in bacteria is typically controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (fur) protein, a global transcriptional repressor that regulates functions as diverse as iron acquisition, oxidative stress, virulence and acid tolerance. we have identified a fur homologue in vibrio alginolyticus and shown that it complements an escherichia coli fur mutant. reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) analysis proved that unlike many other fur homologues, v. alginolyticusfur is not u ...200717693709
immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in european sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides.the objective of this study was to determine the effect of two levels of inclusion of mannan oligosaccharides derived from the outer cell wall of a select strain of saccharomyces cerevisiae (bio-mos, alltech inc, usa) on growth, feed utilization, immune status and disease resistance of european sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax). specimens of 35 g at initial density of 3 kg/m3 were fed during 67 days at 0 per thousand, 2 per thousand and 4 per thousand dietary mos level of inclusion in a commercial ...200717766145
molecular characterization of goose-type lysozyme homologue of large yellow croaker and its involvement in immune response induced by trivalent bacterial vaccine as an acute-phase protein.lysozyme acts as an innate immunity molecule against the invasion of bacterial pathogens. here, the cdna of a goose-type lysozyme (g-lysozyme) was cloned from large yellow croaker (pseudosciana crocea) by expressed sequence tags (est) and race-pcr techniques. the full-length cdna of large yellow croaker g-lysozyme (lycgl) is 716 nucleotides (nt) encoding a protein of 193 amino acids (aa), with a theoretical molecular weight of 21.3kda. the deduced lycgl possessed the typical structural features ...200717850883
a novel multiplex pcr for the identification of vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio cholerae and vibrio establish a simple multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) that will identify vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio cholerae and vibrio vulnificus.200717897378
expression and immunogenicity analysis of two iron-regulated outer membrane proteins of vibrio parahaemolyticus.genes of two iron-regulated outer membrane proteins of vibrio parahaemolyticus zj2003, a pathogenic strain isolated from large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea), psua and pvua, were cloned and expressed as n-terminal his(6)-tagged proteins in escherichia coli bl(21)(de(3)). the recombinant fusion proteins were purified with nickel chelate affinity chromatography. to analyze the immunogenicity of the proteins, groups of large yellow croaker were immunized with the purified recombinant psua, p ...200717928925
luxo controls extracellular protease, haemolytic activities and siderophore production in fish pathogen vibrio characterize the luxo gene in fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus mvp01 and investigate its roles in regulation of extracellular products (ecp) and siderophore production.200717953563
development of a sybr green i real-time pcr for quantitative detection of vibrio alginolyticus in seawater and seafood.vibrio alginolyticus is an economically important micro-organism. the main aim of the present study was to develop a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay for rapid, sensitive and effective quantification of v. alginolyticus in seawater and seafood.200717953599
oil-utilizing bacteria associated with fish from the arabian gulf.the objectives were to count and identify the oil-utilizing bacteria associated with fish, and to study their hydrocarbon-degradation potential.200717953689
[characteristics of adhesion of epiphytic bacteria on leaves of the seagrass zostera marina and on abiotic surfaces].a comparative study of the adhesion of epiphytic bacteria and marine free-living, saprophytic, and pathogenic bacteria on seagrass leaves and abiotic surfaces was performed to prove the occurrence of true epiphytes of zostera marina and to elucidate the bacterium-plant symbiotrophic relationships. it was shown that in the course of adhesion to the seagrass leaves of two taxonomically different bacteria, cytophaga sp. kmm 3552 and pseudoalteromonas citrea kmm 461, isolated from the seagrass surfa ...200717974207
dietary administration of sodium alginate and kappa-carrageenan enhances the innate immune response of brown-marbled grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.brown-marbled grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus which had been fed diets containing sodium alginate and kappa (kappa)-carrageenan at 5, 10 and 20gkg(-1), respectively after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 14 weeks were examined for survival, growth, innate cellular and humoral responses as compared to the fish that fed control non-supplemented diet. survival was 100% for the fish that fed all diets after 14 weeks and no significant difference in growth was observed among seven diets. the fish that fed a diet ...200817981341
effect of saponin immersion on enhancement of the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.the haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (po) activity, specific alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha2-m) activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, glutathione peroxidase (gpx) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency against vibrio alginolyticus were examined when the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (10.42+/-2.0g) were immersed in seawater (34 per thousand) containing different concentrations of saponin (0, 0.5, 1 and 2mgl(-1)) for 24, 48 and 72h. hyaline cells (hc), ...200818032066
genes encoding the vibrio harveyi haemolysin (vhh)/thermolabile haemolysin (tlh) are widespread in vibrios.v. harveyi vhh haemolysin, which shows high homology to the tlh haemolysin (the identities of their deduced amino acid sequences are up to 85.6%), is a putative virulence factor to marine cultured fish. a vhh probe, which is specific to v. harveyi vhha haemolysin gene, was used to screen ecor i digests of total dna from 57 vibrio strains, including 26 vibrio type strains, 20 v. harveyi isolates and 11 v. parahaemolyticus isolates. as a result, 1 strong hybridisation band was detected in 13 type ...200718062266
molecular cloning of leucocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 gene in croceine croaker (pseudosciaena crocea).leucocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (lect2) was originally demonstrated to have a chemotactic activity against human neutrophils in vitro. current evidence suggests that lect2 may be a multifunctional protein involved in cell growth, differentiation and autoimmune. a full-length cdna clone of the lect2 gene, 595bp in size, was isolated from the fish croceine croaker (pseudosciaena crocea). it's 3'-utr was much shorter (112nts) than that of trout lect2 gene (210nts). its deduced amino acid sequen ...200818155922
complement-mediated killing of vibrio species by the humoral fluids of amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri: implications for a dual role of o-antigens in the resistance to bactericidal activity.the functional properties of complement in invertebrate deuterostomes are rather ill-defined. here we showed that the humoral fluids from amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri were capable of causing lysis of some vibrio species including vibrio alginolyticus hw284, vibrio parahaemolyticus hw458 and vibrio harvey sf-1, the first such data in the invertebrate deuterostomes. the fluid bacteriolytic activity was abolished by pre-incubation with heat-inactivated rabbit anti-human c3 serum, heating at 45 ...200818178103
torque-speed relationships of na+-driven chimeric flagellar motors in escherichia coli.the bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor in the cell envelope of bacteria that couples ion flow across the cytoplasmic membrane to torque generation by independent stators anchored to the cell wall. the recent observation of stepwise rotation of a na(+)-driven chimeric motor in escherichia coli promises to reveal the mechanism of the motor in unprecedented detail. we measured torque-speed relationships of this chimeric motor using back focal plane interferometry of polystyrene beads attac ...200818207160
vibrios in association with sedimentary crustaceans in three beaches of the northern adriatic sea (italy).in the marine environment, vibrios adhere to a number of substrates including chitin-rich organisms such as crustaceans. their wide diffusion in coastal waters and pathogenic potential require knowledge of the lifestyle and environmental reservoirs of these bacteria. to test the presence of culturable vibrios in coastal areas and their association with benthic crustaceans, vibrios were isolated from water, sediments and crustaceans (copepods and anphipods) at three stations placed in front of he ...200818243247
regulation of vibrio alginolyticus virulence by the luxs quorum-sensing system.quorum sensing (qs) is a bacterial intercommunication system that controls the expression of multiple genes in response to population density. the luxs qs system regulates the expression of several virulence factors in a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria. luxs has been characterized to be responsible for producing a type of autoinducer, ai-2, which stimulates the expression of the luciferase operon in vibrio harveyi. vibrio alginolyticus is established as an opportunistic pathogen of several m ...200818261029
the na+-translocating nadh:quinone oxidoreductase (na+-nqr) from vibrio cholerae enhances insertion of fes in overproduced nqrf subunit.the na+-translocating nadh:quinone oxidoreductase (na+-nqr) from vibrio cholerae is a membrane-bound, respiratory na+ pump. its nqrf subunit contains one fad and a [2fe-2s] cluster and catalyzes the initial oxidation of nadh. a soluble variant of nqrf lacking its hydrophobic, n-terminal helix (nqrf') was produced in v. cholerae wild type and nqr deletion strain. under identical conditions of growth and induction, the yield of nqrf' increased by 30% in the presence of the na+-nqr. fad-containing ...200818289689
environmental vibrio spp., isolated in mozambique, contain a polymorphic group of integrative conjugative elements and class 1 integrons.circulation of mobile genetic elements linked to drug resistance spread was studied in vibrio strains isolated from surface urban water (river and sea) and shellfish samples in 2002-2003 in maputo, mozambique. class 1 integrons and integrating conjugative elements (ice) were investigated by pcr and mating experiments in strains of major health interest: 10 vibrio cholerae, six vibrio parahaemolyticus, two vibrio alginolyticus and one vibrio fluvialis. resistance to at least two antibiotics (pred ...200818318712
roles of charged residues in the c-terminal region of poma, a stator component of the na+-driven flagellar motor.bacterial flagellar motors use specific ion gradients to drive their rotation. it has been suggested that the electrostatic interactions between charged residues of the stator and rotor proteins are important for rotation in escherichia coli. mutational studies have indicated that the na(+)-driven motor of vibrio alginolyticus may incorporate interactions similar to those of the e. coli motor, but the other electrostatic interactions between the rotor and stator proteins may occur in the na(+)-d ...200818326582
influence of beta-glucans on the immune responses of carpet shell clam (ruditapes decussatus) and mediterranean mussel (mytilus galloprovincialis).the effects of beta-glucans on several immune functions of carpet shell clam (ruditapes decussatus) and mediterranean mussel (mytilus galloprovincialis) hemocytes were determined. nitric oxide (no) production increased significantly in beta-glucan treated mussels and clams. in mussels, beta-glucans increased by themselves the release of free oxygen radicals and also were able to enhance the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (pma) mediated effect on this hemocyte activity. however, high doses of be ...200818329901
a novel c-type lectin from abalone, haliotis discus discus, agglutinates vibrio alginolyticus.owing to its specific binding to carbohydrates, lectins play important roles in pathogen recognition and clearance in invertebrate animals. in this study, a novel c-type lectin (designated clhd) gene was isolated from abalone, haliotis discus discus, cdna library. the complete cdna sequence of the clhd gene is 508 base pairs in length, and encodes 151 amino acids. clhd shares a highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain with c-type lectins from mollusk and fish. the mrna expressions of clh ...200818372041
[cutaneous ulceration after an octopus bite: infection due to vibrio alginolyticus, an emerging pathogen].vibrio alginolyticus is an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus found in normal marine flora and is considered as non pathogenic for humans. infections due to vibrio alginolyticus are seldom reported and can be seen after exposure to seawater or to marine animals.200818374857
involvement of luxs in the regulation of motility and flagella biogenesis in vibrio alginolyticus.the fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus contains two unique flagellar systems. the luxs quorum sensing system is reported to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria. our previous work demonstrated that inactive luxs led to decreased virulence in v. alginolyticus. in this study, luxs-dependent regulation of motility and flagella biogenesis, the potential virulence factors in v. alginolyticus, were further investigated. a luxs-deleted mutant showed defi ...200818391446
collaboration of flhf and flhg to regulate polar-flagella number and localization in vibrio alginolyticus.precise regulation of the number and placement of flagella is critical for the mono-polar-flagellated bacterium vibrio alginolyticus to swim efficiently. we have shown previously that the number of polar flagella is positively regulated by flhf and negatively regulated by flhg. we now show that deltaflhf cells are non-flagellated as are most deltaflhfg cells; however, some of the deltaflhfg cells have several flagella at lateral positions. we found that flhf-gfp was localized at the flagellated ...200818451048
septic shock due to vibrio alginolyticus in a cirrhotic patient: the first case in korea.we describe a case of septic shock due to vibrio alginolyticus presenting with fever and bilateral leg pain. despite intensive management with antibiotics and inotropic agents, the patient died from septic shock 1 day after hospitalization. v. alginolyticus was isolated from both leg wounds and a blood culture. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of v. alginolyticus bacteremia in korea.200818452273
insights into the stator assembly of the vibrio flagellar motor from the crystal structure of moty.rotation of the sodium-driven polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus requires four motor proteins: poma, pomb, motx, and moty. poma and pomb form a sodium-ion channel in the cytoplasmic membrane that functions as a stator complex to couple sodium-ion flux with torque generation. motx and moty are components of the t-ring, which is located beneath the p-ring of the polar flagellar basal body and is involved in incorporation of the poma/pomb complex into the motor. here, we describe the determina ...200818505842
chemical investigation of finlaysonia obovata: part i--a rare triterpene acid showing antibacterial activity against fish pathogens.the antibacterial screening of extracts of the leaves of finlaysonia obovata with hexane, chloroform and alcohol was carried out against fresh water fish pathogenic bacteria viz., micrococcus sp. (multidrug resistant strain), aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa, vibrio alginolyticus, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, edwardsiella tarda by disc-assay method. the hexane and chloroform extracts were found active against four and five pathogens, respectively. the highly active chloro ...200818569719
roles of luxr in regulating extracellular alkaline serine protease a, extracellular polysaccharide and mobility of vibrio marine vibrio species, the vibrio harveyi-type luxr protein, a key player in a quorum-sensing system, controls the expression of various genes. in this study, the luxr homologue in vibrio alginolyticus was identified and named luxr(val), whose expression was greatly induced by the increase of cell number. the luxr(val) in-frame deletion mutant showed a significant downregulation of total extracellular protease activity, and especially caused a 70% decrease in the transcript levels of extracel ...200818573155
genotyping of vibrio alginolyticus isolates from daya bay by infrequent-restriction-site pcr and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.vibrio alginolyticus is a serious bacterial pathogen that hampered the whole industry of fish farming in guangdong, china. in order to facilitate epidemiologic studies and improve the control of disease, we developed a highly efficient method of genotyping for v. alginolyticus using infrequent-restriction-site pcr (irs-pcr) technology. with the enzyme combination of noti-hhai, optimized, unique, and easy-to-interpret patterns were generated. forty-five v. alginolyticus isolates from aquatic anim ...200818586455
characterization of two tonb systems in marine fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus: their roles in iron utilization and gram-negative bacteria, the tonb/exbb/exbd complex is required to energize the specific high-affinity receptors mediating iron uptake processes. in fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus mvp01, which exhibited capacities to scavenge iron sources with various specific iron uptake systems, we identified and characterized two sets of tonb systems. in v. alginolyticus, tonb1 and tonb2 systems were arrayed as tonb1-exbb1-exbd1 and exbb2-exbd2-tonb2, respectively. the transcription of the tonb systems ...200818629473
role of rpos in stress survival, synthesis of extracellular autoinducer 2, and virulence in vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus, a marine bacterium, is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing vibriosis with high mortality to fishes in the south china sea. stress resistance is very important for its survival in the natural environment and upon infection of the host. rpos, an alternative sigma factor, is considered as an important regulator involved in stress response and virulence in many pathogens. in this study, the rpos gene was cloned and characterized to evaluate the role of rpos in v. algin ...200818641971
vibrios dominate as culturable nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the brazilian coral mussismilia hispida.taxonomic characterization was performed on the putative n(2)-fixing microbiota associated with the coral species mussismilia hispida, and with its sympatric species palythoa caribaeorum, p. variabilis, and zoanthus solanderi, off the coast of são sebastião (são paulo state, brazil). the 95 isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria according to the 16s rdna gene sequences. in order to identify the isolates unambiguously, pyrh gene sequencing was carried out. the majority of the isolates (n = ...200818678453
effects of rutin from toona sinensis on the immune and physiological responses of white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) under vibrio alginolyticus challenge.rutin is a bioflavonoid with strong antioxidant activity. to investigate the regulatory roles of rutin in various functions in crustaceans, we examined physiological (haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipid) and innate non-specific immune responses (total haemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase activity (po), respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion, o(2)(-)) and superoxide dismutase (sod) activity) to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) that were individu ...200818718869
[isolation and physiological characteristics of lytic bacteriophages of vibrio].vibrio is a widely distributed pathogen in aquatic environment. our study aimed at searching for possible biological control of pathogenic vibrio.200818720843
transcriptional up-regulation of disk abalone selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase by h(2)o(2) oxidative stress and vibrio alginolyticus bacterial infection.selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (se-gpx) belongs to the family of selenoprotein, which acts mainly as an antioxidant in the cellular defence system. we have identified se-gpx full length cdna from disk abalone (haliotis discus discus) designated as abse-gpx. it has a characteristic codon at (223)tga(225) that corresponds to selenocysteine (sec) amino acid as u(75). the full length cdna consists of 675 bp, an open reading frame encoding 225 amino acids. sequence characterization reveale ...200818722791
enzymatic assay of marine bacterial phosphatases by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.microbial ectoenzyme activities in aquatic environments are important determinants of polymer hydrolysis and indicators of the state of microbial carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus nutrition. marine ectoenzymes are found on the cell surface or in the periplasmic space of gram-negative heterotrophic bacteria. phosphatases, which remove phosphate groups from substrates, are one example of an ectoenzyme. enzyme assays based on-capillary electrophoresis (ce) take advantage of ce's high-efficiency sepa ...200818726971
cell-free synthesis of the torque-generating membrane proteins, poma and pomb, of the na+-driven flagellar motor in vibrio alginolyticus.flagellar motor proteins, poma and pomb, are essential for converting the sodium motive force into rotational energy in the na(+)-driven flagella motor of vibrio alginolyticus. poma and pomb, which are cytoplasmic membrane proteins, together comprise the stator complex of the motor and form a na(+) channel. we tried to synthesize poma and pomb by using the cell-free protein synthesis system, puresystem. we succeeded in doing so in the presence of liposomes, and showed an interaction between them ...200818776205
molecular characterization and gene expression analysis of a pattern recognition protein from disk abalone, haliotis discus discus.pattern recognition molecules play an important role in innate immunity by recognizing common epitopes on the surface of invading microorganism. a pattern recognition protein (prp) was isolated from a disk abalone, haliotis discus discus, normalized cdna library. it encodes 420 amino acids (aa) including a 20 aa signal peptide sequence. the mature protein has an estimated molecular mass of 45kda and predicted pi of 5.0. the deduced aa sequence showed greatest homology (50%) with a beta-glucan re ...200818782621
expression and characterization of the biofilm-related and carnosine-hydrolyzing aminoacylhistidine dipeptidase from vibrio alginolyticus.the biofilm-related and carnosine-hydrolyzing aminoacylhistidine dipeptidase (pepd) gene from vibrio alginolyticus was cloned and sequenced. the recombinant pepd protein was produced and biochemically characterized and the putative active-site residues responsible for metal binding and catalysis were identified. the recombinant enzyme, which was identified as a homodimeric dipeptidase in solution, exhibited broad substrate specificity for xaa-his and his-xaa dipeptides, with the highest activity ...200818783432
molecular cloning, characterization, expression and antibacterial analysis of a lysozyme homologue from fenneropenaeus merguiensis.the gene coding for lysozyme in banana prawn (fenneropenaeus merguiensis) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in pet-32a vector. the deduced amino acid sequence of f. merguiensis lysozyme showed 37-93% similarity with the mouse, human, chicken, and tiger prawn counterparts. the lysozyme was purified to homogeneity and observed as a band of approximately 15 kda in 12% sds-page. semiquantitative rt-pcr analysis demonstrated that mrna transcripts of lysozyme could be mainly detected in the tissues ...200918798009
the vibrio core group induces yellow band disease in caribbean and indo-pacific reef-building determine the relationship between yellow band disease (ybd)-associated pathogenic bacteria found in both caribbean and indo-pacific reefs, and the virulence of these pathogens. ybd is one of the most significant coral diseases of the tropics.200818798767
enzymatic characterization of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from bivalves harvested at venice lagoon (italy) and guanabara bay (brazil).the aquatic ecosystem is the natural habitat of microorganisms including vibrio and aeromonas genus which are pathogenic to human and animals. in the present investigation the frequency of these bacteria and the enzymatic characteristics of 34 vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from bivalves harvested in venice lagoon (italy) and guanabara bay (brazil) were carried out from november 2003 to february 2004. the mussels' samples were submitted to enrichment in alkaline peptone water (apw) added ...200818813756
portal of entry for pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus into large yellow croaker pseudosciaena crocea, and characteristics of bacterial adhesion to mucus.the portal of entry for pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus into large yellow croaker pseudosciaena crocea is via the intestinal tract rather than gill or skin according to the kinetics of the bacterial adhesion to different mucus. the different effects on adhesion caused by proteolytic enzymes and heat treatment might be due to the different chemical compositions of mucus. adhesion of v. alginolyticus to mucus depends on concerted action of bacterial surface structures such as cell-surface proteins ...200818814543
molecular and functional characterization of a novel cc chemokine in large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea).a full-length cc chemokine cdna was isolated from large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) by expressed sequence tag (est) analysis (lyccc2). its open reading frame (orf) is 282 nucleotides (nt), encoding a polypeptide of 93 amino acids (aa). the deduced lyccc2 contains a 20-aa signal peptide and a 73-aa mature polypeptide, which possesses the typical arrangement of four cysteines as found in other known cc chemokines (c(34), c(35), c(61) and c(75)). it shares 17.4-40.4% and 10.0-24.5% aa seq ...200818835451
the effect of vibrio alginolyticus infection on caspase-3 expression and activity in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.complementary (c)dna encoding cysteine aspartate protease-3 (caspase-3) messenger (m)rna of the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) using oligonucleotide primers based on the caspase sequences of penaeus merguiensis, spodoptera frugiperda, spodoptera littoralis, and penaeus monodon. the 1212-bp cdna contained an open reading frame (orf) of 951bp, a 56-bp 5'-untrans ...200818840531
the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei following vibrio alginolyticus injection.white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei injected with saline, and injected with tryptic soy broth (tsb)-grown vibrio alginolyticus at 1.0 x 10(5) and 1.8 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1) were examined for hyaline cell (hc) counts, granular cell (gc) counts, total haemocyte counts (thcs), phenoloxidase (po) activity, respiratory burst (rb) and superoxide dismutase (sod) activity after 1-168 h. shrimp that received no injection served as the control. the shrimps which received v. alginolyti ...200818951981
characterization of the bpi-like gene from a subtracted cdna library of large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) and induced expression by formalin-inactivated vibrio alginolyticus and nocardia seriolae vaccine expressed sequence tag (est 64lf004 clone), which is from the subtracted cdna library of the head kidney of large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) stimulated with peptidoglycan (pg) by suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) method, was cloned using race-pcr. the full length cdna, which possesses typical structural features of a signal peptide, a conserved lps binding domain and two bactericidal permeability-increasing (bpi) motifs as in higher vertebrates, was identified as a novel ...200818952461
first molluscan tnf-alpha homologue of the tnf superfamily in disk abalone: molecular characterization and expression analysis.tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha) is considered as a multifunctional immune modulator that plays an important role in the innate and adaptive immune systems in vertebrates. here, we described the characterization and expression analysis of the first tnf-alpha homologue in mollusk abalone, named as abtnf-alpha. it has 930-bp full length with a 717-bp open reading frame (orf), encoding 239 amino acids. the abtnf-alpha amino acid sequence shows the characteristic tnf family signature, n-termi ...200918984056
a second propo present in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and expression of the propos during a vibrio alginolyticus injection, molt stage, and oral sodium alginate ingestion.prophenoloxidase (propo) is a melanin-synthesising enzyme that plays important roles in immune responses by crustaceans. previously, we cloned and characterized propo-i from white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei. in the present study, a novel prophenoloxidase-ii (propo-ii) cdna was also cloned from haemocytes of l. vannamei using oligonucleotide primers and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by the rapid amplification of complementary (c) ...200918984057
the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus under low and high ph stress.white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (also known as penaeus vannamei) held in 34 per thousand seawater at ph 8.2 were injected with tryptic soy broth (tsb)-grown vibrio alginolyticus at 8 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1), and then transferred to tanks at ph 6.5, 8.2 (control) and 10.1, respectively. after 24-168 h, the mortality of v. alginolyticus-injected shrimp that were transferred to ph 6.5 and ph 10.1 tanks was significantly higher than that of v. alginolyticus-injected shrimp he ...200818990589
molecular characterization and expression analysis of the ikappab gene from pearl oyster pinctada fucata.inhibitor of nf-kappab (ikappab) is one important member of nf-kappab signal pathway and plays a pivotal role in regulating the innate immune response of invertebrate. herein, we described the isolation and characterization of pearl oyster pinctada fucata ikappab gene (designated as poikappab). the poikappab cdna was 1975 bp long and consisted of a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 73 bp, a 3' utr of 807 bp with three rna instability motifs (attta) and a polyadenylation signal (aataaa) at 13 nucle ...200919010421
cloning and expression of heat shock protein 70 gene in the haemocytes of pearl oyster (pinctada fucata, gould 1850) responding to bacterial challenge.the cdna of pearl oyster pinctada fucata hsp70 (designated pfhsp70) was cloned by est and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) techniques. the full length of pfhsp70 cdna was 2376 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (utr) of 89 bp, a 3' terminal utr of 328 bp, and an open reading frame (orf) of 1959 bp encoding a polypeptide of 652 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 71.42 kda and an estimated isoelectric point of 5.18. blast analysis revealed that the pfhsp70 g ...200919026750
pacemaker infection due to vibrio alginolyticus. 200819046705
evaluation of the antibacterial activity of leaf and twig extracts of stout camphor tree, cinnamomum kanehirae, and the effects on immunity and disease resistance of white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei.effects of essential oils and hot-water extracts isolated from leaf and twig of stout camphor tree, cinnamomum kanehirae on antibacterial activity to pathogen of fish, abalone, marine fish and freshwater prawn, and the white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei immunity and disease resistance to vibrio alginolyticus were carried out in this study. a better antibacterial activity against nine selected pathogen bacteria was recorded in twig essential oil, and the selected pathogens of both gram-positive b ...200919063975
flagellar motility in bacteria structure and function of flagellar motor.bacterial flagella are filamentous organelles that drive cell locomotion. they thrust cells in liquids (swimming) or on surfaces (swarming) so that cells can move toward favorable environments. at the base of each flagellum, a reversible rotary motor, which is powered by the proton- or the sodium-motive force, is embedded in the cell envelope. the motor consists of two parts: the rotating part, or rotor, that is connected to the hook and the filament, and the nonrotating part, or stator, that co ...200819081534
enhancement of immunity and disease resistance in the white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, by the probiotic, bacillus subtilis e20.effects of bacillus subtilis e20 isolated from fermented soybean on immune parameters and the disease resistance of the white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) after 98 days of b. subtilis e20 feeding were evaluated in this study. shrimp fed b. subtilis e20-containing diets at concentrations of 10(6) (e206), 10(7) (e207), and 10(8) (e208)cfu kg(-1), respectively, had significantly increased survival rates of 13.3%, 16.7%, and 20%, compared to the control (fed no probiotic) after being challenged wit ...200919111620
adhesive properties of environmental vibrio alginolyticus strains to biotic and abiotic surfaces.the ability of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from a bathing and fishing area (khenis, centre of tunisia) to adhere to both biotic and abiotic surfaces was evaluated in the present work. the biochemical, physiological and enzymatic activities of all strains was also investigated. three morphotypes of v. alginolyticus were obtained on congo red agar and only 14 strains produced black colonies. the majority of strains were able to degrade the skin mucus of both sparus aurata and dicentrarch ...200819123304
cloning and expression of a hepcidin gene from a marine fish (pseudosciaena crocea) and the antimicrobial activity of its synthetic peptide.hepcidin gene is widely expressed in various fish, suggesting that this antimicrobial peptide is a very important component in the innate immune system. large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) is one of the important economic species of marine-cultured fish but knowledge of its innate immune mechanism is lacking. in this study, we characterize a p. crocea hepcidin gene named as pc-hepc. it consists of an open reading frame of 258 bases encoding 85 amino acids and has a conserved sequence in ...200919150638
sodium-dependent dynamic assembly of membrane complexes in sodium-driven flagellar motors.the bacterial flagellar motor is driven by the electrochemical potential of specific ions, h(+) or na(+). the motor consists of a rotor and stator, and their interaction generates rotation. the stator, which is composed of poma and pomb in the na(+) motor of vibrio alginolyticus, is thought to be a torque generator converting the energy of ion flux into mechanical power. we found that specific mutations in pomb, including d24n, f33c and s248f, which caused motility defects, affected the assembly ...200919183284
molecular typing and identification of bdellovibrio-and-like organisms isolated from seawater shrimp ponds and adjacent coastal apply and compare two pcr-based methods for typing saltwater bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (balos) and to understand ecological and phylogenetic aspects of the balos isolated from shrimp mariculture systems.200919191952
depuration of striped venus clam (chamelea gallina l.): effects on microorganisms, sand content, and mortality.this study was focused on the evaluation of the microbiological indices, defined by european legislation, before and after the depuration of clams (chamelea gallina) landed in category b seawater. the survival of depurated clams and the meat yield were also evaluated. the results obtained from october 2002 to september 2003 evidenced a mean microbial reduction during depuration of 62% for escherichia coli and 54% for fecal coliforms (fc). all the samples had fc counts below the limit after 24 h ...200919200100
vibrio alginolyticus gyrb sequence analysis and gyrb-targeted pcr identification in environmental isolates.gyrb fragments (about 1.2 kb) of 9 vibrio alginolyticus strains were sequenced, and their phylogenetic relationship with other closely related vibrio species was analyzed. all the v. alginolyticus strains grouped into one strongly supported cluster in the phylogenetic tree. there were 54 base variations among the 1167 bp mutual gyrb regions of 11 v. alginolyticus strains; all the v. alginolyticus strains shared the same amino acid sequence except v. alginolyticus atcc 17749. based on the gyrb se ...200819244972
high potential of adhesion to abiotic and biotic materials in fish aquaculture facility by vibrio alginolyticus strains.the ability of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from sparus aurata and dicentrarchus labrax nursery to adhere to epithelial cell lines (hep-2 and caco-2), fish mucus and their ability to form a biofilm on different surfaces (glass, polystyrene, polyethylene and polyvinyl-chloride) was investigated in this study.200919245411
the effect of long-range hydrodynamic interaction on the swimming of a single has been theoretically suggested that when a bacterium swims in a fluid, the disturbance it creates is long-ranged and can influence its locomotion. the contribution of these long-range hydrodynamic interactions to swimming cells is examined herein for a number of bacterial strains with well-defined flagellar geometries. we show experimentally for the first time that long-range hydrodynamic interactions are important for an accurate description of the swimming of a single cell, and the effect ...200919254562
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a clip-domain serine protease from pearl oyster pinctada fucata.the clip-domain serine proteases (sps) are the essential components of extracellular signaling cascade in various biological processes, especially in embryonic development and the innate immune responses of invertebrate. herein, we described the isolation and characterization of pearl oyster pinctada fucata clip-domain sp gene (designated as posp). the posp cdna was 1080 bp long and consisted of a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 13 bp, a 3'-utr of 68 bp with a polyadenylation signal (aataaa) at ...200919254766
purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of an aminoacylhistidine dipeptidase (pepd) from vibrio alginolyticus.the aminoacylhistidine dipeptidase (pepd) protein encoded by vibrio alginolyticus pepd was successfully overexpressed and characterized and the putative active-site residues responsible for metal binding and catalysis were identified. the purified enzyme contained two zinc ions per monomer. the recombinant dipeptidase enzyme, which was identified as a homodimer in solution, exhibited broad substrate specificity for xaa-his dipeptides, with highest activity towards the his-his dipeptide. the puri ...200919255468
induction of phenoloxidases in the humoral fluids of amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri by vibrio alginolyticus and escherichia coli.the humoral immune responses of amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri to microbial challenge remain open to date. here we examined the changes in po activity in the humoral fluids in amphioxus before and after challenge with escherichia coli and vibrio alginolyticus. it was found that po activity in the humoral fluids is markedly increased by challenge with e. coli and v. alginolyticus; and the microbial challenge results in a significant rise in subunit 2 of the three po subunits, making po subunit ...200919264135
genomic diversity of vibrios associated with the brazilian coral mussismilia hispida and its sympatric zoanthids (palythoa caribaeorum, palythoa variabilis and zoanthus solanderi).a taxonomic survey of the vibrios associated with the brazilian endemic coral mussismilia hispida and the sympatric zoanthids (i.e. palythoa caribaeorum, palythoa variabilis and zoanthus solanderi).200919291243
[establishment of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of vibrio alginolyticus].vibrio alginolyticus is the main vibrio pathogen in aquaculture in the south of china. a one step loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed for detection of vibrio alginolyticus. a set of primers were designed from the ompk sequence of vibrio alginolyticus. the assay was optimised to amplify vibrio alginolyticus dna by incubation at 65 degrees c for only 1 h, and required only a simple water bath or heating block to provide a constant temperature of 65 degrees c. lamp amp ...200919306691
white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei that received the hot-water extract of gracilaria tenuistipitata showed earlier recovery in immunity after a vibrio alginolyticus injection.white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei which had been immersed in seawater containing the hot-water extract of gracilaria tenuistipitata at 0 (control), 200, 400, and 600 mg l(-1) for 3 h, were challenged with vibrio alginolyticus at 4.6 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1) and then placed in normal seawater (34 per thousand). the survival rates of shrimp immersed in 200, 400, and 600 mg l(-1) of the hot-water extract were significantly higher than those of control shrimp over 48-120 h. in a ...200919332131
effects of temperature change on the innate cellular and humoral immune responses of orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides and its susceptibility to vibrio grouper epinephelus coioides held at 27 degrees c were then further cultured at 19, 27 (control), and 35 degrees c, and were examined for innate cellular and humoral responses after 3-96 h. the total leucocyte count, respiratory burst, and phagocytic activity significantly decreased 3, 48, and 96 h after fish were transferred to 19 and 35 degrees c. both the alternative complement pathway (ach(50)) and the lysozyme activity significantly decreased at 3-96 h after fish were transfe ...200919332138
identification of immune cells interacting with vibrio spp. and its in vitro post-phagocytic killing mechanism of haemocytes in the penaeid shrimp, penaeus indicus h. milne edwards.immune cells were identified and their interaction towards vibrio alginolyticus, v. parahaemolyticus and v. anguillarum was studied in vitro in the penaeid shrimp, penaeus indicus. haemocytes were divided into agranulocytes, semi-dense granulocytes and dense granulocytes according to their morphology. agranulocytes (100%) and 0.3-0.7% of granulocytes were actively involved in coagulation. granulocytes were involved in in vitro phagocytosis and encapsulation of foreign materials. phagocytosis was ...200919335612
identification and cloning of the alpha2-macroglobulin of giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii and its expression in relation with the molt stage and bacteria injection.the full-length complementary (c)dna of the alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2m) gene was cloned from haemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna end (race) methods. the 4875-bp cdna contains an open reading frame (orf) of 4419 bp, a 95-bp 5'-untranslated region (utr), and a 361-bp 3' utr containing the poly a tail. the orf encodes a protein of 1472 amino acids (aa) with a 23-residue sign ...200919340942
suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (socs-2) homologue in disk abalone: cloning, sequence characterization and expression analysis.suppressor of cytokine signaling (socs) proteins are inhibitors of cytokine signaling pathways and key physiological regulators of both innate and adaptive immune systems in vertebrates. in present study, we provided the initial characterization of socs-2 homologue from the mollusk abalone haliotis discus discus as a member of invertebrate socs-2. the disk abalone socs-2 cdna (absocs-2) contains 1700-bp full length with 771-bp coding sequence, which codes 257 amino acids protein. based on the se ...200919340953
isolation and characterization of a hepcidin peptide from the head kidney of large yellow croaker, pseudosciaena crocea.large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) is one of the most important marine cultured fish in china. acidic extracts of five tissues of large yellow croaker showed strong anti-vibrio alginolyticus activity. acidic extract of head kidney tissue was subjected to heat-treatment in boiling water, and solid-phase extraction on sep-pak c(18) cartridge. it was found that the antibacterial substances were heat stable, and 20% acetonitrile effluent exhibited strong antibacterial activity. active extra ...200919344770
enzymatic, outer membrane proteins and plasmid alterations of starved vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus cells in seawater.the marine bacteria vibrio parahaemolyticus and v. alginolyticus were incubated in seawater for 8 months to evaluate their adaptative responses to starvation. the starved cells showed an altered biochemical and enzymatic profiles, respectively, on api 20e and api zym systems and an evolution to the filterable minicells state capable to pass membrane pore size 0.45 microm. outer membrane proteins patterns of stressed bacteria were also altered. indeed, these modifications were manifested by the a ...200919373459
unusual marine pathogens causing cellulitis and bacteremia in hemodialysis patients: report of two cases and review of the literature.cellulitis in immunocompetent hosts is usually caused by skin organisms and responds to oral antibiotics. in immunocompromised hosts, such as end-stage renal disease (esrd) patients, unusual organisms with unpredictable pathogenicity can cause infections. we present two cases with isolates that are usually encountered in coastal waters. the first case describes a 71-year-old african-american esrd patient who presented with bacteremia secondary to a wound infection after exposure to flood waters ...200319379389
global climate change and wound care: case study of an off-season vibrio alginolyticus infection in a healthy man.vibrio alginolyticus is a halophilic gram-negative bacterium normally present in seawater. vibrios are not capable of cutaneous invasion through intact skin and their isolation from extraintestinal sites is uncommon. however, interruptions in skin integrity (cuts or abrasions) can allow these bacteria to cause complicated skin and soft tissues infections. this case study describes the clinical assessment and management of a nonhealing traumatic wound, sustained in a coastal area during the winte ...200919387097
acute effects of the antibiotic oxytetracycline on the bacterial community of the grass shrimp, palaemonetes pugio.the toxicity of oxytetracycline (otc) was evaluated in adult grass shrimp, palaemonetes pugio. initially, static acute (96 h) toxicity tests were conducted with shrimp exposed from 0 to 1,000 mg/l otc. a calculated lethal concentration 50% value of 683.30 mg/l otc (95% confidence interval 610.85-764.40 mg/l) was determined from these tests, along with a lowest-observable-effect concentration of 750 mg/l and no-observable-effect concentration of 500 mg/l. moreover, chronic sublethal effects of ot ...200919400597
phenotypic and genetic differences between opaque and translucent colonies of vibrio alginolyticus.many pathogens undergo phase variation between rugose and smooth colony morphology or between opaque and translucent colony morphology, which is mainly due to the variation in the surface polysaccharides. in this study, vibrio alginolyticus zj-51 displayed phase variation between opaque, rugose colonies (op) and translucent, smooth colonies (tr). unlike the vibrios reported previously, tr cells of zj-51 enhanced biofilm formation and motility, but they did not differ from op cells in the quantit ...200919408137
inhibitory effects of partially decomposed alginate on production of glucan and organic acid by streptococcus sobrinus 6715.our previous study has already clarified that partially decomposed alginate (alg53) by vibrio alginolyticus sun53 has a competitive inhibitory effect on sucrase. the objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of alg53 on the production of glucan from sucrose by glucosyltransferase and acid from glucose by streptococcus sobrinus 6715. glucosyltransferase was prepared from cultural medium of s. sobrinus using ultrafiltration and hydroxyapatite chromatography. in order to examine the inhi ...200919430617
inhibitor of rel/nf-kappab is regulated in sydney rock oysters in response to specific double-stranded rna and vibrio alginolyticus, but the major immune anti-oxidants ecsod and prx6 are non-inducible.invertebrates, such as oysters have mechanisms to recognize different microbial associated molecular patterns (mamps) and recognition of these antigens triggers signaling pathways for the transcription of immune-related proteins. components of the rel/nf-(capital ka, cyrillic)b pathway have been identified in mollusks but the role of different mamps in the activation of this pathway is poorly understood. in the current study, the sydney rock oyster (saccostrea glomerata) was injected intramuscul ...200919464374
role of alkaline serine protease, asp, in vibrio alginolyticus virulence and regulation of its expression by luxo-luxr regulatory system.the alkaline serine protease asp, which was shown to be a virulence factor of vibrio alginolyticus as a purified protein, was cloned from v. alginolyticus epgs, a strain recently isolated from moribund epinephelus coioides in an outbreak of vibriosis in a mariculture farm of shenzhen. the asp null mutant was constructed by homologous recombination with suicide plasmid pnq705-1. compared with the wild-type strain, the asp null mutant exhibited a significant decrease of total extracellular proteas ...200919494689
isolation of a novel strain of bacillus pumilus from penaeid shrimp that is inhibitory against marine pathogens.a bacterium was isolated from the mid-gut of healthy black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, based on a large zone of inhibition in mixed culture on solid medium. the isolate was a gram-positive, motile spore former, with an optimum ph range for growth in tryptone soya broth containing 2% nacl of between ph 6 and 9. the bacterium was highly salt tolerant with concentrations between 0% and 8% having no detrimental effect on growth. the isolate was identified as bacillus pumilus based on physiologica ...200919573134
a novel fas ligand in mollusk abalone: molecular characterization, immune responses and biological activity of the recombinant protein.fas ligand is a member of the tnf superfamily that plays an important role by inducing apoptosis and homeostasis of immune responses. the gene encoding fas ligand was isolated from a disk abalone (haliotis discus discus) cdna library, denoted as the abfas ligand. it contains an 1832bp transcript with a 945bp open reading frame, encoding 315 amino acids. the abfas ligand showed characteristic transmembrane and tnf family signature domains. the deduced amino acid comparison showed that the abfas l ...200919576285
Displaying items 801 - 900 of 1999