complete genome sequence of a giant vibrio phage valkk3 infecting vibrio alginolyticus.this paper describes the complete sequence of a giant lytic marine myophage, vibrio phage valkk3 that is specific to vibrio alginolyticus atcc(®) 17749™. vibrio phage valkk3 was subjected to whole genome sequencing on miseq sequencing platform and annotated using blast2go. the complete sequence of valkk3 genome was deposited in dbbj/embl/genbank under accession number kp671755.201627114905
discovery, structural characterization and functional analysis of alpha-2-macroglobulin, a novel immune-related molecule from holothuria atra.the non-specific protease inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2m) is a key macromolecular glycoprotein that involved in host immune defense against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. however, no research regarding a2m has been developed in echinoderms to date. in this study, the full-length cdna of a2m was cloned from the sea cucumber (holothuria atra), which is a tropical species widely distributed along the coasts of the south china sea and designated haa2m. haa2m possesses all three co ...201627033585
the bacterial (vibrio alginolyticus) production of tetrodotoxin in the ribbon worm lineus longissimus-just a false positive?we test previous claims that the bacteria vibrio alginolyticus produces tetrodotoxin (ttx) when living in symbiosis with the nemertean lineus longissimus by a setup with bacteria cultivation for ttx production. toxicity experiments on the shore crab, carcinus maenas, demonstrated the presence of a paralytic toxin, but evidence from lc-ms and electrophysiological measurements of voltage-gated sodium channel-dependent nerve conductance in male wistar rat tissue showed conclusively that this effect ...201627023570
serine suppresses the motor function of a periplasmic pomb mutation in the vibrio flagella stator.the flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus is made of two parts: a stator consisting of proteins poma and pomb, and a rotor whose main component is flig. the interaction between flig and poma generates torque for flagellar rotation. based on cross-linking experiments of double-cys mutants of pomb, we previously proposed that a conformational change in the periplasmic region of pomb caused stator activation. double-cys mutants lost their motility due to an intramolecular disulfide bridge. in thi ...201627004994
transcriptome analysis of the effect of vibrio alginolyticus infection on the innate immunity-related tlr5-mediated induction of cytokines in epinephelus lanceolatus.epinephelus lanceolatus, considered to be an aquaculture fish species of high economic value in east asia, is one of the largest groupers in the epinephelus genus. vibrio alginolyticus is a bacterial species that causes high morbidity in marine fish; infection can cause exophthalmia, ulcers, septicemia, and corneal opaqueness in fish. epinephelus lanceolatus larvae infected with vibrio alginolyticus were subjected to transcriptome analysis to study the immune regulation pathway. grouper larvae w ...201626975410
the immune responses and antioxidant status of portunus trituberculatus individuals with different body weights.vibrio alginolyticus is a virulent pathogen that affects crab aquacultures. in the present study, the immune responses and antioxidant status of big and small (based on body weight and size) 80-, 100- and 120-day-old specimens of portunus trituberculatus, challenged for 72 h with vibrio alginolyticus, were studied. the total hemocyte count (thc), and phagocytic, prophenoloxidase and phenoloxidase activities, of the big individuals (bis) were higher than those of the small individuals (sis) (p <  ...201626952172
isolation and characterization of two lytic bacteriophages, φst2 and φgrn1; phage therapy application for biological control of vibrio alginolyticus in aquaculture live feeds.bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as artemia and rotifers. the pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus strain v1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, sparus aurata, was used as host to ...201626950336
effects of methanolic macroalgae extracts from caulerpa sertularioides and ulva lactuca on litopenaeus vannamei survival in the presence of vibrio bacteria.macroalgae are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that are useful for the development of new functional ingredients. this study was conducted to determine whether methanolic extracts from caulerpa sertularioides and ulva lactuca macroalgae might be possible alternatives for the prevention of shrimp vibriosis, which is caused by vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus. macroalgae extracts prepared with methanol as the solvent were evaluated for antiba ...201626915309
dynamics of snake-like swarming behavior of vibrio alginolyticus.swarming represents a special case of bacterial behavior where motile bacteria migrate rapidly and collectively on surfaces. swarming and swimming motility of bacteria has been studied well for rigid, self-propelled rods. in this study we report a strain of vibrio alginolyticus, a species that exhibits similar collective motility but a fundamentally different cell morphology with highly flexible snake-like swarming cells. investigating swarming dynamics requires high-resolution imaging of single ...201626910435
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of (b-cell lymphoma-2 associated x protein) bax in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) after the vibrio alginolyticus challenge.bax is a pro-apoptotic member of bcl-2 like superfamily, playing an important role in regulating the apoptosis. in this study, the full-length bax (ecbax) was obtained, containing a 5'utr of 64 bp, an orf of 579 bp and a 3'utr of 1021 bp. the ecbax gene encoded a polypeptide of 192 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 21.55 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 6.75. the deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that ecbax comprised the conserved residues and the characteris ...201626905633
characterisation and expression analysis of two terminal complement components: c7 and c9 from large yellow croaker, larimichthys crocea.the large yellow croaker larimichthys crocea, as one of the most economically important marine fish in china and east asian countries, are facing the fatal attraction of various pathogens in recent years. elucidation of the organism immunomodulatory mechanism of croaker response to pathogen infection is essential for the disease control. in present study, we reported for the first time the molecular characterization and expression analysis of two terminal complement components (tccs) of croaker, ...201626902705
abundant members of scavenger receptors family and their identification, characterization and expression against vibrio alginolyticus infection in juvenile larimichthys crocea.scavenger receptors (srs) are crucial pattern recognition receptors (prrs) to defense pathogen infection in fish innate immunity. in this paper, some members in srs family of larimichthys crocea were identified, including eight genes in the class a, b, d and f families. (g + c) % of all srs members held 51% ∼ 59%, and these genes were no obvious codon bias by analyzing the distribution of a-, t-, g- and c-ended codons. the order of enc for all srs members by sequencing was lyccd68 > lycscara5 > ...201626876357
the tca pathway is an important player in the regulatory network governing vibrio alginolyticus adhesion under adversity.adhesion is a critical step in the initial stage of vibrio alginolyticus infection; therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the adhesion of v. alginolyticus and determine if environmental factors have any effect. a greater understanding of this process may assist in developing preventive measures for reducing infection. in our previous research, we presented the first rna-seq data from v. alginolyticus cultured under stress conditions that resulted in reduced ...201626870007
the known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei.transglutaminases (tgs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. two types of tg have been identified in white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. total haemocyte count (thc), differential haemocyte count (dhc), phenoloxidase activity, respirat ...201626855013
molecular characterization and function of a pten gene from litopenaeus vannamei after vibrio alginolyticus challenge.pten, a tumor suppressor gene, suppresses cell survival, growth, apoptosis, cell migration and dna damage repair by inhibiting the pi3k/akt signaling pathway. in this study, the full-length litopenaeus vannamei pten (lvpten) cdna was obtained, containing a 5'utr of 59bp, an orf of 1269bp and a 3'utr of 146bp besides the poly (a) tail. the pten gene encoded a protein of 422 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 48.3 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 7.6. subcellular localiza ...201626801100
vaccination of silver sea bream (sparus sarba) against vibrio alginolyticus: protective evaluation of different vaccinating order to develop more effective immunological strategies to prevent vibriosis of farmed marine fish in hong kong and southern china, various vaccine preparations including formalin-, phenol-, chloroform- and heat-killed whole cell bacterins and subcellular lipopolysaccharides (lps), as well as different administration routes, were investigated. fish immunized with the subcellular lps exhibited the best protection [relative percent of survival (rps) = 100], while fish immunized with whole cell ...201526729096
the grim-19 plays a vital role in shrimps' responses to vibrio alginolyticus.grim-19 (gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19), a novel cell death regulatory gene, plays important roles in cell apoptosis, mitochondrial respiratory chain and immune response. it has been reported to interact physically with stat3 and inhibit stat3-dependent signal transduction. in this study, a new grim-19 gene, which is a 789-bp gene encoding a 149 amino acids protein, is identified and characterized from litopenaeus vannamei. the tissue distribution patterns showed ...201626702559
molecular variations in vibrio alginolyticus and v. harveyi in shrimp-farming systems upon stress.a study was performed to investigate the genomic variations in the shrimp farm isolates of vibrio alginolyticus and v. harveyi when the isolates were subjected to environmental stress. samples of shrimps, water and sediment were collected from southern indian coastal shrimp farms. vibrio isolates were biochemically identified and confirmed using 16s rdna and gyrb gene specific pcr. the bacterial strains were genotyped by pcr fingerprinting using gtg(5) and is (insertion sequence) primers. seven ...201626691457
vibrio alginolyticus associated chronic myringitis acquired in mediterranean waters of turkey.vibrio alginolyticus was originally classified as biotype 2 of vibrio parahaemolyticus. most clinical isolates are recovered from superficial wounds or the external ear infections. v. alginolyticus is acknowledged to be nearly nonpathogenic in humans. the reason for presence of v. alginolyticus's virulence is uncertain. we describe a chronic myringitis case in a 47-year-old female due to v. alginolyticus. according to her anamnesis, it was detected that she had sea bathing history in mugla coast ...201526605095
identification of dld, by immunoproteomic analysis and evaluation as a potential vaccine antigen against three vibrio species in epinephelus coioides.vibrio spp. represent a serious threat to the culture of epinephelus coioides (orange-spotted grouper) in southeast asia. in this study we used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de) and western blotting to identify common immunogenic proteins of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio harveyi and vibrio parahaemolyticus. membranes were probed with orange-spotted grouper anti-v. alginolyticus sera and accordingly 60, 58 and 48 immunogenic protein spots were detected. by matching analysis for the three west ...201626562319
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of vibrio spp. in retail and farm shrimps in ecuador.the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. the presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (ems) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (ahpnd) also was evaluated. vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in cuenca, ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces el oro and guayas, ecuador. a total of 229 shrimp sampl ...201526555534
differential expression of micrornas in shrimp marsupenaeus japonicus in response to vibrio alginolyticus infection.till date numerous micrornas (mirnas) have been discovered from various organisms, including mammals, plants, insects, nematodes and viruses. they are known to have antiviral functions in crustaceans such as shrimp marsupenaeus japonicas. however, little is known about the role of mirnas against bacterial infection in this shrimp caused by vibrio alginolyticus. we performed small rna sequencing to characterize the differentially expressed micrornas in v. alginolyticus challenged shrimp, in compa ...201626483347
identification and characterization of a mitochondrial unfolded protein response transcription factor atfs-1 in litopenaeus vannamei.a mitochondrial specific stress response termed mitochondrial unfolded protein response (upr(mt)) is activated in responding to disturbance of protein homeostasis in mitochondria. the activating transcription factor associated with stress-1 (designated as atfs-1) is the key regulator of upr(mt). to investigating the roles of atfs-1 (lvatfs-1) in litopenaeus vannamei mitochondrial stress remission and immunity, it's full length cdna was cloned. the open reading frame of lvatfs-1 was 1, 557 bp in ...201626481519
efficacy of chitosan oligosaccharide as aquatic adjuvant administrated with a formalin-inactivated vibrio anguillarum vaccine.vaccine is one of the efficient candidates to prevent fish disease through activating host immune response in aquaculture. actually, several vaccines are often administered with adjuvants to increase immunostimulation, especially for some water-based formalin-killed vaccines. however, side effects are inevitable after vaccination of some adjuvants. therefore, exploration for effective and harmless aquatic adjuvants is urgently needed. in this study, immunoprotection of a formalin-inactivated vib ...201526476108
a novel innexin2 forming membrane hemichannel exhibits immune responses and cell apoptosis in scylla paramamosain.innexins are a class of transmembrane proteins that are important for embryonic development, morphogenesis and electrical synapse formation. in the present study, a novel innexin2 gene from scylla paramamosain was named sp-inx2 and characterized. the complete cdna and genomic dna sequences of sp-inx2 were revealed. sp-inx2 mrna transcripts were distributed in various tissues of s. paramamosain and were most abundant in the hemocytes. the sp-inx2 was significantly upregulated in hemocyte, gill an ...201526384843
transcriptome analysis of the pearl oyster (pinctada fucata) hemocytes in response to vibrio alginolyticus infection.the pearl oyster pinctada fucata is cultured widely for production of marine pearls in china, while mass mortalities, likely related to pathogenic infections, have occurred frequently in juvenile, mother and operated oysters. to address this issue, understanding host defense mechanisms of p. fucata against pathogenic challenge is extremely important. in the present study, a comparative analysis of hemocyte transcriptomes of p. fucata before and after vibrio alginolyticus infection was conducted ...201626363408
the srec-i and srec-ii associated with epidermal growth factor in scavenger receptor family are the potential regulative transmembrane receptors in larimichthys innate immunity, the regulation of the immunologic gene expression plays a vital role in defense against pathogenic threat. the class f scavenger receptors (scarfs), a kind of crucial immunologic type i transmembrane receptors, mainly involve in the signal transmission and eliminating pathogens in host immune system. in this study, the srec-i and srec-ii of scarfs in larimichthys crocea (designated as lycsrec1 and lycsrec2 respectively) were first identified, the potential genetic locus relat ...201526343178
involvement of the flagellar assembly pathway in vibrio alginolyticus adhesion under environmental stresses.adhesion is an important virulence factor of vibrio alginolyticus. this factor may be affected by environmental conditions; however, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. in our previous research, adhesion deficient strains were obtained by culturing v. alginolyticus under stresses including cu, pb, hg, and low ph. with rna-seq and bioinformatics analysis, we found that all of these stress treatments significantly affected the flagellar assembly pathway, which may play an important role in v. ...201526322276
type vi secretion system toxins horizontally shared between marine bacteria.the type vi secretion system (t6ss) is a widespread protein secretion apparatus used by gram-negative bacteria to deliver toxic effector proteins into adjacent bacterial or host cells. here, we uncovered a role in interbacterial competition for the two t6sss encoded by the marine pathogen vibrio alginolyticus. using comparative proteomics and genetics, we identified their effector repertoires. in addition to the previously described effector v12g01_02265, we identified three new effectors secret ...201526305100
roles of receptor for activated protein kinase c1 for modulating immune responses in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.complementary (c)dna encoding a receptor for activated protein kinase c1 (rack1) messenger (m)rna of the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, designated lvrack1, consisted a 1136-bp cdna containing an open reading frame (orf) of 954 bp, a 111-bp 5'-untranslated region (utr), and a 71-bp 3'-utr, which is a 36 kda cytosolic protein, belonging to the trp-asp40 (wd40) family of proteins, characterized by containing seven highly conserved trp-asp40 (wd40) internal repeats, and a poly a tail. the wd rep ...201526297966
three novel toll genes (pttoll1-3) identified from a marine crab, portunus trituberculatus: different tissue expression and response to pathogens.the toll signaling pathway is one of the most important regulators of the immune response in both vertebrates and invertebrates. herein, three novel toll (pttoll1-3) cdna sequences were cloned from the swimming crab, portunus trituberculatus. pttoll1 has 1003 amino acid residues and consists of an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (lrrs) and a cytoplasmic toll/interleukin-1 receptor (tir) domain of 139 residues. pttoll2 encodes 1196 peptides, with an extracellular domain co ...201526238349
rapid and sensitive detection of vibrio alginolyticus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick targeted to the rpox gene.vibrio alginolyticus is a major bacterial pathogen causing disease in marine animals. the present study aimed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) coupled with a lateral flow dipstick (lfd) for rapid and simple visual detection of v. alginolyticus-specific amplicons. the biotin-labeled lamp amplicons from the targeted portion of a gene encoding rpos-like sigma factor (rpox) were generated at 60°c for 1 h and then hybridized with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled probe fo ...201526220075
identification and characterization of three vibrio alginolyticus non-coding rnas involved in adhesion, chemotaxis, and motility processes.the capability of vibrio alginolyticus to adhere to fish mucus is a key virulence factor of the bacteria. our previous research showed that stress conditions, such as cu(2+), pb(2+), hg(2+), and low ph, can reduce this adhesion ability. non-coding (nc) rnas play a crucial role in regulating bacterial gene expression, affecting the bacteria's pathogenicity. to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the decline in adhesion ability caused by stressors, we combined high-throughput sequencing with c ...201526217589
effect of flig three amino acids deletion in vibrio polar-flagellar rotation and formation.most of bacteria can swim by rotating flagella bidirectionally. the c ring, located at the bottom of the flagellum and in the cytoplasmic space, consists of flig, flim and flin, and has an important function in flagellar protein secretion, torque generation and rotational switch of the motor. flig is the most important part of the c ring that interacts directly with a stator subunit. here, we introduced a three-amino acids in-frame deletion mutation (δpsa) into flig from vibrio alginolyticus, wh ...201526142283
cutaneous ulcer at the site of radiation-induced dermatitis caused by infection with vibrio alginolyticus. 201526141002
draft genome sequences of vibrio alginolyticus strains v1 and v2, opportunistic marine pathogens.we announce the draft genome sequences of vibrio alginolyticus strains v1 and v2, isolated from juvenile sparus aurata and dentex dentex, respectively, during outbreaks of vibriosis. the genome sequences are 5,257,950 bp with a g+c content of 44.5% for v. alginolyticus v1 and 5,068,299 bp with a g+c content of 44.8% for strain v2. these genomes provide further insights into the putative virulence factors, prophage carriage, and evolution of this opportunistic marine pathogen.201526139724
the mind homolog flhg regulates the synthesis of the single polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus.flhg, a mind homolog and an atpase, is known to mediate the formation of the single polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus together with flhf. flhg and flhf work antagonistically, with flhf promoting flagellar assembly and flhg inhibiting it. here, we demonstrate that purified flhg exhibits a low basal atpase activity. as with mind, the basal atpase activity of flhg can be activated and the d171a residue substitution enhances its atpase activity sevenfold. flhg-d171a localizes strongly at the c ...201526112286
flil associates with the stator to support torque generation of the sodium-driven polar flagellar motor of vibrio.flagellar motors generate torque to rotate flagellar filaments and drive bacterial cells. each motor is composed of a rotor and many stators. the stator is a force-generating complex that converts ion flux into torque. previous reports have suggested that the membrane protein flil is located near the stator and is involved in torque generation. we investigated the role of flil in the sodium-driven polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. our results revealed that flil is a cytoplasmic memb ...201526103585
activation of immunity, immune response, antioxidant ability, and resistance against vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei decrease under long-term culture at low ph.the growth, activation of immunity, immune parameters, and transcript levels of cytmnsod, mtmnsod, eccuznsod, glutathione peroxidase (gpx), catalase, lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei reared at ph 6.8 and 8.1 after 24 weeks. no significant difference in growth was observed between the two groups. an in vitro study indicated that phenoloxidase activity and respiratory bursts (rb, release of the superoxide anion) were significantly higher in the haemocyt ...201526093205
prevalence of vibrio spp. in raw shrimps (parapenaeus longirostris) and performance of a chromogenic medium for the isolation of vibrio strains.vibrios are natural inhabitants of estuarine ecosystems and some species may pose public health problem as agents of sporadic or collective food-borne infections associated with the consumption of fish or shellfish. samples of raw shrimp (n = 299), fished in coastal areas of the city of agadir, morocco, and collected from its fish marketplace, were examined for the presence of pathogenic vibrios. microbiological analysis was carried out according to a protocol using thiosulphate citrate bile suc ...201526081523
molecular characterization of an il-1β gene from the large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea) and its effect on fish defense against vibrio alginolyticus infection.interleukin 1β (il-1β), the first interleukin to be characterized, plays a key role in regulating the immune response. in this study, we determined the cdna and genomic dna sequences of the il-1β gene from the large yellow croaker, larimichthys crocea. phylogenetic analysis indicated that the il-1β (lcil-1β) gene was most closely related to that of european seabass (dicentrarchus labrax), sharing 67.8% amino acid identity. in healthy large yellow croaker, lcil-1β transcription was detected in al ...201526018856
deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria related to human pathogenic vibrio species.vibrio species are both ubiquitous and abundant in marine coastal waters, estuaries, ocean sediment, and aquaculture settings worldwide. we report here the isolation, characterization, and genome sequence of a novel vibrio species, vibrio antiquarius, isolated from a mesophilic bacterial community associated with hydrothermal vents located along the east pacific rise, near the southwest coast of mexico. genomic and phenotypic analysis revealed v. antiquarius is closely related to pathogenic vibr ...201525964331
characterization and expression analysis of calmodulin (cam) in orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) in response to vibrio alginolyticus challenge.vibrio alginolyticus containing the highly toxic extracellular product is one of the most serious threats to grouper survival and its minimum lethal dose is approximately 500 cfu/g fish body weight in grouper. to study the toxic effects of v. alginolyticus on the immune system in teleost, calmodulin (cam), an important molecular indicator gene, was cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides). the full-length ec-cam consisted of a 5'-utr of 103 bp, an orf of 450 bp and a 3'-utr ...201525956977
calmodulin of the tropical sea cucumber: gene structure, inducible expression and contribution to nitric oxide production and pathogen clearance during immune response.calmodulin (cam) is an essential second messenger protein that transduces calcium signals by binding calcium ions (ca(2+)) and modulating its interactions with various target proteins. in contrast to vertebrates, where cam is well established as a cofactor for ca(2+)-dependent physiological and cellular functions including host defense, there is a paucity of understanding on cam in invertebrates (such as echinoderms) in response to immune challenge or microbial infections. in this study, we obta ...201525913576
the sea urchin paracentrotus lividus immunological response to chemical pollution exposure: the case of the marine environment organochlorine insecticides can be broadly detected in water, sediments, and biota. these pollutants may have major ecological consequences since they may affect marine organisms and endanger organismal growth, reproduction or survival. in this study we investigated the modification of some sea urchin immunological parameters in response to subchronic lindane (γ-hch) exposure. adult specimens of the sea urchin paracentrotus lividus were exposed to two different concentr ...201525911048
a novel biomarker for marine environmental pollution of pi-class glutathione s-transferase from mytilus coruscus.glutathione s-transferases (gsts) are the superfamily of phase ii detoxification enzymes that play crucial roles in innate immunity. in this study, a pi-class gst homolog was identified from mytilus coruscus (named as mcgst1, kc525103). the full-length cdna sequence of mcgst1 was 621bp with a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 70bp and a 3'-utr of 201bp. the deduced amino acid sequence was 206 residues in length with theoretical pi/mw of 5.60/23.72kda, containing the conserved g-site and diversifor ...201525910687
a rac1 gtpase is a critical factor in the immune response of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) to vibrio alginolyticus infection.the small gtpase rac1 acts as a molecular switch for signal transduction that regulates various cellular functions. however, its functions in crustaceans remain unclear. in this study, a cdna encoding a ras gtpase (lvrac1) in the pacific white shrimp (l. vannamei) was identified and characterized. a recombinant variant of this gtpase, rlvrac1, was expressed in the model organism p. pastoris and its expression was confirmed by mass spectrometry. biochemical assays indicated that the recombinant p ...201525892021
first description and expression analysis of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) from the swimming crab, portunus trituberculatus.tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) is a cytoplasmic adapter protein that mediates signals induced by the tumor necrosis factor receptor (tnfr) superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor (il-1r). in the present study, the full-length cdna of traf6 (pt-traf6) was identified in a marine crab, portunus trituberculatus. pt-traf6 orf is predicted to encode a 599-amino acid protein, including a ring type zinc finger, two traf-type zinc fingers, and a meprin and traf homology (ma ...201525882635
[the differentiation of specimiens of vibrio parahaemolyticua and vobrio alginolyticus].vibrio parahaemolyticua and vobrio alginolyticus are phylogenetically closely-related species. they have common ecological niches, same cultural features and similar biochemical characteristics. the phenotype variability and taxonomy similarity of strains of these species impedes differentiation of vibrio parahaemolyticua and vobrio alginolyticus according biochemical characteristics. to obtain reliable results of diagnostic application of additional methods of differentiation and identification ...201425872271
[biological characteristics and histopathological observation of vibrio alginolyticus from diseased fish].ulcer disease is one of the most serious diseases and a common problem in various stages marine culture including epinephelus coioides culture of southern china. the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from e. coioides will be useful for monitoring of drug resistance and controlling the outbreak and spread of ulcer disease in e. coioides. the purpose of this study was to characterize the pathogen of e. coioides.201425752145
investigation of possible molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adhesion in vibrio alginolyticus with comparative transcriptome analysis.adhesion capability to fish mucus, which can be affected by environmental conditions, is considered to be a key virulence factor of vibrio alginolyticus although the molecular mechanism is still unclear. in the present study, v. alginolyticus was treated with stress conditions including cu(2+) (50 mg/l), pb(2+) (100 mg/l), hg(2+) (50 mg/l) and low ph (ph 5). we found these stress treatments were capable of reducing the adhesion of v. alginolyticus, while the expression levels of multiple genes w ...201525726081
lvdj-1 plays an important role in resistance against vibrio alginolyticus in litopenaeus was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse nih3t3 cells in cooperation with activated ras. it has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. in this study, the dj-1 gene in litopenaeus vannamei (lvdj-1) was identified and characterized. a recombinant protein lvdj-1 was produced in pichia pastoris. lvdj-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsrna-mediated rna interference (rnai), which led to significantly decreased levels of lvdj-1 mrna and protein. w ...201525703712
dietary supplementation of avicennia marina extract on immune protection and disease resistance in amphiprion sebae against vibrio alginolyticus.the effect of avicennia marina aqueous leaf extract on innate immune mechanisms such as total white blood cell counts (wbc), serum lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay, alternative complement (ach50) assay, phagocytic activity assay, disease resistance, gut bacteria, and survival rate of clownfish (amphiprion sebae) against vibrio alginolyticus is reported. healthy fish challenged with v. alginolyticus (1 × 10(7) cells ml(-1)) were fed with diets supplemented (0, 1, 2, and 4%) with a. mari ...201525703711
crowding of white shrimp litopenaeus vananmei depresses their immunity to and resistance against vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.immunity parameters and the expression levels of several immune-related proteins, including lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan binding protein (lgbp), peroxinectin (px), intergin β (ib), prophenoloxidase (propo) i, propo ii, α2-macroglobulin (α2-m), cytosolic mangangese superoxide dismutase (cytmnsod), mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (mtmnsod), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (gpx), lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei reared at stocking densiti ...201525700787
identification and analysis of iccu/zn-sod, mn-sod and eccu/zn-sod in superoxide dismutase multigene family of pseudosciaena crocea.superoxide dismutases (sods) belong to a significant and ubiquitous family of metalloenzymes for eliminating excess reactive oxygen species (ros). in this paper, the complete open reading frames (orfs) of intracellular cu/zn-sod (iccu/zn-sod), mn-sod and extracellular cu/zn-sod (eccu/zn-sod) were identified from the large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea, designated as lycsod1, lycsod2 and lycsod3). the sequences were 465 bp, 678 bp and 645 bp (genbank accession no. kj908287, kj908285 and kj ...201525652289
marine bacterial chemoresponse to a stepwise chemoattractant stimulus.we found recently that polar flagellated marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus is capable of exhibiting taxis toward a chemical source in both forward and backward swimming directions. how the microorganism coordinates these two swimming intervals, however, is not known. the work presented herein is aimed at determining the response functions of the bacterium by applying a stepwise chemoattractant stimulus while it is swimming forward or backward. the important finding of our experiment is that ...201525650943
complete genome sequence of vibrio alginolyticus atcc 17749t.vibrio alginolyticus is a gram-negative halophilic bacterium and has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in both humans and marine animals. it is the causative agent of food-borne diseases, such as gastroenteritis, and it invades through wounds in predisposed individuals. in this study, we present the completed genome of v. alginolyticus atcc 17749(t) through high-throughput sequencing.201525635021
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of ppar gamma in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) after the vibrio alginolyticus challenge.ppar gamma was a key nuclear receptor, playing an important role in the immune defense and the anti-inflammatory mechanism. in this study, the full-length ppar gamma (ecppar gamma) was obtained, containing a 5'utr of 133 bp, an orf of 1602 bp and a 3'utr of 26 bp besides the poly (a) tail. the ecppar gamma gene encoded a protein of 533 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 60.02 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 6.26. the deduced amino acid sequence showed that ecppar gamma ...201525592876
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of complement component c8 beta in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) after the vibrio alginolyticus challenge.complement component c8 beta was a key molecule in the complement system, mediating the mac formation and the bacterial lysis. in this study, the full-length c8 beta (ecc8 beta) was obtained, containing a 5'utr of 25 bp, an orf of 1764 bp and a 3'utr of 198 bp. the ecc8 beta gene encoded a protein of 587 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 65.87 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 6.35. the deduced amino acid sequence showed that ecc8 beta consisted of the conserved residue ...201525592820
dietary administration of gynura bicolor (roxb. willd.) dc water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp litopeneaus vannamei.gynura bicolor (roxb. & willd.) dc., a perennial plant belonging to the asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of asia. the total hemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase (po) activity, respiratory bursts (rbs), superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of g. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. the results indicated that these par ...201525462462
sea bass dicentrarchus labrax (l.) bacterial infection and confinement stress acts on f-type lectin (dlfbl) serum modulation.the f-lectin, a fucose-binding protein found from invertebrates to ectothermic vertebrates, is the last lectin family to be discovered. here, we describe effects of two different types of stressors, bacterial infection and confinement stress, on the modulation of european sea bass dicentrarchus labrax (l.) f-lectin (dlfbl), a well-characterized serum opsonin, using a specific antibody. the infection of the vibrio alginolyticus bacterial strain increased the total haemagglutinating activity durin ...201525307147
identification of scara3, scara5 and marco of class a scavenger receptor-like family in pseudosciaena crocea.the class a scavenger receptors are important pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system in living organisms. according to the whole-genome data of large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea), three kinds of scavenger receptors, scara3, scara5 and marco were cloned from the spleen, designated severally as tycsa3, tycsa5 and tycmac. the complete cdnas open reading frames (orf) of tycsa3, tycsa5 and tycmac were 1938 bp, 1677 bp and 1218 bp (genbank accession no. kj467772, kj467773 a ...201425218683
conformational change in the periplamic region of the flagellar stator coupled with the assembly around the rotor.the torque of the bacterial flagellum is generated by the rotor-stator interaction coupled with the ion flow through the channel in the stator. anchoring the stator unit to the peptidoglycan layer with proper orientation around the rotor is believed to be essential for smooth rotation of the flagellar motor. the stator unit of the sodium-driven flagellar motor of vibrio is composed of poma and pomb, and is thought to be fixed to the peptidoglycan layer and the t-ring by the c-terminal periplasmi ...201425197056
detection of polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic genes from antimicrobial coral-associated actinomycetes.the diversity and properties of actinobacteria, predominant residents in coral holobionts, have been rarely documented. in this study, we aimed to explore the species diversity, antimicrobial activities and biosynthetic potential of culturable actinomycetes within the tissues of the scleractinian corals porites lutea, galaxea fascicularis and acropora millepora from the south china sea. a total of 70 strains representing 13 families and 15 genera of actinobacteria were isolated. the antimicrobia ...201425190333
complete genomic sequence of the vibrio alginolyticus lytic bacteriophage pva1.a novel vibrio alginolyticus lytic bacteriophage was isolated from sewage samples obtained from a local aquatic market. morphological analysis revealed that the phage, designated as pva1, belonged to the family podoviridae. the complete genomic sequence of phage pva1 contained 41,529 bp with a g + c content of 43.7 % and 75 putative open reading frames. the genome was grouped into four modules, including phage structure, dna packaging, dna replication and regulation, and some additional function ...201425161033
evaluating the potential of marine bacteriovorax sp. da5 as a biocontrol agent against vibriosis in litopenaeus vannamei larvae.the potential application of bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (balos) for the biocontrol of bacterial diseases has been widely recognized. however, no marine balos have been reported for vibrio-related infections in penaeid shrimp. in the present study, the bacteriolytic ability of the marine bacteriovorax strain da5 against vibrio alginolyticus zoua was examined by cocultivation and electron microscopy, and optimal lysis was observed at 30-35°c and 20-30‰ salinity along with a high multiplicity ...201425139659
comparative study of immune responses in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel bathymodiolus azoricus and the shallow-water mussel mytilus galloprovincialis challenged with vibrio bacteria.the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel bathymodiolus azoricus and the continental european coast mytilus galloprovincialis are two bivalves species living in highly distinct marine habitats. mussels are filter-feeding animals that may accumulate rapidly bacteria from the environment. contact with microorganism is thus inevitable during feeding processes where gill tissues assume a strategic importance at the interface between the external milieu and the internal body cavities promoting interactio ...201425089010
characterization and expression analysis of chymotrypsin after bacterial challenge in the mud crab, scylla paramamosain.chymotrypsin is one of the serine proteases families that have various biological functions. a chymotrypsin gene was isolated from hepatopancreas of the mud crab, scylla paramamosain (designated spchy) in this study. the full-length cdna of spchy contained 942 nucleotides with a polyadenylation sequence and encoded a peptide of 270 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 amino acids. the spchy gene contains seven exons, six introns, a tata box and several transcription factor binding sites that ...201425071403
facile synthesis of multifunctional multi-walled carbon nanotube for pathogen vibrio alginolyticus detection in fishery and environmental samples.interest in carbon nanotubes for detecting the presence of pathogens arises because of developments in chemical vapor deposition synthesis and progresses in biomolecular modification. here we reported the facile synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mwcnts), which functioned as immuno-, magnetic, fluorescent sensors in detecting vibrio alginolyticus (va). the structures and properties of functionalized mwcnts were characterized by ultraviolet (uv), fourier transform infrared spectra (ft-ir ...201425059166
proteomic investigation of vibrio alginolyticus challenged caenorhabditis elegans revealed regulation of cellular homeostasis proteins and their role in supporting innate immune system.caenorhabditis elegans has been the preferred model system for many investigators to study pathogenesis. in the present investigation, regulation of c. elegans proteome was explored against v. alginolyticus infection using quantitative proteomics approach. proteins were separated using 2d-dige and the differentially regulated proteins were identified using pmf and maldi tof/tof analysis. the results thus obtained were validated using western blotting for candidate proteins. the corresponding tra ...201425044714
occurrence of virulence genes among vibrio cholerae and vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from treated wastewaters.pathogenic vibrio species are an important cause of foodborne illnesses. the aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of potentially pathogenic vibrio species in the final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant and the risk that they may pose to public health. during the 1-year monitoring, a total of 43 vibrio strains were isolated: 23 vibrio alginolyticus, 1 vibrio cholerae, 4 vibrio vulnificus, and 15 vibrio parahaemolyticus. the pcr investigation of v. parahaemolyticus and v. chole ...201425023745
genome sequences characterizing five mutations in rna polymerase and major capsid of phages ϕa318 and ϕas51 of vibrio alginolyticus with different burst efficiencies.the burst size of a phage is important prior to phage therapy and probiotic usage. the efficiency for a phage to burst its host bacterium can result from molecular domino effects of the phage gene expressions which dominate to control host machinery after infection. we found two podoviridae phages, ϕa318 and ϕas51, burst a common host v. alginolyticus with different efficiencies of 72 and 10 pfu/bacterium, respectively. presumably, the genome sequences can be compared to explain their difference ...201424952762
immune responses of prophenoloxidase in the mud crab scylla paramamosain against vibrio alginolyticus infection: in vivo and in vitro gene silencing evidence.phenoloxidase (po) plays an important role in arthropod melanization. in the present study, a propo gene was obtained from the mud crab scylla paramamosain, then we localized the propo mrna in hemocytes and detected the expression of propo after bacterial challenge. in vivo and in vitro gene silencing mediated by dsrna was also used to investigate the function of propo in innate immune. the full-length of the propo cdna was 2600 bp and the predicted orf encoded a protein of 673 amino acids with ...201424859592
dynamics of self-organized rotating spiral-coils in bacterial swarms.self-propelled particles (spp) exhibit complex collective motions, mimicking autonomous behaviors that are often seen in the natural world, but essentially are generated by simple mutual interactions. previous research on spp systems focuses on collective behaviors of a uniform population. however, very little is known about the evolution of individual particles under the same global influence. here we show self-organized rotating spiral coils in a two-dimensional (2d) active system. by using sw ...201424837552
transgenic expression of salmon delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase in zebrafish muscle inhibits the growth of vibrio alginolyticus and affects fish immunomodulatory activity.marine fish are an important nutritional source for highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufas). pufa biosynthesis requires the following key enzymes: delta-4 (δ-4) desaturase, delta-5 (δ-5) desaturase, delta-6 (δ-6) desaturase, delta-5 (δ-5) elongase, and delta-6 (δ-6) elongase. the effect of overexpressing delta-5 desaturase and/or delta-6 desaturase in zebrafish muscle has not previously been reported. herein, we investigated the effects of these proteins on antibacterial and immunomodulatory ...201424811009
the role of hybridization in improving the immune response and thermal tolerance of abalone.recently, frequent death of cultured abalone drew our attention to the stress tolerance of abalone. hybridization is an effective way of genetic improvement in aquaculture, which can introduce improved traits to the hybrids. in this study, we challenged the hybrids between haliotis discus hannai and haliotis gigantea, and their parents with bacteria (vibrio harveyi, vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio parahemolyticus), then held them at 20 °c and 28 °c, survival rates of the parental populations and ...201424794582
[virulence-related genes of vibrio alginolyticus and its virulence in mice].we determinated the virulence factors of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from the environment by multiplex pcrs and animal experiments, in order to compare the differences between the highly virulent strain and attenuated virulent strain, and to explore the virulent mechanism of v. alginolyticus in mammals.201424783857
multiplex pcr assays for the detection of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, and vibrio cholerae with an internal amplification control.a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay that can simultaneously detect 4 major vibrio spp., vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, and vibrio cholerae, in the presence of an internal amplification control (iac) was developed. species-specific pcr primers were designed based on the gyrb gene for v. alginolyticus, the collagenase gene for v. parahaemolyticus, the vvha gene for v. vulnificus, and the ompw gene for v. cholerae. additionally, an iac primer pair wa ...201424731836
molecular characterization and functional analysis of two distinct liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) genes in large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea).liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) plays a vital role in the host innate immune system. in the present study, two leap-2 genes (lcleap-2a and lcleap-2c) from large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea) were cloned, both of which consist of 3 exons and 2 introns. the lcleap-2a transcripts were expressed in a wide range of tissues, with the highest mrna levels found in the liver and intestine, while lcleap-2c transcripts showed obvious lower mrna levels in all tested tissues compared ...201424727197
gene expression profile analysis of manila clam (ruditapes philippinarum) hemocytes after a vibrio alginolyticus challenge using an immune-enriched oligo-microarray.the manila clam (ruditapes philippinarum) is a cultured bivalve with worldwide commercial importance, and diseases cause high economic losses. for this reason, interest in the immune genes in this species has recently increased. the present work describes the construction of the first r. philippinarum microarray containing immune-related hemocyte sequences and its application to study the gene transcription profiles of hemocytes from clams infected with v. alginolyticus through a time course.201424708293
differential hsp70 expression in mytilus coruscus under various stressors.heat shock proteins (hsps) play crucial roles in protecting cells against environmental stresses, such as heat shock, heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria. among the hsp family, the 70-kda hsps are most responsible for intracellular chaperone and extracellular immunoregulatory functions. the full-length hsp70 cdna of mytilus coruscus (designated as mchsp70, genbank accession no. kf322135) was obtained, which was 2319 bp, including an orf of 1965 bp to encode a polypeptide of 655 amino acid with ...201424704274
identification and functional characterization of a novel ferritin subunit from the tropical sea cucumber, stichopus monotuberculatus.ferritin is one of the major non-harm iron storage proteins that found in most cell types of animals, plants and microorganisms. in this study, a ferritin subunit named stmfer was identified from the sea cucumber (stichopus monotuberculatus) and characterized functionally. the full-length cdna of stmfer is 1184 bp in size with a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 131 bp, a 3'-utr of 531 bp and an open reading frame of 522 bp that encoding a protein of 173 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight ...201424698995
non-surgical treatment of deep wounds triggered by harmful physical and chemical agents: a successful combined use of collagenase and hyaluronic acid.some chronic ulcers often occur with slough, not progressing through the normal stages of wound healing. treatment is long and other therapies need to be performed in addition to surgery. patients not eligible for surgery because of asa class (american society of anesthesiologists class) appear to benefit from chemical therapy with collagenase or hydrocolloids in order to prepare the wound bed, promoting the healing process. we describe four cases of traumatic, upper limb deep wounds caused by d ...201624698215
vibrio parahaemolyticus and its specific bacteriophages as an indicator in cockles (anadara granosa) for the risk of v. parahaemolyticus infection in southern thailand.correlation between the numbers of vibrio parahaemolyticus and its specific bacteriophages in cockles was investigated from june 2009 to may 2010 in hat yai, songkhla, thailand. cockles obtained monthly from a local market were sampled to determine the numbers of v. parahaemolyticus and bacteriophages that could form plaques on ten strains of pandemic and nonpandemic v. parahaemolyticus. in addition, v. parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical samples from hat yai hospital over the same period we ...201424682339
quantitative real time rt-pcr study of pathogen-induced gene expression in rock bream (oplegnathus fasciatus): internal controls for data normalization.rock bream oplegnathus fasciatus is an important economic fish species. in this study, we evaluated the appropriateness of six housekeeping genes as internal controls for quantitative real-time pcr (rt-qpcr) analysis of gene expression in rock bream before and after pathogen infection. the expression of the selected genes in eight tissues infected with vibrio alginolyticus or megalocytivirus was determined by rt-qpcr, and the pcr data were analyzed with genorm and normfinder algorithms. the resu ...201424657097
molecular cloning and characterization of two types of iκbα orthologues in orange-spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides.inhibitors of kappa b (iκbs) are the members of primary regulators of nf-κb, which can inhibit nf-κb activity by blocking the nf-κb in an inactive state in the cytoplasm. in this study, two types of iκbα orthologues (eciκbαa and eciκbαb) from orange-spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides, were cloned and characterized. eciκbαa and eciκbαb encoded putative proteins containing 308 and 318 amino acids, which shared 59% and 53% identity to iκbαa and iκbαb of danio rerio, respectively. amino acid sequ ...201424594011
contribution of many charged residues at the stator-rotor interface of the na+-driven flagellar motor to torque generation in vibrio torque generation by the bacterial flagellar motor, it has been suggested that electrostatic interactions between charged residues of mota and flig at the rotor-stator interface are important. however, the actual role(s) of those charged residues has not yet been clarified. in this study, we systematically made mutants of vibrio alginolyticus whose charged residues of poma (mota homologue) and flig were replaced by uncharged or charge-reversed residues and characterized the motilities of thos ...201424464458
the second type of transglutaminase regulates immune and stress responses in white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei.the total haemocyte count (thc), differential haemocyte count (dhc), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were measured when white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, (7.5 ± 0.5 g) were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (depc-h2o) or different dsrna at 3 days of injection. in addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocyt ...201424462912
genotypic diversity, antimicrobial resistance and screening of vibrio cholerae molecular virulence markers in vibrio alginolyticus strains recovered from a tunisian ruditapes decussatus this study, a total of 54 vibrio alginolyticus strains were analyzed. the isolates were recovered from different compartments of the ruditapes decussatus hatchery in the national institute of marine sciences and technologies, monastir, tunisia. all isolates were biochemically identified (api 20e and api zym strips), characterized by amplification of the hsp-40 gene polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (eric)-based genotyping to evalua ...201324459831
molecular characterization, expression and function analysis of a five-domain kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from pearl oyster pinctada fucata.serine proteinase inhibitors represent an expanding superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that are regulate proteolytic events and involved in a variety of physiological and immunological processes. a five-domain kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (pokspi) was identified and characterized from pearl oyster pinctada fucata based on expressed sequence tag (est) analysis. the full-length cdna was 737 bp with an open reading frame (orf) 660 bp encoding a 219 amino acid protein a theoretical molec ...201424378679
shrimp that have received carrageenan via immersion and diet exhibit immunocompetence in phagocytosis despite a post-plateau in immune parameters.the effect of carrageenan on the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, was studied in vitro and in vivo. shrimp haemocytes receiving carrageenan at 1 mg ml⁻¹ experienced change in cell size, reduction in cell viability, increase in po activity, serine proteinase activity, and rb in vitro. shrimp received carrageenan via immersion at 200, 400 and 600 mg l⁻¹ after 3 h and orally at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ after 3 weeks showed higher proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (hpts) to ...201424361621
putative apolipoprotein a-i, natural killer cell enhancement factor and lysozyme g are involved in the early immune response of brown-marbled grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus, forskal, to vibrio alginolyticus.the gram-negative bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus, has frequently been identified as the pathogen responsible for the infectious disease called vibriosis. this disease is one of the major challenges facing brown-marbled grouper aquaculture, causing fish farmers globally to suffer substantial economic losses. the objective of this study was to investigate the proteins involved in the immune response of brown-marbled grouper fingerlings during their initial encounter with pathogenic organisms. to ...201424304156
a novel c1q-domain-containing (c1qdc) protein from mytilus coruscus with the transcriptional analysis against marine pathogens and heavy metals.the c1q-domain-containing (c1qdc) proteins, which are involved in various processes of vertebrates, are important pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity of invertebrates. in present study, a novel c1qdc was identified from mytilus coruscus (designated as mcc1qdc), which was 917 bp in length encoding 236 amino acids with a typical signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues in n-terminus. based on its conserved c1q domain and molecular architecture of 10 β-strand jelly-roll folding topolog ...201424296435
effects of dietary katuk (sauropus androgynus l. merr.) on growth, non-specific immune and diseases resistance against vibrio alginolyticus infection in grouper epinephelus coioides.this study was conducted to investigate the effect of katuk (sauropus androgynus l. merr) on growth, non-specific immune and diseases resistance against vibrio alginolyticus in grouper (epinephelus coioides). grouper juveniles (mean weight 10.97 ± 1.99 g, and length 9.67 ± 0.33 cm) were separated into four groups and cultivated in 100-l tank. each group was fed with diets containing 0, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg herbs diet twice daily. fish were sampled for non-specific immune parameters at 0, 1, 2, ...201424296304
activator protein-1 (ap-1) and response to pathogen infection in the hong kong oyster (crassostrea hongkongensis).growing evidence suggests that the transcription factor activator protein-1 (ap-1), a downstream target of mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) signaling, plays a major role in stimulating the synthesis of immune effector molecules during innate immune responses. we have characterized chap-1, an ap-1-like protein in crassostrea hongkongensis that is a member of the ap-1 family of proteins. chap-1 is composed of 290 amino acid residues with a jun and bzip domain at the n- and c-termini, respec ...201424161759
first characterization of bacterial pathogen, vibrio alginolyticus, for porites andrewsi white syndrome in the south china sea.white syndrome, a term for scleractinian coral disease with progressive tissue loss, is known to cause depressed growth and increased morality of coral reefs in the major oceans around the world, and the occurrence of this disease has been frequently reported in the past few decades. investigations during april to september in both 2010 and 2011 identified widespread porites andrewsi white syndrome (paws) in xisha archipelago, south china sea. however, the causes and etiology of paws have been u ...201324086529
mar piccolo of taranto: vibrio biodiversity in ecotoxicology approach.microorganisms play an indispensable role in the ecological functioning of marine environment. some species are sensitive while others are insensitive for a specific pollutant. the aim of this work is a preliminary study of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of cultivable vibrios in sediments and water samples characterized by different toxicity levels. for 1 year, in three suitably selected sampling stations of mar piccolo in taranto (ionian sea, italy), we have evaluated the toxicit ...201424072640
pathogenic analysis of vibrio alginolyticus infection in a mouse model.vibrio alginolyticus is a gram-negative halophilic bacterium and has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen to both humans and marine animals. so far, most studies have been focused on marine animals and few reports have been aimed at mammals, including human. in this study, we first established a mouse model to understand the pathogenic mechanism of v. alginolyticus infection. after infection via intraperitoneal injection, hematological and liver function indicators were evaluated and ser ...201424065565
protection against vibrio alginolyticus in crimson snapper lutjanus erythropterus immunized with a dna vaccine containing the ompw gene.the outer membrane proteins of vibrio alginolyticus play an important role in the virulence of the bacterium and are potential candidates for vaccine development. in the present study, the ompw gene was cloned, expressed and purified. a dna vaccine was constructed by inserting the ompw gene into a pcdna plasmid. crimson snapper lutjanus erythropterus (bloch) were injected intramuscularly with the recombinant plasmid pcdna-ompw. the expression of the dna vaccine was detected in gill, head kidney, ...201324062551
improvement of innate immune responses and defense activity in tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon fab.) by intramuscular administration of the outer membrane protein vibrio alginolyticus.the outer membrane protein (omp) of vibrio alginolyticus cell wall was administered intramuscularly (im) to the tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon fab.) at 10, 20, 30 μg/kg bw. after 14 days infection, the tiger shrimps were challenged with 10(7) bacterial density of vibrio harveyi for 24 hours. the total haemocyte count (thc), differential haemocyte count (dhc) and amount of total protein plasma (tpp), superoxide dismutase and protease enzyme activity were monitored. the results showed that intramus ...201324058892
Displaying items 1801 - 1900 of 1999