PMID(sorted ascending)
identification and cloning of the second type transglutaminase from litopenaeus vannamei, and its transcription following pathogen infection and in relation to the haemolymph coagulation.complementary (c)dna encoding transglutaminaseii (tgii) messenger (m)rna of white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) using oligonucleotide primers based on the tg sequence of the horseshoe crab, tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: baa02134), tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon (aav49005; aao33455), kuruma shrimp, marsupenaeus japonicus (bad36808) and pacifastacus leniuscul ...201324036331
pathological analysis of hemolymphs of charybdis japonica infected with vibrio alginolyticus.we explored the pathogenic mechanism of vibrio alginolyticus in the stone crab charybdis japonica by studying the hemolymph of c. japonica artificially infected by v. alginolyticus. to this end, wright-geimsa staining and electron microscopy were used, and phenoloxidase (po) activity and the immune protection rate of c. japonica injected with immune polysaccharide during infection were analyzed. the results indicated that the total hemocyte and hyaline hemocyte (hh) counts in diseased crabs were ...201324036334
skin ulcer: a long-term complication after massive liquid silicone oil infiltration.despite scientific literature replete with stories of disastrous results and disfigurement, illicit subcutaneous injections of highly viscous fluids in massive quantities still are performed, often by unqualified persons. the authors present a devastating long-term outcome from a massive volume of silicone oil injected subcutaneously into the buttocks of a 48-year-old transsexual patient and its ulceration treated only through regular medications.201324045933
structural and functional studies on three alginate lyases from vibrio date, several microorganisms that can metabolize alginate have been characterized. in these microorganisms, a class of enzymes called alginate lyases (alys) catalyze the depolymerization of alginate into oligomers via an endolytic β-elimination reaction. but it is not clear how these lyases differ on their enzymological functions or their divisions of labor. we focused on three extracellular secretory alginate lyases in the gram-negative marine bacterium v.alginolyticus (atcc 17749). we found ...201424050202
release and consumption of d-amino acids during growth of marine prokaryotes.analysis of the composition of the marine-dissolved organic matter has highlighted the importance of d-amino acids, whose origin is attributed mainly to the remains of bacterial peptidoglycan released as a result of grazing or viral lysis. however, very few studies have focused on the active release of d-amino acids by bacteria. with this purpose, we measured the concentration of dissolved amino acids in both enantiomeric forms with two levels of complexity: axenic cultures of vibrio furnissii a ...201424057323
improvement of innate immune responses and defense activity in tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon fab.) by intramuscular administration of the outer membrane protein vibrio alginolyticus.the outer membrane protein (omp) of vibrio alginolyticus cell wall was administered intramuscularly (im) to the tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon fab.) at 10, 20, 30 μg/kg bw. after 14 days infection, the tiger shrimps were challenged with 10(7) bacterial density of vibrio harveyi for 24 hours. the total haemocyte count (thc), differential haemocyte count (dhc) and amount of total protein plasma (tpp), superoxide dismutase and protease enzyme activity were monitored. the results showed that intramus ...201324058892
protection against vibrio alginolyticus in crimson snapper lutjanus erythropterus immunized with a dna vaccine containing the ompw gene.the outer membrane proteins of vibrio alginolyticus play an important role in the virulence of the bacterium and are potential candidates for vaccine development. in the present study, the ompw gene was cloned, expressed and purified. a dna vaccine was constructed by inserting the ompw gene into a pcdna plasmid. crimson snapper lutjanus erythropterus (bloch) were injected intramuscularly with the recombinant plasmid pcdna-ompw. the expression of the dna vaccine was detected in gill, head kidney, ...201324062551
pathogenic analysis of vibrio alginolyticus infection in a mouse model.vibrio alginolyticus is a gram-negative halophilic bacterium and has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen to both humans and marine animals. so far, most studies have been focused on marine animals and few reports have been aimed at mammals, including human. in this study, we first established a mouse model to understand the pathogenic mechanism of v. alginolyticus infection. after infection via intraperitoneal injection, hematological and liver function indicators were evaluated and ser ...201424065565
mar piccolo of taranto: vibrio biodiversity in ecotoxicology approach.microorganisms play an indispensable role in the ecological functioning of marine environment. some species are sensitive while others are insensitive for a specific pollutant. the aim of this work is a preliminary study of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of cultivable vibrios in sediments and water samples characterized by different toxicity levels. for 1 year, in three suitably selected sampling stations of mar piccolo in taranto (ionian sea, italy), we have evaluated the toxicit ...201424072640
the mosaic accessory gene structures of the sxt/r391-like integrative and conjugative elements derived from vibrio spp. isolated from aquatic products and environment in the yangtze river estuary, china.the emergence, resurgence and spread of human food-borne pathogenic vibrios are one of the major contributors to disease burden and mortality particularly in developing countries with disputable sanitary conditions. previous research on pathogenic vibrio cholerae and vibrio parahaemolitycus derived from clinical samples has proposed links between acquisition of virulence and multiple drug resistance traits and intercellular transmissibility of mobile genetic elements in the environment. to date, ...201324074349
first characterization of bacterial pathogen, vibrio alginolyticus, for porites andrewsi white syndrome in the south china sea.white syndrome, a term for scleractinian coral disease with progressive tissue loss, is known to cause depressed growth and increased morality of coral reefs in the major oceans around the world, and the occurrence of this disease has been frequently reported in the past few decades. investigations during april to september in both 2010 and 2011 identified widespread porites andrewsi white syndrome (paws) in xisha archipelago, south china sea. however, the causes and etiology of paws have been u ...201324086529
activator protein-1 (ap-1) and response to pathogen infection in the hong kong oyster (crassostrea hongkongensis).growing evidence suggests that the transcription factor activator protein-1 (ap-1), a downstream target of mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) signaling, plays a major role in stimulating the synthesis of immune effector molecules during innate immune responses. we have characterized chap-1, an ap-1-like protein in crassostrea hongkongensis that is a member of the ap-1 family of proteins. chap-1 is composed of 290 amino acid residues with a jun and bzip domain at the n- and c-termini, respec ...201424161759
spalf4: a newly identified anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the mud crab scylla paramamosain with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (alfs) are antimicrobial peptides with binding and neutralizing activities to lipopolysaccharide (lps) in crustaceans. this study identified and characterized a novel alf homolog (spalf4) from the mud crab scylla paramamosain. the complete cdna of spalf4 had 756 bp with a 381 bp open reading frame encoding a protein with 126 aa. the deduced protein contained a signal peptide and a lps-binding domain. spalf4 shared the highest identity with ptalf5 at amino acid lev ...201424239582
cloning and immune characterization of the c-type lysozyme gene in red-spotted grouper, epinephelus akaara.lysozyme is an important component of the innate immune response against pathogen infection. the gene coding for c-type lysozyme in red-spotted grouper epinephelus akaara was cloned and designated eaclys. the complete cdna contains a 432 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 144 amino acids displaying 65-91% similarity with the amino acid sequences of human, mouse, chicken, and fish counterparts. recombinant eaclys (reaclys) was expressed in escherichia coli, displayed antibacterial activi ...201424239919
identification of outer membrane proteins altered in response to uvc-radiation in vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio parahaemolyticus and v. alginolyticus, marine foodborne pathogens, were treated with uvc-radiation (240 j/m(2)) to evaluate alterations in their outer membrane protein profiles. outer membrane protein patterns of uvc-irradiated bacteria were found altered when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. altered proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (ms and ms/ms) and analysis revealed that ompw, ompa, long-chain fatty acid transport protein, outer membr ...201224293727
effects of dietary katuk (sauropus androgynus l. merr.) on growth, non-specific immune and diseases resistance against vibrio alginolyticus infection in grouper epinephelus coioides.this study was conducted to investigate the effect of katuk (sauropus androgynus l. merr) on growth, non-specific immune and diseases resistance against vibrio alginolyticus in grouper (epinephelus coioides). grouper juveniles (mean weight 10.97 ± 1.99 g, and length 9.67 ± 0.33 cm) were separated into four groups and cultivated in 100-l tank. each group was fed with diets containing 0, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg herbs diet twice daily. fish were sampled for non-specific immune parameters at 0, 1, 2, ...201424296304
a novel c1q-domain-containing (c1qdc) protein from mytilus coruscus with the transcriptional analysis against marine pathogens and heavy metals.the c1q-domain-containing (c1qdc) proteins, which are involved in various processes of vertebrates, are important pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity of invertebrates. in present study, a novel c1qdc was identified from mytilus coruscus (designated as mcc1qdc), which was 917 bp in length encoding 236 amino acids with a typical signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues in n-terminus. based on its conserved c1q domain and molecular architecture of 10 β-strand jelly-roll folding topolog ...201424296435
putative apolipoprotein a-i, natural killer cell enhancement factor and lysozyme g are involved in the early immune response of brown-marbled grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus, forskal, to vibrio alginolyticus.the gram-negative bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus, has frequently been identified as the pathogen responsible for the infectious disease called vibriosis. this disease is one of the major challenges facing brown-marbled grouper aquaculture, causing fish farmers globally to suffer substantial economic losses. the objective of this study was to investigate the proteins involved in the immune response of brown-marbled grouper fingerlings during their initial encounter with pathogenic organisms. to ...201424304156
transcriptome profiling analysis on whole bodies of microbial challenged eriocheir sinensis larvae for immune gene identification and snp study crab immunogenetics of individuals, newly hatched eriocheir sinensis larvae were stimulated with a mixture of three pathogen strains (gram-positive bacteria micrococcus luteus, gram-negative bacteria vibrio alginolyticus and fungi pichia pastoris; 10(8) cfu·ml(-1)). a total of 44,767,566 illumina clean reads corresponding to 4.52 gb nucleotides were generated and assembled into 100,252 unigenes (average length: 1,042 bp; range: 201-19,357 bp). 17,097 (26.09%) of 65,535 non-redundant uni ...201324324760
shrimp that have received carrageenan via immersion and diet exhibit immunocompetence in phagocytosis despite a post-plateau in immune parameters.the effect of carrageenan on the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, was studied in vitro and in vivo. shrimp haemocytes receiving carrageenan at 1 mg ml⁻¹ experienced change in cell size, reduction in cell viability, increase in po activity, serine proteinase activity, and rb in vitro. shrimp received carrageenan via immersion at 200, 400 and 600 mg l⁻¹ after 3 h and orally at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ after 3 weeks showed higher proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (hpts) to ...201424361621
modulation of innate immunity and gene expressions in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei following long-term starvation and re-feeding.the survival rate, weight loss, immune parameters, resistance against vibrio alginolyticus and white-spot syndrome virus (wssv), and expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ß-glucan-binding protein (lgbp), peroxinectin (px), prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppa), prophenoloxidase (propo) i, propo ii, α2-macroglobulin (α2-m), integrin ß, heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytmnsod), mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtmnsod), and extracellular c ...201224371579
establishment of a new cell line from the heart of giant grouper, epinephelus lanceolatus (bloch), and its application in toxicology and virus susceptibility.a new marine fish cell line, derived from the heart of giant grouper, epinephelus lanceolatus (bloch), was established and characterized. the cell line was designated as elgh and subcultured with more than 60 passages. the elgh cells were mainly composed of fibroblast-like cells and multiplied well in leibovitz's l-15 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (fbs) at 28 °c. chromosome analysis indicated that the modal chromosome number was 48. the fluorescent signals were detected in elg ...201524372271
molecular characterization, expression and function analysis of a five-domain kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from pearl oyster pinctada fucata.serine proteinase inhibitors represent an expanding superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that are regulate proteolytic events and involved in a variety of physiological and immunological processes. a five-domain kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (pokspi) was identified and characterized from pearl oyster pinctada fucata based on expressed sequence tag (est) analysis. the full-length cdna was 737 bp with an open reading frame (orf) 660 bp encoding a 219 amino acid protein a theoretical molec ...201424378679
construction of functional fragments of the cytoplasmic loop with the c-terminal region of poma, a stator component of the vibrio na+ driven flagellar motor.the membrane motor proteins, poma (polar flagellar motility protein a) and pomb (polar flagellar motility protein b), of vibrio alginolyticus form a stator complex that converts energy from the ion flow to mechanical work in bacterial flagellar motors. the cytoplasmic domain of poma is believed to interact with the rotor protein flig to make a torque. in this study, to investigate the function of the cytoplasmic domain of poma, we constructed a series of fragments that flank the cytoplasmic loop ...201424398784
genotypic diversity, antimicrobial resistance and screening of vibrio cholerae molecular virulence markers in vibrio alginolyticus strains recovered from a tunisian ruditapes decussatus this study, a total of 54 vibrio alginolyticus strains were analyzed. the isolates were recovered from different compartments of the ruditapes decussatus hatchery in the national institute of marine sciences and technologies, monastir, tunisia. all isolates were biochemically identified (api 20e and api zym strips), characterized by amplification of the hsp-40 gene polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (eric)-based genotyping to evalua ...201324459831
the second type of transglutaminase regulates immune and stress responses in white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei.the total haemocyte count (thc), differential haemocyte count (dhc), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were measured when white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, (7.5 ± 0.5 g) were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (depc-h2o) or different dsrna at 3 days of injection. in addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocyt ...201424462912
contribution of many charged residues at the stator-rotor interface of the na+-driven flagellar motor to torque generation in vibrio torque generation by the bacterial flagellar motor, it has been suggested that electrostatic interactions between charged residues of mota and flig at the rotor-stator interface are important. however, the actual role(s) of those charged residues has not yet been clarified. in this study, we systematically made mutants of vibrio alginolyticus whose charged residues of poma (mota homologue) and flig were replaced by uncharged or charge-reversed residues and characterized the motilities of thos ...201424464458
identification and functional characterization of heat shock transcription factor1 in litopenaeus vannamei.heat shock transcription factors belong to the heat shock factor (hsf) protein family, which are involved in heat shock protein (hsp) gene regulation. they are critical for cell survival upon exposure to harmful conditions. in this study, we identified and characterized a hsf1 (lvhsf1) gene in litopenaeus vannamei, with a full-length cdna of 2841 bp and an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 632 amino acids. through multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it was reve ...201424508618
biological characteristics and probiotic effect of leuconostoc lactis strain isolated from the intestine of black porgy fish.a strain of lactic acid bacteria, leuconostoc lactis, was isolated from the intestinal tract of black porgy, sparus macrocephalus, and identified by conventional biochemical characteristics and 16s rdna gene sequence analysis. the isolated strain had the ability of bile tolerance and resistance to low ph, and survived well in the trypsinase and pepsin solution. but the highly concentrated dose of trypsinase and pepsin affect the viability of the isolated strain. the isolate was resistant to seve ...201324516418
dynamics of an interactive network composed of a bacterial two-component system, a transporter and k+ as mediator.kdpd and kdpe form a histidine kinase/response regulator system that senses k(+) limitation and induces the kdpfabc operon, which encodes a high-affinity k(+) uptake complex. to define the primary stimulus perceived by kdpd we focused in this study on the dynamics of the kdp response. escherichia coli cells were subjected to severe k(+) limitation, and all relevant parameters of the kdp response, i.e., levels of kdpfabc transcripts and kdpfabc proteins, as well as extra- and intracellular k(+) c ...201424586952
molecular cloning and characterization of two types of iκbα orthologues in orange-spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides.inhibitors of kappa b (iκbs) are the members of primary regulators of nf-κb, which can inhibit nf-κb activity by blocking the nf-κb in an inactive state in the cytoplasm. in this study, two types of iκbα orthologues (eciκbαa and eciκbαb) from orange-spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides, were cloned and characterized. eciκbαa and eciκbαb encoded putative proteins containing 308 and 318 amino acids, which shared 59% and 53% identity to iκbαa and iκbαb of danio rerio, respectively. amino acid sequ ...201424594011
a chimeric siderophore halts swarming vibrio.some bacteria swarm under some circumstances; they move rapidly and collectively over a surface. in an effort to understand the molecular signals controlling swarming, we isolated two bacterial strains from the same red seaweed, vibrio alginolyticus b522, a vigorous swarmer, and shewanella algae b516, which inhibits v. alginolyticus swarming in its vicinity. plate assays combined with nmr, ms, and x-ray diffraction analyses identified a small molecule, which was named avaroferrin, as a potent sw ...201424615751
liposome-encapsulated cinnamaldehyde enhances zebrafish (danio rerio) immunity and survival when challenged with vibrio vulnificus and streptococcus agalactiae.cinnamaldehyde, which is extracted from cinnamon, is a natural compound with activity against bacteria and a modulatory immune function. however, the antibacterial activity and immunostimulation of cinnamaldehyde in fish has not been well investigated due to the compound's poor water solubility. thus, liposome-encapsulated cinnamaldehyde (lec) was used to evaluate the effects of cinnamaldehyde on in vitro antibacterial activity against aquatic pathogens and in vivo immunity and protection parame ...201424632045
quantitative real time rt-pcr study of pathogen-induced gene expression in rock bream (oplegnathus fasciatus): internal controls for data normalization.rock bream oplegnathus fasciatus is an important economic fish species. in this study, we evaluated the appropriateness of six housekeeping genes as internal controls for quantitative real-time pcr (rt-qpcr) analysis of gene expression in rock bream before and after pathogen infection. the expression of the selected genes in eight tissues infected with vibrio alginolyticus or megalocytivirus was determined by rt-qpcr, and the pcr data were analyzed with genorm and normfinder algorithms. the resu ...201424657097
vibrio parahaemolyticus and its specific bacteriophages as an indicator in cockles (anadara granosa) for the risk of v. parahaemolyticus infection in southern thailand.correlation between the numbers of vibrio parahaemolyticus and its specific bacteriophages in cockles was investigated from june 2009 to may 2010 in hat yai, songkhla, thailand. cockles obtained monthly from a local market were sampled to determine the numbers of v. parahaemolyticus and bacteriophages that could form plaques on ten strains of pandemic and nonpandemic v. parahaemolyticus. in addition, v. parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical samples from hat yai hospital over the same period we ...201424682339
non-surgical treatment of deep wounds triggered by harmful physical and chemical agents: a successful combined use of collagenase and hyaluronic acid.some chronic ulcers often occur with slough, not progressing through the normal stages of wound healing. treatment is long and other therapies need to be performed in addition to surgery. patients not eligible for surgery because of asa class (american society of anesthesiologists class) appear to benefit from chemical therapy with collagenase or hydrocolloids in order to prepare the wound bed, promoting the healing process. we describe four cases of traumatic, upper limb deep wounds caused by d ...201624698215
identification and functional characterization of a novel ferritin subunit from the tropical sea cucumber, stichopus monotuberculatus.ferritin is one of the major non-harm iron storage proteins that found in most cell types of animals, plants and microorganisms. in this study, a ferritin subunit named stmfer was identified from the sea cucumber (stichopus monotuberculatus) and characterized functionally. the full-length cdna of stmfer is 1184 bp in size with a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 131 bp, a 3'-utr of 531 bp and an open reading frame of 522 bp that encoding a protein of 173 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight ...201424698995
differential hsp70 expression in mytilus coruscus under various stressors.heat shock proteins (hsps) play crucial roles in protecting cells against environmental stresses, such as heat shock, heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria. among the hsp family, the 70-kda hsps are most responsible for intracellular chaperone and extracellular immunoregulatory functions. the full-length hsp70 cdna of mytilus coruscus (designated as mchsp70, genbank accession no. kf322135) was obtained, which was 2319 bp, including an orf of 1965 bp to encode a polypeptide of 655 amino acid with ...201424704274
gene expression profile analysis of manila clam (ruditapes philippinarum) hemocytes after a vibrio alginolyticus challenge using an immune-enriched oligo-microarray.the manila clam (ruditapes philippinarum) is a cultured bivalve with worldwide commercial importance, and diseases cause high economic losses. for this reason, interest in the immune genes in this species has recently increased. the present work describes the construction of the first r. philippinarum microarray containing immune-related hemocyte sequences and its application to study the gene transcription profiles of hemocytes from clams infected with v. alginolyticus through a time course.201424708293
molecular characterization and functional analysis of two distinct liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) genes in large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea).liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) plays a vital role in the host innate immune system. in the present study, two leap-2 genes (lcleap-2a and lcleap-2c) from large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea) were cloned, both of which consist of 3 exons and 2 introns. the lcleap-2a transcripts were expressed in a wide range of tissues, with the highest mrna levels found in the liver and intestine, while lcleap-2c transcripts showed obvious lower mrna levels in all tested tissues compared ...201424727197
multiplex pcr assays for the detection of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, and vibrio cholerae with an internal amplification control.a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay that can simultaneously detect 4 major vibrio spp., vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, and vibrio cholerae, in the presence of an internal amplification control (iac) was developed. species-specific pcr primers were designed based on the gyrb gene for v. alginolyticus, the collagenase gene for v. parahaemolyticus, the vvha gene for v. vulnificus, and the ompw gene for v. cholerae. additionally, an iac primer pair wa ...201424731836
[virulence-related genes of vibrio alginolyticus and its virulence in mice].we determinated the virulence factors of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from the environment by multiplex pcrs and animal experiments, in order to compare the differences between the highly virulent strain and attenuated virulent strain, and to explore the virulent mechanism of v. alginolyticus in mammals.201424783857
identification of a c-type lectin with antiviral and antibacterial activity from pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.c-type lectins (ctls) play crucial roles in innate immune responses in invertebrates by recognizing and eliminating microinvaders. in this study, a ctl from pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (lvctl3) was identified. lvctl3 contains a single c-type lectin-like domain (ctld), which shows similarities to those of other shrimp ctls and has a mutated 'epd' motif in ca(2+)-binding site 2. lvctl3 mrna can be detected in all tested tissues and expression of lvctl3 in gills was up-regulated after ...201424792214
the role of hybridization in improving the immune response and thermal tolerance of abalone.recently, frequent death of cultured abalone drew our attention to the stress tolerance of abalone. hybridization is an effective way of genetic improvement in aquaculture, which can introduce improved traits to the hybrids. in this study, we challenged the hybrids between haliotis discus hannai and haliotis gigantea, and their parents with bacteria (vibrio harveyi, vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio parahemolyticus), then held them at 20 °c and 28 °c, survival rates of the parental populations and ...201424794582
isolation and characterization of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) from grouper, epinephelus tauvina.tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) is one of the key adapter molecules in toll-like receptor signal transduction that triggers downstream cascades involved in innate immunity. in the present study, a traf6 (named as et-traf6) was identified from the marine fish grouper, epinephelus tauvina by race pcr. the full-length cdna of et-traf6 comprised 1949 bp with a 1713 bp open reading frame (orf) that encodes a putative protein of 570 amino acids. similar to most traf6s, et-tr ...201424811008
transgenic expression of salmon delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase in zebrafish muscle inhibits the growth of vibrio alginolyticus and affects fish immunomodulatory activity.marine fish are an important nutritional source for highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufas). pufa biosynthesis requires the following key enzymes: delta-4 (δ-4) desaturase, delta-5 (δ-5) desaturase, delta-6 (δ-6) desaturase, delta-5 (δ-5) elongase, and delta-6 (δ-6) elongase. the effect of overexpressing delta-5 desaturase and/or delta-6 desaturase in zebrafish muscle has not previously been reported. herein, we investigated the effects of these proteins on antibacterial and immunomodulatory ...201424811009
dynamics of self-organized rotating spiral-coils in bacterial swarms.self-propelled particles (spp) exhibit complex collective motions, mimicking autonomous behaviors that are often seen in the natural world, but essentially are generated by simple mutual interactions. previous research on spp systems focuses on collective behaviors of a uniform population. however, very little is known about the evolution of individual particles under the same global influence. here we show self-organized rotating spiral coils in a two-dimensional (2d) active system. by using sw ...201424837552
immune responses of prophenoloxidase in the mud crab scylla paramamosain against vibrio alginolyticus infection: in vivo and in vitro gene silencing evidence.phenoloxidase (po) plays an important role in arthropod melanization. in the present study, a propo gene was obtained from the mud crab scylla paramamosain, then we localized the propo mrna in hemocytes and detected the expression of propo after bacterial challenge. in vivo and in vitro gene silencing mediated by dsrna was also used to investigate the function of propo in innate immune. the full-length of the propo cdna was 2600 bp and the predicted orf encoded a protein of 673 amino acids with ...201424859592
the first molluscan acute phase serum amyloid a (a-saa) identified from oyster crassostrea hongkongensis: molecular cloning and functional characterization.serum amyloid a (saa), a major evolutionarily conserved acute-phase protein, participates in many biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including innate immunity. however, little information regarding the relationship between saa and innate immunity in mollusks is currently available. in this report, the first bivalve saa (referred to as chsaa) gene was identified and characterized from the hong kong oyster crassostrea hongkongensis. its full-length cdna is 623 bp, including a 5'-utr of 147 ...201424859593
ptserpin from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus, a putative regulator of prophenoloxidase activation with antibacterial activity.serpin or serine protease inhibitor is the largest family of protease inhibitors involved in many innate immune pathways, particularly the prophenoloxidase (propo) activating system in arthropod. here, we report the molecular and functional characterization of ptserpin identified from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus. the genomic sequence encoding mature peptide of ptserpin gene contained two exons of 84 and 1098 bp separated by one intron of 111 bp. the recombinant ptserpin (rptserpin ...201424861890
molecular cloning and characterization of a new g-type lysozyme gene (ec-lysg) in orange-spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides.lysozyme acts as an innate immunity molecule against pathogen infection. in this study, a new g-type lysozyme gene with a typical g-type lysozyme domain (designated as ec-lysg) was cloned and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides. the full-length ec-lysg cdna contains 1419 bp and encodes a 256-residue protein containing a 25-residue signal peptide at the n-terminus. blast analysis reveals ec-lysg shares 64% identity with siniperca chuatsi, but 63% to another reporte ...201424877656
effects of hot-water extract of banana (musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, macrobrachium rosenbegii.the hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. the banana peel extract (bpe) showed good activity against 1 gram-positive and 3 gram-negative pathogens, including lactococcus garvieae, photobacteria damsella, vibrio alginolyticus ...201424906123
occurrence of vibrio and salmonella species in mussels (mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the moroccan atlantic coast.this study reports the occurrence of different vibrio and salmonella species in 52 samples of mytilus galloprovincialis collected from four sites along the atlantic coast between agadir and essaouira (anza, cap ghir, imssouane and essaouira). the level of escherichia coli (e. coli) was also determined to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution in the investigated areas. in this study three methods were used : afnor nf en iso 6579 v08-013 for salmonella spp., the provisional method routinely u ...201424936389
draft genome sequences of vibrio sp. strains isolated from tetrodotoxin-bearing scavenging gastropod.vibrio sp. strains jcm 18905 and jcm 19053 were isolated from a tetrodotoxin (ttx)-bearing scavenging gastropod, and vibrio sp. strain jcm 18904 was isolated from a sea cucumber. all these are closely related to vibrio alginolyticus. their comparative genome information is useful for studies of ttx production in bacteria.201424948773
genome sequences characterizing five mutations in rna polymerase and major capsid of phages ϕa318 and ϕas51 of vibrio alginolyticus with different burst efficiencies.the burst size of a phage is important prior to phage therapy and probiotic usage. the efficiency for a phage to burst its host bacterium can result from molecular domino effects of the phage gene expressions which dominate to control host machinery after infection. we found two podoviridae phages, ϕa318 and ϕas51, burst a common host v. alginolyticus with different efficiencies of 72 and 10 pfu/bacterium, respectively. presumably, the genome sequences can be compared to explain their difference ...201424952762
development and evaluation of a real-time fluorogenic loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay integrated on a microfluidic disc chip (on-chip lamp) for rapid and simultaneous detection of ten pathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals.rapid, low-cost, and user-friendly strategies are urgently needed for early disease diagnosis and timely treatment, particularly for on-site screening of pathogens in aquaculture. in this study, we successfully developed a real-time fluorogenic loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay integrated on a microfluidic disc chip (on-chip lamp), which was capable of simultaneously detecting 10 pathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals, i.e., nocardia seriolae, pseudomonas putida, streptococcus iniae, ...201424954661
occurrence of virulence genes among vibrio cholerae and vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from treated wastewaters.pathogenic vibrio species are an important cause of foodborne illnesses. the aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of potentially pathogenic vibrio species in the final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant and the risk that they may pose to public health. during the 1-year monitoring, a total of 43 vibrio strains were isolated: 23 vibrio alginolyticus, 1 vibrio cholerae, 4 vibrio vulnificus, and 15 vibrio parahaemolyticus. the pcr investigation of v. parahaemolyticus and v. chole ...201425023745
occurrence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from seawater organisms caught in campania region: preliminary study.environmental contamination by pharmaceuticals is a public health concern: drugs administered to humans and animals are excreted with urine or faeces and attend the sewage treatment. the main consequences of use and abuse of antibiotics is the development and diffusion of antibiotic resistance that has become a serious global problem. aim of the study is to evaluate the presence of antimicrobial residues and to assess the antimicrobial resistance in bacteria species isolated from different wild ...201425027759
proteomic investigation of vibrio alginolyticus challenged caenorhabditis elegans revealed regulation of cellular homeostasis proteins and their role in supporting innate immune system.caenorhabditis elegans has been the preferred model system for many investigators to study pathogenesis. in the present investigation, regulation of c. elegans proteome was explored against v. alginolyticus infection using quantitative proteomics approach. proteins were separated using 2d-dige and the differentially regulated proteins were identified using pmf and maldi tof/tof analysis. the results thus obtained were validated using western blotting for candidate proteins. the corresponding tra ...201425044714
facile synthesis of multifunctional multi-walled carbon nanotube for pathogen vibrio alginolyticus detection in fishery and environmental samples.interest in carbon nanotubes for detecting the presence of pathogens arises because of developments in chemical vapor deposition synthesis and progresses in biomolecular modification. here we reported the facile synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mwcnts), which functioned as immuno-, magnetic, fluorescent sensors in detecting vibrio alginolyticus (va). the structures and properties of functionalized mwcnts were characterized by ultraviolet (uv), fourier transform infrared spectra (ft-ir ...201425059166
characterization and expression analysis of chymotrypsin after bacterial challenge in the mud crab, scylla paramamosain.chymotrypsin is one of the serine proteases families that have various biological functions. a chymotrypsin gene was isolated from hepatopancreas of the mud crab, scylla paramamosain (designated spchy) in this study. the full-length cdna of spchy contained 942 nucleotides with a polyadenylation sequence and encoded a peptide of 270 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 amino acids. the spchy gene contains seven exons, six introns, a tata box and several transcription factor binding sites that ...201425071403
comparative study of immune responses in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel bathymodiolus azoricus and the shallow-water mussel mytilus galloprovincialis challenged with vibrio bacteria.the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel bathymodiolus azoricus and the continental european coast mytilus galloprovincialis are two bivalves species living in highly distinct marine habitats. mussels are filter-feeding animals that may accumulate rapidly bacteria from the environment. contact with microorganism is thus inevitable during feeding processes where gill tissues assume a strategic importance at the interface between the external milieu and the internal body cavities promoting interactio ...201425089010
genomic characterization and expression analysis of five novel il-17 genes in the pacific oyster, crassostrea gigas.interleukin-17 (il-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in clearing extracellular bacteria and contributes to the pathology of many autoimmune and allergic conditions. in the present study, five novel il-17 homologs were identified by searching and analyzing the pacific oyster genome. all six cgil-17 members (including a previously reported homolog) contained four conserved cysteines that were used in the formation of disulfide bonds. phylogenetic analysis showed that a ...201425090939
the first invertebrate rig-i-like receptor (rlr) homolog gene in the pacific oyster crassostrea gigas.retinoic acid-inducible gene i (rig-i)-like receptor (rlr) is a pivotal receptor that detects numerous rna and dna viruses and mediates the innate induction of interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines upon viral infection. in the present study, we cloned and characterized the first rig-i gene in a marine mollusk, crassostrea gigas, and designated it as cgrig-i. the full-length cgrig-i cdna is 3436 bp, including 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (utrs) of 93 bp and 286 bp, respectively, and an op ...201425107697
antiadhesive activity of poly-hydroxy butyrate biopolymer from a marine brevibacterium casei msi04 against shrimp pathogenic vibrios.vibrio pathogens are causative agents of mid-culture outbreaks, and early mortality syndrome and secondary aetiology of most dreadful viral outbreaks in shrimp aquaculture. among the pathogenic vibrios group, vibrio alginolyticus and v. harveyi are considered as the most significant ones in the grow-out ponds of giant black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon in india. use of antibiotics was banned in many countries due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains and accumulation of residual antib ...201425115578
characteristic and functional analysis of a ficolin-like protein from the oyster crassostrea hongkongensis.ficolins are a group of soluble animal proteins with multiple roles in innate immunity. these proteins recognize and bind carbohydrates in pathogens and activate the complement system, leading to opsonization, leukocyte activation, and direct pathogen killing, which have been reported in many animal species but might not be present in the shellfish lineage. in the present study, we identified the first fibrinogen-related protein from the oyster, crassostrea hongkongensis. this novel ficolin-like ...201425120216
evaluating the potential of marine bacteriovorax sp. da5 as a biocontrol agent against vibriosis in litopenaeus vannamei larvae.the potential application of bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (balos) for the biocontrol of bacterial diseases has been widely recognized. however, no marine balos have been reported for vibrio-related infections in penaeid shrimp. in the present study, the bacteriolytic ability of the marine bacteriovorax strain da5 against vibrio alginolyticus zoua was examined by cocultivation and electron microscopy, and optimal lysis was observed at 30-35°c and 20-30‰ salinity along with a high multiplicity ...201425139659
complete genomic sequence of the vibrio alginolyticus lytic bacteriophage pva1.a novel vibrio alginolyticus lytic bacteriophage was isolated from sewage samples obtained from a local aquatic market. morphological analysis revealed that the phage, designated as pva1, belonged to the family podoviridae. the complete genomic sequence of phage pva1 contained 41,529 bp with a g + c content of 43.7 % and 75 putative open reading frames. the genome was grouped into four modules, including phage structure, dna packaging, dna replication and regulation, and some additional function ...201425161033
antibiotic resistance of vibrio species isolated from sparus aurata reared in italian mariculture.extensive use of antimicrobial agents in finfish farming and the consequent selective pressure lead to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture environment bacteria. vibrio genus represents one of the main pathogens affecting gilthead sea bream. the development of antibiotic resistance by vibrio represents a potential threat to human health by exchange of resistant genes to human pathogens through food chain. the objective of the present study was to conduct a multisite survey on ...201425180847
detection of polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic genes from antimicrobial coral-associated actinomycetes.the diversity and properties of actinobacteria, predominant residents in coral holobionts, have been rarely documented. in this study, we aimed to explore the species diversity, antimicrobial activities and biosynthetic potential of culturable actinomycetes within the tissues of the scleractinian corals porites lutea, galaxea fascicularis and acropora millepora from the south china sea. a total of 70 strains representing 13 families and 15 genera of actinobacteria were isolated. the antimicrobia ...201425190333
conformational change in the periplamic region of the flagellar stator coupled with the assembly around the rotor.the torque of the bacterial flagellum is generated by the rotor-stator interaction coupled with the ion flow through the channel in the stator. anchoring the stator unit to the peptidoglycan layer with proper orientation around the rotor is believed to be essential for smooth rotation of the flagellar motor. the stator unit of the sodium-driven flagellar motor of vibrio is composed of poma and pomb, and is thought to be fixed to the peptidoglycan layer and the t-ring by the c-terminal periplasmi ...201425197056
identification of scara3, scara5 and marco of class a scavenger receptor-like family in pseudosciaena crocea.the class a scavenger receptors are important pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system in living organisms. according to the whole-genome data of large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea), three kinds of scavenger receptors, scara3, scara5 and marco were cloned from the spleen, designated severally as tycsa3, tycsa5 and tycmac. the complete cdnas open reading frames (orf) of tycsa3, tycsa5 and tycmac were 1938 bp, 1677 bp and 1218 bp (genbank accession no. kj467772, kj467773 a ...201425218683
antibacterial efficacy of recombinant siganus oramin l-amino acid oxidase expressed in pichia pastoris.siganus oraminl-amino acid oxidase is a novel natural protein (named sr-laao) isolated from serum of the rabbitfish (s. oramin), which showed antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and had a lethal effect on the parasites cryptocaryon irritans, trypanosoma brucei brucei and ichthyophthirius multifiliis. in order to test whether recombinant sr-laao (rsr-laao) produced by the eukaryotic expression system also has antimicrobial activity, the yeast pichia pastor ...201425238719
molecular cloning and functional characterization of the hepcidin gene from the convict cichlid (amatitlania nigrofasciata) and its expression pattern in response to lipopolysaccharide challenge.the hepcidin gene is widely expressed in many fish species and functions as an antimicrobial peptide, suggesting that it plays an important role in the innate immune system of fish. in the present study, the amatitlania nigrofasciata hepcidin gene (an-hepc) was cloned from the liver and its expression during an immune response was characterized. the results of quantitative pcr and rt-pcr showed that the an-hepc transcript was most abundant in the liver. the expression of an-hepc mrna was signifi ...201525280727
the identification of the first molluscan akirin2 with immune defense function in the hong kong oyster crassostrea hongkongensis.the akirin protein is a nuclear factor in the innate immune system that is highly conserved from insects to mammals and plays key roles in diverse biological processes, including immunity, myogenesis, development and the cellular stress response. however, the function of akirins in mollusk, the second most diverse group of animals, is still poorly understood. in this study, we report the discovery of an akirin2 gene homolog (chakirin2) and its biological functions in the hong kong oyster crassos ...201425284180
bacterial motility patterns reveal importance of exploitation over exploration in marine microhabitats. part i: theory.bacteria use different motility patterns to navigate and explore natural habitats. however, how these motility patterns are selected, and what their benefits may be, are not understood. in this article, we analyze the effect of motility patterns on a cell's ability to migrate in a chemical gradient and to localize at the top of the gradient, the two most important characteristics of bacterial chemotaxis. we will focus on two motility patterns, run-tumble and run-reverse-flick, that are observed ...201425296325
sea bass dicentrarchus labrax (l.) bacterial infection and confinement stress acts on f-type lectin (dlfbl) serum modulation.the f-lectin, a fucose-binding protein found from invertebrates to ectothermic vertebrates, is the last lectin family to be discovered. here, we describe effects of two different types of stressors, bacterial infection and confinement stress, on the modulation of european sea bass dicentrarchus labrax (l.) f-lectin (dlfbl), a well-characterized serum opsonin, using a specific antibody. the infection of the vibrio alginolyticus bacterial strain increased the total haemagglutinating activity durin ...201525307147
interaction of the c-terminal tail of flif with flig from the na+-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus.rotation of the polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus is driven by a na(+)-type flagellar motor. flig, one of the essential rotor proteins located at the upper rim of the c ring, binds to the membrane-embedded ms ring. the ms ring is composed of a single membrane protein, flif, and serves as a foundation for flagellar assembly. unexpectedly, about half of the vibrio flif protein produced at high levels in escherichia coli was found in the soluble fraction. soluble flif purifies as an oligomer ...201525313387
phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) of marine bacterial origin inhibits quorum sensing mediated biofilm formation in the uropathogen serratia marcescens.intercellular communication in bacteria (quorum sensing, qs) is an important phenomenon in disease dissemination and pathogenesis, which controls biofilm formation also. this study reports the anti-qs and anti-biofilm efficacy of seaweed gracilaria gracilis associated vibrio alginolyticus g16 against serratia marcescens. purification and mass spectrometric analysis revealed the active principle as phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) [pd]. pd affected the qs regulated virulence factor production i ...201425377484
dietary administration of gynura bicolor (roxb. willd.) dc water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp litopeneaus vannamei.gynura bicolor (roxb. & willd.) dc., a perennial plant belonging to the asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of asia. the total hemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase (po) activity, respiratory bursts (rbs), superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of g. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. the results indicated that these par ...201525462462
prostaglandin e receptor 4 (ptger4) involved in host protection against immune challenge in oyster, crassostrea hongkongensis.prostaglandin e receptor 4 (ptger4) is an essential receptor that can detect various physiological and pathological stimuli and has been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes, including the regulation of immune responses, cytokine production, and apoptosis. in this report, the first mollusk ptger4, referred to as chptger4, was cloned and characterized from the hong kong oyster crassostrea hongkongensis. its full-length cdna is 1734 bp in length, including 5'- and 3'-untranslated r ...201525463295
transcriptome analysis of the effect of vibrio alginolyticus infection on the innate immunity-related complement pathway in epinephelus grouper (epinephelus coioides) with protogynous hermaphroditic features are one of the most economically important aquaculture species in taiwan. however, larvae stage grouper are susceptible to infection by the bacterial pathogen vibrio alginolyticus. to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the immune response to v. alginolyticus in epinephelus coioides larvae, we used high-throughput deep sequencing technology to study the effect of infection on gene expression.201425496447
ptplc, a pacifastin-related inhibitor involved in antibacterial defense and prophenoloxidase cascade of the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus.pacifastin-related inhibitor is a new family of serine protease inhibitors that regulate the proteolytic cascade in multiple biological processes. contrary to the knowledge on the structure and inhibitory mechanism of pacifastin-like members in locust, very little is known about their functions. here, we report the inhibitory activities in relation to the structural characteristics of pacifastin light chain (ptplc) gene identified from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus. the mature ptplc ...201525542376
characterization of a novel anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform (spalf5) in mud crab, scylla paramamosain.anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (alfs), the potential antimicrobial peptides that bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (lps), are common effectors of innate immunity in crustaceans. in this study, a novel isoform of alfs (spalf5) was isolated from the hemocytes of mud crab scylla paramamosain. the full-length 975bp spalf5 contains a 375bp open reading frame (orf) encoding 125 amino acids. although spalf5 exhibits a low degree of nucleotide homology with other reported alfs, it contains the con ...201525553523
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of complement component c8 beta in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) after the vibrio alginolyticus challenge.complement component c8 beta was a key molecule in the complement system, mediating the mac formation and the bacterial lysis. in this study, the full-length c8 beta (ecc8 beta) was obtained, containing a 5'utr of 25 bp, an orf of 1764 bp and a 3'utr of 198 bp. the ecc8 beta gene encoded a protein of 587 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 65.87 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 6.35. the deduced amino acid sequence showed that ecc8 beta consisted of the conserved residue ...201525592820
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of ppar gamma in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) after the vibrio alginolyticus challenge.ppar gamma was a key nuclear receptor, playing an important role in the immune defense and the anti-inflammatory mechanism. in this study, the full-length ppar gamma (ecppar gamma) was obtained, containing a 5'utr of 133 bp, an orf of 1602 bp and a 3'utr of 26 bp besides the poly (a) tail. the ecppar gamma gene encoded a protein of 533 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 60.02 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 6.26. the deduced amino acid sequence showed that ecppar gamma ...201525592876
isolation and function analysis of apolipoprotein a-i gene response to virus infection in grouper.apolipoproteins, synthesized mainly in liver and intestine and bounded to lipids, play important roles in lipid transport and uptake through the circulation system. in this study, an apolipoprotein a-i gene homologue was cloned from orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides (designed as ec-apoa-i) by rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) pcr. the full-length cdna of ec-apoa-i was comprised of 1278 bp with a 792 bp open reading frame (orf) that encodes a putative protein of 264 amino acids. q ...201525613342
functional chimeras of flagellar stator proteins between e. coli motb and vibrio pomb at the periplasmic region in vibrio or e. coli.the bacterial flagellar motor has a stator and a rotor. the stator is composed of two membrane proteins, mota and motb in escherichia coli and poma and pomb in vibrio alginolyticus. the vibrio motor has a unique structure, the t ring, which is composed of motx and moty. based on the structural information of pomb and motb, we constructed three chimeric proteins between pomb and motb, named potb91 , potb129, and potb138 , with various chimeric junctions. when those chimeric proteins were produced ...201525630862
complete genome sequence of vibrio alginolyticus atcc 17749t.vibrio alginolyticus is a gram-negative halophilic bacterium and has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in both humans and marine animals. it is the causative agent of food-borne diseases, such as gastroenteritis, and it invades through wounds in predisposed individuals. in this study, we present the completed genome of v. alginolyticus atcc 17749(t) through high-throughput sequencing.201525635021
effect of enzymatic debridement with two different collagenases versus mechanical debridement on chronic hard-to-heal wounds.a chronic ulcer is usually defined as an injury that does not spontaneously evolve towards healing and does not progress through normal healing stages such as inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. this study was designed in order to compare two types of collagenases with mechanical debridement alone. it was thus possible to evaluate their differences in terms of pain and debridement efficacy. patients were divided into three groups: 30 patients were daily dressed using an ointment based o ...201625649929
marine bacterial chemoresponse to a stepwise chemoattractant stimulus.we found recently that polar flagellated marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus is capable of exhibiting taxis toward a chemical source in both forward and backward swimming directions. how the microorganism coordinates these two swimming intervals, however, is not known. the work presented herein is aimed at determining the response functions of the bacterium by applying a stepwise chemoattractant stimulus while it is swimming forward or backward. the important finding of our experiment is that ...201525650943
identification and analysis of iccu/zn-sod, mn-sod and eccu/zn-sod in superoxide dismutase multigene family of pseudosciaena crocea.superoxide dismutases (sods) belong to a significant and ubiquitous family of metalloenzymes for eliminating excess reactive oxygen species (ros). in this paper, the complete open reading frames (orfs) of intracellular cu/zn-sod (iccu/zn-sod), mn-sod and extracellular cu/zn-sod (eccu/zn-sod) were identified from the large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea, designated as lycsod1, lycsod2 and lycsod3). the sequences were 465 bp, 678 bp and 645 bp (genbank accession no. kj908287, kj908285 and kj ...201525652289
marine lactobacillus pentosus h16 protects artemia franciscana from vibrio alginolyticus pathogenic effects.vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen which may affect different aquatic organisms. the aim of this study was to assess the probiotic properties and the protective mode of action of lactobacillus pentosus h16 against v. alginolyticus 03/8525, through in vitro and in vivo studies using artemia franciscana (hereafter artemia). this strain showed antimicrobial activity against v. alginolyticus 03/8525 and aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida atcc33658 possibly related to lactobacill ...201525667335
crowding of white shrimp litopenaeus vananmei depresses their immunity to and resistance against vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.immunity parameters and the expression levels of several immune-related proteins, including lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan binding protein (lgbp), peroxinectin (px), intergin β (ib), prophenoloxidase (propo) i, propo ii, α2-macroglobulin (α2-m), cytosolic mangangese superoxide dismutase (cytmnsod), mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (mtmnsod), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (gpx), lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei reared at stocking densiti ...201525700787
dietary supplementation of avicennia marina extract on immune protection and disease resistance in amphiprion sebae against vibrio alginolyticus.the effect of avicennia marina aqueous leaf extract on innate immune mechanisms such as total white blood cell counts (wbc), serum lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay, alternative complement (ach50) assay, phagocytic activity assay, disease resistance, gut bacteria, and survival rate of clownfish (amphiprion sebae) against vibrio alginolyticus is reported. healthy fish challenged with v. alginolyticus (1 × 10(7) cells ml(-1)) were fed with diets supplemented (0, 1, 2, and 4%) with a. mari ...201525703711
lvdj-1 plays an important role in resistance against vibrio alginolyticus in litopenaeus was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse nih3t3 cells in cooperation with activated ras. it has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. in this study, the dj-1 gene in litopenaeus vannamei (lvdj-1) was identified and characterized. a recombinant protein lvdj-1 was produced in pichia pastoris. lvdj-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsrna-mediated rna interference (rnai), which led to significantly decreased levels of lvdj-1 mrna and protein. w ...201525703712
investigation of possible molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adhesion in vibrio alginolyticus with comparative transcriptome analysis.adhesion capability to fish mucus, which can be affected by environmental conditions, is considered to be a key virulence factor of vibrio alginolyticus although the molecular mechanism is still unclear. in the present study, v. alginolyticus was treated with stress conditions including cu(2+) (50 mg/l), pb(2+) (100 mg/l), hg(2+) (50 mg/l) and low ph (ph 5). we found these stress treatments were capable of reducing the adhesion of v. alginolyticus, while the expression levels of multiple genes w ...201525726081
hygiene and health risks associated with the consumption of edible lamellibranch molluscs.edible lamellibranch molluscs are frequently the cause of very serious outbreaks of food poisoning. microbiological suitability for human consumption, according to ec reg. n. 1441/2007, is only based on two faecal bacteriological contamination parameters (escherichia coli and salmonella) and does not consider other microorganisms which are naturally present within the marine environment and are potentially pathogenic such as those belonging to the genus vibrio. in this study, a total of 540 samp ...201525744696
[biological characteristics and histopathological observation of vibrio alginolyticus from diseased fish].ulcer disease is one of the most serious diseases and a common problem in various stages marine culture including epinephelus coioides culture of southern china. the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from e. coioides will be useful for monitoring of drug resistance and controlling the outbreak and spread of ulcer disease in e. coioides. the purpose of this study was to characterize the pathogen of e. coioides.201425752145
a novel molluscan fos gene with immune defense function identified in the hong kong oyster, crassostrea hongkongensis.the transcription factor fos is a member of one of the best-studied ap-1 sub-families and has been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes, including the regulation of apoptosis, immune responses and cytokine production. in this report, a novel mollusk fos (referred to as chfos) gene was cloned and characterized from the hong kong oyster, crassostrea hongkongensis. the deduced chfos protein sequence comprised 333 amino acids and shared significant homology with invertebrate homologs ...201525841657
Displaying items 1701 - 1800 of 1999