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salt gland adenitis as only cause of stranding of loggerhead sea turtles caretta caretta.the present study describes pathological and microbiological findings in 9 stranded loggerhead sea turtles caretta caretta, whose only observed lesion was bilateral purulent salt gland adenitis. histological lesions ranged from the presence of abundant eosinophilic material associated with bacterial colonies in the lumen of the central ducts of the glandular lobules to the destruction of the glandular tissue and presence of abundant eosinophilic material composed of heterophils and cell debris, ...201121848124
[evaluation of the ventricular function using radioisotope ventriculography in patients with impaired glucose metabolism]. 20113228812
valproate-associated hepatotoxicity and its biochemical mechanisms.intake of the anticonvulsant drug valproic acid, or its sodium salt, has been associated with occasional instances of severe and sometimes fatal hepatotoxicity. probably at least 80 cases have occurred worldwide. the syndrome affects perhaps 1 in 10,000 persons taking the drug, and usually develops in the early weeks or months of therapy. most instances have involved children, usually those receiving more than 1 anticonvulsant. multiple cases have occurred in 2 families. the typical presentation ...20113131628
a retrospective survey of asthma management in hospital.a retrospective survey of asthma admissions to general medical units during 1983 is described. 127 cases occurred, of whom 52 were males (44%). the average age was 45.2 years. forty-eight per cent were receiving inhaled steroids or cromoglycate before admission and 16% regular oral steroids. initial assessment seldom included peak flow measurement although these were made subsequently in 57%. no steroids were used in 32% of cases. no oxygen was given in 48% of cases and when used was usually at ...20113147510
synthesis and antineoplastic effects of furo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives.furo[3,4-d]pyrimidine was obtained in the reaction of 2-phenyl-4-phenylamino-6-methyl-5-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid with socl2. this compound, heated with aliphatic amines, yielded mono- and diamino-derivatives. some of the obtained compounds exhibited a potent antineoplastic activity.20113237569
use of the romanian product silimarina in the treatment of chronic liver diseases.the romanian product silimarina (synonym legalon) was administered in a randomized double-blind trial, to a group of 180 patients with chronic persistent hepatitis (cph), chronic active hepatitis (cah) and hepatic cirrhosis (hc). the trial lasted for 40 days. the results showed favourable effects similar with those obtained with other preparations produced by foreign drug industries. the romanian product proved to have no toxic effect. the authors discuss the present possibilities of estimating ...20113072661
oesophageal pain exacerbated by propranolol. 20113113570
metastatic adenocarcinoma of the carpus: a case report.a patient is described who presented with a painful swelling of the dorsum of the hand which arose from the hamate and proved histologically to be a secondary from a previously resected gastric adenocarcinoma.20113171299
characterization of role of the toxr gene in the physiology and pathogenicity of vibrio alginolyticus.toxr, a conserved virulence-associated gene in vibrios, is identified in vibrio alginolyticus zj51-o, a pathogenic strain isolated from diseased fish. to reveal the role of toxr in the pathogenicity of v. alginolyticus, a deletion mutant was constructed by allelic exchange. the mutant showed the same level of growth in trypticase soy broth (tsb) and iron-limiting condition, as the wild type strain. however, deletion of toxr severely reduced resistance against bile salts and the capability of bio ...201121915613
phylogenetic study of sponge associated bacteria from the lakshadweep archipelago and the antimicrobial activities of their secondary metabolites.marine ecosystem of the lakshadweep archipelago is unique and known to have a very high degree of biodiversity with a number of endemic flora and fauna. the present study focuses to isolate the endosymbiotic microorganism from sponges and its effectiveness against marine ornamental fish pathogens. the sponges were collected from agatti island of lakshadweep archipelago and identified as clathria procera, sigmadocia fibulata and dysidea granulosa. in which, 15 different types of bacteria were iso ...201122806873
phlegmonous necrotising cellulitis after reduction mammoplasty. a report of 4 cases. 20113187790
microarray analysis of gene expression in disk abalone haliotis discus discus after bacterial challenge.in this study, we investigated the gene expression profiling of disk abalone, haliotis discus discus challenged by a mixture of three pathogenic bacteria vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahemolyticus, and listeria monocytogenes using a cdna microarray. upon bacteria challenge, 68 (1.6%) and 112 (2.7%) gene transcripts changed their expression levels ≥2 or ≤2 -fold in gills and digestive tract, respectively. there were 46 tissue-specific transcripts that up-regulated specifically in the digestive ...201121215803
identification, molecular characterization and expression analysis of a mucosal c-type lectin in the eastern oyster, crassostrea virginica.lectins are well known to actively participate in the defense functions of vertebrates and invertebrates where they play an important role in the recognition of foreign particles. they have also been reported to be involved in other processes requiring carbohydrate-lectin interactions such as symbiosis or fertilization. in this study, we report a novel putative c-type lectin (cvml) from the eastern oyster crassostrea virginica and we investigated its involvement in oyster physiology. the cdna of ...201121256965
an mpeg (macrophage expressed gene) from the pacific oyster crassostrea gigas: molecular characterization and gene expression.mpegs (macrophage expressed genes) encode members of the macpf (membrane-attack complex/perforin) protein superfamily that play essential roles in innate immunity. in the present study, a homolog of mpeg1 was identified in crassostrea gigas and designed cg-mpeg1. the complete cdna of cg-mpeg1 is 2781 bp in length, containing an orf of 2226 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 742 amino acids with a predicted 19-aa hydrophobic signal peptide, an macpf domain, and a transmembrane domain. phylog ...201121272653
reverse and flick: hybrid locomotion in bacteria. 201121289282
establishment of a caenorhabditis elegans infection model for vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus, a common bacterium in the marine environment, is a threat to marine animals and humans by causing serious infections. the present study reveals the establishment of a caenorhabditis elegans infection model for vibrio alginolyticus. the infection and colonization was localized in the animal by tagging v. alginolyticus with gfp and using confocal laser scanning microscopy. chemotactic response of c. elegans to v. alginolyticus, pharyngeal distention and blockage of vulval reg ...201121298688
passive immune-protection of small abalone against vibrio alginolyticus infection by anti-vibrio igy-encapsulated feed.small abalone (haliotis diversicolor supertexta) is a high value-added shellfish. it however has been suffering vibrio alginolyticus infections, which cause mass death of small abalone and thus great economic losses, particularly in artificial aquaculture. in this study, we attempted to treat small abalone with anti-vibrio igy to elicit a passive immunity directly against v. alginolyticus infections. anti-vibrio igy was alginate encapsulated in egg powders as feed, which may avoid antibody inact ...201121300158
a selective and differential medium for vibrio alginolyticus.in this paper, we present a selective and differential medium, termed vibrio alginolyticus (val) agar, developed for the isolation and identification of v. alginolyticus. the presence of bile salts, high salinity and high incubation temperature allows the selective growth of moderately halophilic vibrio species. differentiation of bacteria is achieved by identifying species capable of sucrose fermentation, made visible by the ph indicator bromocresol purple. in this study, all of the 26 strains ...201121306589
enumeration of vibrio parahaemolyticus in the viable but nonculturable state using direct plate counts and recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization.vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative, halophilic bacterium indigenous to marine and estuarine environments and it is capable of causing food and water-borne illness in humans. it can also cause disease in marine animals, including cultured species. currently, culture-based techniques are used for quantification of v. parahaemolyticus in environmental samples; however, these can be misleading as they fail to detect v. parahaemolyticus in a viable but nonculturable (vbnc) state which leads t ...201121329738
susceptibility to antibiotics of vibrio spp. and photobacterium damsela ssp. piscicida strains isolated from italian aquaculture farms.the antibiotic resistance patterns of aetiological agents responsible for vibriosis and pasteurellosis were studied to contribute to control the spread of these two bacterial diseases in mediterranean fish farming. strains of photobacterium damsela ssp. piscicida, vibrio fluvialis, vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio metschnikovii, isolated from italian aquaculture (fish, shellfish and crustaceans) sites, were assayed for their susceptibility to some antibacterial agents curren ...201121344147
screening and characterization of a cellulase gene from the gut microflora of abalone using metagenomic library.a metagenomic fosmid library was constructed using genomic dna isolated from abalone intestine. screening of a library of 3,840 clones revealed a 36 kb insert of a cellulase positive clone (pamhelo). a shotgun clone library was constructed using the positive clone (pamhelo) and further screening of 3,840 shotgun clones with an approximately 5 kb insert size using a congo red overlay revealed only one cellulase positive clone (pamhl9). the pamhl9 consisted of a 5,293-bp dna sequence and three ope ...201121369991
antimicrobial resistance of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from farmed fish in korea from 2005 through 2007.the antimicrobial resistance patterns to 15 antimicrobial agents of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus isolated from farmed fishes, including olive flounder (paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (sebastes schlegeli), red sea bream (pagrus major), and sea bass (lateolabrax japonicus), were investigated from 2005 through 2007. a total of 218 v. parahaemolyticus isolates and 153 v. alginolyticus isolates were obtained from the 180 fish samples collected from fish farms located alon ...201121375873
enhanced immune defences in pacific white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) post-exposure to a vibrio vaccine.this study was conducted to determine if exposure of shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, to a commercial anti-vibrio vaccine caused changes in antibacterial and cellular (phagocytosis) defences. shrimp post-larvae were administered either vibromax™ vaccine or a blank preparation. whole body homogenates were prepared before (day 0), during (day 10) and after (day 20) vaccination and incubated with a selection of pathogenic vibrios. homogenate from day 0 animals showed natural antibacterial activity tow ...201121377471
the cq ratio of surface energy components influences adhesion and removal of fouling bacteria.the interaction energy between bacteria and substrata with different surface energies was modelled by the extended dlvo-á(derjaguin, landau, verwey and overbeek) theory. the modeling results revealed that the interaction energy has a strong correlation with the cq (chen and qi) ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the lifshitz-van der waals (lw) apolar to the electron donor surface energy components of substrata. both modeling and experimental results with different bacteria including p. fluo ...201121390912
genotype analysis of collagenase gene by pcr-sscp in vibrio alginolyticus and its association with virulence to marine fish.in this article, the genotypes for vibrio alginolyticus were analyzed based on collagenase gene by pcr-single strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) method and their relationship to the virulence for marine fish were studied by a bacteria challenging experiment. results showed total 13 genotypes designated as a1, a2, a3, a4, b, c, d, e, f, g1, g2, h, and i were identified. among them, isolates from type a1 were dominant in abundance (48.1%) and the isolates from nanyou had the highest polymorph ...201121394507
antimicrobial effects of essential oils of cinnamosma fragrans on the bacterial communities in the rearing water of penaeus monodon larvae.farmed shrimps are vectors of various vibrio species that are considered a potential health hazard. previous study has shown that vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, and vibrio alginolyticus dominated in the water and larval samples of shrimp hatchery (randrianarivelo et al. 2010 ). the effects of two essential oils (eos) of cinnamosma fragrans, an endemic plant to madagascar (b8: linalool-type and b143: 1,8-cineole-type), were determined on the total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and t ...201121395412
sybr green i-based real-time pcr targeting the rpox gene for sensitive and rapid detection of vibrio alginolyticus.rpox, a vibrio alginolyticus specific stress regulating gene, was used to detect this fish pathogen by sybr green i-based real-time pcr. the specificity of the detection was confirmed in different samples. the minimum level of detection was 10(3) cells from pure culture and 10(2) cells from seawater.201121402144
a smaller particle size improved the oral bioavailability of monkey head mushroom, hericium erinaceum, powder resulting in enhancement of the immune response and disease resistance of white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei.the effects of different particle sizes (100-150, 74-100, and <74 µm) of powder of the dried and ground stipe from the monkey head mushroom, hericium erinaceum, on the immune response and disease resistance of white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, against the pathogen, vibrio alginolyticus, were examined. mushroom powder with a particle size of <74 µm had a significantly higher effect on the disease resistance of shrimp compared to particle sizes of >74 µm. mortality of shrimp after being injected ...201121421058
cloning and expression of toll-like receptors 1 and 2 from a teleost fish, the orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides.the two toll-like receptors, tlr1 and tlr2 were cloned from orange-spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides, an important teleost fish in mariculture of asia. the cdna sequences of tlr1 and tlr2 are 3195 and 3439 bp long, with an open reading frame (orf) of 2406 and 2466 bp, encoding 801 and 821 amino acids, respectively. the tlr family motifs, i.e. leucine-rich repeat (lrr) domains and toll/interleukin (il)-1 receptor (tir) domains are conserved in the tlr1 and tlr2, with nine and ten leucine-rich ...201121440311
bacterial chemotaxis in an optical trap.an optical trapping technique is implemented to investigate the chemotactic behavior of a marine bacterial strain vibrio alginolyticus. the technique takes the advantage that the bacterium has only a single polar flagellum, which can rotate either in the counter-clock-wise or clock-wise direction. the two rotation states of the motor can be readily and instantaneously resolved in the optical trap, allowing the flagellar motor switching rate s(t) to be measured under different chemical stimulatio ...201121494608
a macrophage migration inhibitory factor like oxidoreductase from pearl oyster pinctada fucata involved in innate immune responses.macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) is an important cytokine and plays a crucial role as a pivotal regulator of innate immunity. in this study, a mif cdna was identified and characterized from the pearl oyster pinctada fucata (designated as pomif). the full-length of pomif was 1544 bp and consisted of a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 45 bp, a 3'-utr of 1139 bp with a polyadenylation signal (aataaa) at 12 nucleotides upstream of the poly (a) tail. the open reading frame (orf) of pomif w ...201121496487
cloning of a novel collagenase gene from the gram-negative bacterium grimontia (vibrio) hollisae 1706b and its efficient expression in brevibacillus choshinensis.the collagenase gene was cloned from grimontia (vibrio) hollisae 1706b, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. nucleotide sequencing showed that the open reading frame was 2,301 bp in length and encoded an 84-kda protein of 767 amino acid residues. the deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence and a zinc metalloprotease consensus sequence, the hexxh motif. g. hollisae collagenase showed 60 and 59% amino acid sequence identities to vibrio parahaemolyticus and v ...201121515782
roles of hfq in the stress adaptation and virulence in fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus and its potential application as a target for live attenuated vaccine.vibrio alginolyticus has brought about severe economic damage to the mariculture industry by causing vibriosis in various fish species in south china. the virulent determinants of this bacterium have not been well characterized except the exotoxin alkaline serine protease, asp. in addition, the mechanism of virulence regulation in v. alginolyticus remains largely unknown apart from a vibrio harveyi-like quorum sensing (qs) system which is established to manipulate the expression of various virul ...201121523476
transcriptional analysis of disk abalone (haliotis discus discus) antioxidant enzymes against marine bacteria and virus challenge.diverse antioxidant enzymes are essential for marine organisms to overcome oxidative stress as well as for the fine-tuning of immune reactions through activating different signal transduction pathways. this study describes the transcriptional analysis of antioxidant enzymes of disk abalone by challenging with bacteria (vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahemolyticus, and listeria monocytogenes) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv). upon bacteria and vhsv challenge, manganese superoxide dis ...201121549200
cloning and expression of a heat shock protein (hsp) 90 gene in the haemocytes of crassostrea hongkongensis under osmotic stress and bacterial challenge.heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) is a highly conserved and multi-functional molecular chaperone that plays an essential role in both cellular metabolism and stress response. here, we report the cloning of the hsp90 homologue in crassostrea hongkongensis (chhsp90) through ssh in combination with race from cdna of haemocytes. the full-length cdna of chhsp90 is 2459 bp in length, consisting of a 3', 5'-untranslated region (utr) and an open reading frame of 2169 bp encoding 722 amino acids. the identit ...201121565272
heterodisaccharide 4-o-(n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminyl)-d-glucosamine is an effective chemotactic attractant for vibrio bacteria that produce chitin oligosaccharide deacetylase.aims:  to investigate the attractant effect of 4-o-(n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminyl)-d-glucosamine (glcnac-glcn) in the chemotaxis of vibrio bacteria that produce carbohydrate esterase (ce) family 4 chitin oligosaccharide deacetylase (cod), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of glcnac-glcn from n,n'-diacetylchitobiose (glcnac)(2) . methods and results:  the chemotactic effect of disaccharides from chitin on several strains of vibrio bacteria was investigated using an agar gel lane-migration metho ...201121575022
mx expression in gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata l.) in response to poly i:c, bacterial lps and chromosomal dna: preliminary study. 201121575726
occurrence of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus in the german bight over a seasonal cycle.bacteria of the genus vibrio are an important component of marine ecosystems worldwide. the genus harbors several human pathogens, for instance the species vibrio parahaemolyticus, a main cause for foodborne gastroenteritis in asia and the usa. pathogenic v. parahaemolyticus strains emerged also in europe, but little is known about the abundance, pathogenicity and ecology of v. parahaemolyticus especially in northern european waters. this study focuses on v. parahaemolyticus and its close relati ...201121598011
characterization of the periplasmic region of pomb, a na+-driven flagellar stator protein in vibrio alginolyticus.the stator proteins poma and pomb form a complex that couples na(+) influx to torque generation in the polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. this stator complex is anchored to an appropriate place around the rotor through a putative peptidoglycan-binding (pgb) domain in the periplasmic region of pomb (pomb(c)). to investigate the function of pomb(c), a series of n-terminally truncated and in-frame deletions between the transmembrane (tm) segment and the pgb domain of pomb was constructe ...201121602350
the critical role of a conserved residue, pomb-f22, in the transmembrane segment of the flagellar stator complex for conducting ions and generating torque.bacterial flagellar motors exploit the electrochemical potential gradient of a coupling ion (h(+) or na(+)) as their energy source, and are composed of stator and rotor proteins. sodium-driven and proton-driven motors have the stator proteins, poma and pomb, or mota and motb, respectively, which interact with each other in their transmembrane (tm) regions to form an ion channel. the single tm region of pomb or motb, which forms the ion-conduction pathway together with tm3 and tm4 of poma or mota ...201121636648
the structure of the flagellar motor protein complex pomab: implications for the torque-generating conformation.the bacterial flagellar motor is driven by an ion flux through a channel called motab in escherichia coli or salmonella and pomab in vibrio alginolyticus. pomab is composed of two transmembrane (tm) components, poma and pomb, and converts a sodium ion flux to rotation of the flagellum. its homolog, motab, utilizes protons instead of sodium ions. pomb/motb has a peptidoglycan (pg)-binding motif in the periplasmic domain, allowing it to function as the stator by being anchored to the pg layer. to ...201121642461
white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater containing sargassum hemiphyllum var. chinense powder and its extract showed increased immunity and resistance against vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.this study was to examine the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus and wssv when shrimp received the sargassum hemiphyllum var. chinense powder and its hot-water extract. both powder and extract showed activation of prophenoloxidase and generation of superoxide anion in the shrimp in vitro. the haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (po) activity, respiratory burst, and lysozyme activity were examined after the shrimp were immersed in seawa ...201121658452
anticoagulant, antiherpetic and antibacterial activities of sulphated polysaccharide from indian medicinal plant tridax procumbens l. (asteraceae).the sulphated polysaccharide from the widespread tridax procumbens plant was studied for the anticoagulant, antiherpetic and antibacterial activity. the anticoagulant activity was determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. the sulphated polysaccharide from t. procumbens represented potent anticoagulant reaching the efficacy to heparin and chondroitin sulphate. moreover, the sulphated polysaccharide extracted from t. procumbens was found non-toxic on vero cell lines up to the ...201121671053
kalopanax pictus as feed additive controls bacterial and parasitic infections in kelp grouper, epinephelus bruneus.feeding kelp grouper, epinephelus bruneus (26.1 ± 1.4), with 0%, 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% kalopanax pictus extract-supplementation diets, for 30 days reduced mortality on being challenged intraperitoneally 100 µl with bacterium vibrio alginolyticus (2.1 × 10(7) cfu ml(-1)) and ciliate parasite philasterides dicentrarchi (2.3 × 10(7) ciliates ml(-1)). the red blood cells (rbc), white blood cells (wbc), haemoglobin, haematocrit, lymphocytes, and monocytes levels significantly increased in kelp grouper ...201121782952
molecular cloning and expression analysis of heat-shock protein 70 in orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides following heat shock and vibrio alginolyticus challenge.in this study, the complementary (c)dna encoding heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) of orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides (osghsp70) was cloned. osghsp70 was 2206 bp and encoded 652 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 70·89 kda and theoretical isoelectric point of 5·48. three hsp70 family signatures, bipartite nuclear localization signal sequence (nls) and cytoplasmic characteristic motif (eevd) were observed in the osghsp70, which shared high similarity in amino-acid sequences with ...201121781104
gene expression analysis of clams ruditapes philippinarum and ruditapes decussatus following bacterial infection yields molecular insights into pathogen resistance and immunity.the carpet shell clam (ruditapes decussatus) and manila clam (ruditapes philippinarum), which are cultured bivalve species with important commercial value, are affected by diseases that result in large economic losses. because the molecular mechanism of the immune response of bivalves, especially clams, is scarce and fragmentary, we have examined all expressed sequence tags (est) resources available in public databases for these two species in order to increase our knowledge on genes related wit ...201121756933
two superoxide dismutase (sod) with different subcellular localizations involved in innate immunity in crassostrea hongkongensis.sods are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that can scavenge superoxides in response to various stresses. in the present study, full-length cdnas of two sod genes were isolated from crassostrea hongkongensis (designated chmnsod and chcuznsod). the cdnas are 997 and 918 bp in length with orfs of 675 and 468 bp (encoding 225 and 156 amino acids), respectively. sequence analysis revealed a conserved sod_fe domain in chmnsod, and a sod_cu_zn domain in chcuznsod. subcellular localization of chmnsod is mitoch ...201121745578
dietary administration of a gracilaria tenuistipitata extract enhances the immune response and resistance against vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.the haemogram, phenoloxidase (po) activity, respiratory bursts (rbs), superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, glutathione peroxidase (gpx) activity, lysozyme activity, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue (hpt) were examined after the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the hot-water extract of gracilaria tenuistipitata at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0-ág-ákg(-1) for 7-35-ádays. results indicated that these parameters directly increased with the amount of extr ...201121820059
ktrb, a member of the superfamily of k+ transporters.ktrb is the k(+)-translocating subunit of the k(+)-uptake system ktrab from bacteria. it is a member of the superfamily of k(+)transporters (skt proteins) with other sub-families occurring in archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants and trypanosomes. skt proteins may have originated from small k(+) channels by at least two gene duplication and two gene fusion events. they contain four covalently linked m(1)pm(2) domains, in which m(1) and m(2) stand for transmembrane stretches, and p for a p-loop, which ...201121680052
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two novel tolls (lvtoll2 and lvtoll3) and three putative sp+ñtzle-like toll ligands (lvspz1-3) from litopenaeus vannamei.toll-like receptor-mediated nf-+¦b pathways are essential for inducing immune related-gene expression in the defense against bacterial, fungal and viral infections in insects and mammals. although a toll receptor (lvtoll1) was cloned in litopenaeus vannamei, relatively little is known about other types of toll-like receptors and their endogenous cytokine-like ligand, sp+ñtzle. here, we report two novel toll-like receptors (lvtoll2 and lvtoll3) and three sp+ñtzle-like proteins (lvspz1-3) from l. ...201121827783
vibrio illness in florida, 1998-2007.this study characterized the current epidemiology of vibrio infections in florida and examined cases reported from 1998 to 2007. logistic regression was used to determine risk of death. there were 834 vibrio infections in 825 individuals (average annual incidence rate 4·8/1,000,000). common vibrio species reported were vibrio vulnificus (33%), v. parahaemolyticus (29%), and v. alginolyticus (16%). most exposures were attributed to wounds (42%), and the most common clinical syndromes were wound i ...201120546636
zernike phase contrast cryo-electron tomography of sodium-driven flagellar hook-basal bodies from vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus use flagella to swim. a flagellum consists of a filament, hook and basal body. the basal body is made up of a rod and several ring structures. this study investigates the structure of the t ring which is a unique component of the v. alginolyticus sodium ion-driven flagellar basal body. using zernike phase contrast (zpc) cryo-electron tomography, we compared the 3d structures of purified hook-basal bodies (hbb) from a wild-type strain (kk148) and a deletion mutant lacking mot ...201120705140
a multidomain galectin involved in innate immune response of pearl oyster pinctada fucata.galectins could specifically bind to β-galactoside residues and play crucial roles in innate immune responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. in this study, the cdna of a galectin with multiple carbohydrate-recognition domains (crds) was cloned from pearl oyster pinctada fucata (designated as pogal). pogal cdna was 2138bp long and consisted of a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 120bp, a 3'-utr of 350bp with two cytokine rna instability motifs (attta), and an open reading frame (orf) of 1668bp e ...201120813129
prevalence of mobile genetic elements and transposase genes in vibrio alginolyticus from the southern coastal region of china and their role in horizontal gene transfer.vibrio alginolyticus has high genetic diversity, but little is known about the means by which it has been acquired. in this study, the distributions of mobile genetic elements (mges), including integrating conjugative elements (ices), superintegron-like cassettes (sics), insertion sequences (iss), and two types of transposase genes (valt1 and valt2), in 192 strains of v. alginolyticus were investigated. ice, sic, and is elements, valt1, and valt2 were detected in 8.9%, 13.0%, 4.7%, 9.4%, and 2.6 ...201223844479
ulcerated yellow spot syndrome: implications of aquaculture-related pathogens associated with soft coral sarcophyton ehrenbergi tissue lesions.we introduce a new marine syndrome called ulcerated yellow spot, affecting the soft coral sarcophyton ehrenbergi. to identify bacteria associated with tissue lesions, tissue and mucus samples were taken during a 2009 indo-pacific research expedition near the wakatobi island chain, indonesia. polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16s rdna gene indicated associations with the known fish-disease-causing bacterium photobacterium damselae, as well as multiple vibrio species. results indicate a shif ...201223269388
In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of Asparagopsis taxiformis from the Straits of Messina against pathogens relevant in aquaculture.Ethanol extracts of Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Straits of Messina (Italy) were screened for antibacterial activity against pathogenic shellfish and fish bacteria previously isolated from local marine and brackish environments. Genetic labelling by DNA barcoding allowed us to identify the algal population as a biogeographical strain conspecific to A. taxiformis. The extract obtained in May showed the broadest antibacterial activity against all tested pathogenic bacteria, especiall ...201222078751
software design for computerized analysis of obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound examinations. 20123510634
[sister chromatid exchange and accidental exposure to phenyl-mercury acetate]. 20123504672
routine sigmoidoscopy costs and usefulness. 20125108295
nifedipine and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion in progressive systemic sclerosis.heart disease in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis may be due in part to myocardial ischemia caused by a disturbance of the coronary microcirculation. to determine whether abnormalities of myocardial perfusion in this disorder are potentially reversible, we evaluated the effect of the coronary vasodilator nifedipine on myocardial perfusion assessed by thallium-201 scanning in 20 patients. thallium-201 single-photon-emission computerized tomography was performed under control condition ...20123486363
gardner's syndrome with bilateral osteomas of coronoid process resulting in limited opening. 20123472187
thyroglobulin and 131i uptake of remaining tissue in patients with differentiated carcinoma after thyroidectomy.in 158 thyroidectomized patients with well-differentiated non-metastatic thyroid cancer the results of serum thyroglobulin (tg) determination and 131i uptake values established immediately before radioiodine treatment (19 days after surgery) were compared. in 113 patients (72%) tg was above 6 ng ml-1 (lower limit of detection) and 131i uptake exceeded 2%. in 11 patients (7%) tg was undetectable and 131i uptake less than 2%. in these cases a radioiodine treatment was not performed; the thyroid ab ...20123399222
The first homolog of pacifastin-related precursor in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus): Characterization and potential role in immune response to bacteria and fungi.Among all the serine proteinase inhibitor families (SPIs), the pacifastin-related inhibitor is seldom isolated. A pacifastin-related SPI named as PtPLC was identified from the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus in this study. The full-length of PtPLC was cloned from haemocytes cDNA library by the combination of homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The PtPLC contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1098 bp encoding a putative pacifastin-related precursor of 365 amino ...201222154999
Phenoloxidase in the scallop Chlamys farreri: Purification and antibacterial activity of its reaction products generated in vitro.Phenoloxidase (PO) was purified from hemocytes of the scallop Chlamys farreri using native-PAGE and gel permeation column chromatography, and then substrate specificity and antibacterial activity generated from reaction products of purified PO were analyzed. The results showed purified PO had a molecular mass of 576 kDa in native-PAGE and 53 kDa in denatured PAGE, and could catalyze the substrates L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, catechol and hydroquinone suggesting it is a type ...201222119576
Dietary administration of zingerone to enhance growth, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles.Zingerone, one of the active components of ginger, is a phenolic alkanone with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of zingerone supplementation on the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles were studied. Four experimental diets, including a control diet (without zingerone enrichment) and 1, 2.5, and 5 mg zingerone (kg diet)(-1) were used. After 56 days of culture, shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1, 2.5, and 5 mg ...201222173270
demonstration of the "no-reflow" phenomenon by digital coronary arteriography. 20123510523
urinary diversion: a new angle? 20123671701
electrohydraulic lithotripsy of gallstones in humans. 20123366335
13c nmr studies of carboxylate inhibitor binding to cobalt(ii) carboxypeptidase a.both 13c nmr and electronic absorption spectral studies on cobalt(ii) carboxypeptidase a in the presence of acetate and phenylacetate provide evidence for two binding sites for each of these agents. the transverse relaxation rate t2-1 for the 13c-enriched carboxyl groups of the inhibitors is significantly increased when bound to the paramagnetic cobalt carboxypeptidase as compared to the diamagnetic zinc enzyme. the acetate concentration dependence of t2p-1 shows two inflections indicative of se ...20123346659
cloning and expression analysis of recombination activating genes (rag1/2) in red snapper (lutjanus sanguineus).recombination activating genes (rag1 and rag2), involved in the v(d)j recombination of immunoglobulin and t-cell receptor genes play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. the expression of these genes was required for the proper development and maturity of lymphocytes so that they can be used as useful markers to evaluate the development of lymphoid organ. in this paper, the cdna of rag1 and rag2 in red snapper, lutjanus sanguineus were cloned by homological cloning and ...201222266137
identification and characterization of a serine protease inhibitor (ptserpin) in the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus.serine protease inhibitors (serpins) play a key role in diverse immune biological processes. a serine protease inhibitor (serpin), namely ptserpin, was identified from the haemocyte cdna library of swimming crab portunus trituberculatus. the full-length ptserpin cdna was 1593 bp, including an open reading frame (orf) of 1227 bp encoding a polypeptide of 408 amino acids with estimated molecular mass of 45.048 kda and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.23. predicted tertiary structure of ptserpin ...201222245590
Secreted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a broad spectrum vaccine candidate against microbial infection in aquaculture.Aims: Subcellullar localizations and cross-immunities of GAPDHs from six common pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture were investigated. Methods and Results: Subcellullar localizations of GAPDHs of Edwardsiella tarda EIB202, Edwardsiella ictaluri ATCC33202, Aeromonas hydrophila LSA34, Vibrio anguillarum MVM425, Vibrio alginolyticus EPGS020401 and Vibrio harveyi VIB647 were analysed with Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometry examinations. Immunoprotections of different r ...201222017642
[geriatric pharmacology]. 20123475806
obese binge eaters: affect, cognitions, and response to behavioural weight control. 20123397436
a new use of instrumentation in fluoroscopy controlled heel spur surgery. 20123397874
patterns of plasma imipramine-desipramine concentrations in patients receiving concomitant fluphenazine decanoate.plasma levels of imipramine and desipramine were monitored in a series of 13 patients with postpsychotic depressions who had a fixed dose of imipramine (150 mg/day) added to their clinically adjusted, stable dose of fluphenazine decanoate. despite the potential for metabolic inhibition of the tricyclic drug by the neuroleptic drug, no relationship was found between the fluphenazine dose and the subsequent plasma concentrations of imipramine and desipramine. however, plasma antidepressant levels ...20123338977
sensitive non-radioactive dot-blot hybridization using dna probes labelled with chelate group substituted psoralen and quantitative detection by europium ion fluorescence.a new labelling method for cloned dna probes used in hybridization assays is described. the dna insert of recombinant plasmid dna was made partially single-stranded for the labelling reaction by a restriction enzyme digest, followed by a controlled exonuclease iii incubation. a thiol-containing psoralen derivative was covalently bound through irradiation with uv-light to the remaining double-stranded region of the plasmid dna. the psoralen-sh groups were labelled with a large number of metal che ...20123344204
[protein studies in cystic and peritoneal fluids of ovarian tumors with special reference to cea].the levels of total protein, ig, afp, beta-hcg, cea, sc, sp1 and alpha 2-pag were measured in cystic and peritoneal effusions obtained from 70 females with benign and malignant ovarian tumors. this study was carried out to test out parameters those are useful for tumor monitoring of ovarian cancer. our results indicate that determining cea in peritoneal effusions could be one of useful methods in tumor monitoring of mucinous cystadenocarcinomas in cases of known histology and praetherapeutic est ...20123376613
[dosimeter for the detection of sulfur dioxide concentrations at the work site]. 20123798980
[studies on the blood constituents of the neonates delivered by the induced delivery of the defense medical college method].for the assessment of the influence of the defense medical college planned delivery method upon neonates, the measurement of the blood constituents of the umbilical cord was conducted. statistically speaking, no marked differences were seen between the neonates delivered by the defense medical college method and neonates delivered naturally. the blood constituents investigated were: blood cells, activity of various enzymes, other blood constituents and electrolytes.20123457089
altered sensitivity of the gallbladder to cholecystokinin octapeptide in irritable bowel syndrome.we compared responses of the gallbladder to graded intravenous infusions of cholecystokinin octapeptide (cck-op) in normal controls (n = 8) and patients with irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) with predominant constipation (n = 8) or diarrhea (n = 8). the doses of cck-op ranged from subphysiological (negligible contraction of the gallbladder) to supraphysiological (90% contraction of gallbladder and abdominal side effects) amounts. all gallbladders contracted progressively in response to cck-op, and ...20123318495
oxidation of antipsoriatic 10-acyldithranol derivatives and dithranol to 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone. 20123369924
antidesmosomal monoclonal antibody in the diagnosis of intracranial tumours.immunocytochemistry has been applied extensively to the diagnosis of intracranial tumours, but meningiomas still present a diagnostic problem. however, desmosomes have been shown by electron microscopy to be present in meningiomas, and this distinguishes them from gliomas. this paper describes a new monoclonal antibody, 11-5f, against desmosomal proteins 1 and 2 (desmoplakins) and assesses its usefulness in the diagnosis of meningiomas and other intracranial tumours. a total of 74 surgically rem ...20123323433
cdna cloning, characterization and expression analysis of catalase in swimming crab portunus trituberculatus: cdna cloning and expression analysis of catalase gene of portunus trituberculatus.catalase is an important antioxidant protein that protects organisms against various oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. in the present study, a full-length cdna sequence of catalase was cloned from the haemocytes of swimming crab portunus trituberculatus by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna end method. the catalase cdna sequence contained 1,851 bp with an open reading frame of 1,551 bp encoding 516 amino acid residues. th ...201223073768
differential expression analysis of nuclear oligomerization domain proteins nod1 and nod2 in orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides).nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins-1 and -2 (nod1 and nod2) are members of the nod-like receptors (nlrs) family. they are both cytoplasmic receptors, and sense microbial infections/danger molecules to induce host innate immune response. in this study, the full-length orf sequences of nod1 and nod2 were cloned, and the putative amino acid sequences were identified in orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides). the complete open reading frame (orf) of grouper nod1 con ...201222982325
comparative study on the antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiles of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from four tunisian marine biotopes.the antibiotic resistance patterns and the plasmids profiles of the predominant etiological agent responsible for vibriosis in tunisia, v. alginolyticus were studied to contribute to control their spread in some mediterranean aquaculture farms and seawater. the sixty-nine v. alginolyticus strains isolated from different marine tunisian biotopes (bathing waters, aquaculture and conchylicole farms and a river connected to the seawater during the cold seasons) were multi-drug resistant with high re ...201222918722
withdrawn: effects of saponin supplementation diet on hematological, biochemical, and immunological responses in epinephelus bruneus against vibrio alginolyticus.this article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. the publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. the full elsevier policy on article withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.201222906763
molecular cloning and characterization of class i nf-κb transcription factor from pearl oyster (pinctada fucata).nf-κb transcription factors play central roles in many important physiological and pathological processes including innate immune responses. here we report the cloning of an nf-κb transcription factor, pfrelish from pearl oyster pinctada fucata, one of the most important bivalve mollusks for seawater pearl production. pfrelish full-length cdna is 3916 bp with an open reading frame of 3558 bp encoding a putative protein of 1186 amino acids. the deduced pfrelish contains a n-terminal rhd, a nucleu ...201222796487
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (traf3) from pearl oyster pinctada fucata.traf3 is a highly versatile regulator that negatively regulates jnk and alternative nuclear factor-κb signalling, but positively controls type i interferon production. to investigate traf3 function in innate immune responses among invertebrate especially mollusk, we characterized traf3 (pftraf3) from pearl oyster pinctada fucata, one of the most important bivalve mollusks for seawater pearl production. pftraf3 cdna is 2261 bp with an open reading frame of 1623 bp encoding a putative protein of 5 ...201222796485
zinc effect on the sea urchin paracentrotus lividus immunological competence.pollution by heavy metals has become one of the most important problems in marine coastal areas as a consequence of anthropogenic inputs. among metal contaminants, zinc, being considered not very toxic, is sometimes released into the sea in appreciable quantities and its concentration is loosely regulated. in this work we analyzed the effects of a high zinc concentration on the sea urchin paracentrotus lividus immune system. in particular, after 24 h of zinc treatment, we evaluated coelomocytes ...201222717161
orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) toll-like receptor 22: molecular characterization, expression pattern and pertinent signaling pathways.the toll-like receptors (tlrs) are an important gene family in host innate immunologic surveillance. the tlr22 gene is an essential member of the tlrs that is only found in aquatic animals and has been detected in some bony fish. here, a tlr22 homolog, ectlr22, was characterized in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) via homology cloning. the 3321 bp full-length cdna sequence of ectlr22 was obtained, which included an open reading frame of 2880 bp encoding a putative peptide of 960 ...201222683817
virulence genes and pathogenicity islands in environmental vibrio strains nonpathogenic to humans.most vibrio species in autochthonous marine microbial communities, such as vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio harveyi, vibrio anguillarum among others, are considered nonpathogenic for humans. however, because many bacterial virulence genes are located in mobile genetic elements, the acquisition of mobile dna could mediate the appearance of virulent or more virulent strains even in a species defined as nonpathogenic. in this study, we screened a collection of marine nonpathogenic vibrio strains isolat ...201222676367
real-time pcr optimization to identify environmental vibrio spp. strains.to identify vibrio vulnificus, vibrio cholerae and vibrio alginolyticus using standardized dna extraction method and real-time pcr assays, among a large number of bacterial strains isolated from marine environment.201222639795
modulation of the innate immune system in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei following long-term low salinity exposure.immune parameters, haemocyte lifespan, and gene expressions of lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan-binding protein (lgbp), peroxinectin (px), integrin β, and α2-macroglobulin (α2-m) were examined in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (0.48 ± 0.05 g) which had been reared at different salinity levels of 2.5‰, 5‰, 15‰, 25‰, and 35‰ for 24 weeks. all shrimp survived during the first 6 weeks. the survival rate of shrimp reared at 2.5‰ and 5‰ was much lower (30%) than that of shrimp reared at 15 ...201222626810
investigation of the roles of t6ss genes in motility, biofilm formation, and extracellular protease asp production in vibrio alginolyticus with modified gateway-compatible plasmids.the aims of this study were to create and evaluate the gateway-compatible plasmids for investigating the function of genes in vibrio alginolyticus and other gram-negative bacteria.201222563695
poly d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid-liposome encapsulated odn on innate immunity in epinephelus bruneus against vibrio alginolyticus.the efficacy of poly d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (plga)-liposome (l) encapsulated oligodeoxynucleotides with unmethylated deoxycytidyl-deoxyguanosine motifs (cpg-odns) on innate and adaptive immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper (epinephelus bruneus) against vibrio alginolyticus at weeks 1, 2, and 4 is reported. the superoxide dismutase (sod), respiratory burst, and lysozyme activities significantly increased in e. bruneus when immunized with odn, plga+odn, l+odn, and plga+l+od ...201222551979
a new type of kazal proteinase inhibitor related to shrimp penaeus (litopenaeus) vannamei immunity.a clone encoding a four-kazal domain-containing protein was isolated from the hemostats of a penaeus vannamei cdna library. the full-length cdna sequence is 975 bp in length and encodes a 24.4 kda protein (228 residues). four kazal domains, each 43-46 residues in length, were detected in the deduced primary structure. the first, third and fourth domains have the cplreelpvc, cpavydpvc and cplyvdpvc motifs, respectively, suggesting that they are able to inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. the mrna ...201222542646
identification of the immune expressed sequence tags of pearl oyster (pinctada martensii, dunker 1850) responding to vibrio alginolyticus challenge by suppression subtractive hybridization.one hemolymph subtracted cdna library of pearl oyster (pinctada martensii, dunker 1837) was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) in response to vibrio alginolyticus. a total of 1089 clones were sequenced. all the consensuses were recognized based on the blast searches in ncbi, and revealed that 376 (58%) of them had no significant matches to reported sequences in the database. 267 ests were in significant matches after homologous sequence searches. hypothesized genes ...201222515956
development and efficacy of an attenuated vibrio harveyi vaccine candidate with cross protectivity against vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio harveyi is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of marine animals. in previous studies, we have reported a virulent v. harveyi strain, t4d. in the present study, an attenuated mutant of t4d, t4dm, was obtained by selection of rifampicin resistance. compared to the wild type, t4dm was different in whole-cell protein profile and much slower in growth rate when cultured in stress conditions caused by iron depletion. virulence analysis showed that compared to t4d, t ...201222484605
differential immune response in the hard clam (mercenaria mercenaria) against bacteria and the protistan pathogen qpx (quahog parasite unknown).the immune response of the hard clam (quahog) mercenaria mercenaria following challenge with live bacteria (vibrio alginolyticus) and the protist qpx (quahog parasite unknown) was investigated. the study also compared immune responses following qpx challenge in two different hard clam broodstocks exhibiting different degrees of susceptibility toward this parasite. different immune and stress-related cellular and humoral factors were assessed including general hemocyte parameters (total and diffe ...201222484278
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