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isolation and partial characterization of a virulent bacteriophage ihq1 specific for aeromonas punctata from stream water.aeromonas punctata is the causative agent of septicemia, diarrhea, wound infections, meningitis, peritonitis, and infections of the joints, bones and eyes. bacteriophages are often considered alternative agents for controlling bacterial infection and contamination. in this study, we described the isolation and preliminary characterization of bacteriophage ihq1 (family myoviridae) active against the gram-negative bacterial strain a. punctata. this virulent bacteriophage was isolated from stream w ...201121947462
incidence and etiology of omphalitis in pakistan: a community-based cohort study.although omphalitis (umbilical infections) among newborns is common and a major cause of neonatal deaths in developing countries, information on its burden and etiology from community settings is lacking. this study aimed to determine the incidence and etiology of omphalitis in newborns in high neonatal mortality settings in karachi, pakistan.201122169780
parasitism by protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis enhanced invasion of aeromonas hydrophila in tissues of channel catfish.protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet (ich) and bacterium aeromonas hydrophila are two common pathogens of cultured fish, which cause high fish mortality. currently there is no information available for the effect of parasitism by ich on survival of channel catfish and invasion of a. hydrophila in fish tissues following exposure to a. hydrophila. a trial was conducted in this study to: (1) determine whether a. hydrophila increased fish mortality in ich-parasitized channel catfish; and ( ...201122033433
development of an antibody elisa for potency testing of furunculosis (aeromonas salmonicida subsp salmonicida) vaccines in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l).the study was conducted in atlantic salmon to establish the initial and basic scientific documentation for an alternative batch potency test for salmon furuculosis vaccines. we assessed the antibody response development for aeromonas salmonicida vaccines at different immunisation temperatures (3, 12 and 18 °c), by an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (elisa) 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks post vaccination, and the correlation between antibody response and protection in cohabitation challenge experiments p ...201122000732
antigen adsorbed calcium phosphate nanoparticles stimulate both innate and adaptive immune response in fish, labeo rohita h.calcium phosphate nanoparticles as an antigen/protein delivery was explored in a fish model labeo rohita h. s-layer protein (of aeromonas hydrophila) adsorbed on nano sized calcium phosphate particles elicited both innate and adaptive immune parameters which persisted up to 63 days of post immunization through parenteral immunization and gave cross protections.201121889128
purification and characterization of enterocin mc13 produced by a potential aquaculture probiont enterococcus faecium mc13 isolated from the gut of mugil cephalus.a bacteriocin producer strain mc13 was isolated from the gut of mugil cephalus (grey mullet) and identified as enterococcus faecium. the bacteriocin of e. faecium mc13 was purified to homogeneity, as confirmed by tricine sodium dodecyl sulphate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) analysis showed a single active fraction eluted at 26 min, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (maldi-tof) mass spectro ...201122112158
Acanthamoeba polyphaga, a potential environmental vector for the transmission of food-borne and opportunistic pathogens.The endosymbiotic relationship could represent for many bacteria an important condition favouring their spread in the environment and in foods. For this purpose we studied the behaviour of some food-borne and opportunistic pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterocolitica) when internalized in Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Our results confirm the capability of the bacteria tested to gr ...201121953544
development and efficacy of novobiocin and rifampicin-resistant aeromonas hydrophila as novel vaccines in channel catfish and nile tilapia.three attenuated aeromonas hydrophila vaccines were developed from the virulent 2009 west alabama isolates through selection for resistance to both novobiocin and rifampicin. when channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) were ip injected with 4×105 colony-forming unit (cfu) of the mutants, no fish died. however, when the same age and size matched channel catfish were ip injected with similar amount of their virulent parents, 80-100% fish died. similarly, when nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) we ...201121872628
Effective cohorting and "superisolation" in a single intensive care unit in response to an outbreak of diverse multi-drug-resistant organisms.Cohorting patients in dedicated hospital wards or wings during infection outbreaks reduces transmission of organisms, yet frequently, this may not be feasible because of inadequate capacity, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). We hypothesized that cohorting isolation patients in one geographic location in a single ICU and using enhanced isolation procedures ("superisolation") can prevent the further spread of highly multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDRO).201121936667
clinical observations of black disease in fairy shrimps, streptocephalus sirindhornae and branchinella thailandensis, from thailand and pathogen verification.in this study, black disease infecting fairy shrimps, streptocephalus sirindhornae sanoamuang, murugan, weekers & dumont, and branchinella thailandensis sanoamuang, saengphan & murugan, in thailand, was investigated. the typical signs of the disease are the appearance of black spots on the cuticle, located mainly on the dorsal side and thoracopods. a number of rod-shaped bacteria aggregated in the black spots and were visualized by scanning electron microscopy. the histopathological results show ...201122074019
Screening microorganisms for insulin binding reveals binding by Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cenocepacia and novel attachment of insulin to Aeromonas salmonicida via the A-layer.Exposure to microorganisms is considered an environmental factor which can contribute to Type 1 diabetes. Insulin binding proteins on microorganisms may induce production of antibodies which can react with the human insulin receptor (HIR) with possible consequences in developing a diabetic autoimmune response against HIR and insulin. The interaction of insulin with microorganisms was studied by screening forty-five microbial species for their ability to bind insulin. Binding assays were performe ...201122171975
Aeromonas salmonicida-secreted protein AopP is a potent inducer of apoptosis in a mammalian and a Drosophila model.Some pathogens are able to establish themselves within the host because they have evolved mechanisms to disrupt host innate immunity. For example, a number of pathogens secrete preformed effector proteins via type III secretion apparatuses that influence innate immune or apoptotic signalling pathways. One group of effector proteins that usurp innate immune signalling is the YopJ-like family of bacterial effector proteins, which includes AopP from Aeromonas salmonicida. Aeromonas species are know ...201122040305
Bacteremia due to extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase-producing Aeromonas spp. at a medical center in Southern Taiwan.Although extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing aeromonads have been increasingly reported in recent years, most of them were isolates from case reports or environmental isolates. To investigate the prevalence of ESBL producers among Aeromonas blood isolates and the genes encoding ESBLs, consecutive nonduplicate Aeromonas blood isolates collected at a medical center in southern Taiwan from March 2004 to December 2008 were studied. The ESBL phenotypes were examined by clavulanate combinat ...201121968366
validation of the h2s method to detect bacteria of fecal origin by cultured and molecular methods.using biochemical and molecular methods, this research determined whether or not the h(2)s test did correctly identify sewage-contaminated waters by being the first to use culturing and molecular methods to identify the types and numbers of fecal indicator organisms, pathogens, and other microbes present in sewage samples with positive h(2)s test results. for the culture-based method, samples were analyzed for the presence of fecal bacteria by spread plating the sewage sample onto differential a ...201122038242
different clinical characteristics among aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and aeromonas caviae monomicrobial bacteremia.this study aimed to compare the clinical presentations of aeromonas hydrophila, a. veronii biovar sobria and a. caviae monomicrobial bacteremia by a retrospective method at three hospitals in taiwan during an 8-yr period. there were 87 patients with a. hydrophila bacteremia, 45 with a. veronii biovar sobria bacteremia and 22 with a. caviae bacteremia. compared with a. hydrophila and a. veronii biovar sobria bacteremia, a. caviae bacteremia was more healthcare-associated (45 vs 30 and 16%; p = 0. ...201122065896
first description of the qnrs-like (qnrs5) gene and analysis of quinolone resistance-determining regions in motile aeromonas spp. from diseased fish and water.antimicrobial resistance patterns in a collection of 33 motile aeromonas species were described in this study. quinolone has been frequently employed for treatment of aeromonas-related diseases, and prolonged use of antimicrobial compounds has led to development of resistant strains. in a sample of diseased fish and environmental water, we evaluated nalidixic acid (n = 19) and ciprofloxacin (n = 4) resistance via minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) assays and the genetic basis was also invest ...201122024339
novel gene cassettes and integrons in antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from urban wastewaters.in this study, the occurrence and diversity of integrons were evaluated in 697 isolates belonging to enterobacteriaceae and aeromonas spp. isolated from urban wastewaters. screening of integrons was performed by dot blot hybridization and inti-positive strains were further characterized. the global prevalence of integrons was 3.73%. three new gene cassettes were identified: a novel aada variant (aada17), a gene putatively involved in cell signaling (dcya) and an open reading frame of unknown fun ...201122127350
adsorptive removal of silver nanoparticles (snps) from aqueous solution by aeromonas punctata and its adsorption isotherm and kinetics.silver nanoparticles (snps) are being increasingly used in many consumer products and industrial application. the release of snps to the environment is a major concern. here we have studied the adsorptive removal of snps by a snp resistant bacterial species aeromonas punctata, isolated from the sewage environment. the influence of zeta potential on adsorption was investigated at acidic, neutral and alkaline ph and with varying salt (nacl) concentrations. the rate of adsorption and removal of snp ...201122178439
high prevalence of qnr and aac(6')-ib-cr genes in both water-borne environmental bacteria and clinical isolates of citrobacter freundii in china.we investigated the prevalence of qnr and aac(6')-ib-cr genes in water-borne environmental bacteria and in clinical isolates of enterobacteriaceae, as well as the subtypes of qnr. environmental bacteria were isolated from surface water samples obtained from 10 different locations in hangzhou city, and clinical isolates of citrobacter freundii were isolated from several hospitals in four cities in china. qnra, qnrb, qnrs, and aac(6')-ib-cr genes were screened using pcr, and the genotypes were ana ...201122167061
antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas spp. isolated from clinical and environmental sources to 26 antimicrobial agents.we determined the susceptibility of 144 clinical and 49 environmental aeromonas strains representing 10 different species to 26 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method. no single species had a predominantly non-susceptible phenotype. a multi-non-susceptible pattern was observed in three (2.1%) clinical strains and two (4.0%) strains recovered from diseased fish. common clinical strains were more resistant than the corresponding environmental isolates suggesting that resistance mechanism ...201122123695
sds-page heat-shock protein profiles of environmental aeromonas strains.aeromonas microorganisms normally grow at temperatures between 5 degrees c and 45 degrees c and therefore should have high thermotolerance. thus it was of interest to find out whether a. hydrophila, a. caviae and a. veronii biovar sobria serovars respond to abrupt temperature changes with a heat shock-like response. to this end the present study was undertaken to determine whether aeromonas species exhibits a heat shock response to different temperatures and time factors. the response of aeromon ...201121905633
aeromonas rivuli sp. nov., isolated from the upstream region of a karst water rivulet.two freshwater isolates (wb4.1-19(t) and wb4.4-101), sharing 99.9 % 16s rrna gene sequence similarity, were highly related to aeromonas sobria (99.7 % similarity; 6 bp differences). a phylogenetic tree derived from a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis (mlpa) of the concatenated sequences of five housekeeping genes (gyrb, rpod, reca, dnaj and gyra; 3684 bp) revealed that both strains clustered as an independent phylogenetic line next to members of aeromonas molluscorum and aeromonas bivalvium. the ...201120207806
diversity of culturable chitinolytic bacteria from rhizospheres of agronomic plants in japan.a total of 100 isolates of chitinolytic bacteria were obtained from the rhizospheres of various agronomic plants, and the 16s rrna gene sequences of these isolates were determined. phylogenetic analyses revealed that 81 isolates belonged to the classes betaproteobacteria (39 isolates) and gammaproteobacteria (42 isolates). of the remaining 19 isolates, 16 belonged to the phylum firmicutes. clustering analysis identified 6 and 3 operational taxonomic units (otus) in gammaproteobacteria and betapr ...201121487197
structural modification of sanguinarine and chelerythrine and their antibacterial activity.in this study, five derivatives of sanguinarine (1) and chelerythrine (2) were prepared, with 1 and 2 as starting materials, by reduction, oxidation and nucleophilic addition to the iminium bond c=n(+). the structures of all compounds were elucidated on account of their ms, (1)h-nmr and (13)c-nmr data. the antibacterial activities of all compounds were screened, using staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, aeromonas hydrophila and pasteurella multocida as test bacteria. the minimum bacteriosta ...201121491327
microbiological quality of grey-mullet roe.the greek grey-mullet roe is produced from the fully developed gonads of the female mullet (mugil cephalus) couth in lagoons during their reproductive migration. the traditional processing method of the roe includes, air drying, salting, shape formation and covering with multiple layers of natural beeswax for preservation and distribution. fish roe brands have been a staple in local diet and is increasingly becoming popular in the international market. as a ready-to-eat food it's microbial quali ...201121497664
in silico analysis of 16s ribosomal rna gene sequencing based methods for identification of medically important aerobic gram-negative bacteria.the study is the first one that provides guidelines on the usefulness of full and 527-bp 16s rrna gene sequencing and microseq databases for identifying medically important aerobic gram-negative bacteria. overall, full and 527-bp 16s rrna gene sequencing can identify 26.1% and 32.6% of medically important aerobic gram-negative bacteria confidently to the species level, whereas the full-microseq and 500-microseq databases can identify 15.2% and 26.1% of medically important aerobic gram-negative b ...201121498652
an in vitro screening method to evaluate chemicals as potential chemotherapeutants to control aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish.aims:  to develop an in vitro screening method to be used for identifying potential effective chemotherapeutants to control aeromonas hydrophila infections. methods and results:  using catfish gill cells g1b and four chemicals (hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride, potassium permanganate and d-mannose), the feasibility of using an in vitro screening method to identify potential effective chemotherapeutants was evaluated in this study. in vitro screening results revealed that, at concentration of 1 ...201121501349
pyrosequencing demonstrated complex microbial communities in a membrane filtration system for a drinking water treatment plant.microbial community composition in a pilot-scale microfiltration plant for drinking water treatment was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing technology. sequences of 16s rrna gene fragments were recovered from raw water, membrane tank particulate matter, and membrane biofilm, and used for taxonomic assignments, estimations of diversity, and the identification of potential pathogens. greater bacterial diversity was observed in each sample (1,133-1,731 operational taxonomic units) tha ...201121502735
gene expression profiles of the spleen, liver, and head kidney in turbot (scophthalmus maximus) along the infection process with aeromonas salmonicida using an immune-enriched oligo-microarray.we evaluated the expression profiles of turbot in the spleen, liver, and head kidney across five temporal points of the aeromonas salmonicida infection process using an 8 × 15 k agilent oligo-microarray. the microarray included 2,176 different fivefold replicated gene probes designed from a turbot 3' sequenced est database. we were able to identify 471 differentially expressed (de) genes (17.3% of the whole microarray), 223 in the spleen, 246 in the liver, and 125 in the head kidney, in at least ...201121503602
[effect of heavy metal salts on the growth and pathogenicity factors of opportunistic bacteria].the paper presents experimental data on the effect of different concentrations of the salts of cadmium, copper, and zinc on the adaptive potentialities of the most common opportunistic microflora in the volga-caspian region. the findings suggest that natural microorganisms (aeromonas and citrobacter) show a high metal resistance that seems to be associated with steadily increased background levels of these metals in the waters of the volga-caspian basin.201121510046
aeromonas pneumonia in a trauma patient requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome: case report and literature review.abstract background: aeromonas species, particularly aeromonas hydrophila, cause a wide spectrum of diseases in human being such as gastroenteritis; soft tissue infections including necrotizing fasciitis, meningitis, peritonitis, and bacteremia; but pneumonia and respiratory tract infections are uncommon. methods: case report and literature review. results: a 30-year-old victim of a motor vehicle crash sustained pelvic fractures and splenic injury. delayed splenic rupture caused sudden cardiores ...201121510774
molecular basis of toxicity of clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin.clostridium perfringensε-toxin is produced by toxinotypes b and d strains. the toxin is the aetiological agent of dysentery in newborn lambs but is also associated with enteritis and enterotoxaemia in goats, calves and foals. it is considered to be a potential biowarfare or bioterrorism agent by the us government centers for disease control and prevention. the relatively inactive 32.9 kda prototoxin is converted to active mature toxin by proteolytic cleavage, either by digestive proteases of the ...201121518257
phenotypic characteristics of human clinical and environmental aeromonas in western australia.: to determine the phenotypic characteristics of 199 aeromonas strains comprising 146 clinical and 53 environmental isolates.201121519288
medicinal leeches and the microsurgeon: a four-year study, clinical series and risk benefit review.background: there are case reports and small series in the literature relating to the use of medicinal leeches by plastic surgeons; however, larger series from individual units are rare. the aim of this article is to present a comprehensive 4-year case series of the use of medicinal leeches, discuss the current evidence regarding indications, risks, and benefits and highlight the recent updates regarding leech speciation. methods: patients prescribed leeches in a 4-year period (july 2004-2008) w ...201121520265
production and properties of keratinolytic proteases from three novel gram-negative feather-degrading bacteria isolated from brazilian soils.the keratinolytic potential and protease properties of three novel gram-negative feather-degrading bacteria isolated from brazilian soils was described. aeromonas hydrophila k12, chryseobacterium indologenes a22 and serratia marcescens p3 were able to degrade feather meal, producing high amounts of soluble proteins and forming thiol groups. the proteases of strains k12, a22 and p3 had optimal ph of 8.0, 7.5 and 6.0, respectively; this last is an uncommon feature for bacterial keratinases. the op ...201121526391
phosvitin plays a critical role in the immunity of zebrafish embryos via acting as a pattern recognition receptor and an antimicrobial effector.how fish embryos that develop externally survive microbial attacks is poorly understood. here we clearly demonstrated that the embryo extract of zebrafish and its early embryo both displayed antimicrobial activity against microbes including pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila, and phosvitn (pv), a nutritional protein abundant in eggs, was related to this antimicrobial activity. we also showed that recombinant pv (rpv) acted as a pattern recognition receptor capable of recognizing the microbial signa ...201121531722
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and structure modeling of ompr, the response regulator of aeromonas hydrophila.the ability of bacteria to survive and proliferate in changing environmental conditions, and during host cell invasion is the key to their pathogenicity. in order to achieve this, the bacteria use a signal transduction system, the two component regulatory system, which consists of a sensor kinase and a response regulator. the envz/ompr system regulates the porin genes ompf/ompc in response to changes in osmolarity. in the present study, the ompr gene of aeromonas hydrophila (isolate ah17) was cl ...201121533905
high catalytic efficiency and resistance to denaturing in bacterial rho gtpase-activating proteins.abstract several major bacterial pathogens use the type iii secretion system (ttss) to deliver virulence factors into host cells. bacterial rho gtpase activating proteins (rhogaps) comprise a remarkable family of type iii secreted toxins that modulate cytoskeletal dynamics and manipulate cellular signaling pathways. we show that the rhogap activity of salmonella sptp and pseudomonas exos toxins is resistant to variations in the concentration of nacl or mgcl(2), unlike the known salt dependant na ...201121534865
painful purple plaques on the thighs of an immunosuppressed patient. 201121418277
application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (cstr) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (cstr) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. a successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. after an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. the performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of cod rates up to 95%. the residual tota ...201121419572
immunomodulatory effects of secondary metabolites from thermophilic anoxybacillus kamchatkensis xa-1 on carp, cyprinus carpio.a bacterial strain with putative immunomodulatory properties was isolated from xi'an hot springs in china. comparison of 16s rrna gene revealed a 97% similarity between the tested strain (designated xa-1) and anoxybacillus kamchatkensis. two compounds isolated from the secondary metabolites of xa-1 were identified by spectral data (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry) as: (1) cyclo (gly-l-pro) and (2) cyclo (l-ala-4-hydroxyl-l-pro). two cyclic dipeptides showed stimulatory ...201121421057
effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of epigeic earthworms (eisenia fetida) in vermicompost.we analyzed the bacterial community structure of the intestines of earthworms and determined the effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of earthworms in vermicompost. fifty-seven bacterial 16s rdna clones were identified in the intestines of earthworms by using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge) analysis. entomoplasma somnilux and bacillus licheniformis were the dominant microorganisms; other strains included aeromonas, bacillus, clostr ...201121421302
occurrence, abundance and elimination of class 1 integrons in one municipal sewage treatment plant.integrons are elements that encode a site-specific recombination system that recognizes and captures mobile gene cassettes and are closely related to multiple resistances of environmental microorganisms. this study was undertaken to determine the efficiency of an activated sludge process to remove integrons. the prevalence and characteristics of class 1 integrons were investigated for bacterial species isolated from the activated sludge of nanjing jiangxinzhou sewage treatment plant (stp, china) ...201121431316
aeromonas spp. induce apoptosis of epithelial cells through an oxidant-dependent activation of the mitochondrial pathway.we investigated interactions of aeromonas caviae, aeromonas veronii biotype sobria and aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from faecal specimens of humans with gastroenteritis, with ht29 intestinal epithelial cells. all strains were found to be cytotoxic to the cells. bacterial infection caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ros) and nitric oxide radical (no(-à)). the maximal levels of ros and no(-à) were 14 and 35 times, respectively, greater in cells infected with aeromonas spp. tha ...201121436367
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the complement component c6 gene in grass carp.the complement system, as a representative of innate immunity, plays a key role in the host defense against infections. c6 is the member of complement components creating the membrane attack complex (mac). in this study, we cloned and characterized the grass carp complement component c6 (gcc6) gene. our data showed that gcc6 gene contained a 2724bp open reading frame (orf), a 237bp 5'-untranslated region (utr) and a 219bp 3'-utr. the deduced amino acid sequence of gcc6 showed 77.6% and 58.9% ide ...201121353312
multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus aeromonas.a broad multilocus phylogenetic analysis (mlpa) of the representative diversity of a genus offers the opportunity to incorporate concatenated inter-species phylogenies into bacterial systematics. recent analyses based on single housekeeping genes have provided coherent phylogenies of aeromonas. however, to date, a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis has never been tackled. in the present study, the intra- and inter-species phylogenetic relationships of 115 strains representing all aeromonas species ...201121353754
antigen in chitosan coated liposomes enhances immune responses through parenteral immunization.to overcome the limitations of the use of conventional liposomes chitosan coated egg yolk lecithin based liposomes were used as antigen carrier through parenteral administration in two animal models such as fish and rabbit. extracellular proteins (ecps) antigen of aeromonas hydrophila encapsulated in liposomes became more stable and induced better immune response. it enhanced both adaptive and innate immune responses than other preparations both at 21, 42 and 63days post-immunization and suggest ...201121354354
complex evolutionary history of the aeromonas veronii group revealed by host interaction and dna sequence data.aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, aeromonas veronii biovar veronii, and aeromonas allosaccharophila are a closely related group of organisms, the aeromonas veronii group, that inhabit a wide range of host animals as a symbiont or pathogen. in this study, the ability of various strains to colonize the medicinal leech as a model for beneficial symbiosis and to kill wax worm larvae as a model for virulence was determined. isolates cultured from the leech out-competed other strains in the leech model ...201121359176
effects of anthraquinone extract from rheum officinale bail on the physiological responses and hsp70 gene expression of megalobrama amblycephala under aeromonas hydrophila infection.we evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with anthraquinone extract (from rheum officinale bail) on the resistance to aeromonas hydrophila infection in megalobrama amblycephala. the fish were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (fed a standard diet) and a treatment group (standard diet supplemented with 0.1% anthraquinone extract) and fed for 10 weeks. we then challenged the fish with a. hydrophila and recorded mortality and changes in serum cortisol, lysozyme, alkaline p ...201121362482
molecular characterization of tetracycline- and quinolone-resistant aeromonas salmonicida isolated in korea.the antibiotic resistance of 16 aeromonas (a.) salmonicida strains isolated from diseased fish and environmental samples in korea from 2006 to 2009 were investigated in this study. tetracycline or quinolone resistance was observed in eight and 16 of the isolates, respectively, based on the measured minimal inhibitory concentrations. among the tetracycline-resistant strains, seven of the isolates harbored teta gene and one isolate harbored tete gene. additionally, quinolone-resistance determining ...201121368562
cloning and characterization of timp-2b gene in grass carp.tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (timps) are the primary inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (mmps) in tissues. in this study, a timp-2 gene was isolated from grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella (citimp-2b) and characterized. this cdna sequence encoded a signal peptide, n- and c-terminal domains. citimp-2b is highly homologous to the orthologous in zebrafish and other teleosts, suggesting timp-2b is highly conserved during teleost evolution. citimp-2b gene is expressed in a wide range ...201121377537
structural characterization of the o-specific polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of the fish pathogen aeromonas bestiarum strain p1s.the o-specific polysaccharide obtained by mild-acid degradation of lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas bestiarum p1s was studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy. the sequence of the sugar residues was determined using (1)h,(1)h noesy and (1)h,(13)c hmbc experiments. the o-specific polysaccharide was found to be a high-molecular-mass polysaccharide composed of tetrasaccharide repeating units of the structure [formula in text]. since small amounts of a term ...201121377659
common key acidogen populations in anaerobic reactors treating different wastewaters: molecular identification and quantitative monitoring.bacterial population dynamics during the start-up of three lab-scale anaerobic reactors treating different wastewaters, i.e., synthetic glucose wastewater, whey permeate, and liquefied sewage sludge, were assessed using a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) and real-time pcr techniques. the dgge results showed that bacterial populations related to aeromonas spp. and clostridium sticklandii emerged as common and prominent acidogens in all reactors. two real-time pcr prim ...201121377710
regulation of type vi secretion gene clusters by sigma54 and cognate enhancer binding proteins.type vi secretion systems (t6ss) are bacteriophage-derived macromolecular machines responsible for the release of at least two proteins in the milieu, which are thought to form an extracellular appendage. although several t6ss have been shown to be involved in the virulence of animal and plant pathogens, clusters encoding these machines are found in the genomes of most species of gram-negative bacteria, including soil, marine, and environmental isolates. t6ss have been associated with several ph ...201121378190
involvement of the gspab complex in assembly of the type ii secretion system secretin of aeromonas and vibrio species.the type ii secretion system (t2ss) functions as a transport mechanism to translocate proteins from the periplasm to the extracellular environment. the exea homologue in aeromonas hydrophila, gspa(ah), is an atpase that interacts with peptidoglycan and forms an inner membrane complex with the exeb homologue (gspb(ah)). the complex may be required to generate space in the peptidoglycan mesh that is necessary for the transport and assembly of the megadalton-sized exed homologue (gspd(ah)) secretin ...201121378198
dietary administration of bacillus thuringiensis on the cellular innate immune response of african catfish (clarias gariepinus) against aeromonas hydrophila.an experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) as a probiotic to enhance the cellular innate immune response of the african catfish (clarias gariepinus) challenged with a bacterial fish pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila.201121381499
aminoglycoside-resistant aeromonas hydrophila as part of a polymicrobial infection following a traumatic fall into freshwater.amikacin is a first-line treatment for aeromonas infection due to high efficacy. there are few reports of aminoglycoside-resistant aeromonas spp. we report a soft tissue infection containing multiple pathogens, including a strain of aeromonas hydrophila resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, and multiple cephalosporins.201121209173
application of ultrasound in vaccination against goldfish ulcer disease: a pilot study.antigenicity and immunogenicity of aeromonas salmonicida soluble a-layer protein (ap) and formalin-killed bacterin were assessed in goldfish (carassius auratus l.) by applying ultrasound-immersion (usi) and injection (inj) routes. no adjuvant was used in usi while ifa was used in inj. the usi treated fish did not produce detectable acquired antibodies; however, this group stimulated by ap proved to be best protected against challenge infection with a homologous virulent strain of a. salmonicida. ...201121211585
fulminant fatal bacteremic pneumonia due to aeromonas hydrophila in a non-immunocompromised woman.a 75-year-old woman became ill suddenly with pneumonia two weeks after operation for colon cancer. despite intensive support measures in the intensive care unit she died six hours after admission and 12 hours after her first symptom. autopsy showed necrotizing pneumonia. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from a blood culture taken at admission and from the lung at autopsy. in patients who develop a fulminant disease of pneumonia, particularly those who have underlying medical conditions, aeromon ...201121212576
bacterial diseases of crabs: a review.bacterial diseases of crabs are manifested as bacteremias caused by organisms such as vibrio, aeromonas, and a rhodobacteriales-like organism or tissue and organ tropic organisms such as chitinoclastic bacteria, rickettsia intracellular organisms, chlamydia-like organism, and spiroplasma. this paper provides general information about bacterial diseases of both marine and freshwater crabs. some bacteria pathogens such as vibrio cholerae and vibrio vulnificus occur commonly in blue crab haemolymph ...201121215353
diversity and characterization of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria associated with non-native species, white-leg shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei), and native species, black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon), intensively cultured in thailand.this study aimed at surveying prevalence of oxytetracycline (otc)-resistant bacteria in the white-leg shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, intensively cultured in thailand. we investigated the phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial isolates, as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of otc, the occurrence of major otc-resistant genes and multiple-antibiotic resistance in the isolates.201121219554
detection of three virulence genes alt, ahp and aera in aeromonas hydrophila and their relationship with actual virulence to zebrafish.to evaluate the frequency of the aerolysin (aera), cytotoxic enterotoxin (alt) and serine protease (ahp) genes in aeromonas hydrophila isolates from different sources, and to determine the relationship between the presence of these genes and virulence of a. hydrophila in zebrafish.201121219556
salmonella typhimurium st213 is associated with two types of inca/c plasmids carrying multiple resistance determinants.salmonella typhimurium st213 was first detected in the mexican typhimurium population in 2001. it is associated with a multi-drug resistance phenotype and a plasmid-borne blacmy-2 gene conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. the objective of the current study was to examine the association between the st213 genotype and blacmy-2 plasmids.201121223599
structural insights into quinolone antibiotic resistance mediated by pentapeptide repeat proteins: conserved surface loops direct the activity of a qnr protein from a gram-negative bacterium.quinolones inhibit bacterial type ii dna topoisomerases (e.g. dna gyrase) and are among the most important antibiotics in current use. however, their efficacy is now being threatened by various plasmid-mediated resistance determinants. of these, the pentapeptide repeat-containing (prp) qnr proteins are believed to act as dna mimics and are particularly prevalent in gram-negative bacteria. predicted qnr-like proteins are also present in numerous environmental bacteria. here, we demonstrate that o ...201121227918
comparison of aeromonas salmonicida resistant and susceptible salmon families: a high immune response is beneficial for the survival against aeromonas salmonicida challenge.selective breeding has been employed to improve resistance to infectious diseases in aquaculture and it is of importance to investigate the expression profiles of immune genes together with complement activity of atlantic salmon with different genetic background in response to pathogens, in particular against aeromonas salmonicida. this study examined acute phase products, and several central t cell cytokines and a transcription factor in different tissues, namely head kidney, spleen and liver, ...201121232605
surface display of aeromonas hydrophila gapdh in attenuated vibrio anguillarum to develop a noval multivalent vector vaccine.displaying foreign antigens on the surface of attenuated or avirulent bacteria is an important strategy to develop live multivalent vector vaccines. in our previous work, several efficient surface display systems have been established based on outer membrane anchoring elements, which could successfully display heterologous proteins in attenuated vibrio anguillarum. in this work, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) from pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila lsa34 was fused to seven dis ...201121246232
a fatal case of necrotizing aeromonas schubertii fasciitis after penetrating injury. 201121247722
development of immunity in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) to aeromonas hydrophila after the dietary application of garlic.the development and duration of immune protection against aeromonas hydrophila infections with garlic as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss was studied. rainbow trout fingerlings of 14 g average weight were fed with 0 g (=control), 0.5 g and 1.0 g of garlic 100 g(-1) of feed for 14 days. physiological factors, biochemical, immunological, haematological parameters and electrolyte indices were evaluated after a further 14, 21 and 28 days before challenge with aeromonas hydroph ...201121255652
quorum sensing and c-di-gmp-dependent alterations in gene transcripts and virulence-associated phenotypes in a clinical isolate of aeromonas hydrophila.recently, we demonstrated that the luxs-based quorum sensing (qs) system (ai-2) negatively regulated the virulence of a diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila, while the ahyri-based (ai-1) n-acyl-homoserine lactone system was a positive regulator of bacterial virulence. thus, these qs systems had opposing effects on modulating biofilm formation and bacterial motility in vitro models and in vivo virulence in a speticemic mouse model of infection. in this study, we linked these two qs syste ...201121256953
detection of aaca-aphd, qaced1, mara, flor, and teta genes from multidrug-resistant bacteria: comparative analysis of real-time multiplex pcr assays using evagreen(®) and sybr(®) green i dyes.we have developed multiplex real-time pcr assays that utilize dna-intercalating dyes, sybr green i (sg) and evagreen (eg), with two primer sets (set 1=qaced1, teta and aaca-aphd; set 2=teta, mara, and flor) to simultaneously amplify the qaced1, teta, aaca-aphd, mara, and flor genes. validity of the multiplex pcr assays was confirmed by testing 83 bacterial isolates, including staphylococcus aureus (28 isolates), enterococcus spp. (17 isolates), salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (8 isolates ...201121256956
aeromonas hydrophila as a causative organism in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis: case report and review of the literature.most episodes of peritoneal dialysis (pd)-related peritonitis could be attributed to a single organism, but in almost 10% of peritonitis episodes multiple organisms are identified. polymicrobial peritonitis is often related to intra-abdominal pathology, and the prognosis may be poor. aeromonas spp. have rarely been identified as the causative pathogen in pd-related peritonitis, and a very small number of cases has been reported in the literature. these rod-shaped, gram-negative microorganisms ha ...201121269597
development of a dna microarray for detection and identification of legionella pneumophila and ten other pathogens in drinking water.the safety and accessibility of drinking water are major concerns throughout the world. consumption of water contaminated with infectious agents, toxic chemicals or radiological hazards represents a significant health risk and is strongly associated with mortality. therefore, we have developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray using the sequences of 16s-23s rdna internal transcribed spacer regions (its) and the gyrase subunit b gene (gyrb) found in the most prevalent and devastating waterborne ...201121276629
molecular cloning and characterization of foxp3 in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).foxp3 is a t cell-specific transcription factor and plays a key role in the development of treg cells and in the immune regulatory process during inflammation. here we report cloning and characterization of the full-length cdna of atlantic salmon foxp3, which possesses a forkhead domain, a zinc finger domain and a leucine-zipper domain as its counterpart in mammals. foxp3 is highly expressed in thymus. furthermore, regulated expression was observed in head kidney cells in response to ß-glucan an ...201121276855
formation of new polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate monomer in burkholderia sp.burkholderia sp. synthase has been shown to polymerize 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb), 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxy-4-pentenoic acid monomers. this study was carried out to evaluate the ability of burkholderia sp. usm (jcm 15050) and its transformant harboring the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase gene of aeromonas caviae to incorporate the newly reported 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3h4mv) monomer. various culture parameters such as concentrations of nutrient rich medium, fructose and 4-methylval ...201121279348
amino-benzosuberone: a novel warhead for selective inhibition of human aminopeptidase-n/cd13.this paper describes the design and synthesis of compounds belonging to a novel class of highly selective mammalian cd13 inhibitors. racemic homologues of 3-amino-2-tetralone 1 were synthesised and evaluated for their ability to selectively inhibit the membrane-bound, zinc-dependent aminopeptidase-n/cd13 (ec 3.4.11.2). some of these novel non-peptidic compounds are potent, competitive inhibitors of the mammalian enzyme, with k(i) values in the low micromolar range in spite of their minimal size ...201121292493
the centromere site of the segregation cassette of broad-host-range plasmid ra3 is located at the border of the maintenance and conjugative transfer modules.ra3 is a low-copy-number, broad-host-range (bhr) conjugative plasmid of the incu incompatibility group isolated originally from aeromonas spp. a 4.9-kb fragment of ra3 is sufficient to stabilize an otherwise unstable replicon in escherichia coli. this fragment specifies the kora-incc-korb-orf11 operon coding for an active partition system related to the central control operon of incp-1 plasmids and found also in bhr environmental plasmids recently classified as the proma group. all four genes in ...201121296952
biomarker responses and disease susceptibility in juvenile rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss fed a high molecular weight pah mixture.juvenile rainbow trout were fed a diet containing an environmentally relevant mixture of 10 high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) at a dose of 0.66 or 7.82 µg pah · g fish(-1) · d(-1). at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d, biomarkers of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation (ahr), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, and cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a)-associated staining increased 14- to 26-fold and 6- to 14-fold, respectively, in fish fed 7.82 µg pah · g fish (-1) ...201121298713
does domestication process affect stress response in juvenile eurasian perch perca fluviatilis?the objective was to evaluate the impact of domestication process on the physiological stress response of cultured eurasian perch confronted to a chronic stress situation. briefly, f1 and f4 juveniles were submitted to chronic confinement and investigated on days 5, 15 and 30. capture and 15min-anesthesia were imposed on fish to assess the effect of preceding confinement on acute stress response. on day 30, the fish were finally challenged with aeromonas hydrophila and sampled after 5 and 10 day ...201121300167
immunostimulatory activities of a decapeptide derived from alcaligenes faecalis fy-3 to crucian carp.a strain was isolated from a soil sample collected from weihe river in shaanxi province (108°03'e 34°14'n), which was identified as alcaligenes faecalis by 16s rrna analysis. a compound m showing potent immune activity was isolated from secondary metabolites of the strain through bioassay-guided isolation techniques. the structure of the compound m was elucidated using ft-ir, ei-ms, 1h nmr and 13c nmr spectra and identified as cyclo-(l-pro-gly)5 which was first time reported as a natural product ...201121332568
a udp-hexnac:polyprenol-p galnac-1-p transferase (wecp) representing a new subgroup of the enzyme family.the aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 wecp represents a new class of udp-hexnac:polyprenol-p hexnac-1-p transferases. these enzymes use a membrane-associated polyprenol phosphate acceptor (undecaprenyl phosphate [und-p]) and a cytoplasmic udp-d-n-acetylhexosamine sugar nucleotide as the donor substrate. until now, all the weca enzymes tested were able to transfer udp-glcnac to the und-p. in this study, we present in vitro and in vivo proofs that a. hydrophila ah-3 wecp transfers galnac to und-p and is u ...201121335454
evaluating seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities in marine fish aquaculture: a preliminary study before applying phage therapy.the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in common pathogenic bacteria and the concern about the spreading of antibiotics in the environment bring the need to find new methods to control fish pathogens. phage therapy represents a potential alternative to antibiotics, but its use in aquaculture requires a detailed understanding of bacterial communities, namely of fish pathogenic bacteria. therefore, in this study the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, microbiological w ...201121344093
leech-transmitted ciprofloxacin-resistant aeromonas hydrophila. 201121339408
atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in the black rockfish, sebastes schlegeli hilgendorf, in korea.cultured black rockfish, sebastes schlegeli, suffered mass mortalities during winter 2008 and spring 2009 in korea, showing clinical signs of ulcer lesions and haemorrhages over their body surface. the aetiological agent was identified as aeromonas salmonicida (strains rfas-1, -2 and -3), which is a non-pigmented, slow-growing bacterium. phenotypes of rfas strains showed variation, while 16s rrna, gyrb, rpod, dnaj and reca gene sequences of all the strains were affiliated to a. salmonicida. in p ...201121166824
inhibition of biosynthesis of metalloprotease of aeromonas sobria by sodium chloride in the medium.the present authors have previously shown that the serine protease activity of aeromonas sobria is markedly decreased when a. sobria is cultured in medium containing 3.0% sodium chloride (nacl, concentration almost equivalent to sea water salinity), and that this occurs because, although the synthesis of asp is not disturbed by the salt in the medium, the maturation pathway of serine protease of a. sobria (asp) does not proceed successfully in such a medium. in this study, the effect of salt in ...201121175775
development of an aeromonas hydrophila  infection model using the protozoan tetrahymena thermophila.aeromonas hydrophila is a motile bacterium present in numerous freshwater habitats worldwide and is frequently the cause of infections in fish and numerous terrestrial vertebrates including humans. because a. hydrophila is also a component of the normal intestinal flora of healthy fish, virulence mechanisms are not well understood. considering that fish models used for the examination of a. hydrophila genes associated with virulence have not been well defined, we established an infection model u ...201121204941
genome-level homology and phylogeny of shewanella (gammaproteobacteria: lteromonadales: shewanellaceae).abstract:201121569439
comparative evaluation of chromogenic agar cm1046 and mfc agar for detection of e. coli and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from water samples.aims:  the equivalence of oxoid (cm 1046) brilliance((tm)) e. coli/coliform selective agar to mfc agar, as used in the australian/new zealand standard method to detect thermotolerant coliforms and escherichia coli in water samples, was assessed. methods and results:  a total of 244 water samples were analysed in parallel over a 5-month period. sewage effluent samples (n = 131, sites = 43), freshwater (n = 62, sites = 18) and marine/brackish water samples (n = 51, sites = 23) were analysed. the w ...201121585405
application of polyhydroxyalkanoate binding protein phap as a bio-surfactant.phap or phasin is an amphiphilic protein located on surfaces of microbial storage polyhydroxyalkanoates granules. this study aimed to explore amphiphilic properties of phap for possible application as a protein surfactant. following agents were used to conduct this study as controls including bovine serum albumin, sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds), tween 20, sodium oleate, a commercial liquefied detergent together with the same amount of phap. among all these tested control surfactants, phap showed t ...201121590291
occurrence of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus in the german bight over a seasonal cycle.bacteria of the genus vibrio are an important component of marine ecosystems worldwide. the genus harbors several human pathogens, for instance the species vibrio parahaemolyticus, a main cause for foodborne gastroenteritis in asia and the usa. pathogenic v. parahaemolyticus strains emerged also in europe, but little is known about the abundance, pathogenicity and ecology of v. parahaemolyticus especially in northern european waters. this study focuses on v. parahaemolyticus and its close relati ...201121598011
two novel ficolin-like proteins act as pattern recognition receptors for invading pathogens in the freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus.to isolate pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps)-binding molecules, the bacterium, staphylococcus aureus was used as an affinity matrix to find bacteria-binding proteins in the plasma of the freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus. two new bacteria-binding ficolin-like proteins (flps) were identified by 2-de and ms analysis. the flps have a fibrinogen-related domain (fred) in their c-terminal and a repeat region in their n-terminal regions with putative structural similarities to ...201121598394
alteration of virulence factors and rearrangement of pasa5 plasmid caused by the growth of aeromonas salmonicida in stressful conditions.aeromonas salmonicida, a fish pathogen, is the causative agent of furunculosis. it was already shown that growing this bacterium in stressful conditions such as temperature above 22°c might lead to virulence attenuation. unfortunately, many veterinary microbiology services and reference centers still routinely cultivate a. salmonicida at 25°c. here we tested the presence of virulence factors by growth on specific medium as well as the integrity of the pasa5 plasmid, which bears an important viru ...201121621930
gut cavp is an innate immune protein against bacterial challenge in amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri.the importance of calcium-binding proteins in immune response of vertebrates is determined, but whether they have the role in invertebrates is largely unknown. in the present study, phylogenetic analysis indicated that calcium vector protein (cavp), a protein unique to amphioxus, shared 68% similarity in amino acid sequence with human and mouse calmodulin (cam). cavp cdna was cloned into a bacterial vector pet-32a, and its his-tagged fusion protein was produced in eschherichia coli cells (bl21). ...201121624472
erratum: purification of a toxic cysteine protease produced by pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila isolated from rainbow trout.an extracellular lethal toxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila strain rt860715k originally isolated from diseased rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) was purified by using fast protein liquid chromatography system with hydrophobic interaction chromatography and anion exchange columns. the toxin was a cysteine protease, inhibited by l-cysteine, iodoacetic acid, n-ethylamleimide, p-chloromercuibenzene-sulfonic acid and n-α-p-tosyl-1-lysine-chloromethyl ketone (tlck), and showed maximal activity at ...201121630504
enteric pathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in tripoli-libya.abstract. stool samples from children < 5 years of age with diarrhea (n = 239) were examined for enteric pathogens using a combination of culture, enzyme-immunoassay, and polymerase chain reaction methods. pathogens were detected in 122 (51%) stool samples; single pathogens were detected in 37.2% and co-pathogens in 13.8% of samples. norovirus, rotavirus, and diarrheagenic escherichia coli (dec) were the most frequently detected pathogens (15.5%, 13.4%, and 11.2%, respectively); salmonella, aden ...201121633024
post-traumatic skin and soft tissue infection due to aeromonas hydrophila.we report a case of posttraumatic skin and soft tissue infection in a patient who sustained laceration after being hit by a water tanker. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from pus and was identified to the species level by vitek 2 and a battery of biochemical tests. the patient responded to thorough drainage, debridement of wound and 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. the patient was taken up for split skin grafting of the raw area. she was discharged with satisfactory graft uptake after 1 wee ...201121633548
the influence of environmental bacteria in freshwater stingray wound-healing.invasion by bacteria can influence the course of healing of wounds acquired in aquatic environment. in this study, the bacteria present in potamotrygonmotoro stingray mucus and in the alto paraná river water were identified, and their ability to induce tissue injury and resist antibiotics was determined. biochemical identification analysis showed that 97% of all bacterial isolates were gram negative, aeromonas spp., enterobacter cloacae and citrobacter freundii being the species most prevalent. ...201121635911
pathophysiology of experimental aeromonas hydrophila infection in puntius sarana: early changes in blood and aspects of the innate immune-related gene expression in survivors.a decline in production of puntius sarana worldwide and subsequent intensification of its culture as a measure for conservation and increase food fish production have led to emergence of diseases. investigations on innate immunological changes in fish that survives an acute bacterial infection are a few or lacking. an attempt was made to study the detailed changes in innate immune responses in p. sarana following an intraperitoneal challenge with aeromonas hydrophila at 2.24×10(7)colony-forming ...201121640390
definition of microbial diversity in aeromonas strains based on multilocus sequence typing, phenotype and presence of putative genes of virulence.the genus aeromonas has been described as comprising several species associated with the aquatic environment that represents their principal reservoir. aeromonas is commonly isolated from diseased and healthy fish, but the involvement of such bacteria in human infection and gastroenteritis has frequently been reported. the primary challenge in establishing an unequivocal link between the aeromonas genus and pathogenesis in humans is the extremely complicated taxonomy. with the aim of clarifying ...201121642403
diversity of protease-producing marine bacteria from sub-antarctic environments.from seawater and the intestines of benthonic organisms collected from the beagle channel, argentina, 230 marine bacteria were isolated. cultivable bacteria were characterized and classified as psychrotolerant, whereas few isolates were psychrophiles. these isolates were capable of producing proteases at 4 and 15 °c under neutral (ph 7.0), alkaline (ph 10.0) and acidic (ph 4.5) conditions on different media, revealing 62, 33 and 22% producers at cold and 84, 47 and 33% producers at low temperatu ...201121656810
biocatalysed halogenation of nucleobase analogues.the synthesis of halogenated nucleosides and nucleobases is of interest due to their chemical and pharmacological applications. herein, the enzymatic halogenation of nucleobases and analogues catalysed by microorganisms and by chloroperoxidase from caldariomyces fumago has been studied. this latter enzyme catalysed the chlorination and bromination of indoline and uracil. pseudomonas, citrobacter, aeromonas, streptomyces, xanthomonas, and bacillus genera catalysed the chlorination and/or brominat ...201121660577
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