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assessment of pathogens and toxicants in new orleans, la following hurricane katrina.storm surge associated with hurricane katrina and the breach of levees protecting new orleans, louisiana allowed floodwaters from lake pontchartrain to inundate 80% of the city. environmental samples were collected during september 16-18, 2005 to determine immediate human and wildlife health hazards from pathogens and toxicants in the floodwaters. baseline information on potential long-term environmental damage resulting from contaminants in water and sediments pumped into lake pontchartrain was ...200616468391
the effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (cyprinus carpio l.).the effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, cyprinus carpio. the immuno-stimulants aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide, yeast dna (containing unmethylated cpg motifs) or high-m alginate (an extract of algae containing poly-mannuronic acid) were used. the effect of this treatment was studied on ...200616476554
lack of association between presentation of diarrhoeal symptoms and faecal isolation of aeromonas spp. amongst outpatients in hong kong. 200616476802
occurrence of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in retail prepackaged portions of marine fish in spain.to survey the presence of indigenous and nonindigenous foodborne bacterial pathogens in displayed prepacked portions of fresh marine fish.200616478492
cloning and expression analysis of interferon-gamma-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase gene in large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea).in mammals, interferon-gamma-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase (gilt) has been demonstrated to play a key role in the processing and presentation of mhc class ii-restricted antigen (ag) by catalyzing disulfide bond reduction, thus unfolding native protein ag and facilitating subsequent cleavage by proteases. here, we reported the cloning of a gilt gene homologue from the spleen of large yellow croaker, a marine fish (lycgilt). the full-length cdna of lycgilt gene is 1033 nucleotides (nt) encod ...200616478632
delayed leech-borne infection with aeromonas hydrophilia in escharotic flap wound.medicinal leeches (hirudo medicinalis) are commonly used in plastic surgery for the salvage of congested flaps and replanted parts compromised by venous congestion. infection associated with leech therapy is a documented complication of leech application, with reported incidences ranging from 2.4 to 20% [de chalain tm. exploring the use of the medicinal leech: a clinical risk-benefit analysis. j reconstr microsurg 1996;12(3):165-72.1]. we describe a case of delayed leech-borne infection, from th ...200616482796
cell surface display of chi92 on escherichia coli using ice nucleation protein for improved catalytic and antifungal activity.the gene encoding chitinase 92 (chi92) from aeromonas hydrophila jp10 has been displayed on the cell surface of escherichia coli using the n-terminal region of ice nucleation proteins (inpn) as an anchoring motif. immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that chi92 was anchored on the cell surface. western blot analysis further identified the synthesis of inp derivatives containing the n-terminal domain inpn-chi92 fusion protein of the expected size (112 kda). whole cell enzyme assay indicated th ...200616487328
cleavage specificity of the serine protease of aeromonas sobria, a member of the kexin family of subtilases.subtilisin-like proteases have been grouped into six families based on a sequence of the catalytic domain. one of the six is the kexin family, of which furin is a representative protease. all members of the kexin family, except one, are from eukaryotes. the one prokaryotic protease is a serine protease of aeromonas sorbria (asp). here, we examined the substrate specificity of asp based on the cleavage of short peptides. the results showed that asp preferentially cleaves the peptide bond followin ...200616487335
growth of aeromonas hydrophila in the whey cheeses myzithra, anthotyros, and manouri during storage at 4 and 12 degrees c.the fresh whey cheeses myzithra, anthotyros, and manouri were inoculated with aeromonas hydrophila strain ntcc 8049 (type strain) or with an a. hydrophila strain isolated from food (food isolate) at levels of 3.0 to 5.0 x 10(2) cfu/g of cheese and stored at 4 or 12 degrees c. duplicate samples of cheeses were tested for levels of a. hydrophila and ph after up to 29 days of storage. at 4 degrees c, a. hydrophila grew in myzithra and anthotyros with a generation time of ca. 19 h, but no growth was ...200616496570
epidemiology, etiology and pathophysiology of traveler's diarrhea.traveler's diarrhea (td) is the most frequent health problem in travelers to developing countries. several personal and environmental risk factors are at the basis of td acquisition and are discussed in this paper. td is caused by a wide range of infectious organisms, etec and eaec bacteria strains being the main enteropathogens incriminated in td. other causative bacteria are: shigella spp., campylobacter spp., vibrio spp., aeromonas spp., salmonella spp., and plesiomonas spp. parasite species ...200616498258
evaluation of the phoenix 100 id/ast system and nid panel for identification of enterobacteriaceae, vibrionaceae, and commonly isolated nonenteric gram-negative bacilli.the phoenix 100 id/ast system (becton dickinson co., sparks, md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. this system with its negative identification (nid) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family vibrionaceae. all of the ...200616517878
comparative genomics profiling of clinical isolates of aeromonas salmonicida using dna microarrays.aeromonas salmonicida has been isolated from numerous fish species and shows wide variation in virulence and pathogenicity. as part of a larger research program to identify virulence genes and candidates for vaccine development, a dna microarray was constructed using a subset of 2024 genes from the draft genome sequence of a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain a449. the microarray included genes encoding known virulence-associated factors in a. salmonicida and homologs of virulence genes of o ...200616522207
thermal inactivation of water-borne pathogenic and indicator bacteria at sub-boiling temperatures.the use of harvested rainwater in domestic hot water systems can result in optimised environmental and economic benefits to urban water cycle management, however, the water quality and health risks of such a scenario have not been adequately investigated. thermal inactivation analyses were carried out on eight species of non-spore-forming bacteria in a water medium at temperatures relevant to domestic hot water systems (55-65 degrees c), and susceptibilities to heat stress were compared using d- ...200616524613
the immunostimulating effect of bacterial genomic dna on the innate immune responses of bivalve mussel, hyriopsis cumingii lea.the genomic dna of escherichia coli, which contains the unmethylated cpg motif, was used to evaluate the immunostimulating effect of bacterial dna on innate immune responses in the bivalve mussel hyriopsis cumingii lea. the results showed that the e. coli dna had no significant effect on the production of superoxide anion (o(2-)) or acid phosphatase (ap) by haemocytes in vitro. however, the bactericidal activity of the haemocytes was significantly increased when the cells were incubated with 50 ...200616529949
pre- and post-challenge immuno-haematological changes in labeo rohita juveniles fed gelatinised or non-gelatinised carbohydrate with n-3 pufa.the combined effect of dietary carbohydrate type and n-3 pufa (epa+dha) on pre- and post-challenge haemato-immunological responses in labeo rohita juveniles was studied. fish were fed for 67days with six different test diets containing either gelatinised (g) or non-gelatinised (ng) corn (43%) with three levels of n-3 pufa (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%). during the pre-challenge period, significantly higher (p<0.05) nbt, serum lysozyme activity, total protein and globulin content was recorded in the ng ca ...200616530425
immunostimulation of larvae and juveniles of cod, gadus morhua l.cod larval culture is currently hampered by high mortalities in the first 2-3 weeks after hatching, often due to infectious diseases. the immune system of cod is not fully competent until 2-3 months after hatching. conventional vaccination is, therefore, not of value before this time, and the larvae are wholly reliant on non-specific parameters for their defence against infection. a range of substances, generally derived from bacterial, fungal or plant origin, can activate these non-specific par ...200616533300
concentrations and tracking of listeria monocytogenes strains in a seafood-processing environment using a most-probable-number enrichment procedure and randomly amplified polymorphic dna analysis.concentrations of environmental microflora and listeria monocytogenes were monitored at multiple environmental locations within a seafood-processing facility over the course of 6 months. concentrations of l. monocytogenes were determined using a most-probable-number (mpn) enrichment procedure. two floor drains had persistent low concentrations of l. monocytogenes (0.03 to >1,100 mpn/cm2). in comparison, concentrations of the other organisms in the drain were much higher (heterotrophic plate coun ...200616541676
purification, characterization and comparison of reptile lysozymes.cation exchange column chromatography and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify four reptile lysozymes from egg white: sstl a and sstl b from soft shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis), astl from asiatic soft shelled turtle (amyda cartilagenea) and gstl from green sea turtle (chelonia mydas). the molecular masses of the purified reptile lysozymes were estimated to be 14 kda by sds-page. enzyme activity of the four lysozymes could be confirmed by gel zymograms and showed charge difference ...200616549391
identification and characterization of an aeromonas salmonicida (syn haemophilus piscium) strain that reduces selenite to elemental red selenium.a bacterium that reduces toxic and mobile selenite to insoluble elemental selenium (se0) was isolated from a laboratory scale permeable reactive biobarrier. biochemical tests and 16s rrna gene sequence alignment identified the isolate as aeromonas salmonicida. two colony types were isolated, one more resistant to selenite than the other. both grew on agar plates containing 16 mm: selenite, although the colony diameter was reduced to 8% of controls with the small colony type and to 18% with the l ...200616550462
effect of multiple injections of beta-glucan on non-specific immune response and disease resistance in labeo rohita fingerlings.the purpose of this study was to determine if multiple injections of different dosages of beta-glucan derived from barley would enhance the immune response and disease resistance against infections due to opportunistic pathogens aeromonas hydrophila and edwardsiella tarda in labeo rohita fingerlings. hence, four different dosages of beta-glucan suspension in phosphate-buffered saline at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15 mg kg(-1) body weight of fish were injected intraperitoneally to the fingerlings of l ...200616039142
study on peptide hydrolysis by aminopeptidases from streptomyces griseus, streptomyces septatus and aeromonas proteolytica.we developed a spectrophotometric assay for peptide hydrolysis by aminopeptidases (aps). the assay enables the measurement of free amino acids liberated by ap-catalyzed peptide hydrolysis using 4-aminoantipyrine, phenol, peroxidase, and l-amino acid oxidase. we investigated the specificity of bacterial aps [enzymes from streptomyces griseus (sgap), streptomyces septatus (ssap), and aeromonas proteolytica (aap)] toward peptide substrates using this assay method. although these enzymes most effici ...200616080009
the contribution of aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products to the induction of inflammation in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) following vaccination with oil-based vaccines.intraperitoneal injection of atlantic salmon with oil-based vaccines often results in severe side effects. aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida, a primary antigen in the vaccines, produces extracellular products (ecps) that are included in the formulation but the role of ecps in inducing side effects is not well understood. in the present study, we evaluated the contribution of ecps to early inflammatory reactions since early events determine the outcome of inflammation. five groups of a ...200616018934
aeromonas septicaemia: an uncommon complication following placement of transhepatic biliary drainage devices in europe. 200616099547
plasma proteomic analysis of the acute phase response of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) to intraperitoneal inflammation and lps injection.few acute phase proteins are known in fish and better knowledge of them would provide a basis for more reliable methods to objectively assess fish health and welfare. an acute phase response was induced in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) by inflammation triggered by intraperitoneal administration of purified aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide emulsified in freund's incomplete adjuvant (lps/fia) or a commercial oil-based multivalent vaccine. acute phase proteins were characteri ...200616139357
purification and characterization of alpha2-macroglobulin from grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus: cloning a segment of the corresponding gene.the plasma protein alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2m) was purified by gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography from grass carp plasma. the alpha2m consists of two different subunits of molecular weight 95 kda and 80 kda, respectively. the characteristics of grass carp alpha2m are similar to mammalian alpha2m, in that grass carp alpha2m exists in two forms: a fast-form and a slow-form. the former is complexed with protease. the sequence of grass carp alpha2m-conserved region and a region cont ...200616139520
identification of a transcript encoding a soluble form of toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5) in atlantic salmon during aeromonas salmonicida infection.toll-like receptors (tlrs) are involved in the innate immune response against microbial pathogens in vertebrates and insects. the extracellular region of a tlr recognizes pathogen-associated molecules, while the intracellular region initiates the signaling pathway leading to immune response. membrane-bound tlrs have been found in most vertebrates, but few soluble forms have been reported. a novel transcript corresponding to a portion of a soluble tlr was identified in liver of infected atlantic ...200616112748
passive transfer of maternal antibodies and their existence in eggs, larvae and fry of indian major carp, labeo rohita (ham.).lack of immune competence in the early stages of life leads to severe mortality in larval stages of different fish species including indian major carp (imc). investigation through indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and agglutination test revealed a significant increase in specific serum antibody response in the brood fish of indian major carp, labeo rohita (ham.) following immunisation with a virulent aeromonas hydrophila bacterin 1 month prior to breeding, which was transferred ...200616157486
the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry-based method for the protein fingerprinting and identification of aeromonas species using whole cells.this report describes the development of a method to detect the waterborne pathogen aeromonas using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (maldi-ms). the genus aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. in this study, maldi-ms was applied to the characterization of seventeen species of aeromonas. these seventeen species were represented by thirty-two strains, ...200616176841
experimental handling stress as infection-facilitating factor for the goldfish ulcerative disease.experimental handling stress (ehs) was applied to clinically asymptomatic farmed goldfish (carassius auratus l.). ehs affected the gills and skin integrity of the fish and was accompanied by increased levels of plasma glucose, cortisol and interleukin-10 (il-10). ehs application was followed by highly significant enhancement of the rate of infection with a virulent aeromonas salmonicida isolate. cumulative ulceration at the initial phase of the ensuing goldfish ulcerative disease (gud) evidenced ...200616174536
comparison of elisa and pcr vis-à-vis cultural methods for detecting aeromonas spp. in foods of animal origin.the present study was conducted to assess the best method of the most commonly used methods for detection of aeromonads in foods of animal origin. with this objective an omp based indirect plate elisa and a duplex-pcr using primers targeting aerolysin gene and 16s rrna gene and yielding amplicons of 252 bp and 599 bp, respectively, were standardized. the standardized protocols and the conventional cultural method were then compared for their respective sensitivities and specificities for detecti ...200616216375
a comparative immunopathological study of injection site reactions in salmonids following intraperitoneal injection with oil-adjuvanted vaccines.an adequate understanding of the inflammatory mechanisms following intraperitoneally-injected oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish is required for the improvement of the quality of vaccines. we report the findings of a study in which the importance of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and mast cells (mcs) in early inflammatory reactions of atlantic salmon were examined in comparison with those of rainbow trout and grayling. the inflamed areas in the pylorus/pancreas area (injection site) were seq ...200616221512
influence of high-m alginate on the growth and survival of atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) and spotted wolffish (anarhichas minor olafsen) fry.atlantic cod and spotted wolffish fry were fed high-m alginate containing feed for 59 and 55 days, respectively. during this period the fry showed a higher specific growth rate compared to controls. uptake and distribution of alginate was studied by inclusion of the (125)i-labelled molecule in the feed. the stomach and intestine contained the highest amount while the kidney, liver and spleen contained some, indicating that the alginate was taken up by the gut and transported to internal organs. ...200616219475
immunoreactive antigens of the outer membrane protein of aeromonas hydrophila, isolated from goldfish, carassius auratus (linn.).aeromonas hydrophila causes disease under stress conditions or in concert with infection by other pathogens in goldfish. sero-diagnostic and/or immunoprophylactic tools against aeromonas infection in goldfish are not available so far. the present study was undertaken to fractionate and characterise the outer membrane proteins (omp) of a. hydrophila and to identify suitable immunoreactive components. a total of 10 fractions were generated from crude omp antigens upon gel permeation and subsequent ...200616243540
effect of sex ratio on the immune system of oreochromis mossambicus (peters).the social environment of fish has a crucial role to play on the immune system and hence on the overall health status. stressors of social origin such as dominance, subordination, and fight for mate have a major impact on the immune system of fish. the present study was designed with the objective of finding the effect of sex ratio of the population on the immune system of oreochromis mossambicus. groups of fish were maintained for 28 days in three different sex ratios i.e., (i) all-male (ii) al ...200616256305
immunostimulatory nature of beta-glucans and baker's yeast in gnotobiotic artemia challenge tests.the use of new preventive approaches such as immunostimulants to reduce stress and mortalities, to maintain good health of cultured organisms and to stimulate the non-specific defence mechanism, is becoming increasingly important in aquaculture. yet detailed analysis reveals that in most experiments the validity of some conclusions with respect to the benefit of immunostimulation is still doubtful, especially in invertebrates. the use of standardized trials under controlled rearing conditions, c ...200616257233
synthesis and evaluation of new quinazolone derivatives of nalidixic acid as potential antibacterial and antifungal agents.in continuation of our work on synthesis of biheterocycles carrying the biodynamic heterocyclic systems at position 3, a series of new nalidixic acid derivatives having quinazolones moiety were synthesised to achieve enhanced biological activity and wide spectrum of activity. nalidixic acid was first converted into its acid chloride using thionyl chloride as an acylating agent at laboratory temperature. later it was converted to methyl ester. nalidixoyl chloride formed vigorously reacts with met ...200616260068
modulation of juvenile brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) cellular immune system after aeromonas salmonicida challenge.in fish, the first line of defence against infectious microorganisms is based on non-specific cellular immune mechanisms (innate immunity). in this study, we measured the non-specific immune parameters (natural cytotoxic cells (ncc) activity, lymphoproliferation, percentage of phagocytosis and phagocytic activity) in brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) infected by a virulent strain of aeromonas salmonicida. eight days post-infection, the mortality of infected fish reached 70%. a transient immuno ...200616263179
microbiological evaluation of bottled non-carbonated ("still") water from domestic brands in greece.the microbiological quality of 1,527 samples of bottled non-carbonated ('still') mineral water, purchased from retail outlets and derived from 10 manufacturing companies in greece, was investigated during the period 1995-2003. applying the membrane filter technique, the aliquots of water samples (250 ml) were analyzed for the presence and enumeration of total coliforms, escherichia coli, enterococcus spp. and pseudomonas aeruginosa. also, aerobic bacteria were counted as heterotrophic plate coun ...200616271413
the immunomodulatory effects of tuftsin on the non-specific immune system of indian major carp, labeo rohita.the purpose of this study was to determine if injections of different dosages of tuftsin would enhance the immune response and disease resistance against the infections due to the opportunistic pathogens aeromonas hydrophila and edwardsiella tarda in labeo rohita fingerlings. hence, four different dosages of tuftsin in pbs suspension at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15 mg kg(-1) body weight of fish were injected intraperitoneally to the fingerlings of l. rohita at 2-week intervals for four times. after ...200616293422
adjuvant effect of propolis on immunisation by inactivated aeromonas hydrophila in carp (carassius auratus gibelio). 200616325428
structural studies of the core region of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida lipopolysaccharide.the core oligosaccharide structure of the in vivo derived rough phenotype of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was investigated by a combination of compositional, methylation, ce-ms and one- and two-dimensional nmr analyses and established as the following: [carbohydrate: see text] where r=alpha-d-galp-(1-->4)-beta-d-galpnac-(1--> or alpha-d-galp-(1--> (approx. ratio 4:3). comparative ce-ms analysis of a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida core oligosaccharides from strains a449, 80204-1 and ...200616297894
transcriptome response following administration of a live bacterial vaccine in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).antibacterial responses have been studied in atlantic salmon following an acute intra peritoneal injection of a genetically attenuated (aroa(-)) strain of aeromonas salmonicida known to elicit protective immunity. three tissues were studied for transcriptional changes, the liver, head kidney and the gill. rna was collected from fish 6, 12, 24 and 48 h following infection or at the same time points from fish injected with pbs as non-infected control. pcr-select cdna subtraction libraries were con ...200616313960
macrolide inactivation gene cluster mpha-mrx-mphr adjacent to a class 1 integron in aeromonas hydrophila isolated from a diarrhoeic pig in oklahoma.to characterize a multidrug-resistant aeromonas hydrophila isolate (cvm861) that possesses a high-level macrolide inactivation gene cluster (mpha-mrx-mphr), previously only reported in escherichia coli.200616339607
effects of linear cationic alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides on immune-relevant genes in trout macrophages.there are increasing evidence of the potential role of antimicrobial peptides in the regulation of immune responses in mammalian species. however, the effects of these peptides in fish have yet to be investigated. in this study, we examined the transcriptional expression profile of representative immune-relevant genes in a trout macrophage cell line, rts11, in response to three linear cationic alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides (insect cecropin b, fish pleurocidin and a cecropin analogue cf17) ...200616352337
respiratory burst activity of atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) blood phagocytes differs markedly from that of rainbow trout.in the present study we investigated the respiratory burst (rb) activity of atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) blood phagocytes and we evaluated how the rb activity of cod blood cells differ from that of trout. the rb activities were measured directly from highly diluted whole blood as luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (cl) under various conditions. studies regarding the blood dilutions for cod whole blood chemiluminescence measurements (wbcl) revealed that at a final blood dilution of 1.5 microl ...200616406251
monitoring the zinc affinity of the metallo-beta-lactamase cpha by automated nanoesi-ms.metallo-beta-lactamases are zinc containing enzymes that are able to hydrolyze and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. the subclass b2 enzyme cpha of aeromonas hydrophila is a unique metallo-beta-lactamase because it degrades only carbapenems efficiently and is only active when it has one zinc ion bound. a zinc titration experiment was used to study the zinc affinity of the wild-type and of several mutant cpha enzymes. it shows that a second zn(2+) is also bound at high ion concentrations. all s ...200616406807
dietary administration of bovine lactoferrin influences the immune ability of the giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) and its resistance against aeromonas hydrophila infection and nitrite stress.haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, agglutinin levels, total protein content, bacterial clearance efficiency, resistance to the pathogen aeromonas hydrophila and nitrite stress were measured in the giant freshwater inter-moult sub-adult prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii (15-20 g) which had been fed diets containing bovine lactoferrin (lf) at 50, 100, 200mg kg(-1) feed for 7 or 14 days. m. rosenbergii fed a diet containing 100mg lf kg(-1) diet for 7 days showed significant (p<0.05) increase in ...200616413208
carriage by the german cockroach (blattella germanica) of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are potentially pathogenic to humans, in hospitals and households in tripoli, libya.using standard bacteriological procedures, 403 cockroaches (blattella germanica) collected in tripoli, from hospitals or the households surrounding the hospitals, were examined for bacteria that are potentially pathogenic to humans. almost all of the cockroaches (96.1% of the 253 from hospitals and 98.7% of the 150 from households) were found to be carrying potentially pathogenic bacteria, with similar mean burdens of 3.2 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) (range=0-1.4 x 10(7)) for each hospital ...200616417714
necrotizing fasciitis caused by aeromonas hydrophilia in an immunocompetent child.necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive and potentially fatal infection. it is characterized by extensive subcutaneous and muscle necrosis. aeromonus hydrophilia is a gram-negative faculatively anaerobic bacillus that is part of the normal flora of nonfecal sewage and is found in most water systems, soil, and fresh brackish water. necrotizing fasciitis caused by a. hydrophilia have occurred in children who had underlying systemic diseases or immune dysfunction. we report a 14-year-old boy ...200616418613
interactions between peptidoglycan and the exeab complex during assembly of the type ii secretin of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila transports extracellular protein toxins via the type ii secretion system, an export mechanism comprised of numerous proteins that spans both the inner and outer membranes. two components of this secretion system, exea and exeb, form a complex in the inner membrane that functions to locate and/or assemble the exed secretin in the outer membrane. in the studies reported here, two-codon insertion mutagenesis of exea revealed that an insertion at amino acid 495 in the c-terminal ...200616420372
[beta-lactamases of gram negative bacteria: never-ending clockwork!].the acquired resistance against the wide-spectrum and highly stable beta-lactams including third-generation cephalosporins (3gc) and carbapenems is constinuously increasing and widespead with the discovery of various plasmid-encoded, or genes cassette or integrons coding for a novel beta-lactamase, always a major mechanism of resistance. to explain resistance against 3gc, with the continuing story with tem and shv mutated enzymes, several types of esbl (class a) emerge the ctx-m type, at least c ...200616420989
catalytic mechanism of class b2 metallo-beta-lactamase.the initial nucleophilic substitution step of biapenem hydrolysis catalyzed by a subclass b2 metallo-beta-lactamase (cpha from aeromonas hydrophila) is investigated using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods and density functional theory. we focused on a recently proposed catalytic mechanism that involves a non-metal-binding water nucleophile in the active site of the monozinc cpha. both theoretical models identified a single transition state featuring nearly concomitant nucleo ...200616423823
potential involvement of galectin-3 and snap23 in aeromonas hydrophila cytotoxic enterotoxin-induced host cell apoptosis.we investigated the potential of the cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) of aeromonas hydrophila to bind to 1869 human and 4319 yeast proteins, using protein microarray technology. act was capable of binding nine different human proteins, including the snare complex scaffolding protein synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (snap23), galectin-3, and guanylate kinase 1 (guk-1). act was also able to bind to four of the yeast proteins examined, which included the vesicle tethering protein vsp52. we verified in ...200616426811
detection of the frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated tap water samples by cultivation and ap-pcr.the frequency, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated drinking tap water distribution systems were investigated in this study. we have analyzed 148 tap water samples collected from 8 different locations by bacterial cultivation and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-pcr). gram negative, hemolytic, oxidase (+) and catalase (+) bacterial colonies were applied to the study. identification of bacterial colonies was ...200616427154
analysis of the lateral flagellar gene system of aeromonas hydrophila ah-3.mesophilic aeromonas strains express a polar flagellum in all culture conditions, and certain strains produce lateral flagella on semisolid media or on surfaces. although aeromonas lateral flagella have been described as a colonization factor, little is known about their organization and expression. here we characterized the complete lateral flagellar gene cluster of aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 containing 38 genes, 9 of which (lafa-u) have been reported previously. among the flgll and lafa structu ...200616428388
sequential binding of cobalt(ii) to metallo-beta-lactamase ccra.in an effort to probe co(ii) binding to metallo-beta-lactamase ccra, epr, exafs, and (1)h nmr studies were conducted on ccra containing 1 equiv (1-co(ii)-ccra) and 2 equiv (co(ii)co(ii)-ccra) of co(ii). the epr spectra of 1-co(ii)-ccra and co(ii)co(ii)-ccra are distinct and indicate 5/6-coordinate co(ii) ions. the epr spectra also reveal the absence of significant spin-exchange coupling between the co(ii) ions in co(ii)co(ii)-ccra. exafs spectra of 1-co(ii)-ccra suggest 5/6-coordinate co(ii) wit ...200616430228
aeromonas veronii biovar sobria bacteraemia with septic arthritis confirmed by 16s rdna pcr in an immunocompetent adult.an 81-year-old man developed septic arthritis and bacteraemia with aeromonas veronii biovar sobria. cultures of the joint wash-out fluid were negative; however, dna matching that of aeromonas veronii was identified by 16s rdna pcr. the patient was successfully treated with a 4 week course of ciprofloxacin. no recognized risk factors were found.200616434719
evidence of enhanced bacterial invasion during diplostomum spathaceum infection in european grayling, thymallus thymallus (l.).farmed grayling, thymallus thymallus (l.), are susceptible to atypical aeromonas salmonicida (aas) infections. interactions between bacteria and parasites were studied using grayling subjected to concomitant exposure to aas bacteria and the digenean parasite diplostomum spathaceum. atypical as was detected from fish by a combination of bacterial cultivation and polymerase chain reaction techniques. a detection level of 17 aas cells per 100 mg intestine tissue sample was obtained. concomitant bac ...200616436118
dietary beta-1,3 glucan potentiates innate immunity and disease resistance of asian catfish, clarias batrachus (l.).this study investigated the effects of short and prolonged administration of a yeast beta-glucan on non-specific immune parameters, growth rate and the disease resistance of asian catfish, clarias batrachus. fish fed with a basal diet (control) and test diet (basal diet supplemented with 0.1% glucan) for 1, 2 and 3 weeks were assayed for superoxide production, serum myeloperoxidase (mpo) content, natural haemagglutinin level, complement and lysozyme activities. fish were weighed at weekly interv ...200616436120
antibacterial activity of plant extracts from azuki beans (vigna angularis) in vitro.this study was undertaken to examine the antimicrobial property of azuki beans (vigna angularis). the water extracts of green, black and red colored azuki beans showed antibacterial effects against staphylococcus aureus, aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio parahaemolyticus. in contrast, the extract of white azuki beans showed no inhibition towards any of the microorganisms examined. the extracts of colored azuki beans contained larger amounts of polyphenols including proanthocyanidins than the extra ...200616444673
[cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of lepidochelys olivacea (testudines: cheloniidae) from the north pacific coast of costa rica].cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of lepidochelys olivacea (testudines: cheloniidae) from the north pacific coast of costa rica. the aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (lepidochelys olivacea) was studied at nancite nesting beach, in santa rosa national park (costa rican north pacific) during july and august 2002. bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles ...200618457173
[rapidly progressive myonecrosis by aeromonas veronii biotype sobria].myonecrosis due to aeromonas spp is exceptional. we report the case of a diabetic patient with liver cirrhosis who developed a rapidly progressive myonecrosis by aeromonas veronii biotype sobria. the portal of entry was an injury after falling down in an irrigation canal. the outcome was not favourable and surgical amputation of left leg was performed in spite of antibiotic treatment with cefotaxime and tobramicin. aeromonas spp can be very aggressive and this microorganism should be considered ...200617222071
influence of different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous on aeromonas spp. growth.this paper evaluates the influence of nitrogen and phosphorous on the growth of aeromonas previously isolated from irrigation water. three strains respectively of three species of aeromonas (a. hydrophila, a. caviae, a. sobria) (nine strains) were individually inoculated in a microcosm added with ammonium, nitrate and phosphate using different combinations (nh4-n + no3-n and nh4-n + no3-n + po4-p) and concentrations (nh4-n: from 20 to 2500 microg l-1; no3-n: from 200 to 22000 microg l-1; po4-p: ...200617256017
[prevalence of the bacteria causing diarrea in a rosario hospital, argentina].bacterial agents causing diarrea in patients attended in a hospital of rosario, argentina. the frequency of bacterial agents causing diarrhea can vary in patients of different areas, and through the time. in an epidemiological surveillance we studied 304 patients with diarrheal diseases looking for salmonella enterica, shigella spp, campylobacter spp, aeromonas spp, yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheogenic escherichia coli. c. jejuni was isolated in 30 patients (9,9 %), salmonella in 18 (5,9 % ...200617639815
two unrelated cases of septicaemia due to vibrio cholerae non-o1, non-o139 in poland, july and august 2006. 200617213560
detection of conjugation related type four secretion machinery in aeromonas culicicola.background: aeromonas sp. can now be considered relatively common enteropathogens due to the increase of diseases in humans. aeromonas culicicola is a gram negative rod-shaped bacterium isolated for the first time from the mosquito mid-gut, but subsequently detected in other insects and waters also. our previous study discovered that a. culicicola harbors three plasmids, which we designated as pac3249a, pac3249b and pac3249c. we investigated and report here the existence and genetic organization ...200617205119
[properties of a triphenylmethane dyes decolorization enzyme (tpmd) from aeromonas hydrophila strain dn322].a novel bacterial enzyme for decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes from aeromonas hydrophila strain dn322 was purified and named tpmd. the basic properties of this enzyme including molecular weight, isoelectric point km as well as the optimum temperature and ph were determined and the enzyme was identified as an nadh/nadph-dependent oxygenase in previous research. based on previous results, the effect of different inhibitor including vc, metyrapone, rotenone, antimycin a and nan3 as well as th ...200617172037
cloning of atp-dependent protease clpxp genes in aeromonas veronii. 200617169116
genetic relationships of aeromonas strains inferred from 16s rrna, gyrb and rpob gene sequences.genetic relationships among bacterial strains belonging to the genus aeromonas were inferred from 16s rrna, gyrb and rpob gene sequences. twenty-eight type or collection strains of the recognized species or subspecies and 33 aeromonas strains isolated from human and animal specimens as well as from environmental samples were included in the study. as reported previously, the 16s rrna gene sequence is highly conserved within the genus aeromonas, having only limited resolution for this very tight ...200617158971
[postoperative infection of an epigastric hematoma caused by aeromonas veronii biovar sobria].a 52-year-old man with a gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma but without acute symptoms was admitted for reconstructive surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.200617109273
induction of vascular leakage and blood pressure lowering through kinin release by a serine proteinase from aeromonas sobria.aeromonas sobria causes septic shock, a condition associated with high mortality. to study the mechanism of septic shock by a. sobria infection, we examined the vascular leakage (vl) activity of a. sobria serine proteinase (asp), a serine proteinase secreted by this pathogen. proteolytically active asp induced vl mainly in a bradykinin (bk) b(2) receptor-, and partially in a histamine-h(1) receptor-dependent manner in guinea pig skin. the asp vl activity peaked at 10 min to 1.8-fold of the initi ...200617142774
fatal case of myonecrosis and septicaemia caused by aeromonas hydrophila in finland.a 48-y-old female developed cellulitis, myonecrosis and sepsis after a prick wound in her hand while boning freshwater fish. cultures revealed aeromonas hydrophila, a gram-negative bacillus. despite prompt care the patient died 4 d after the incident. our case shows that the occurrence of severe aeromonas infections is not limited to tropical and subtropical areas of the world.200617148092
health screening for a translocation of captive-reared tuatara (sphenodon punctatus) to an island refuge.to screen tuatara undergoing translocation from a captive crèche to an island refuge for evidence of health and known diseases, and apply basic epidemiological techniques to assess the significance of disease test results.200617151736
occurrence and diversity of integrons and beta-lactamase genes among ampicillin-resistant isolates from estuarine waters.the aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence and molecular diversity of beta-lactamase genes and integrons among gram-negative ampicillin-resistant bacteria from ria de aveiro. ampicillin-resistant isolates were selected and subjected to genotyping using rep-pcr. representatives from each rep pattern were affiliated with the following taxa by sequencing the 16s rrna gene: aeromonas caviae, a. hydrophila, a. media, a. molluscorum, a. veronii, a. salmonicida, aeromonas sp., pseudomona ...200617125975
enteropathogenic bacteria and enterotoxin-producing staphylococcus aureus isolated from ready-to-eat foods in khon kaen, thailand.the objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food in the municipality of khon kaen, thailand. four categories of 186 food samples were collected: (1) high heat food; (2) low heat food; (3) no heat food; and, 4) on-site prepared fruit juices and beverages. of the food samples, 145 (78%) failed to meet acceptable microbiological standards, including fruit juice and beverages (100%), no heat food (91.7%), low heat food (81.7%) and high heat food (57.9%) ...200617333744
[classification and identification of vibrio cholerae and vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates based on gyrb gene phylogenetic analysis].in order to validate the usefulness of gyrb genotype for the classification and identification of vibrio cholerae and vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates, the phylogenetic analysis of 13 v. cholerae, 8 v. parahaemolyticus, 2 aeromonas hydrophila and 1 plesiomonas shigelloides strains was carried out using the partial coding sequence of gyrb, a gene that encodes the b subunit of dna gyrase (topoisomerase type ii ) in bacteria. these strains were separately clustered at species level and typed by the ...200617302148
effect of achyranthes aspera on the immunity and survival of labeo rohita infected with aeromonas hydrophila.achyranthes aspera seed was incorporated in the diets (at 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.5%) of labeo rohita, rohu fingerlings (3.0+/-0.4 g). after 2 weeks, the fish were immunized with heat-killed aeromonas hydrophila, and after a further 2 weeks the rohu were experimentally infected with aeromonas hydrophila (atcc 49140). after 7 days blood and serum were sampled to determine superoxide anion production, bactericidal activity, lysozyme, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transam ...200615961319
metabolic engineering of aeromonas hydrophila for the enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate).wild-type aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 produced 35-45 wt.% poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) consisting of 10-15 mol% 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx). to enhance phbhhx production, vgb gene encoding vitreoscilla haemoglobin or fadd gene encoding escherichia coli acyl-coa synthase was co-expressed with polyhydroxyalkanoates (pha) synthesis-related genes including phbab from wautersia eutropha and phapcj from a. hydrophila. expression of vgb increased phbhhx content from 46 to 53 wt.% ...200615983806
in vitro activity of telithromycin against gram-negative bacterial pathogens.to investigate the in vitro activity of the ketolide anti-bacterial telithromycin against a range of commensal bacteria and common aerobic gram-negative respiratory and non-respiratory pathogens.200615996744
standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria.a multiple laboratory study was conducted in accordance with the standards established by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi), formerly the national committee for clinical laboratory standards (nccls), for the development of quality control (qc) ranges using dilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for bacterial isolates from aquatic animal species. qc ranges were established for escherichia coli atcc 25922 and aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida atcc 33658 w ...200515997819
role of microfilaments and microtubules in the invasion of epc cells by aeromonas hydrophila.the influence of the cytoskeleton on the invasion of aeromonas hydrophila strain ahj-1, isolated from diseased fish, in the monolayer cell of epithelioma papillosum cells of carp (epc) was evaluated by the recovery of gentamicin-resistant bacteria from triton x-100 cell lysates. the depolymerization of microfilaments (mf) by cytochalasin b and d inhibited the uptake of a. hydrophila in a dose-dependent manner and that of microtubules (mt) by colchicines and nocodazole did not affect the invasion ...200516000113
quantitative detection of legionella pneumophila in water samples by immunomagnetic purification and real-time pcr amplification of the dota gene.a new real-time pcr assay was developed and validated in combination with an immunomagnetic separation system for the quantitative determination of legionella pneumophila in water samples. primers that amplify simultaneously an 80-bp fragment of the dota gene from l. pneumophila and a recombinant fragment including a specific sequence of the gyrb gene from aeromonas hydrophila, added as an internal positive control, were used. the specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, repetit ...200516000746
development of a simple and rapid fluorogenic procedure for identification of vibrionaceae family members.we describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (copp) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. the assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by vibrionaceae family members. overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under uv illumination. fluoresce ...200516000757
enhancement of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production in the transgenic arabidopsis thaliana by the in vitro evolved highly active mutants of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase from aeromonas caviae.in this study, the enhancement of photosynthetic pha production was achieved using the highly active mutants of pha synthase created by the in vitro evolutionally techniques. the wild-type and mutated pha synthase genes from aeromonas caviae were introduced into arabidopsis thaliana together with the nadph-dependent acetoacetyl-coa reductase gene from ralstonia eutropha. expression of the highly active mutated pha synthase genes, n149s and d171g, led to an 8-10-fold increase in pha content in th ...200516004454
sepsis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing aeromonas hydrophila in a pediatric patient with diarrhea and pneumonia. 200516007554
[aeromonas caviae infection mimicking inflammatory bowel disease in a child]. 200516008044
[aeromonas caviae infection mimicking inflammatory bowel disease in a child]. 200516008045
[construction and characterization of some virulence determinants-deficient strain in aeromonas hydrophila].cell conjugation was carried out between the donor e. coli cg120 with pam120 (tc(r)/tn916) and the recipient aeromonas hydrophila j-1 by filter mating. 3800 positive clones were gained according to the ability of growth on lb medium with 10 g/ml tetracycline (tc) and 100 g/ml cephazolin (cfz). conjugation efficiency was 3 x 10(-5) per donor. when 16s rdna pcr amplification was performed with special primers, positive results were gained in all the 38 conjugants. to demonstrate the insertion of t ...200515989258
detection of the apr gene in proteolytic psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from refrigerated raw milk.bacteria of the genus pseudomonas have been associated with the spoilage of raw milk and dairy products due to the production of thermostable proteolytic enzymes. the apr gene encodes for alkaline metalloprotease in pseudomonas and other related bacteria. its presence in psychrotrophic proteolytic bacteria isolated from raw milk collected from cooling tanks was verified. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique was used with degenerate primers. total dna from 112 isolates was pooled in differ ...200515992619
antibiotic resistance and antibacterial activity in heterotrophic bacteria of mineral water origin.antibiotic resistance and antibacterial activity were determined on heterotrophic bacteria isolated from mineral waters. of the 120 isolates pseudomonas spp. (55.8%) was the predominant group followed by acinetobacter spp. (14.17%), flavobacterium spp. (10.83%), achromobacter spp. (10%), burkholderia cepacia (3.3%), agrobacterium/radiobacter (2.5%), moraxella spp. (1.7%), aeromonas hydrophila (1.7%). over 80% of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the highest resistance wa ...200515993695
use of clostridium septicum alpha toxins for isolation of various glycosylphosphatidylinositol-deficient cells.in eukaryotic cells, various proteins are anchored to the plasma membrane through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi). to study the biosynthetic pathways and modifications of gpi, various mutant cells have been isolated from the cells of chinese hamster ovaries (cho) supplemented with several exogenous genes involved in gpi biosynthesis using aerolysin, a toxin secreted from gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila. alpha toxin from gram-positive bacterium clostridium septicum is homologous t ...200515995645
bacterial vaccines for fish--an update of the current situation worldwide.during the last few years, the use of vaccines for disease prevention in aquaculture has expanded both with regard to the number of fish species and number of microbial diseases. according to the responses to a questionnaire received from 41 countries, vaccination is used in the commercial aquaculture of species like atlantic salmon (salmo salar), rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax), sea bream (sparus aurata), barramundi (lates calcarifer), tilapia (tilapia spp), ...200515962470
comparative pathogenicity of bacteraemic isolates of aeromonas hydrophila and klebsiella pneumoniae.two bacteraemic isolates of aeromonas hydrophila and klebsiella pneumoniae, ah-2743 and kp-129, respectively, were studied for their relative pathogenicity in comparison with escherichia coli atcc 25922. ah-2743 caused significantly higher serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (il)-1beta or il-6 in human whole blood, and higher serum il-1beta and il-6 levels in infected mice, than did kp-129 and e. coli atcc 25922. in addition, in balb/c mice infected by intraperitoneal inocu ...200515966973
electroporation-mediated transformation of aeromonas hydrophila.a strain of aeromonas hydrophila producing copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate, abbreviated as phbhhx, was successfully transformed by electroporation. the plasmid used was a broad host range plasmid pbbr1mcs. electroporation conditions were varied systemically to develop an electroporation protocol. the optimal yield of transformant was approximately 4x10(2) cfu/microg dna at 12.5 kv/cm and 1000 omega, resulting in a time constant of approximately 5 ms. the a. hydrophila tr ...200515967502
identification of genes differentially expressed in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) in response to infection by aeromonas salmonicida using cdna microarray technology.the response of atlantic salmon, salmo salar, to infection by the bacterial pathogen aeromonas salmonicida (the causative agent of furunculosis), was investigated using a cohabitation model and a custom atlantic salmon cdna microarray consisting of over 4000 different amplicons. pooled samples of each of three immune-relevant tissues (spleen, head kidney and liver) were obtained from fish exposed to infected salmon for 13 days. reverse transcription-pcr assays were used to verify the differentia ...200515859237
[a correlative study on heterotrophic bacteria and the main pollutant in city lakes' water].to provide scientific basis for bioremediation of city lake, the distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and its correlation with major pollutions condition were studied.200515862023
[expression and antibody preparation of a novel serine protease esp30].to express esp30, a novel serine protease, in escherichia coli and to prepare anti-esp30 antibody.200515862153
pesticides as a source of microbial contamination of salad vegetables.ten commercially available pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides), used during the production of vegetable produce, were examined as potential sources of microbial contaminants. as purchased, none of the pesticides showed the presence of viable microorganisms (< 5 cfu/ml). using an agar plate diffusion assay, they did not inhibit a range of bacteria of spoilage and public health significance on vegetable produce. after reconstitution in sterile water to their recommended concentrat ...200515862885
administration of yeast glucan enhances survival and some non-specific and specific immune parameters in carp (cyprinus carpio) infected with aeromonas hydrophila.effects of beta-glucan administration on survival and immune modulations were studied in cyprinus carpio against the bacterial pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila. beta-glucan was extracted from saccharomyces cervisiae and purified. a virulent strain of the pathogen a. hydrophila was collected from infected fish. different concentrations of beta-glucan were administered to test animals on day 1, 3 and 5 through different routes (intraperitoneal injection (ip), bathing and oral administration). contro ...200515863011
effects of cyclophosphamide on the immune system and disease resistance of asian catfish clarias batrachus.cyclophosphamide (cyp), a multifunctional alkylating agent is known as a potent immunosuppressor in endotherms. here, an experiment was conducted in an ectothermic asian catfish species, clarias batrachus to investigate its effect on non-specific and specific immunity as well as disease resistance against a common bacterial pathogen challenge. cyp was intraperitoneally injected for 3 consecutive days at a rate of 200 mgkg(-1) body weight. after 72 h post-injection, control and cyp-treated fish w ...200515863012
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