mitogenic effects of human recombinant insulin on b-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.insulin and the insulin-like growth factors (igf-i, igf-ii) constitute a family of peptides capable of stimulating diverse cellular responses, including cell proliferation. in order to determine the effects of these peptides on malignant cells, we analyzed the expression and function of insulin, igf-i, and igf-ii receptors on b-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (bcp all) cell lines, utilizing competitive binding, affinity crosslinking, and cell proliferation assays. the bcp all cells b ...19921434795
incidence and level of exotoxin a in proteolytic cell-free cultures of clinical isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa collected from hospitals in riyadh, saudi arabia.mice lethality bioassay revealed that out of 102 proteolytic cell-free cultures of pseudomonas aeruginosa only 17 (15%) were lethal with values of 19-48 ld50/ml. antitoxin a antiserum neutralized the lethality providing evidence that the main lethal compound in the cell free cultures was exotoxin a. the neutralization also ruled out the lethal contribution of protease, elastase and phospholipase c. the presence of exotoxin a in a proteolytic environment may indicate less efficient proteolytic ac ...19921435349
effect of ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and transferrin on the growth of some bacterial strains in vitro.the ability of some bacterial strains to obtain iron from ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (edda) or iron-free transferrin, and accordingly grow in their presence, was studied. growth of staphylococcus aureus and yersinia pseudotuberculosis was inhibited by edda or by iron-free transferrin. growth of streptococcus faecalis, however, was inhibited by iron-free transferrin, but not by edda. the other bacterial strains, i.e.; escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium and shigella dysent ...19921435350
cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 21-kilodalton outer membrane protein from bordetella avium and expression of the gene in salmonella typhimurium.three gene libraries of bordetella avium 197 dna were prepared in escherichia coli le392 by using the cosmid vectors pcp13 and pya2329, a derivative of pcp13 specifying spectinomycin resistance. the cosmid libraries were screened with convalescent-phase anti-b. avium turkey sera and polyclonal rabbit antisera against b. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. one e. coli recombinant clone produced a 56-kda protein which reacted with convalescent-phase serum from a turkey infected with b. avium 197. i ...19921447140
shigellosis in children: a prospective hospital based study.from 1985 to 1988, fecal samples of 950 hospitalized children suffering from diarrhea or dysentery were screened for shigella species using standard methods. shigella species were isolated as sole pathogen from 192 (20.2%) cases and s. flexneri type 2 was the predominant serotype. shigella infection was prevalent throughout the year with high isolation rate during the summer and early monsoon months. shigella strains isolated during the period were resistant to most of the commonly used drugs fo ...19921452309
detection of shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri in feces by immunomagnetic isolation and polymerase chain reaction.a combination of immunomagnetic separation (ims) and a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure was used for direct isolation and identification of shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri from feces. immunomagnetic particles were coated with monoclonal antibody masfb, which is specific for a common epitope of the o polysaccharides of s. dysenteriae type 1 and s. flexneri. bacteria bound to the beads were boiled in water, and target dna was amplified with a primer pair specific for a g ...19921452650
[incidence, frequency and resistance characteristics of methicillin-oxacillin resistant staphylococcus aureus strains in germany].in a multicentre study, the methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) isolates in 19 large clinics in germany were recorded, and the resistance characteristics of these strains were studied. oxacillin-mannitol-salt agar plates were distributed to all participants to ensure uniformity of screening, and each laboratory used these plates to investigate 200 consecutive staphylococcus aureus isolates for oxacillin-methicillin resistance. of the 3,794 evaluable staphylococcus aureus isolates, ...19921459021
purification and partial characterization of two azoreductases from shigella dysenteriae type 1.two azoreductases (i and ii) were purified to homogeneity from extracts of shigella dysenteriae (type 1). azoreductase i was a dimer of identical subunits of m(r) 28,000, whereas azoreductase ii was a monomer of 11,000 m(r). both were flavoproteins, each containing 1 mol of fmn per mol enzyme. both nadh and nadph functioned as electron donors for the azoreductases. azoreductase i used ponceau sx, tartrazine, amaranth and orange ii as substrates. azoreductase ii utilized all the dyes except amara ...19921459414
serum antibodies to verotoxin-producing escherichia coli (vtec) strains in patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome.serological evidence of infection with verotoxin-producing escherichia coli (vtec) was sought in 28 patients suffering from haemolytic uraemic syndrome (hus) and 25 age- and sex-matched controls. elisa was used to detect anti-lipopolysaccharide (lps) antibodies to e. coli strains o157, o111, o26 and nctc 10418, a non-vtec strain, and shigella dysenteriae o1. sera from 19 of the hus patients but from none of the 25 controls had significant antibody levels to the verotoxin-producing bacteria. sera ...19921460654
[the theoretical and practical interpretations of the basic manifestations of the epidemic process in shigellosis]. 19921466177
[new hybrid proteins--potential immunosuppressive agents]. 19921468359
serological diagnosis of infection by shigella dysenteriae-1 in patients with bacillary dysentery.a total of 192 samples of serum from 113 sri lankan patients with clinical dysentery was examined for antibodies of the igm class to the lipopolysaccharides (lpss) of shigella dysenteriae-1 and escherichia coli o157:h7. by means of elisa and immunoblotting, 59 patients were found to have serum antibodies to the lps of s. dysenteriae-1 only. four samples from one patient were found to contain serum antibodies to the lpss of both s. dysenteriae-1 and e. coli o157:h7. antibodies to the lps of s. dy ...19921474263
[bacillary dysentery--1990]. 19921475396
factors affecting the strength of flexor tendon repair.the effects of different thicknesses and configurations of core sutures were studied in human cadaveric flexor tendon repairs. both straight and cyclic load tests were employed. to exploit the full strength of 4/0 suture material, the kessler repair using four locked single knots would seem to be appropriate.19921479249
experimental and clinical gnotobiotics: influence of the microflora on graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow of the major complications of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (bmt) is graft-versus-host disease (gvhd), which is caused by donor type lymphocytes which react against the recipient's tissues. an important factor which influences gvhd is the recipient's gastrointestinal microflora. this was originally observed in gnotobiotic mice. infusion of 10(7) h-2 incompatible bone marrow cells into lethally irradiated (9.0 gy x-rays) conventional mice results in a late onset type gvhd which cause ...19921479298
incomplete vascular casting for a scanning electron microscope study of the microcirculatory patterns in the rat pancreas.scanning electron microscopy of resin casts prepared by incomplete arterial injections showed that in the rat pancreas, the casting medium fills blood capillaries in the endocrine islets more promptly than those in the exocrine lobules and secretory ducts. furthermore, the exocrine lobules containing endocrine islets allowed a more rapid resin flow through the insulo-acinar portal route than those lobules lacking an islet. the secretory ducts were the last portions to be filled with resin. since ...19921482604
[territorial differences in the nature of the etiological structure of shigellosis--a pattern or chance?]. 19921496882
gut mucosal lymphocyte subpopulations in the host-defence of shigella infected guinea-pigs.lymphocyte subpopulations from the gut mucosa were studied in shigella-susceptible guinea-pigs to evaluate their role in mucosal immune responses to such organisms. four weeks after infection, isolated lymphocytes were characterised by an immunofluorescent technique. the increase in the t cell intra-epithelial population was less (48%) in comparison to that in normal uninfected animals (74%). on the other hand, ig bearing b cells in the lamina propria showed an increased incidence and more than ...19921500085
polymerase chain reaction for detection of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli isolated from animal and food sources.animals and their by-products have been implicated as important sources of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec) associated with disease in humans. vtec comprise a wide range of serotypes and produce a variety of closely related verocytotoxins (vt). a pair of oligonucleotide primers, targeting conserved sequences found in vt1, vt2 and vte genes, was used to develop a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure to detect all types of vtec. supernatants of boiled broth cultures of vtec (223 stra ...19921513344
single-dose ciprofloxacin for shigellosis in adults. 19921522320
titres of class-specific antibodies against shigella and salmonella lipopolysaccharide antigens in colostrum and breast milk of costa rican, swedish and vietnamese mothers.enzyme immunoassays (eia) were used to estimate titres of class-specific antibodies against purified and chemically defined phenol-water-extracted lipopolysaccharide (lps) antigens of salmonella serogroup b (bo), shigella dysenteriae type i, plesiomonas shigelloides (the same o-antigen as shigella sonnei) and shigella flexneri y. titres in colostrum and breast milk of swedish, vietnamese and costa rican mothers from various socioeconomic conditions were compared. the antibodies were mainly of th ...19921522329
solid phase enzyme immunoassays for the quantification of serum amyloid p (sap) and complement component 3 (c3) proteins in acute-phase mouse sera.simple, reliable and sensitive enzyme immunoassays have been developed for the quantification of the mouse acute-phase sap and c3 proteins. the elisa systems were validated using sera from mice injected with s. dysenteriae endotoxin, and detected 500 pg protein/ml. the assays use 96-well microtitre plates permitting rapid processing of a large number of samples.19921526624
low levels of coagulation inhibitors in patients with clostridium difficile investigate levels of coagulation inhibitors in sera from patients with clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea and colitis, commercially available antigen assays were used for immunochemical determination of antithrombin iii, protein c and free protein s. sera from patients with clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea and colitis showed significantly lowered levels of all measured inhibitors as compared to controls (student's t test). protein c (mean +/- sd): 0.70 +/- 0.30 vs. 1.28 +/- ...19921533851
risk factors for suicide attempts in a human immunodeficiency virus screening program. 19921539099
nucleotide sequence and transcriptional regulation of a positive regulatory gene of shigella dysenteriae.a 1,937 bp psti-hindiii fragment containing the ipar locus was cloned from the large invasion plasmid of shigella dysenteriae cg097, and its nucleotide sequence was completely determined. the ipar protein (35 kda, calculated from the dna sequence) was synthesized in escherichia coli chi 1411 minicells containing the 1,937-bp psti-hindiii fragment. to determine the regulatory role of ipar for ipa genes, we applied genetic complementation experiments using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) a ...19921541532
shigella-specific iga in saliva of children with bacillary study the secretory immune response after shigella infection, the anti-lipopolysaccharide and anti-shiga-toxin response in saliva, obtained from children with confirmed shigellosis and healthy children, were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by western blot. children with infection showed high titers compared to healthy controls. after shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection a significant change in titer could be observed in a large number of cases, in contrast to shigella fle ...19921547024
drug resistance and plasmid profile of shigellae in hundred and twenty-eight shigella strains isolated from newborn and infant human faecal specimens at kaohsiung medical college hospital in taiwan were serogrouped, serotyped and examined for drug-resistance patterns and for the presence of plasmids. forty-seven per cent of the isolates were found to belong to the shigella sonnei serogroup, 41% to the s. flexneri group, 9% to the s. boydii group and 3% to the s. dysenteriae group. the serotype with the greatest number of strains was s. sonnei ...19921547844
acamprosate modulates synaptosomal gaba transmission in chronically alcoholised rats.male sprague-dawley rats were pulmonary alcoholised for 30 days. six were treated with acamprosate (400 mg/kg/day, po) during alcoholisation. the control nonalcoholised group also received acamprosate (400 mg/kg/day, po) during the 30 days. at the end of the experiment, brains areas (cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, and olfactory bulbs) were dissected for the study of synaptosomal 3h-gaba uptake. in another experiment, gaba levels were determined in the same areas using hplc with electro ...19921594633
copulatory analgesia in male rats ensues from arousal, motor activity, and genital stimulation: blockage by manipulation and restraint.the effect of copulation on the vocalization threshold to tail shock (vtts) was assessed in freely-moving, sexually experienced, wistar male rats. mean vtts during the first copulation was 40% above the baseline values and slightly decreased during the first postejaculatory interval (pei; 28% above baseline). vtts mean values further increased during the second copulatory series (93% above baseline and 63% during the pei). testing at the same intervals in noncopulating rats did not induce analge ...19921594675
antimicrobial resistance of shigella isolates in bangladesh, 1983-1990: increasing frequency of strains multiply resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid.the susceptibility to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smz) was determined for 15,824 isolates of shigella obtained from patients attending a treatment center in dhaka, bangladesh, from 1983 through 1990 and for 520 isolates obtained during community surveys from 1988 through 1990. susceptibility to nalidixic acid was determined for isolates obtained after 1985. in 1983 13% of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, 23.5% to tmp-smz, and 0.8% to both drugs. by 1990 51.2% of isola ...19921600006
fluorescent antibody staining test for rapid diagnosis of shigella dysenteriae 1 indirect fluorescent antibody test for rapid detection of shigella dysenteriae 1 in diarrheal stools was developed. a diagnosis could be made within 90 min of submission of specimens to the laboratory. on comparison with culture results, the test had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 93%, and positive and negative predictive values of 94% and 92%, respectively.19921611852
adhesion of shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri to guinea-pig colonic epithelial cells in vitro.adhesion of bacteria to guinea-pig colonic epithelial cells in vitro was inhibited by fucose with all the four strains tested (two of shigella dysenteriae type 1 and two of s. flexneri). n-acetyl neuraminic acid and n-acetyl mannosamine also caused inhibition, suggesting a multiplicity of receptors on the epithelial cell. congo-red binding of the strains correlated with their adhesive ability, whereas haemagglutination of rabbit erythrocytes by the bacteria did not.19921613779
antibodies to shiga holotoxin and to two synthetic peptides of the b subunit in sera of patients with shigella dysenteriae 1 dysentery.acute- and convalescent-phase sera from 18 thai patients and convalescent-phase sera from two israeli patients and one bangladeshi patient with shigella dysenteriae 1 (shiga) dysentery were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies that bind s. dysenteriae lipopolysaccharide (lps), shiga holotoxin, or two synthetic peptides representing epitopes from the b subunit of shiga toxin. paired sera from 24 maryland adults with shigella flexneri 2a or shigella sonnei diarrhea serv ...19921629317
bilateral facial palsy caused by the borrelia spirochete.a case of total left peripheral and partial right peripheral facial palsy caused by the borrelia spirochete is presented. the diagnosis was confirmed by the history of the tick-bites and elevated titers of igg in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.19921632233
influence of oxygen radicals generating agents on eicosanoid metabolism of human endothelial cells.human umbilical venous endothelial cells were incubated with increasing concentrations (0.001-10 mmol/l) of h202 or cumene hydroperoxide. pgi2 was released within the first five minutes, whereas a significant increase in txa2-release was not observed before 10 minutes after stimulation. furthermore the content of intracellular atp and the level of cytosolic free ca2+ were measured. doses of 0.01 mmol/l h202 or cumene hydroperoxide increased the intracellular atp-level. doses higher than 0.1 mmol ...19921636164
construction of stable lamb-shiga toxin b subunit hybrids: analysis of expression in salmonella typhimurium aroa strains and stimulation of b subunit-specific mucosal and serum antibody responses.the complete shiga toxin b subunit and two n-terminal segments of the b subunit have been inserted into a cell surface exposed loop of the lamb protein, and expression of the hybrid proteins from three different promoter systems, i.e., (i) an in vitro-inducible tac promoter that provides high-level expression, (ii) the iron-regulated aerobactin promoter presumably induced in vivo under the iron-limiting conditions of the intestinal mucosal environment, and (iii) a synthetic, modified beta-lactam ...19921639503
evaluation of the role of shiga and shiga-like toxins in mediating direct damage to human vascular endothelial cells.infection with shiga toxin- and shiga-like toxin-producing strains of shigella dysenteriae and escherichia coli, respectively, can progress to the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. it has been hypothesized that circulating shiga toxin, shiga-like toxins, and endotoxins may contribute to the disease by directly damaging glomerular endothelial cells. the effects of these toxins on hela, vero, and human vascular endothelial cells (ec) were examined. confluent ec were sensitive to shiga toxin but were at l ...19911649877
molecular typing of shigella strains using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and genome hybridization with insertion sequences.the genomes of 18 independent shigella isolates (9 shigella sonnei, 5 shigella dysenteriae and 4 shigella flexneri) as well as of 4 epidemic s. flexneri strains were analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and by the distribution of insertion sequences (is1, is2 and is911). despite the close relatedness observed among the 9 independent s. sonnei, all of them could be differentiated from each other. the 4 independent s. flexneri isolates showed clearly distinguishable dna profiles. ne ...19911658885
programmed translational frameshifting and initiation at an auu codon in gene expression of bacterial insertion sequence is911.the proteins expressed by insertion sequence is911, a member of the widespread is3 family of elements, have been analyzed. the results indicate that three major species are produced from two consecutive reading frames. a protein of mr 11,500, orfa, is synthesized from an upstream reading frame. a larger protein, orfab, uses the same initiation codon and is produced by a -1 programmed translational frameshift between orfa and a downstream frame, orfb, whose amino acid sequence shows significant h ...19911660923
gene transfer in enteric bacteria through the formation of r-prime plasmids by an rp4: :mini-mu element.gene transfer in seven pathogenic enteric bacteria was studied using an rp4: :mini-mu element, the plasmid pulb113. from the e. coli k-12 host strain the plasmid could be efficiently transferred to these enteric bacteria, but its transfer back to e. coli k-12 was not as efficient, being detected only in shigella dysenteriae 1, s. flexneri and the 'smooth' variant of s. sonnei. in these three species, transposition of chromosomal fragments into the plasmid to produce r-prime plasmid was also dete ...19911661362
improved method for measurement of rhodanese activity using methanethiosulfonate as sulfur donor substrate and its application to human serum.we have developed a sensitive method for the measurement of rhodanese activity in human serum which is based on the colorimetric method for the determination of thiocyanate produced from methanethiosulfonate and cyanide as substrates. thiocyanate gives a red complex with ferric ion in an acidic condition. the present method is about 70-fold more sensitive than the conventional method using cyanide and thiosulfate as substrates and correlates well (r = 0.997) with the conventional method in bovin ...19911667623
effect of diabetes mellitus on epididymal enzymes of adult rats.diabetes mellitus caused significant reduction in serum testosterone and accessory sex glands weight. the sperm content of epididymal regions also decreased. among the epididymal regions, the cauda epididymidal tissue alone showed significant reduction in na(+)-k+ atpase activity. however, mg2+ atpase activity was lowered in caput epididymidis only. specific activity of ca2+ atpase significantly decreased in caput and cauda epididymides. all three atpases decreased significantly in caput epididy ...19911667646
molecular epidemiologic techniques in analysis of epidemic and endemic shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains.during 1988 the number of shigella dysenteriae type 1 infections reported in the united states increased fivefold. to determine if recent isolates from mexico were related to those that caused epidemics of dysentery worldwide, southern hybridization analysis was done with shiga toxin and ribosomal rna gene probes. western hemisphere and eastern hemisphere strains differed by the size of a single ecori fragment carrying the shiga toxin genes. three ribosomal dna (rdna) patterns were observed, whi ...19911671055
antigenic conservation of primary structural regions of s-adenosylmethionine synthetase.although the physical and kinetic properties of s-adenosylmethionine (adomet) synthetases from different sources are quite different, it appears that these enzymes have structurally or antigenically conserved regions as demonstrated by studies with adomet synthetase specific antibodies. polyclonal anti-human lymphocyte adomet synthetase crossreacted with enzyme from rat liver (beta isozyme), escherichia coli and yeast. in addition, polyclonal anti-e. coli enzyme and antibodies to synthetic pepti ...19901698095
transient cytokeratin expression in skeletal muscle during murine embryogenesis.cytokeratin expression was investigated in paravertebral skeletal musculature of 10 d and 18 d old embryos as well as in adult nmri-mice. the muscular nature of the evaluated tissue was evidenced by their expression of vimentin and desmin. binding moieties for cytokeratin antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) could be demonstrated only in muscle cells of 10 d old embryos. concerning subtypes, the mouse equivalents of the human cytokeratins nos. 8, 18 and 19 could be made probable. the importanc ...19901698345
role of plasmids in virulence-associated attributes and in o-antigen expression in shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains.the association of plasmids with virulence characters and o-antigen expression was studied in two virulent and seven avirulent mutant strains of shigella dysenteriae type 1. deletion of a 12-mda segment from a 140-mda plasmid in two smooth avirulent mutants made the derivatives avirulent in the sereny test and non-invasive in hela cells. the mutants were unable to bind congo red, and did not express the virulence marker antigen. mutants completely lacking the 140-mda plasmid also showed similar ...19901700125
characterization of shigella dysenteriae serotypes 11, 12, and 13.we conducted serologic and biochemical studies on strains of three provisional shigella serotypes. included were 19 strains of serotype 3873-50 from three countries (1 from mexico, 1 from netherlands antilles, and 17 from the united states), 13 strains of serotype 3341-55 from three countries (1 from canada, 1 from bulgaria, and 11 from the united states), and 19 strains of serotype 19809-73 from two countries (16 from israel and 3 from the united states). reactions of these strains with homolog ...19901701447
crystal structure of the cell-binding b oligomer of verotoxin-1 from e. coli.the shiga toxin family, a group of cytotoxins associated with diarrhoeal diseases and the haemolytic uraemic syndrome, includes shiga toxin from shigella dysenteriae type 1 and verotoxins produced by enteropathogenic escherichia coli. the family belongs to the a-b class of bacterial toxins, which includes the cholera toxin family, pertussis and diphtheria toxins. these toxins all have bipartite structures consisting of an enzymatic a subunit associated with a b oligomer which binds to specific c ...19921741063
possible mechanisms underlying the slow lactose fermentation phenotype in shigella spp.a southern hybridization analysis revealed that the region homologous to escherichia coli lacz was present on the chromosomal dnas of beta-galactosidase-positive shigella strains, such as shigella dysenteriae serovar 1 and shigella sonnei strains, whereas this region was absent from chromosomal dnas of beta-galactosidase-negative strains of shigella flexneri and shigella boydii. we found that the lacy-a region was deficient in s. dysenteriae serovar 1 and believe that this is the reason for the ...19911746953
antimicrobial resistance trends of shigellae isolates from calabar, nigeria.during a 3-year study (january 1986-december 1988), stools of 2200 diarrhoeal or dysenteric patients were examined by culturing and 108 (4.9%) were found positive for shigellae. shigella flexneri was the commonest species isolated (54.6%), followed by sh. dysenteriae (24.1%). patients aged less than or equal to 15 years accounted for 51.4% of cases. shigellae over the 3 years showed high and sometimes rising resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and cotrimoxazole and complete r ...19911758013
amylin is more potent and more effective than glucagon in raising plasma glucose concentration in fasted, anesthetized rats.amylin is a 37 amino-acid peptide secreted from the pancreatic beta-cells. it has actions on carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, including elevation of blood glucose. in this study, the hyperglycemic effect of intravenous bolus injections of amylin was compared with similar injections of glucagon in 20-hour fasted rats lightly anesthetized with halothane. administered doses ranged from 0.01 micrograms to 1000 micrograms (about 7 pmol/kg--750 nmol/kg for amylin and 8 pmol/kg--800 pmol/kg for glucago ...19911764079
the pathogenic mechanisms of shiga toxin and the shiga-like is now well documented that some enteric bacteria which cause diarrhoeal and/or dysenteric disease produce, at high levels, one or more of a family of protein toxins referred to as shiga toxin and shiga-like toxins (slts; alternatively called verocytotoxins or vts). within the past few years, there have been considerable advancements made in our understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of shiga toxin and slts. however, the precise role of the toxins in mediating colonic disease ...19911766367
nucleotide sequence of the ipabcd structural genes of shigella dysenteriae.a 9 kb ecori and two psti fragments from the virulence plasmid of shigella dysenteriae cg097 were shown to contain all ipa genes by probing with shigella flexneri ipab, -c, -d and -a gene probes. the dna sequences of s. dysenteriae ipabc genes were very similar to those of s. flexneri m90t and s. flexneri ysh6000, but ipad differed by 22 codons from that of s. flexneri. the differences in ipad may account for the different in vitro host specificities shown by s. dysenteriae and s. flexneri. the ...19911766387
structure of the o-antigen of francisella tularensis strain 15.the o-specific polysaccharide, obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of francisella tularensis strain 15, contained 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (d-quinac), 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-d-glucose (d-qui4nfm), and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galacturonamide (d-galnacan) in the ratios 1:1:2. tri- and tetra-saccharide fragments were obtained on treatment of the polysaccharide with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and partial hydrolysis with 0.1 m hydrochloric acid, respectively. on the b ...19911769021
shigella dysenteriae 60r strain adheres to and invades tissue culture cells in the absence of virulence plasmid.evidence is presented that a high level shiga toxin-producing strain shigella dysenteriae 60r adheres to and invades the epithelial cell lines hct8 and henle 407. the invasive phenotype of s. dysenteriae 60r differs in four ways from the heretofore studied invasive shigella phenotypes. first, s. dysenteriae 60r lacks the virulence plasmid characteristic of other invasive shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli. second, hybridization studies show that the known ipa genes are neither pre ...19911769541
mosaic trisomy 8 associated with jejunal duplication. 19911773546
rapid purification of hepatitis b virus dna from serum.we describe two rapid, simple, and reliable procedures for routine purification of hepatitis b virus (hbv) dna from serum. hbv dna could be purified from 24 serum samples in 1.5 to 2 h and was recovered in the initial reaction vessel. both procedures have in common that hbv dna is complexed with silica particles in the chaotropic agent guanidinium thiocyanate (guscn) but differ in lysis conditions and in the conditions used to elute hbv dna from the silica particles after purification of the sil ...19911774300
detection of shiga toxin-producing shigella dysenteriae type 1 and escherichia coli by using polymerase chain reaction with incorporation of digoxigenin-11-dutp.a technique has been developed for the detection of shiga toxin- and shiga-like toxin type i (sht/slt-i)-producing shigella dysenteriae type 1 and escherichia coli by using the polymerase chain reaction with the incorporation of digoxigenin-11-dutp. target dna liberated from whole cells was amplified, using primer pairs homologous to the a-subunit genes of sht/slt-i. the ttp analog digoxigenin-11-dutp was incorporated into the reaction mixture, permitting nonradioactive labeling of the amplified ...19911774316
environmental signals induce major changes in virulence of shigella spp.growth conditions play a major role in expression of virulence by shigella spp. both in vitro (adherence and internalization in eukaryotic host cells) and in vivo (keratoconjunctivitis). optimized expression of virulence required anaerobic growth to log phase in particular media such as brain heart infusion broth. kinetic studies of guinea pig eye infections showed that as few as 2 x 10(5) s. dysenteriae cg097 or s. flexneri m90t, grown under these optimized conditions, produced keratoconjunctiv ...19911778444
damage to hepatic thyroxine 5'-deiodination induced by pathogenic factors of keshan disease and the preventive effects of selenium and vitamin e.experiments were performed to investigate the change of hepatic t4 5'-deiodination and the preventive effects of selenium (se) and vitamin e in rats fed grains from a keshan disease (kd) endemic area. the results showed that consumption of the endemic grain for 8 weeks caused a significant reduction in hepatic t4 5'-monodeiodinase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and a marked enhancement of hepatic malondialdehyde content. these changes could be effectively prevented through se or vitamin ...19911781930
effect of warfarin on early rat tooth development.rat pups were treated from birth to 5 days of age with the vitamin k antagonist warfarin in order to investigate possible functions of the vitamin k-dependent dentin gla protein (dgp) in tooth development. warfarin completely eliminated the immunocytochemically detectable dgp which is a prominent feature of dentin in control rat pups, and also caused an increased concentration of dgp in odontoblasts. warfarin treatment did not affect the ultrastructure of cells or the extracellular matrix in the ...19911782575
effects of testosterone on the liver of castrated rats: morphologic is well known that castration in rats causes atrophy of the sexual organs and, to a lesser extent, of other organs. we have observed that castration causes a reduction of the liver weight due to a reduction (-10%) of the numerical density of the hepatocytes after castration (p less than 0.01). testosterone administration at high concentration (2.5 mg/100 g b. wt.) as well as at low concentration (0.025 mg/100 g) in the castrated rats causes an increase of the liver weight due to an increase ( ...19911783042
[the effect of the synergistic action of enterotoxin on the specific protective complex of shigella sonnei].the study has first established that enterotoxin enhances the protective potency of s. sonnei specific protective complex. this effect has been revealed both in experiments of the oral immunization of mice and in experiments of the conjunctival immunization of guinea pigs and depends on the dose of enterotoxin used in the experiment. the increase of protection has a specific character. these observations open prospects for further enhancement for the protective properties of s. sonnei specific p ...19911789032
[the culture of discussions and a little bit on the epidemiology of intestinal infections]. 19911789044
["the modern theoretical and practical concepts of the epidemiology of shigellosis" and the culture of discussions]. 19911789045
furosemide inhibits the centrally-mediated pressor response to clonidine in conscious, normotensive rats.1. the effect of furosemide on the pressor response induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of clonidine was investigated in freely moving, normotensive rats with chronically implanted arterial catheters. 2. when injected i.c.v., clonidine at doses of 5 and 10 micrograms produced a dose-dependent pressor response and a decrease in heart rate. no depressor response was induced by clonidine. 3. systemic (i.v.) pretreatment with furosemide (2-10 mg kg-1) increased urine volume and dos ...19911797326
furosemide inhibits the centrally-mediated pressor response to clonidine in conscious, normotensive rats.1. the effect of furosemide on the pressor response induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of clonidine was investigated in freely moving, normotensive rats with chronically implanted arterial catheters. 2. when injected i.c.v., clonidine at doses of 5 and 10 micrograms produced a dose-dependent pressor response and a decrease in heart rate. no depressor response was induced by clonidine. 3. systemic (i.v.) pretreatment with furosemide (2-10 mg kg-1) increased urine volume and dos ...19911797326
serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of shigella isolates in singapore.serogrouping of 506 shigella strains isolated in singapore from 1986 to 1990 showed that shigella flexneri (60.3%) was the most common, followed by s. sonnei (33.6%), s. boydii (3.2%) and s. dysenteriae (3%). of the 23 shigella serotypes identified, the predominant ones were s. flexneri types 2a and 1b, s. boydii types 1 and 5, and s. dysenteriae types 1 and 3. more than 80% of the shigella species were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug, and the incidence of multiresistance was partic ...19911800565
[clinical effect and laboratory observation of ofloxacin in the treatment of typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery and gonorrhea].ofloxacin was used in the treatment of 20 cases of typhoid fever, 32 cases of bacillary dysentery and 50 cases of gonococcal infection. altogether 102 cases were treated, 53 being male and 49 female. the daily dosage was 400 mg to 600 mg, divided into two times. the result showed that the clinical effective rate for typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery and gonococcal infections was 100%, 97% and 94% respectively, while the bacterial eradication rate was 100%, 100% and 94% respectively. the bacteri ...19911806341
changing antibiotic sensitivity patterns in shigellosis.over five and a half months stool cultures were performed in 154 patients admitted with suspected bacillary dysentery to the professorial paediatric unit of the teaching hospital, galle. thirty one patients had a positive stool culture; shigella dysenteriae type 1 was isolated in 23 patients, and s flexneri in 8. in both groups the antibiotic sensitivity pattern was uniform, the only difference being s dysenteriae type 1 being resistant to nalidixic acid while s flexneri was sensitive. this anti ...19911807844
stereoselective disposition of ibuprofen enantiomers in the isolated perfused rat kidney.the renal clearance of ibuprofen enantiomer was studied separately in the isolated perfused rat kidney at initial perfusate concentrations of 10 micrograms/ml (n = 4) and 100 micrograms/ml (n = 4). perfusate and urine samples were measured for r(-) and s(+)-ibuprofen using a stereospecific hplc assay; urine samples were also analyzed after alkaline hydrolysis. functional viability of the kidney was assured by determining the fractional excretion of glucose and glomerular filtration rate (gfr) at ...19911808617
[cloning and expression of shiga-toxin gene from shigella dysenteriae type i].the chromosomal dna of s. dysenteriae type i w30864 was isolated and digested by ecori. the 3-7 kb dna fragments were recovered and ligated with vector puc-19. after transformation, the recombinants were screened by slt gene probe. the positive clones were obtained. the cloned ecori fragment containing both st-a and st-b subunit gene was about 4.5 kb. the cloned st strain was also detected by hela-s3 cell for cytotoxicity, and detected by rabbit ileal loop test for enterotoxicity. besides, the c ...19911814045
thiourea and methionine effects upon glucose and leucine absorption in chicken jejunum.administration of a unique dose of thiourea (7 mg per kg b.w.) in the 7th day of life to broiler chickens affects in different manners the jejunal absorption of glucose and that of leucine. methionine supplementation of the fodder (1.5 g per kg) during 40 days affects--in an age-dependent manner--the glucose absorption, but not that of leucine.19911817667
thiourea and methionine effects upon glucose and leucine absorption in chicken jejunum.administration of a unique dose of thiourea (7 mg per kg b.w.) in the 7th day of life to broiler chickens affects in different manners the jejunal absorption of glucose and that of leucine. methionine supplementation of the fodder (1.5 g per kg) during 40 days affects--in an age-dependent manner--the glucose absorption, but not that of leucine.19911817667
expression of virulence and antibiotic resistance in an escherichia coli transconjugant carrying a large plasmid pcat120 of shigella dysenteriae type i and its spontaneous fragmentations.the role of a 120-kb plasmid in relation to virulence and drug resistance factor in shigella dysenteriae was studied. for characterization of plasmids, the mating system is a useful and efficient means of transferring both large and small plasmids to a new host. the conjugative transfer of a 120-kb (pcat120) ampicillin-resistant plasmid of s. dysenteriae to e. coli k-12 was not successful. introduction of an e. coli fertility factor plasmid f, did not help to mobilize the plasmid. low transfer f ...19911823646
bacterial endotoxins: comparison of mitogenic, polyclonal, antibody-inducing and toxicity activities.the mitogenic effects on mouse spleen lymphocytes were determined in a large series of commercially available and laboratory-prepared lipopolysaccharides (lps) obtained from escherichia, salmonella, serratia and shigella species; part of these lps preparations was chemically modified prior to testing. in order to establish whether the degree of mitogenic activity corresponds with other biological effects of these preparations, polyclonal activity, capability to induce specific antibody formation ...19911823655
occupational contact dermatitis due to acrylonitrile.within dsm chemicals bv, a producer of acrylonitrile, skin complaints are frequent. the majority of these are of an irritant nature, while a smaller portion is based on acquired allergies. allergological examination revealed 5 employees with an allergy to acrylonitrile. 1 of these subjects also developed paraesthesiae in the skin sites affected, a finding not previously described for acrylonitrile. in the guinea pig maximization test (gpmt), acrylonitrile showed strong allergenic potential. for ...19911828409
occupational contact dermatitis due to acrylonitrile.within dsm chemicals bv, a producer of acrylonitrile, skin complaints are frequent. the majority of these are of an irritant nature, while a smaller portion is based on acquired allergies. allergological examination revealed 5 employees with an allergy to acrylonitrile. 1 of these subjects also developed paraesthesiae in the skin sites affected, a finding not previously described for acrylonitrile. in the guinea pig maximization test (gpmt), acrylonitrile showed strong allergenic potential. for ...19911828409
the nature and importance of the inter-epsilon chain disulfide bonds in human ige.ige antibodies are best known for their pathological role in allergy. the class-specific effector sites are located in the epsilon chains; these form covalent dimers via two cystine residues (cys241 and cys328) linking opposite c epsilon 2 domains. the nature and biological significance of the inter-epsilon chain disulfide-bond arrangement is unresolved. for structural and functional analysis site-specific mutations were introduced into the c epsilon 2 domain of recombinant human ige. the introd ...19911828428
the nature and importance of the inter-epsilon chain disulfide bonds in human ige.ige antibodies are best known for their pathological role in allergy. the class-specific effector sites are located in the epsilon chains; these form covalent dimers via two cystine residues (cys241 and cys328) linking opposite c epsilon 2 domains. the nature and biological significance of the inter-epsilon chain disulfide-bond arrangement is unresolved. for structural and functional analysis site-specific mutations were introduced into the c epsilon 2 domain of recombinant human ige. the introd ...19911828428
molecular epidemiology of shigella infections: plasmid profiles, serotype correlation, and restriction endonuclease analysis.plasmid isolation was used to refine the epidemiologic analysis for 168 shigellosis cases in pima county, ariz. plasmids of less than 20 kb were used for comparison of plasmid profiles. plasmid patterns for each species were distinct. a total of 57 of 74 (77%) shigella flexneri strains could be placed into seven plasmid patterns, 70 of 79 (89%) shigella sonnei strains could be placed into seven patterns, 12 shigella boydii strains could be placed into six patterns, and each of 3 shigella dysente ...19911847148
high blood pressure during pregnancy and working conditions among hospital personnel.the relationship between working conditions and high blood pressure during pregnancy was analysed in a sample of 621 women hospital employees in the paris region over the period 1979-1981. data were collected by interviews during the routine medical visit at the end of postnatal leave. women who had to work standing up for extended periods of time, who had to carry heavy loads or who had to perform heavy cleaning tasks had high blood pressure during their pregnancy more often than women not expo ...19911855606
prospective hospital based study on persistent diarrhoea.a total of 383 children aged less than 5 years suffering from acute watery diarrhoea or dysentery were studied in hospital to determine the rate of persistent diarrhoea. altogether 335 (87.5%) recovered within 13 days. only in 48 (12.5%) did the diarrhoea continue for 14 days or more, and they were considered as having persistent diarrhoea. children aged between 7 and 18 months had a significantly increased incidence of persistent diarrhoea. children suffering from grade ii-iv malnutrition const ...19911855686
intestinal obstruction during shigellosis: incidence, clinical features, risk factors, and determine the incidence and outcome of intestinal obstruction during shigellosis, the authors assessed 1211 consecutive patients with shigellosis admitted during a 15-month period to a diarrhea treatment center in dhaka, bangladesh. obstruction was identified in 30 (2.5%) patients. ten (33.3%) of these patients died, compared with 97 (8.2%) of the 1181 patients without obstructions (p less than 0.001; rr = 4.1). in a case-control study, patients with obstructions were compared with 30 control ...19911860627
shigellosis. 19911861289
haemolytic uraemic syndrome in children.of the 4070 children admitted in the department of paediatrics, 830 (24%) presented with diarrhoea. eleven of these had haemolytic ureamic syndrome (hus) characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. only 3 had positive stool cultures (e. coli 2, shigella dysenteriae 1). two children expired while the rest recovered with conservative management and peritoneal dialysis. thus hus should be remembered as a complication of diarrhoea and a cause of ac ...19911861343
human serum stimulates endothelin-1 synthesis more potently than prostacyclin production by cultured vascular endothelial cells.human serum stimulated the synthesis of a vasoconstrictive peptide, endothelin-1 (et-1), and a vasodilatory prostanoid, prostacyclin (pgi2), by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. incubation in 20% concentration of the serum for 24 h stimulated et-1 synthesis almost six-fold while pgi2 production increased two-fold. in addition, a tumor-promoting phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (pma), inhibited the serum-induced et-1 produ ...19911865754
[two biotin-labeled probes of gentamicin resistance genes].a 2.0 kb bamhi-hindiii fragment of pdg0103 from australia containing gentamicin 2"-o-adenylytransferase [ant(2")] gene and a 4.9 kb psti-ecori fragment of pby102 were recovered from low-temperature-melting agarose by the slot method. both fragments were labeled with biotin-7-datp by nick translation with a commercial kit. the result of colony and southern hybridization was that: the 2.0 kb probe from australia hybridized with that containing ant(2") from america, while no hybridization occurred ...19911866941
a case of shigellosis caused by shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri type 5b.shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri type 5b strains were isolated as causative agents of bacterial dysentery in a patient having visited south-east asia. both strains are a rare finding for bulgaria. s. dysenteriae 1 strains have not been isolated since 1962, and there were only single isolates of s. flexneri 5b. the strains were of the same antibiotic resistance patterns. conjugation experiments showed that resistance is determined by transferrable r-plasmids having identical char ...19911880406
simultaneous infection with multiple serotypes of shigellae in a patient.we isolated three different serotypes of shigella on admission from a patient with dysentery as well as a shigella-like organism and campylobacter jejuni upon follow-up. the patient produced serum antibodies to all three serotypes of shigellae.19911889185
endocytosis and intracellular transport of the glycolipid-binding ligand shiga toxin in polarized mdck cells.the glycolipid-binding cytotoxin produced by shigella dysenteriae 1, shiga toxin, binds to mdck cells (strain 1) only after treatment with short-chain fatty acids like butyric acid or with the tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. the induced binding sites were found to be functional with respect to endocytosis and translocation of toxin to the cytosol. glycolipids that bind shiga toxin appeared at both the apical and the basolateral surface of polarized mdck cells grown on filter ...19911901867
bacteriological and protozoal study on domestic water supply in karachi.four hundred and fifty eight water samples collected from domestic tanks and taps and community taps were analysed for bacterial contamination. faecal pollution was more in domestic tanks and taps in mehmoodabad, korangi and least in water collected from community taps of liaquatabad, korangi and mehmoodabad. bacteria isolated were mostly e. coli, enterobacter sp, klebsiella sp. and a. faecalis, while other organisms (except pseudomonas) were found in lower numbers. salmonella para typhi and par ...19911902529
differential effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists administered as desensitizing or flare protocols on hormonal function in the luteal phase of hyperstimulated cycles.the incorporation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (gnrha) in in-vitro fertilization (ivf) stimulation protocols has led to doubt about the quality of the subsequent luteal phase. the effects of two gnrha stimulation protocols on luteal phase concentrations of oestradiol (e2), progesterone (p), luteinizing hormone (lh) and follicle stimulating hormone (fsh) were compared with the standard clomiphene stimulation regimen. subjects receiving clomiphene with human menopausal gonadotrophin ...19911905309
new trends in the use of al(oh)3-conjugated endotoxins and their subunits from the s- and r-forms of shigella dysenteriae serovar 1 for model vaccination purposes.the lipopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes and their lipids a, isolated from shigella dysenteriae 1, exhibited lethal toxicity (ld50 300-400 micrograms per mouse), pyrogenicity (0.01-1.0 microgram), activity in the limulus test (10(-3)-10(-12) mg ml-1) and produced a positive local shwartzman reaction. it was found that these substances bound to al(oh)3 were capable of successfully protecting mice from challenge with both homologous and heterologous infections (up to 90% of mi ...19911905447
antimicrobial activity of microgard against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms.microgard, a commercially available fermented milk product containing antimicrobial metabolites, was a potent inhibitor for gram-negative bacteria such as pseudomonas, salmonella, and yersinia when 1% concentration was incorporated into agar media. gram-positive bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, and listeria monocytogenes were insensitive to microgard. kluyveromyces marxianus, an unidentified black yeast, and penicillium expansum were partially suppressed, whereas aspergillus niger and a y ...19911906486
screening of children for enteric bacterial pathogens in the outborn neonatal ward in lagos, nigeria.babies, on admission into a neonatal ward at the lagos university teaching hospital, had their rectal swab specimens examined bacteriologically and screened for enteric bacterial pathogens over a one-year-period at two-week intervals. it was found that on the average there were 3 (9.68%) enteric bacterial pathogens out of an average of 31 admissions at each screening period. the enteric bacterial pathogens isolated included: non-typhoid salmonellae, which accounted for 55 (80.88%) isolates out o ...19911915794
reemergence of shigella dysenteriae type 2 in sicily: an epidemiological evaluation.three strains of shigella dysenteriae type 2 were isolated from a small household outbreak which occurred in palermo, sicily, during summer 1990. two isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients and one from an asymptomatic carrier. the infection could not be associated with travel to foreign countries or contact with travellers returned from abroad. since 1953 s. dysenteriae has been never isolated in southern italy. the isolates from dysentery cases were susceptible to antibiotics and ca ...19911921742
shigellosis. shigella dysenteriae type 1. 19911931580
preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of conjugates composed of the o-specific polysaccharide of shigella dysenteriae type 1 (shiga's bacillus) bound to tetanus toxoid.the background for developing conjugate vaccines for shigellosis composed of the o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) bound to a protein is described elsewhere (c. y. chu, r. schneerson, and j. b. robbins, submitted for publication). briefly, there is direct evidence for type (lipopolysaccharide [lps])-specific protection after infection with the wild type or with attenuated strains of shigellae. prospective studies of israeli armed forces recruits show a correlation between preexisting serum immuno ...19911937803
compartmentalization within the nucleus: discovery of a novel subnuclear region.antibodies to a set of structurally related autoantigens (p23-25) bind to a previously uncharacterized, large structural domain in the nucleus of a variety of human cell types. this subnuclear domain is visible by phase contrast alone as a region of decreased density after several different fixation protocols. the morphology of this region changes dramatically during the cell cycle and we have given it the name pika (for polymorphic interphase karyosomal association) based on preliminary evidenc ...19911955462
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