PMID(sorted descending)
microbiology and diagnosis of infections with shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli.the etiology of dysentery in thailand and the existing methods of diagnosing infections with shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) are reviewed. the four shigella species (s. dysenteriae, s. flexneri, s. boydii, and s. sonnei) are classically identified by culture of fecal specimens on selective media and testing of isolates for agglutination in species-specific antisera. dna probes have been used to identify both lactose-fermenting and non-lactose-fermenting eiec as well as shigel ...19912047641
shigella dysenteriae type 1--guatemala, 1991.on march 14, 1991, physicians at a hospital in guatemala city reported to the institute of nutrition of central america and panama (incap) that a 2-year-old boy living in an orphanage in guatemala city had been hospitalized with dysentery; stool cultures yielded shigella dysenteriae type 1. another child from the orphanage had recently died from dysentery. during march 18-21, two other young children from the orphanage were diagnosed with s. dysenteriae type 1. on march 21, health officials in r ...19912046650
[methods for demonstrating the causative agents of dysentery]. 19912044798
four decades of shigellosis in israel: epidemiology of a growing public health problem.despite the improved standard of living in israel, shigellosis remains a common disease. examination of trends in the incidence of shigellosis in israel between 1951 and 1987 showed a period of declining rates followed by an increase in the reported incidence beginning around 1969. this increase was mainly due to shigella sonnei; rates of infection with shigella flexneri remained relatively constant. trends showed marked differences between age groups and between ethnic groups. in comparison, th ...19912041956
reiter's syndrome and associated arthritides.several distinct arthritic syndromes now have been recognized in hiv-infected persons. these comprise seronegative spondarthritis, including classic reiter's syndrome and psoriatic arthritis associated with hla-b27, and undifferentiated arthritis usually confined to the lower limbs, unassociated with other lesions, and unrelated to any known genetic marker. in such cases great care should be taken to exclude infection. in addition, a syndrome of short-lived but sometimes severe arthralgias also ...19912041887
two novel virulence loci, mxia and mxib, in shigella flexneri 2a facilitate excretion of invasion plasmid antigens.a bank of over 4,200 lacz protein fusions in shigella flexneri 2a was screened for fusions to temperature-regulated promoters. one mutant, bs260, was completely noninvasive on hela cells and mapped to a region on the 220-kb virulence plasmid in which we had previously localized several avirulent temperature-regulated operon fusions (a.e. hromockyj and a.t. maurelli, infect. immun. 57:2963-2970, 1989). the phenotype of bs260 was similar to that of the previously identified mxi (membrane expressio ...19912037361
the association of haemagglutination and adhesion with lipopolysaccharide of shigella dysenteriae serotype this study the ability of strains of shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 to agglutinate mammalian erythrocytes is attributed to the polysaccharide fraction of bacterial-cell lipopolysaccharide (lps). lps obtained from a rough, mutant strain of s. dysenteriae serotype 1, lacking the o-antigen polysaccharide side-chain, did not agglutinate erythrocytes, clearly demonstrating a link between o-antigen polysaccharides and haemagglutinating activity (ha). strains of s. dysenteriae serotype 1 adhered we ...19912030501
antimicrobial effect of fermented ghanaian maize dough.unhygienic conditions of a typical rural community in a developing country were simulated in the laboratory by inoculating fermented maize dough porridge with shigella flexneri and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec). the antimicrobial effects of the different processes involved in the preparation of fermented maize dough porridge were assessed. the soaking process reduced the ph but no antimicrobial effect against shigella and etec was noted. unfermented maize dough did not inhibit any of t ...19912030095
the lysosomal enzymes of the iris-ciliary body are retained in their organelles and exhibit increased activities during acute uveal inflammation.acute uveal inflammation, characterised by conjunctival hyperaemia, limbal vascular injection, iritis and aqueous flare, was induced in the rabbit eye by a single intravitreal injection of 10 micrograms of shigella endotoxin. twenty-four, 48 and 72 h after endotoxin administration, lysosomal-rich fractions and cytosolic supernatants were prepared from iris-ciliary bodies and the enzymatic activities of some lysosomal hydrolases in these fractions were assayed. acid phosphatase, aryl sulphatase a ...19912028766
efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic & allicin in experimental shigellosis in rabbits.the aqueous extract of garlic (allium sativum) and allicin both showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity against isolates of multiple drug-resistant shigella dysenteriae 1, sh. flexneri y, sh. sonnei and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli. the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the aqueous extract and allicin against sh. flexneri y were 5 and 0.4 microliters/ml, respectively. the two agents also showed promising in vivo antibacterial activity against sh. flexneri y when tested in the r ...19912022399
unusual association of a plasmid with nalidixic acid resistance in an epidemic strain of shigella dysenteriae type 1 from asia.the association of a 20-mda plasmid with nalidixic acid resistant (nalr) strains of shigella dysenteriae 1 has been examined. the plasmid, which is readily transferable, does not itself code for nalidixic acid resistance but offers a survival advantage to its host under nalidixic acid stress. the plasmid-containing cultures of s. dynsenteriae 1 produced nalr mutants in vitro at a frequency 1000-fold higher than their plasmidless parent strains, after two exposures to nalidixic acid. using a simi ...19912021898
stress fiber-based movement of shigella flexneri within cells.icsa (virg), a gene located on pwr100, the virulence plasmid of shigella flexneri serotype 5 (m90t), encodes a 120-kda outer membrane protein. this protein promotes a random intracellular movement of the bacteria and leads to the infection of adjacent cells by the formation of protrusions. this movement, which involves the nucleation, polymerization, and subsequent polarization of actin, is referred to as the ics phenotype (intra/intercellular spread). here we present evidence that a second, dis ...19912019438
pathogenic escherichia coli found in food.the bacteria constituting the species escherichia coli are commonly found in the intestinal flora of man and animals, and were until late 1950s recognized as non-pathogenic normal cohabitants. however, certain strains might induce disease, and e. coli should therefore be regarded as a potential pathogenic organism. the pathogenic strains can cause distinct disease syndrome as different diarrheal diseases, wound infections, meningitis, septicemia, artherosclerosis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and i ...19912018703
synthetic peptides as the basis for vaccine design. 19912017193
molecular characterization of the o-acetyl transferase gene of converting bacteriophage sf6 that adds group antigen 6 to shigella flexneri.bacteriophage sf6 antigenically converts shigella flexneri serotype y strains (-;3,4) to type 3b carrying group antigen 6,3,4 by means of an o-acetylation of the o-antigenic polysaccharide chain. the gene for o-acetyl transferase of bacteriophage sf6 has been cloned, identified and sequenced. the predicted o-acetyl transferase protein encoded by this gene was found to consist of 333 amino acids, (37,185 daltons) and to have some similarity with the galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase prote ...19912014005
treatment of travelers' diarrhea: ciprofloxacin plus loperamide compared with ciprofloxacin alone. a placebo-controlled, randomized compare the safety and efficacy of loperamide used in combination with ciprofloxacin or ciprofloxacin alone for the treatment of travelers' diarrhea.19912012354
construction of aromatic dependent shigella flexneri 2a live vaccine candidate strains: deletion mutations in the aroa and the arod shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate strains with deletion mutations in the aro genes were constructed. tn10-generated auxotrophic mutations were transduced from escherichia coli to s. flexneri 2a with bacteriophage p1cmcts. the tetracycline-sensitive derivatives of tn10 mutants obtained were selected on bochner's medium and checked by dna-dna hybridization using aroa and arod gene specific probes. the vaccine candidate strains were tested to assess the efficacy of protection in guinea-pi ...19912008803
enteric vaccines.considerable progress has been made in the past decade in developing vaccines against the most important bacterial and viral infections of the gastrointestinal tract. members of the division of geographic medicine in the center for vaccine development have played a prominent role in the laboratory development and clinical testing of these vaccines. a new oral typhoid vaccine, ty21a, has been licensed in the united states. a genetically engineered live oral cholera vaccine developed in the cvd is ...19912008164
etiology and mechanisms of acute infectious diarrhea in infants in the united states.infectious diarrhea, caused by a wide variety of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens, is a common reason for morbidity and hospitalization for children in the united states. overall, rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrheal disease in infants. salmonella, shigella, and campylobacter are the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogens, and giardia and cryptosporidium are the parasites that most commonly produce acute infectious diarrhea. the mechanisms by which these enteropath ...19912007955
comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone and ampicillin for treatment of severe shigellosis in a prospective randomized open study, ceftriaxone, 50 mg/kg per day, was compared with ampicillin, 100 mg/kg per day, both given for a period of 5 days, for the treatment of 40 children whose mean (+/- sd) age was 4.5 +/- 3.2 years and who had severe dysentery caused by shigella organisms. twenty patients were treated with ceftriaxone and 20 with ampicillin. both drugs were initially given intravenously for a period of 1 to 2 days and were continued intramuscularly, in the case of ceftriaxone, ...19912007941
an outbreak of shigellosis at an outdoor music august 1988, an estimated 3,175 women who attended a 5-day outdoor music festival in michigan became ill with gastroenteritis caused by shigella sonnei. onset of illness peaked 2 days after the festival ended, and patients were spread throughout the united states by the time the outbreak was recognized. an uncooked tofu salad served on the last day was implicated as the outbreak vehicle (odds ratio = 3.4, p less than 0.0001). over 2,000 volunteer food handlers prepared the communal meals serv ...19912006648
an outbreak of shigella sonnei infection due to contamination of a municipal water supply in northern epidemic of more than 8000 cases of shigella sonnei infection took place in four adjacent urban communities which share the same water supply. the epidemic was caused by massive faecal contamination of the drinking water due to a leak from a broken main sewage pipe into an adjacent drilled well. the infecting organism in most cases was s. sonnei colicine type 6, biotype a, which showed a high rate of multiple resistance to commonly used antibacterial drugs. most of those affected were childre ...19912002237
virulence plasmids of enteroinvasive escherichia coli and shigella flexneri integrate into a specific site on the host chromosome: integration greatly reduces expression of plasmid-carried virulence genes.the ability of enteroinvasive escherichia coli and shigella flexneri to cause disease depends on the presence of a large virulence plasmid (pinv). in this report we show that phn280, the pinv of the o135:k-:h- enteroivasive strain e. coli hn280, and pwr100, the pinv of s. flexneri serotype 5 strain m90t, are able to integrate into a specific site on the host chromosome. pinv-integrated hn280 and m90t strains required methionine (met-) to grow in minimal medium, were noninvasive, did not produce ...19911997431
yersinia enterocolitica o:3: an emerging cause of pediatric gastroenteritis in the united states. the yersinia enterocolitica collaborative study group.after an outbreak of yersinia enterocolitica infections among black children in atlanta, a seven-hospital study was conducted to determine the importance of this pathogen in other communities with large black populations. of 4841 stool specimens from patients with gastroenteritis examined between november 1989 and january 1990, y. enterocolitica, shigella, campylobacter, and salmonella were identified in 38, 49, 60, and 98 specimens, respectively; 34 (92%) of 37 y. enterocolitica isolates were s ...19911995741
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific for enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli of serotypes o157:h7 and o26:h11.a monoclonal antibody (mab 4e8c12) specific for escherichia coli o157:h7 and o26:h11 was produced by immunizing balb/c mice with a rough strain of e. coli o157:h7. the antibody reacted strongly by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with each of 36 strains of e. coli o157:h7. no cross-reactivity was observed with strains of salmonella spp., yersinia enterocolitica, shigella dysenteriae, proteus spp., escherichia hermanii, klebsiella pneumoniae, campylobacter jejuni, serratia marcescens, c ...19911993773
etiology of childhood diarrhea in beijing, determine the role of recently recognized enteropathogens in childhood diarrhea in china, 221 children with diarrhea and 108 controls seen at the beijing children's hospital were studied during april and may 1989. stools were examined for ova, parasites, and rotavirus, cultured for bacterial pathogens, and probed for enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec), enterohemorrhagic e. coli (ehec), and enteropathogenic adherence factor-positive (eaf+) e. coli. pathogens ...19911993771
molecular analysis of variant plasmid forms of a bivalent salmonella typhi-shigella sonnei vaccine strain.the salmonella typhi-shigella sonnei hybrid vaccine strain 5076-ic was constructed to express the s. sonnei form i antigen, which may play an important role in producing protective immunity. three clonal variants which existed in preparations of the vaccine could be distinguished phenotypically by lactose utilization, s. sonnei form i antigen expression, and restriction enzyme analysis of large plasmid dna. since expression of the form i antigen was lost in two of the clonal variants, genetic in ...19911993762
improved method for the routine identification of toxigenic escherichia coli by dna amplification of a conserved region of the heat-labile toxin a subunit.this report describes a dna amplification procedure for routine identification of heat-labile-toxin-producing escherichia coli. two oligonucleotide primers were used in a polymerase chain reaction procedure to amplify a highly conserved region of the a subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin gene. amplifications were done directly on e. coli colonies from plates when salmonella, shigella, or parasite infections were excluded as agents of the severe diarrhea in the patients. the conditions for the ...19911993750
laboratory investigations on the low pathogenic potential of plesiomonas shigelloides.the pathogenic properties of 16 plesiomonas shigelloides strains recovered from humans with extraintestinal and intestinal illnesses, infected animals, and environmental sources were investigated. most strains possessed a high cell charge and low surface hydrophobicity analogous to those of shigella spp.; additionally, serogroup o:17 strains reacted with shigella group d antisera. however, unlike the shigellae, p. shigelloides strains did not universally bind congo red, were noninvasive in hep-2 ...19911993749
identification of three amino acid residues in the b subunit of shiga toxin and shiga-like toxin type ii that are essential for holotoxin activity.shiga toxin of shigella dysenteriae type i and shiga-like toxins i and ii (slt-i and slt-ii, respectively) of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli are functionally similar protein cytotoxins. these toxin molecules have a bipartite molecular structure which consists of an enzymatically active a subunit that inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and an oligomeric b subunit that binds to globotriaosylceramide glycolipid receptors on eukaryotic cells. regionally directed chemical mutagenesis ...19911991714
controlled expression of the transcriptional activator gene virg in agrobacterium tumefaciens by using the escherichia coli lac promoter.the agrobacterium virg protein is normally expressed from two promoters in response to multiple stimuli, including plant-released phenolics (at promoter p1) and acidic growth media (at promoter p2). to simplify the analysis of vir gene induction, we sought to create agrobacterium strains in which virg could be expressed in a controllable fashion. to study the possibility of using the lac promoter and repressor, we constructed a plasmid containing the lac promoter fused to the lacz structural gen ...19911991713
penetration and replication of edwardsiella spp. in hep-2 cells.the ability of 22 edwardsiella strains to penetrate and replicate in cultured epithelial cells was initially evaluated by light microscopy methods and by the recovery of gentamicin-resistant (gmr) bacteria from the triton x-100 cell lysates of hep-2-infected monolayers. giemsa-stained hep-2 cells revealed the presence of numerous internalized bacteria 3 h postinfection, often appearing as parallel rows of replicated bacteria within the cytosol and sometimes obliterating the cytoplasm because of ...19911987028
human milk secretory immunoglobulin a to shigella virulence plasmid-coded antigens.although antibodies to the lipopolysaccharide antigens of shigella have been demonstrated in human milk, such antibodies do not explain the putative protective effect of breast-feeding against symptomatic shigella infection. shigella species do not share related lipopolysaccharides, but they do possess closely related virulence plasmids that code for the proteins essential for cell invasion. we therefore sought to determine the frequency, amount, and duration of excretion of human milk antibodie ...19911986095
specific detection of escherichia coli and shigella species using fragments of genes coding for beta-glucuronidase.the occurrence of beta-glucuronidase activity, a main characteristic of escherichia coli and the presence of the uid chromosomal region of e. coli, coding for this enzyme, were tested on representative members of enteric bacteria. dna hybridization techniques using uid probes and amplification experiments of uida gene by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) confirmed the specificity of uid genes for e. coli and shigella spp. (i.e., s. boydii, s. dysenteriae, s. flexneri and s. sonnei), independen ...19901982103
characterization of bovine septicemic, bovine diarrheal, and human enteroinvasive escherichia coli that hybridize with k88 and f41 accessory gene probes but do not express these adhesins.certain dna probes derived from accessory genes of cloned k88 and f41 determinants hybridize with escherichia coli strains that express k88 or f41 and with certain other e. coli strains that do not express these antigens. we found that these probes hybridized with human enteroinvasive e. coli, and with bovine e. coli isolates which produced a fatal septicemia in experimentally infected piglets. these strains did not hybridize with probes derived from the structural subunit genes encoding the k88 ...19901980001
danger of antibiotic resistance in shigellosis. 19901973507
pivmecillinam-resistant shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection in bangladesh. 19901972232
single-dose ciprofloxacin for shigellosis. 19901971401
immunoglobulin profiles and antibacterial antibody levels in 50 patients a long time after posttraumatic splenectomy.serum immunoglobulin and antibacterial antibody concentrations have been determined in 50 patients 2 to 20 years after posttraumatic splenectomy. the serum levels of igg, iga and igm were found to be significantly greater in the group of posttraumatic splenectomy patients than in that of the healthy controls. the serum ige concentrations did not differ statistically from that of the controls. the serum level of natural antibodies against intestinal bacteria were found to be elevated (shigella 1b ...19901966943
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic potential against shiga toxin.four monoclonal antibodies (t2d1, t3b1, t7b2 and t4c4) were produced and characterized against sh. dysenteriae type 1. these monoclonal antibodies (mcabs) were shown to be directed against the same or adjacent determinants on the a-subunit of the shiga toxin. all the anti-shiga toxin mcabs are igg1 (kappa) antibodies and have the capacity to neutralize the cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects of the shiga toxin: the data strongly suggest that both of the activities, associated with the toxin, are du ...19901966939
the current status of diarrhoea related vaccines.since diarrhea is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in india as well as in developing and developed countries, public health specialists strive to develop vaccines against various pathogens which cause diarrhea. rotavirus (rv) causes 20-40% of severe diarrhea among 6-24 month olds. so they hope for a single dose vaccine against all 4 rv serotypes which can be administered to newborns, but such a vaccine does not yet exist. the bovine and rhesus vaccines are the only heterol ...19901966245
expression of glycolipid receptors to shiga-like toxin on human b lymphocytes: a mechanism for the failure of long-lived antibody response to dysenteric disease.fresh and transformed human b lineage cells were found to be sensitive to the cytotoxic action of shiga-like toxin (slt), a bacterial cytotoxin. the toxin was specifically bound by the glycolipids globotriosylceramide and galabiosylceramide expressed on the surface of sensitive cells. mutant daudi cells selected for resistance to slt cytotoxicity (sltr20) were deficient in slt-binding glycolipids and failed to bind slt to their surface, suggesting a role for these glycolipids in the mediation of ...19901965141
distribution of insertion sequence is200 in salmonella and shigella.two dna probes for the detection of insertion sequence is200 by either southern blotting or colony hybridization were constructed. one of the probes is a 300 bp ecori-hindiii fragment of is200 cloned onto pbluescript ks(+); the other is a tail-to-tail dimer of the same fragment cloned onto puc19. a survey of the presence of is200 among enteric bacteria revealed that more than 90% of the pathogenic or food-poisoning isolates of salmonella spp. examined contained one or more copies of insertion se ...19901964174
listeriosis following 1987 an outbreak of illness due to listeria monocytogenes occurred in philadelphia. in contrast to previously studied outbreaks, no source of infection or vehicle of transmission could be identified, and several listerial strains were found to be involved. a hypothesis that was developed and eventually published suggests that clinical listeriosis may occur when individuals who are asymptomatic for listerial infection but whose gastrointestinal tract has been colonized by listeria organisms be ...19911962099
the etiology of diarrhea among american adults living in peru.during 1984-1989, 655 diarrheic and 287 nondiarrheic stool specimens from adult u.s. citizens living in lima, peru were tested for presence of bacterial enteropathogens. frequencies of isolation among diarrheic specimens were: shigella 9.8%; campylobacter 6.1%; enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) 6.0%; plesiomonas 2.0%; salmonella 1.4%; and vibrio 0.6%. isolates recovered from non-diarrheic stools were: shigella 4.5%; campylobacter 2.1%; salmonella 1.0%; etec 0.7%; plesiomonas 0.7%; and vibr ...19911961431
differences in blood group b-specific mucinase activity between virulent and avirulent shigella flexneri 2a strains.based on our previous findings we postulate that the production of blood group b-degrading mucinase by shigella flexneri 2a is related to virulence. the virulent s. flexneri 2a strain m4243 produced a blood group b mucinase which decreased the blood group b reactivity of germ-free mouse mucins by a factor of 16 and the b reactivity of human saliva by a factor of 32. avirulent s. flexneri 2a b-1, serologically similar, but not genetically identical to the m4243 strain, failed to degrade the blood ...19911961109
tumor necrosis factor and its induction by bacterial endotoxins.using suitable immunomodulators (corynebacterium parvum vaccine, zymosan or muramyl dipeptide), lipopolysaccharides (lps) from various members of the family enterobacteriaceae (escherichia, salmonella, serratia, shigella) were tested on rabbits in relation to the production of tumor necrosis factor (tnf). tnf was determined by means of the serum titration of l-929 cell cultures in the presence of actinomycin d, this with resulting titres of 3.2 x 10(3) to 5.1 x 10(4) iu tnf/ml. analogous titres ...19911960395
antibiotic sensitivity pattern; experience at university hospital, riyadh, saudi arabia.results of sensitivity testing were discussed based on examination of 5192 isolates of the various bacteria isolated from clinical specimens from king khalid university hospital in riyadh, saudi arabia. streptococcus pyogenes and streptococcus pneumoniae were sensitive to penicillin and erythromycin. the sensitivity pattern of staphylococcus aureus was also predictable as they were fairly sensitive to both methicillin (98%) and erythromycin (96%). neisseria gonorrhoeae (27%) showed a high level ...19911960392
would control of childhood infectious diseases reduce malnutrition?infectious diseases and especially diarrheal diseases have been noted to have an adverse effect on the growth of underprivileged children in developing countries. diarrheal diseases have been estimated to account for 10-80% of growth retardation in the first few years of life, with the magnitude of effect possibly modified by other factors, such as the adequacy and source of dietary intake, treatment and feeding practices during and following illness and the opportunity for catch-up growth after ...19911957617
the prophenoloxidase system and in vitro interaction of trypanosoma rangeli with rhodnius prolixus and triatoma infestans haemolymph.the presence of the prophenoloxidase (propo) system in the haemolymph of rhodnius prolixus and triatoma infestans and the role played by trypanosoma rangeli in the in vitro activation of propo were tested. both r. prolixus and t. infestans whole blood preparations showed a very active propo system. the propo cascade of the two insect species were differentially activated by microbial-derived extracts: laminarin was a better activator of t. infestans haemolymph than of r. prolixus blood, and lipo ...19911956701
seasonal effects on the reported incidence of acute diarrhoeal disease in northeast thailand.this paper examines the seasonal variation in the reported incidence of acute diarrhoea for selected areas in the northeast of thailand. charts are presented which show rainfall, temperature and reported incidence of acute diarrhoea for the period 1982 to 1987. incidence of diarrhoea appears to be inversely related to a sharp decrease in temperature around january each year. although rainfall does not appear to have a direct effect on the relative incidence of acute diarrhoea, there is always a ...19911955264
bacterial protein toxins acting on intracellular targets.a number of bacterial toxins act on targets located in the cytosol. diphtheria toxin, pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin a and shigella toxin inhibit protein synthesis by enzymatic inactivation of elongation factor 2 or the 60 s ribosomal subunit. these toxins enter the cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by translocation across the membranes of intracellular organelles. also a number or toxins that are not cytocidal act on targets in the cytosol. a number of nontoxic bacterial protein ...19911954345
[detection of the determinants of tetracycline a, b and c resistance in shigella and salmonella using dna probes].genetic determinants of tetracycline resistance of classes a, b and c were detected with dna probes labeled with radioactive phosphorus (32p) in shigella (44 strains) and salmonella (50 strains). it was shown that in the shigella strains the frequency of the tet a gene amounted to 66 per cent, the frequency of the tet b gene was equal to 84 per cent, the frequency of their combination was equal to 50 per cent and the frequency of the tet c gene was nil. in the salmonella strains the frequency of ...19911953181
epidemiologic patterns of acute diarrhea and endemic shigella infections in children in a poor periurban setting in santiago, prepare a field site for evaluating preventive interventions against endemic shigellosis, the authors followed prospectively a cohort of 360 children (90 each of children aged 0-11, 12-23, 24-35, and 36-47 months) in santa julia, a low socioeconomic area in santiago, chile, from november 1986 through april 1989 with twice weekly household visits for diarrheal disease; infants replaced children who reached 60 months of age. coprocultures on 2 consecutive days from children with diarrhea and fr ...19911951266
[the protective properties of the endotoxin protein].the isolation and properties of endotoxin protein, or lipid a-associated protein (lap), from shigella sonnei were described earlier (zh. mikrobiol. epidemiol. immunobiol., 1991, no. 4, pp. 11-17, and no. 7). in this report the data on its protective activity are presented. in experiments on mice one nanogram of lap injected i. v. protected 50% of the animals against i. p. challenge with 40 ld50 of virulent s. sonnei. guinea pigs injected s. c. with 10 micrograms of lap were protected against loc ...19911950285
[shigellosis in the ussr: the biochemical picture of shigella sonnei].the article deals with original data characterizing the biochemical picture of s. sonnei circulating in the ussr in 1983-1985. sub-biovars iie, iig and ia have been shown to prevail practically in all regions, irrespective of the intensity of functioning of the centralized alimentary and chronic water routes of transmission of shigellae. these sub-biovars most frequently cause significant alimentary outbreaks of sonne dysentery transmitted with milk. doubts are expressed concerning the importanc ...19911950283
[the dynamics of the formation of an infection focus in the intestines].the problem of the stability of the development of shigella population in the intestine, depending on the dose of the infective agent, is analyzed. the agent is reproduced in the intestinal mucosa in short cycles, starting with adhesion and followed by penetration, intracellular multiplication and, finally, emission of free bacteria and hulled tops of villi with shigella intracellular microcolonies. this form of emission maintains high concentration of bacteria and ensures, in case of the adhesi ...19911950279
[the adhesion of pathogenic microflora on carbon sorbents].the adsorbing activity of granulated carbonic sorbents skn and kau, as well as their oxidated forms, containing protogenic carboxylic and phenolic groups with respect to shigella flexneri, salmonella typhimurium, escherichia coli, streptococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenic strains has been studied. as shown in this study, the process of interaction between microorganisms and carbonic sorbents has two stages. at the first stage the main role is played by long-distance electrostati ...19911950254
[virulence plasmids of shigella bacteria].the contemporary data on the genetical control of invasion process in dysentery causative agent coded by the virulence plasmids of the bacteria are presented. the examples of plasmid genes expression regulated by the genes-regulators located on the chromosome are presented. the mechanism for virulence genes regulation is discussed.19911944325
localization of ipab protein in escherichia coli k-12 mc1061 strain carrying shigella sonnei form i plasmid pss120.we partially purified antigens which reacted with shigellosis convalescent-monkey antisera. hybridomas, which were constructed from mice immunized by the antigens, produced monoclonal antibodies recognizing ipab protein. using the monoclonal antibody against ipab, evidence indicating that ipab proteins were localized on the cell surface of invasive bacteria (escherichia coli k-12 mc1061 harboring pss120 plasmid) was obtained by immunoelectron microscopy.19911943845
[traveler's diarrhea. incidence--pathogens--pathophysiology--clinical aspects--prevention and therapy].about one-third of travellers will be affected by travellers' diarrhoea. regions with low risk are northern europe, the united states, australia and new zealand. intermediate risk is found in southern europe, most islands of the caribbean, japan, israel and southern africa and high risk in developing countries. among the most commonly isolated pathogens are enterotoxigenic e. coli, salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, g. lamblia, e. histolytica and viruses. the individual risk depends on the age ...19911943430
treatment of shigellosis. 19911941398
hyperendemic shigellosis in the united states: a review of surveillance data for 1988, 22,796 shigella isolates were reported to the centers for disease control, the highest number since national surveillance was begun in 1967. from 1986 to 1988, isolation rates increased from 5.4 to 10.1 per 100,000 persons. increased isolation of shigella sonnei, primarily among children and young women, occurred throughout the united states in a manner similar to the nationwide increase that occurred during the early 1970s. the highest rates during 1987-1988 were reported from countrie ...19911940468
blood group and shigellosis.a study on the distribution of abo blood groups was carried out on 85 patients with clinically and bacteriologically proven shigellosis. a significant association (p less than 0.01) of blood group b was observed with shigellosis cases in comparison to controls from whom no shigella species or other enteropathogen could be isolated. patients with isoagglutinin b or those who possess blood group b antigen may be at a relatively increased risk of shigellosis.19911938846
preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of conjugates composed of the o-specific polysaccharide of shigella dysenteriae type 1 (shiga's bacillus) bound to tetanus toxoid.the background for developing conjugate vaccines for shigellosis composed of the o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) bound to a protein is described elsewhere (c. y. chu, r. schneerson, and j. b. robbins, submitted for publication). briefly, there is direct evidence for type (lipopolysaccharide [lps])-specific protection after infection with the wild type or with attenuated strains of shigellae. prospective studies of israeli armed forces recruits show a correlation between preexisting serum immuno ...19911937803
antibody responses in the lungs of mice following oral immunization with salmonella typhimurium aroa and invasive escherichia coli strains expressing the filamentous hemagglutinin of bordetella pertussis.the filamentous hemagglutinin (fha) of bordetella pertussis was expressed in the attenuated aroa mutant of salmonella typhimurium, sl3261, and in a strain of escherichia coli harboring shigella flexneri plasmid pwr110, which encodes bacterial invasiveness for epithelial cells. expression of fha in these strains did not interfere with their ability to invade henle cells. immunoglobulins a and g specific for fha were detected in lung washes of mice following oral immunization with the live recombi ...19911937797
inhibition of chemotaxis of neutrophil leukocytes to interleukin-8 by endotoxins of various bacteria.the effects of endotoxins from various bacteria (escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, vibrio cholerae, shigella flexneri, salmonella typhosa, and pseudomonas aeruginosa) on chemotaxis of neutrophil leukocytes to formyl peptide and interleukin-8 were tested in an improved chemotaxis assay involving a "sparse-pore" polycarbonate (nuclepore) membrane in a boyden-type chamber. the possible chemotactic activity of the endotoxins themselves were tested by the same technique. in addition, the effec ...19911937782
shiga toxin-associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome: combined cytotoxic effects of shiga toxin, interleukin-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha on human vascular endothelial cells in vitro.this study explores the relationship between shiga toxin-producing shigella or escherichia coli strains and the development of vascular complications in humans following bacillary dysentery. we propose that endotoxin-elicited interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf) may combine with shiga toxin to facilitate vascular damage characteristic of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. this study examines the cytotoxic effects of shiga toxin, interleukin-1, and tnf on cultured human umbilical vein endot ...19911937774
small-animal model to measure efficacy and immunogenicity of shigella vaccine strains.the development of a small-animal model to test the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of a vaccine strain against shigellosis would greatly facilitate the evaluation of potential vaccine candidates. in guinea pigs, the ability of shigellae to invade and multiply within the corneal epithelium, causing keratoconjunctivitis, closely mimics the invasion process in the intestinal epithelium (b. sereny, acta microbiol. acad. sci. hung. 4:367-376, 1957). the serum response of animals recovering fr ...19911937767
molecular epidemiology of plasmid patterns in shigella flexneri types 1-6.a total of 123 drug-resistant and drug-sensitive shigella flexneri types 1-6, and their escherichia coli k12 transconjugants were used for plasmid profile analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis. resistance factors (r-factors) were further characterized by incompatibility testing. the overall distribution of small plasmids in s. flexneri showed that a cryptic plasmid of about 4.6 kb was found in all serotypes, and a plasmid of about 4.2 kb was found in serotypes 1-4. shigella flexneri types 2, 4 ...19911936154
yersinia enterocolitica and other enteric pathogens in patients with suspected appendicitis. 19911935101
development of antisera to detect virulent yersinia enterocolitica, shigella and escherichia coli enteroinvasive. 19911935085
a new sensitive method for determining endotoxin in whole blood.we developed a microplate method for determining endotoxin in whole blood with endospecy, an endotoxin-specific chromogenic limulus test reagent. the factors in blood that would interfere with the test were successfully removed by exposing samples to 0.66 mol/l hno3 containing 0.25% triton x-100. recoveries of various endotoxins spiked into whole blood of humans and experimental animals were almost complete, and were not enhanced by sample dilution. normal endotoxin concentration in human whole ...19911934509
shigellosis. shigella dysenteriae type 1. 19911931580
nucleotide sequence and phylogeny of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by the plasmid pscs7 from staphylococcus aureus.the nucleotide sequence of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) and its regulatory region, encoded by the plasmid pscs7 from staphylococcus aureus, was determined. the structural cat gene encoded a protein of 209 amino acids, which represented one monomer of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat). comparisons between the amino acid sequences of the pscs7-encoded cat from s. aureus and the previously sequenced cat variants from s. aureus, staphylococcus intermedius, staphy ...19911929326
houseflies (musca domestica) as mechanical vectors of shigellosis.houseflies (musca domestica) are mechanical vectors of shigella organisms. seasons during which both flies and cases of dysentery are prevalent often coincide. houseflies have an affinity for human excrement and, as documented by bacteriologic culture of trapped flies, become contaminated with shigella organisms following contact with infected human feces. the inoculum required to transmit shigellosis is only 10-10(2). since houseflies cohabit with humans, they can readily contaminate food and e ...19911925289
140-mda plasmids of escherichia coli and shigella flexneri 5 do not influence phagocytosis.enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) and shigella flexneri possessing a 140-megadalton (mda) plasmid are capable of invading intestinal epithelial cells and causing dysentery. to determine if this plasmid affected phagocytosis of the organisms by leukocytes, we studied the in vitro phagocytosis of isogenic pairs of eiec and s. flexneri 5 which differed only in the presence or absence of the 140-mda plasmid. in addition five eiec strains containing 140-mda plasmids as well as one non-enteroinva ...19911921856
reemergence of shigella dysenteriae type 2 in sicily: an epidemiological evaluation.three strains of shigella dysenteriae type 2 were isolated from a small household outbreak which occurred in palermo, sicily, during summer 1990. two isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients and one from an asymptomatic carrier. the infection could not be associated with travel to foreign countries or contact with travellers returned from abroad. since 1953 s. dysenteriae has been never isolated in southern italy. the isolates from dysentery cases were susceptible to antibiotics and ca ...19911921742
[encephalopathy in an adult with shigella].a case of sporadic shigellosis is reported. a 30 year old woman, presented neurologic dysfunction, mild watery diarrhea and fever which had started one week before her admission. abdominal tenderness, confusion, delirium, impairment of orientation and of recent memory were found. abnormal motor activity with rigidity, tremors, myoclonus around the mouth also existed. there were neither focal signs nor signs of meningeal irritation. computed tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance of the brain ...19911921694
the penicillins.the penicillin family of antibiotics remains an important part of our antimicrobial armamentarium. in general, these agents have bactericidal activity, excellent distribution throughout the body, low toxicity, and efficacy against infections caused by susceptible bacteria. the initial introduction of aqueous penicillin g for treatment of streptococcal and staphylococcal infections was an important pharmacologic landmark. the emergence of penicillinase-producing staphylococcus aureus prompted the ...19911921489
[species and serovar distribution, and drug resistance of shigella strains isolated from imported and domestic cases in 1980-1989 in tokyo].a total of 1,189 shigella strains consisting 804 imported and 385 domestic strains were examined for their species and serovar distribution, and their drug-resistance. in both imported and domestic strains, s. sonnei was found to be the most prevalent species, followed by s. flexneri, s. boydii and s. dysenteriae in order. in imported strains, however, the isolation frequency of s. flexneri, s. boydii and s. dysenteriae were higher than that of domestic strains, and the serovar of each species w ...19911919117
the epidemiology of diarrhoeal diseases in southeastern a community survey of 19,410 people for 12 months in southeastern china (fujian province), the overall annual incidence rate of diarrhoea was 729.9 episodes/1,000 population. the incidence varied with different age groups; children aged under five years had the highest rate, 2.25 episodes per child per year. a bacterial pathogen was isolated from 883 cases (44.03%), and 147 (14.76%) strains from 996 healthy controls. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, enteropathogenic e. coli, and shigella spe ...19911918839
sociodemographic factors associated with serum anti-shigella lipopolysaccharide antibodies and shigellosis.the association between various sociodemographic variables and the presence of anti-shigella sonnei lipopolysaccharide (lps) antibodies was examined in a random sample (n = 383) of male israeli conscripts. of the male conscripts, 190 (49.6%) had pre-existing antibodies against s. sonnei lps (defined as ha titres of greater than or equal to 1:10 after treatment of sera with 2-mercaptoethanol). univariate analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of humoral anti-s. ...19911917263
screening of children for enteric bacterial pathogens in the outborn neonatal ward in lagos, nigeria.babies, on admission into a neonatal ward at the lagos university teaching hospital, had their rectal swab specimens examined bacteriologically and screened for enteric bacterial pathogens over a one-year-period at two-week intervals. it was found that on the average there were 3 (9.68%) enteric bacterial pathogens out of an average of 31 admissions at each screening period. the enteric bacterial pathogens isolated included: non-typhoid salmonellae, which accounted for 55 (80.88%) isolates out o ...19911915794
cholera and vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhoea endemicity in calabar, nigeria.the microbiological and morbidity profiles of acute diarrhoeal episodes were studied in 881 patients seen at the out-patients department of the university of calabar teaching hospital (ucth), calabar, between january and december, 1988. of a total of 108 (12.3%) culturally confirmed bacterial diarrhoeas, 47 (43.5%) were due to escherichia coli, 33 (30.6%) to vibrios (vibrio cholerae-01; classical and e1 tor biotypes and v. parahaemolyticus), while shigella spp. and salmonella. spp. accounted for ...19911911487
intercellular spread of shigella flexneri through a monolayer mediated by membranous protrusions and associated with reorganization of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin.the spread of shigella flexneri in a monolayer of infected henle and hela cells was studied by using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. infected cells produced numerous bacterium-containing membranous protrusions up to 18 microns in length that penetrated adjacent cells and were subsequently phagocytosed. fluorescence staining of actin and vinculin in infected cells with phalloidin and monoclonal antibody to vinculin, respectively, demonstrated that the protrusions containing the bacter ...19911910001
[in vitro antibacterial activity of a new oral cephalosporin, ceftibuten. results of a multicenter study].minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) of ceftibuten (cbt) were evaluated by agar dilution for 1,416 bacterial strains isolated in 5 hospitals. for enterobacteriaceae, mic 50 and 90% were respectively (micrograms/ml): (i) naturally non beta-lactamase producing species: e. coli 0.12-0.5, shigella 0.06-0.12 and salmonella 0.03-0.12, p. mirabilis 0.16-0.03. (ii) chromosomal penicillinase producing species: k. pneumoniae 0.03-0.5 and k. oxytoca 0.03-0.06. (iii) chromosomal cephalosporin producing sp ...19911909017
studies on the pathogenicity of listeria monocytogenes.the characterization of mutants of listeria monocytogenes with reduced virulence properties is described. reduction in the amount of the extracellular protein p60 (encoded by the ipa gene) leads to cell filaments with impaired invasiveness. mutants which cannot synthesize listeriolysin are still invasive but unable to survive within phagocytic cells. one type of listeriolysin-negative mutants is defective in the synthesis of a positive regulatory element prfa which coordinately regulates the lis ...19911908834
["masked" autoantibodies from the serum of healthy blood donors cross-reacting with dna and bacterial lipopolysaccharides].the "masked" autoantibodies with polyspecific activity were found in the serum of healthy donors. it is shown that these antibodies are able to react with antigens after the ion exchange chromatography with qae-sephadex. it was found that these "masked" antibodies are able to cross-react with dna and lipopolysaccharides of wide-spread species of bacteria. the possible role of these antibodies as in protection of organism from the external antigens as in the origin of autoimmune diseases is discu ...19911908720
antimicrobial activity of microgard against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms.microgard, a commercially available fermented milk product containing antimicrobial metabolites, was a potent inhibitor for gram-negative bacteria such as pseudomonas, salmonella, and yersinia when 1% concentration was incorporated into agar media. gram-positive bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, and listeria monocytogenes were insensitive to microgard. kluyveromyces marxianus, an unidentified black yeast, and penicillium expansum were partially suppressed, whereas aspergillus niger and a y ...19911906486
new trends in the use of al(oh)3-conjugated endotoxins and their subunits from the s- and r-forms of shigella dysenteriae serovar 1 for model vaccination purposes.the lipopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes and their lipids a, isolated from shigella dysenteriae 1, exhibited lethal toxicity (ld50 300-400 micrograms per mouse), pyrogenicity (0.01-1.0 microgram), activity in the limulus test (10(-3)-10(-12) mg ml-1) and produced a positive local shwartzman reaction. it was found that these substances bound to al(oh)3 were capable of successfully protecting mice from challenge with both homologous and heterologous infections (up to 90% of mi ...19911905447
shigellosis from swimming in a park pond in july 1989 an outbreak of shigellosis occurred among visitors to a recreational park in oakland county, mi. an epidemiologic investigation discovered an association between illness and swimming in a pond at the park, especially for those who had put their head underwater. no other factors were epidemiologically incriminated. a total of 65 cases were identified; nine were culture confirmed, all shigella sonnei. several water samples evaluated for fecal coliform counts shortly after the outbreak ...19911905054
bacteriological and protozoal study on domestic water supply in karachi.four hundred and fifty eight water samples collected from domestic tanks and taps and community taps were analysed for bacterial contamination. faecal pollution was more in domestic tanks and taps in mehmoodabad, korangi and least in water collected from community taps of liaquatabad, korangi and mehmoodabad. bacteria isolated were mostly e. coli, enterobacter sp, klebsiella sp. and a. faecalis, while other organisms (except pseudomonas) were found in lower numbers. salmonella para typhi and par ...19911902529
endocytosis and intracellular transport of the glycolipid-binding ligand shiga toxin in polarized mdck cells.the glycolipid-binding cytotoxin produced by shigella dysenteriae 1, shiga toxin, binds to mdck cells (strain 1) only after treatment with short-chain fatty acids like butyric acid or with the tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. the induced binding sites were found to be functional with respect to endocytosis and translocation of toxin to the cytosol. glycolipids that bind shiga toxin appeared at both the apical and the basolateral surface of polarized mdck cells grown on filter ...19911901867
travelers' diarrhea among united states military personnel during joint american-egyptian armed forces exercises in cairo, egypt.a study was conducted of travelers' diarrhea in a united states military population on deployment in cairo, egypt, during july and august 1987. acute diarrhea requiring medical attention developed in 183 (4%) of 4,500 troops. a possible etiologic agent was identified in 49% of all diarrhea cases. enteric pathogens associated with cases of diarrhea included: enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (17% st-producers, 13% lt-producers, and 3% lt/st-producers); shigella (9%); campylobacter spp. (2%); salmo ...19911900113
enterotoxigenic escherichia coli associated with infant diarrhoea in galicia, north-western assess the role of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) in infantile diarrhoea, 482 children with diarrhoea and 103 healthy controls, from three localities of galicia, north-western spain, were investigated between 1985 and 1988. rotavirus (37.3%) and salmonella spp. (12.8%) were the most common causal agents, followed by etec (3.9%), campylobacter jejuni (2.3%), shigella spp. (0.9%) and yersinia enterocolitica (0.5%). etec were significantly more frequently isolated from children with dia ...19911895327
shigella flexneri infection: a histopathologic study of colonic biopsies in monkeys infected with virulent and attenuated bacterial strains.macaca fascicularis monkeys were orally infected with live virulent shigella flexneri wild-type strains of either serotype y (s. flexneri sfl1), 2a (s. flexneri m4243) or 1b (s. flexneri sfl27). clinical signs of shigellosis varied from mild watery diarrhea (sfl1) to dysentery (m4243, sfl27), with a fatal outcome in two monkeys (sfl27). colonoscopy showed slight pathologic changes in monkeys infected with sfl1, and pronounced changes in monkeys infected with sfl27. in colonic biopsies the most s ...19911892634
[changes in virulence of enterobacteriaceae in the presence of sub-inhibitory levels of antibiotics].the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents such as chloramphenicol, tetracycline, rifampicin and nalidixic acid on various factors of virulence in shigella spp. and enteroinvasive colon bacilli was studied. it was shown that under such conditions changes took place in various events of the interaction with the epithelial cells, i.e. in adhesion, penetration, intracellular multiplication and transfers between contacting cells. the total effect of chloramphenicol resulted i ...19911892427
infections in british clinical laboratories, 1988-1989.during 1988-89 this continuing survey showed 18 infections in the staff of laboratories reporting from 166 centres, representing 21,756 person-years of exposure. shigella and other bowel infections (one caused by s typhi) predominated, affecting 11 microbiology medical laboratory scientific officers. three shigella infections originated from quality control samples. pulmonary tuberculosis affected four workers, including two mortuary technicians, but without detected occupational exposure to myc ...19911890201
bactericidal effect of 15-deoxyspergualin on staphylococcus aureus.15-deoxyspergualin (dsg), an immunosuppressive agent used in organ transplantation, exerts metabolic and antiproliferative effects on methicillin- and gentamicin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria (e.g. sarcina lutea, bacillus subtilis, shigella sonnei, salmonella typhi and citrobacter freundii). dsg, at the concentration of 20 mg/l, depleted intracellular putrescine and spermidine in s. aureus to 43 and 40% of the controls, respectively. in these polyamine-depleted s. aureus cel ...19911889307
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