survival rate of microbes after freeze-drying and long-term storage.the survival rates of 10 species of microorganisms were investigated after freeze-drying and preserving in a vacuum at 5 degrees c. the survival rates varied with species. the survival rates immediately after freeze-drying were different among yeast, gram-positive bacteria, and gram-negative bacteria, and the change in the 10-year survival rate was species-specific. the survival rate of yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, was about 10% immediately after drying, and the rate did not decrease signifi ...200011161557
crystal structure of the 100 kda arsenite oxidase from alcaligenes faecalis in two crystal forms at 1.64 a and 2.03 a.arsenite oxidase from alcaligenes faecalis ncib 8687 is a molybdenum/iron protein involved in the detoxification of arsenic. it is induced by the presence of aso(2-) (arsenite) and functions to oxidize as(iii)o(2-), which binds to essential sulfhydryl groups of proteins and dithiols, to the relatively less toxic as(v)o(4)(3-) (arsenate) prior to methylation.200111250197
phylogenetic diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities in the anoxic zone of the cariaco basin.microbial community samples were collected from the anoxic zone of the cariaco basin at depths of 320, 500, and 1,310 m on a november 1996 cruise and were used to construct 16s ribosomal dna libraries. of 60 nonchimeric sequences in the 320-m library, 56 belonged to the epsilon subdivision of the proteobacteria (epsilon-proteobacteria) and 53 were closely related to ectosymbionts of rimicaris exoculata and alvinella pompejana, which are referred to here as epsilon symbiont relatives (esr). the 5 ...200111282619
isolation and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of salt marsh plants.polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah)-degrading bacteria were isolated from contaminated estuarine sediment and salt marsh rhizosphere by enrichment using either naphthalene, phenanthrene, or biphenyl as the sole source of carbon and energy. pasteurization of samples prior to enrichment resulted in isolation of gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria. the isolates were characterized using a variety of phenotypic, morphologic, and molecular properties. identification of the isolates based on their ...200111375181
detoxification of lantana hepatotoxin, lantadene a, using alcaligenes faecalis.detoxification of lantadene a (la), the hepatotoxin from lantana camara var. aculeata, by the bacterial strain alcaligenes faecalis has been investigated. lantadene a induced hepatotoxicity concomitant with increases in plasma bilirubin, blood plasma enzymes and histopathological lesions that typify lantana toxicity. the extract of fermentation broth in which la was incubated with a. faecalis did not elicit any alterations in blood enzyme prolife or liver histopathology, which were comparable wi ...200111404834
alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis subsp. nov., a bacterium accumulating poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate from acetone-butanol bioprocess residues.the authors have previously isolated a solvent tolerant bacterium, strain g(t), (t = type strain) capable to convert acetone-butanol bioprocess residues into poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. strain g(t) was initially identified as alcaligenes spp by standard bacteriological tests. in this study the taxonomic position of the bacterium was investigated in detail. the 165 rdna sequence analysis, the g + c content of dna (56 mol%) and the presence of ubiquinone q-8 confirmed strain g(t) as a representativ ...200111403397
molecular characterization of chromosomal class c beta-lactamase and its regulatory gene in ochrobactrum anthropi.ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as cdc group vd, is an oxidase-producing, gram-negative, obligately aerobic, non-lactose-fermenting bacillus of low virulence that occasionally causes human infections. it is highly resistant to all beta-lactams except imipenem. a clinical isolate, slo74, and six reference strains were tested. mics of penicillins, aztreonam, and most cephalosporins tested, including cefotaxime and ceftazidime, were >128 microg/ml and of cefepime were 64 to >128 microg/ml. cl ...200111451692
purification, characterization, and genetic analysis of cu-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase from a denitrifying halophilic archaeon, haloarcula dissimilatory nitrite reductase (cunir) was purified from denitrifying cells of a halophilic archaeon, haloarcula marismortui. the purified cunir appeared blue in the oxidized state, possessing absorption peaks at 600 and 465 nm in the visible region. electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy suggested the presence of type 1 cu (g(ii) = 2.232; a(ii) = 4.4 mt) and type 2 cu centers (g(ii) = 2.304; a(ii) = 13.3 mt) in the enzyme. the enzyme contained two subunits, whose apparent m ...200111418554
isolation and characterization of a soluble nadph-dependent fe(iii) reductase from geobacter sulfurreducens.nadph is an intermediate in the oxidation of organic compounds coupled to fe(iii) reduction in geobacter species, but fe(iii) reduction with nadph as the electron donor has not been studied in these organisms. crude extracts of geobacter sulfurreducens catalyzed the nadph-dependent reduction of fe(iii)-nitrilotriacetic acid (nta). the responsible enzyme, which was recovered in the soluble protein fraction, was purified to apparent homogeneity in a four-step procedure. its specific activity for f ...200111443080
molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of genes encoding a polycyclic aromatic ring dioxygenase from mycobacterium sp. strain pyr-1.mycobacterium sp. strain pyr-1 degrades high-molecular-weight polycyclic hydrocarbons (pahs) primarily through the introduction of both atoms of molecular oxygen by a dioxygenase. to clone the dioxygenase genes involved in pah degradation, two-dimensional (2d) gel electrophoresis of pah-induced proteins from cultures of mycobacterium sp. strain pyr-1 was used to detect proteins that increased after phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and pyrene exposure. comparison of proteins from induced and unind ...200111472934
evaluation of vitek 2 rapid identification and susceptibility testing system against gram-negative clinical isolates.a total of 281 strains of miscellaneous members of the family enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other gram-negative bacteria were evaluated by use of identification tests with the vitek 2 system (biomérieux) and an api identification system (biomérieux). a total of 237 (95%) strains were correctly identified to the species level. only six (2.1%) strains were misidentified, and eight (2.8%) strains were not identified. among 14 strains with discrepant identifications, 8 (57.1%) stra ...200111474023
taxonomy and identification of the burkholderia cepacia complex. 200111574551
alternate substrate binding modes to two mutant (d98n and h255n) forms of nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6: structural model of a transient catalytic intermediate.high-resolution nitrite soaked oxidized and reduced crystal structures of two active site mutants, d98n and h255n, of nitrite reductase (nir) from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 were determined to better than 2.0 a resolution. in the oxidized d98n nitrite-soaked structures, nitrite is coordinated to the type ii copper via its oxygen atoms in an asymmetric bidentate manner; however, elevated b-factors and weak electron density indicate that both nitrite and asn98 are less ordered than in the native enz ...200111478880
cloning, sequencing and mutagenesis of the genes for aromatic amine dehydrogenase from alcaligenes faecalis and evolution of amine dehydrogenases.the nucleotide sequence of the aromatic amine utilization (aau) gene region from alcaligenes faecalis contained nine genes (orf-1, aaubeda, orf-2, orf-3, orf-4 and heme) transcribed in the same direction. the aaub and aaua genes encode the periplasmic aromatic amine dehydrogenase (aadh) large and small subunit polypeptides, respectively, and were homologous to maub and maua, the genes for the large and small subunits of methylamine dehydrogenase (madh). aaue and aaud are homologous to maue and m ...200111495996
introduction of green fluorescent protein gene into phenol-degrading alcaligenes faecalis cells and their monitoring in phenol-contaminated soil.alcaligenesfaecalis (cct 7145) was isolated from an amazonian soil sample after an enrichment process to select for phenol-degrading microorganisms. the isolate was labeled with the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene. the gfp-transformed cells were easily detected using a hand-held uv transilluminator and their taxonomy was confirmed by 16s rrna sequencing. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and southern blot analyses confirmed that the gfp gene was integrated into the chromosome. the addition of ...200111499940
enzymatic degradation of atactic poly(r,s-3-hydroxybutyrate) induced by amorphous polymers and the enzymatic degradation temperature window of an amorphous polymer system.the phase structure and biodegradability were investigated for amorphous blends of chemosynthetic fully amorphous atactic poly(r,s-3-hydroxybutyrate) (a-phb) with atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (pmma) and atactic poly(r,s-lactide) (a-pla). the differential scanning calorimetry thermal analysis indicated that a-phb/pmma blends were partially miscible while a-phb/a-pla blends were miscible in the studied composition range. the biodegradations of the blends were carried out in phosphate buffer s ...200111710008
enzymatic hydrolysis of oligomeric models of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate.the mechanism of the enzymatic degradation of poly([r]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) was investigated by using well-defined model substrates, including both linear and cyclic [r]-3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and [r]-3-hydroxyvalerate (3hv) oligomers, with two different phb depolymerases. the linear and cyclic oligomers containing from 2 to 10 repeating units were hydrolyzed in solutions of the depolymerase isolated from aspergillus fumigatus and alcaligenes faecalis, and the rates of hydrolysis and types ...200011710184
case of catheter sepsis with ralstonia gilardii in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.acute lymphoblastic leukemia was diagnosed in a 7-year-old girl. two months after insertion of a central venous catheter, she developed fever and complained of headache and abdominal pain. physical examination revealed no focus of infection. a gram-negative nonfermenting bacillus was recurrently cultured from blood. extensive biochemical testing and 16s ribosomal dna sequencing led to the identification of ralstonia gilardii.200111724891
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for (1-->6) branched, (1-->3)-beta-d-glucan detection in environmental samples.(1-->3)-beta-d-glucans have been recognized as a potential causative agent responsible for bioaerosol-induced respiratory symptoms observed in both indoor and occupational environments. a specific enzyme immunoassay was developed to quantify (1-->6) branched, (1-->3)-beta-d-glucans in environmental samples. the assay was based on the use of a high-affinity receptor (galactosyl ceramide) specific for (1-->3)-beta-d-glucans as a capture reagent and a monoclonal antibody specific for fungal cell wa ...200111722887
involvement of catalytic amino acid residues in enzyme-catalyzed polymerization for the synthesis of polyesters.recently, a variety of aliphatic polyesters have been synthesized using hydrolases such as lipases and phb depolymerases, and the reaction mechanism for these enzyme-catalyzed polymerization has been discussed. in this paper, we have studied the involvement of the catalytic amino acid residues of the hydrolase in enzyme-catalyzed polymerization with an extracellular phb depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis t1. a wild-type phb depolymerase and three kinds of site-specific mutants (catalytic ami ...200111749218
exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern poland. air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, st. john's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. it was found that processing of herbs was ...200111748878
response of herb processing workers to work-related airborne allergens.a group of 51 herb processing workers employed in a big herb processing facility located in eastern poland were examined by the skin and precipitin tests with, respectively, 4 and 17 extracts of microorganisms associated with organic dusts. out of this number, 32 workers were examined by the skin test with 7 extracts of selected herbs processed in the facility. all the subjects were asked about the occurrence of work-related symptoms. 32 healthy office workers were examined with microbial extrac ...200111748888
analysis of adsorption function of polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis t1 by using a quartz crystal microbalance.enzymatic adsorption and degradation of three types of aliphatic polyester films and two types of polyolefin films by the extracellular phb depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis t1 have been studied by using a quartz crystal microbalance (qcm) technique. hydrolysis of poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] was quantitatively followed by the qcm technique. adsorption of the enzymes to films was also quantitatively detected by the qcm. kinetic study on enzymatic adsorption suggests that the phb depolymerase ...200111749150
detection of legionellae in hospital water samples by quantitative real-time lightcycler pcr.contamination of hospital water systems with legionellae is a well-known cause of nosocomial legionellosis. we describe a new real-time lightcycler pcr assay for quantitative determination of legionellae in potable water samples. primers that amplify both a 386-bp fragment of the 16s rrna gene from legionella spp. and a specifically cloned fragment of the phage lambda, added to each sample as an internal inhibitor control, were used. the amplified products were detected by use of a dual-color hy ...200111525995
hyperthermostable endoglucanase from pyrococcus endoglucanase homolog from the hyperthermophilic archaeon pyrococcus horikoshii was expressed in escherichia coli, and its enzymatic characteristics were examined. the expressed protein was a hyperthermostable endoglucanase which hydrolyzes celluloses, including avicel and carboxymethyl cellulose, as well as beta-glucose oligomers. this enzyme is the first endoglucanase belonging to glycosidase family 5 found from pyrococcus species and is also the first hyperthermostable endoglucanase to whi ...200211772658
microbial population structures in soil particle size fractions of a long-term fertilizer field experiment.soil structure depends on the association between mineral soil particles (sand, silt, and clay) and organic matter, in which aggregates of different size and stability are formed. although the chemistry of organic materials, total microbial biomass, and different enzyme activities in different soil particle size fractions have been well studied, little information is available on the structure of microbial populations in microhabitats. in this study, topsoil samples of different fertilizer treat ...200111526026
identification of strains of alcaligenes and agrobacterium by a polyphasic approach.the number of stable discriminant biochemical characters is limited in the genera alcaligenes and agrobacterium, whose species are consequently difficult to distinguish from one another by conventional tests. moreover, genomic studies have recently drastically modified the nomenclature of these genera; for example, alcaligenes xylosoxidans was transferred to the genus achromobacter in 1998. twenty-five strains of achromobacter xylosoxidans, three strains of an agrobacterium sp., five strains of ...200111526136
coexistence of two distinct copies of naphthalene degradation genes in pseudomonas strains isolated from the western mediterranean region.we analyzed the occurrence of the naphthalene degradation upper-pathway (nah) genes in the western mediterranean region. the amplification, restriction, and sequence analysis of internal fragments for several nah genes (nahac, nahb, nahc, and nahe) from naphthalene-degrading strains isolated from this geographical area proved the coexistence of two distinct sets of nah genes.200211823244
aerobic-type ribonucleotide reductase in the anaerobe bacteroides fragilis.bacteroides fragilis, a component of the normal intestinal flora, is an obligate anaerobe capable of long-term survival in the presence of air. survival is attributed to an elaborate oxidative stress response that controls the induction of more than 28 peptides, but there is limited knowledge concerning the identities of these peptides. in this report, rna fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed pcr identified five new genes whose expression increased following exposure to o2. nucleotide sequence a ...200211807048
crystal structure of the soluble domain of the major anaerobically induced outer membrane protein (ania) from pathogenic neisseria: a new class of copper-containing nitrite reductases.the major anaerobically induced outer membrane protein (ania) from pathogenic neisseria gonorrhoeae is essential for cell growth under oxygen limiting conditions in the presence of nitrite and is protective against killing by human sera. a phylogenic analysis indicates that ania is a member of a new class of copper-containing nitrite reductases. expression of the soluble domain of ania yields a protein capable of reducing nitrite with specific activity of 160 units/mg, approximately 50 % of that ...200211827480
postkeratoplasty endophthalmitis by alcaligenes faecalis: a case describe a postkeratoplasty endophthalmitis owing to alcaligenes faecalis that resolved with medical management.200211862104
side-chain effect of second monomer units on crystalline morphology, thermal properties, and enzymatic degradability for random copolyesters of (r)-3-hydroxybutyric acid with (r)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids.three types of random copolymers with 94 mol % (r)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (3hb) and 6 mol % (r)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids with different side-chain lengths, (r)-3-hydroxypentanoic acid (3hv), (r)-3-hydroxyhexanoic acid (3hhx), and medium-chain-length (r)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids (mcl-3ha, c8-c12), were prepared by biological synthetic techniques. the solid-state structure and thermal properties of melt-crystallized films for copolymers were characterized by means of wide-angle x-ray diffraction, sma ...200211866565
molecular method to assess the diversity of burkholderia species in environmental spite of the importance of many members of the genus burkholderia in the soil microbial community, no direct method to assess the diversity of this genus has been developed so far. the aim of this work was the development of soil dna-based pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge), a powerful tool for studying the diversity of microbial communities, for detection and analysis of the burkholderia diversity in soil samples. primers specific for the genus burkholderia were developed bas ...200211916673
molecular biological detection and characterization of clostridium populations in municipal landfill sites.primer sets specific for 16s rrna genes were designed for four phylogenetic groups of clostridia known to contain mesophilic cellulolytic species. specific amplification of these groups from landfill leachate dna extracts demonstrated the widespread occurrence of clostridia from the clostridium thermocellum and c. leptum groups. in contrast, the c. botulinum group was never detected, and the c. coccoides-c. lentocellum group was only occasionally detected. amplification products were analyzed by ...200211916731
comparative evaluation of the bd phoenix and vitek 2 automated instruments for identification of isolates of the burkholderia cepacia complex.we evaluated two new automated identification systems, the bd phoenix (becton dickinson) and the vitek 2 (biomérieux), for identification of isolates of the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc). the test sample included 42 isolates of the highly virulent and epidemic genomovar iii, 45 isolates of b. multivorans, and 47 isolates of other members of the bcc. rates of correct identification by the bd phoenix and vitek 2 were similar when all bcc isolates were considered (50 and 53%, respectively) but ...200211980954
in vitro antiseptic susceptibility of clinical isolates from nosocomial evaluate the susceptibility of a large number of strains to various antiseptics, we elaborated a simple, qualitative broth turbidity method in which we could quickly judge the efficacy visually. for this method, we prepared a modified neutralizer broth, consisting of trypticase soy broth containing 15% tween 80, 1% soybean lecithin and 0.5% sodium thiosulfate. the susceptibilities of serratia marcescens no. 26 to 4 antiseptics obtained from the turbidity method showed a good agreement with th ...200212011516
base-specific fragmentation of amplified 16s rrna genes analyzed by mass spectrometry: a tool for rapid bacterial identification.a rapid approach to the 16s rrna gene (16s rdna)-based bacterial identification has been developed that combines uracil-dna-glycosylase (udg)-mediated base-specific fragmentation of pcr products with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms). 16s rdna signature sequences were pcr-amplified from both cultured and as-yet-uncultured bacteria in the presence of dutp instead of dttp. these pcr products then were immobilized onto a streptavidin-coated ...200211983869
purification and characterization of alkaline protease from alcaligenes faecalis.extracellular alkaline protease from the alkalophilic bacterium alcaligenes faecalis was purified by a combination of ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatographic methods, and its properties were examined. the purified enzyme had a specific activity of 563.8 micromol of tyrosine/min per mg of protein and gave a single band on native page and sds/page with a molecular mass of 67 kda. gelatin zymogram also revealed one clear zone of proteolytic activity which corresponded to the band obtained w ...200211916457
plasmid-encoded asp operon confers a proton motive metabolic cycle catalyzed by an aspartate-alanine exchange reaction.tetragenococcus halophila d10 catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-aspartate with nearly stoichiometric release of l-alanine and co(2). this trait is encoded on a 25-kb plasmid, pd1. we found in this plasmid a putative asp operon consisting of two genes, which we designated aspd and aspt, encoding an l-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase (aspd) and an aspartate-alanine antiporter (aspt), respectively, and determined the nucleotide sequences. the sequence analysis revealed that the genes of the asp operon ...200212003930
ribosomal dna-directed pcr for identification of achromobacter (alcaligenes) xylosoxidans recovered from sputum samples from cystic fibrosis patients.the opportunistic human pathogen achromobacter (alcaligenes) xylosoxidans has been recovered with increasing frequency from respiratory tract culture of persons with cystic fibrosis (cf). however, confusion of this species with other closely related respiratory pathogens has limited studies to better elucidate its epidemiology, natural history, and pathogenic role in cf. misidentification of a. xylosoxidans as burkholderia cepacia complex is especially problematic and presents a challenge to eff ...200211923333
nonhydrolytic fragmentation of a poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] single crystal revealed by use of a mutant of polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerase.this paper reports the initial process of the enzymatic degradation of solution-grown lamellar single crystals of bacterial poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (p(3hb)) with an extracellular polyhydroxybutyrate (phb) depolymerase purified from alcaligenes faecalis t1. we used a hydrolytic-activity-disrupted mutant of the phb depolymerase in order to avoid the influence of hydrolytic reaction in the system. the effect of addition of the mutant enzyme upon the p(3hb) single crystals was investigated by tu ...200211888317
a broad host range plasmid vector that does not encode replication proteins.the 640-bp minimal replication region derived from a plasmid dna preparation from an acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans strain capable of autonomous replication in a range of gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, acinetobacter calcoaceticus and alcaligenes faecalis) was identified. this dna fragment (named tfk replicon) does not encode rep proteins and appears to be unrelated to other known replicons.200212052556
a quantitative pcr (taqman) assay for pathogenic leptospira spp.leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease. the differential diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult due to the varied and often "flu like" symptoms which may result in a missed or delayed diagnosis. there are over 230 known serovars in the genus leptospira. confirmatory serological diagnosis of leptospirosis is usually made using the microscopic agglutination test (mat) which relies on the use of live cultures as the source of antigen, often performed using a panel of antigens representati ...200212100734
interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids).fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in western europe, the us, and canada. local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. these self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods for assessing exposures of residential communities to contamina ...200212097151
identification of bacteria in drinking and purified water during the monitoring of a typical water purification system.a typical purification system that provides purified water which meets ionic and organic chemical standards, must be protected from microbial proliferation to minimize cross-contamination for use in cleaning and preparations in pharmaceutical industries and in health environments.200212182763
sat, the secreted autotransporter toxin of uropathogenic escherichia coli, is a vacuolating cytotoxin for bladder and kidney epithelial cells.the secreted autotransporter toxin (sat) of uropathogenic escherichia coli exhibits cytopathic activity upon incubation with hep-2 cells. we further investigated the effects of sat on cell lines more relevant to the urinary tract, namely, those derived from bladder and kidney epithelium. sat elicited elongation of cells and apparent loosening of cellular junctions upon incubation with vero kidney cells. additionally, incubation with sat triggered significant vacuolation within the cytoplasm of b ...200212117966
genetic analysis of pigment biosynthesis in xanthobacter autotrophicus py2 using a new, highly efficient transposon mutagenesis system that is functional in a wide variety of bacteria.a highly efficient method of transposon mutagenesis was developed for genetic analysis of xanthobacter autotrophicus py2. the method makes use of a transposon delivery vector that encodes a hyperactive tn 5 transposase that is 1,000-fold more active than the wild-type transposase. in this construct, the transposase is expressed from the promoter of the teta gene of plasmid rp4, which is functional in a wide variety of organisms. the transposon itself contains a kanamycin resistance gene as a sel ...200212189420
crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a d-aminoacylase from alcaligenes faecalis da1.d-aminoacylases catalyze the hydrolysis of n-acyl-d-amino acids into d-amino acids with the aid of zinc ions. the first d-aminoacylase crystal from alcaligenes faecalis has been obtained in hanging drops at ph 5.6 by the vapour-diffusion method using 30% polyethylene glycol 4000 as precipitant. it belongs to space group p2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 60.2, b = 76.6, c = 135.3 a. reflections to 1.2 a resolution are observable. an initial atomic model with 472 residues has been built ...200212198309
evidence for natural horizontal transfer of the pcpb gene in the evolution of polychlorophenol-degrading sphingomonads.the chlorophenol degradation pathway in sphingobium chlorophenolicum is initiated by the pcpb gene product, pentachlorophenol-4-monooxygenase. the distribution of the gene was studied in a phylogenetically diverse group of polychlorophenol-degrading bacteria isolated from contaminated groundwater in kärkölä, finland. all the sphingomonads isolated were shown to share pcpb gene homologs with 98.9 to 100% sequence identity. the gene product was expressed when the strains were induced by 2,3,4,6-te ...200212200305
pathogenic effects of bacteria isolated from larvae of hylesia metabus crammer (lepidoptera: saturniidae).hylesia metabus larvae are susceptible to several pathogens indigenous to the area in which they are found. some larvae show symptoms characteristic of bacterial infection; they become flaccid and lethargic, and show a marked loss of appetite. we isolated and identified 29 bacterial strains from live, dead and experimentally infected h. metabus larvae, and evaluated their pathogenic activity. the bacteria which caused mortality in the larvae were: pseudomonas aeruginosa (60-93.3%), proteus vulga ...200212234536
microbial diversity in an in situ reactor system treating monochlorobenzene contaminated groundwater as revealed by 16s ribosomal dna analysis.a molecular approach based on the construction of 16s ribosomal dna clone libraries was used to investigate the microbial diversity of an underground in situ reactor system filled with the original aquifer sediments. after chemical steady state was reached in the monochlorobenzene concentration between the original inflowing groundwater and the reactor outflow, samples from different reactor locations and from inflowing and outflowing groundwater were taken for dna extraction. small-subunit rrna ...200212353878
use of 16s rrna gene sequencing for identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli recovered from patients attending a single cystic fibrosis center.during 1999, we used partial 16s rrna gene sequencing for the prospective identification of atypical nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients attending our cystic fibrosis center. of 1,093 isolates of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli recovered from 148 patients, 46 (4.2%) gave problematic results with conventional phenotypic tests. these 46 isolates were genotypically identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa (19 isolates, 12 patients), achromobacter xylosoxidans (10 isolates, 8 ...200212354883
structural analysis of the curdlan-like exopolysaccharide produced by cellulomonas flavigena ku.cellulomonas flavigena ku produces large quantities of an insoluble exopolysaccharide (eps) under certain growth conditions. the eps has previously been shown to be a glucose polymer and to have solubility properties similar to curdlan, a beta-1,3-d-glucan produced by alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes 10c3k. furthermore, eps purified by alkaline extraction stains with aniline blue, a dye specific for curdlan-type polysaccharides. however, eps-producing colonies of c. flavigena ku do not stain ...200212355320
the active site of arsenite oxidase from alcaligenes faecalis.arsenite oxidase, a member of the dmso reductase family of molybdenum enzymes, has two molecules of guanosine dinucleotide molybdenum cofactor coordinating the molybdenum at the active site. x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that the mo-s bonds shorten from 2.47 to 2.37 a upon reduction with the physiological substrate. it also indicates the presence of an oxo ligand at 1.70 a in both oxidized and reduced forms of the enzyme, together with a short, 1.83 a, mo-o bond in the oxidized form th ...200212236735
structural-based mutational analysis of d-aminoacylase from alcaligenes faecalis da1.d-aminoacylase is an attractive candidate for commercial production of d-amino acids through its catalysis in the zinc-assistant hydrolysis of n-acyl-d-amino acids. we report here the cloning, expression, and structural-based mutation of the d-aminoacylase from alcaligenes faecalis da1. a 1,007-bp pcr product amplified with degenerate primers, was used to isolate a 4-kb genomic fragment, encoding a 484-residue d-aminoacylase. the enzyme amino-terminal segment shared significant homology within a ...200212381838
microbiological evaluation of a commercial transport system for urine samples.the aim of this study was to evaluate a commercial tube prepared with boric acid, sodium formate and sorbitol (hemogard vacutainer tubes, becton-dickinson, hg tubes). fourteen bacterial strains were incubated in urine in hg tubes and conventional tubes. during a 24-h period, most of the microorganisms grew readily in conventional tubes at room temperature, whereas the bacterial counts were comparatively unchanged when chilled or kept in hg tubes. the bacterial counts of alcaligenes faecalis and ...200212387577
purification and characterization of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase, a three-component dioxygenase system of pseudomonas resinovorans strain ca10.the carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (cardo) system of pseudomonas resinovorans strain ca10 consists of terminal oxygenase (caraa), ferredoxin (carac), and ferredoxin reductase (carad). each component of cardo was expressed in escherichia coli strain bl21(de3) as a native form (caraa) or a his-tagged form (carac and carad) and was purified to apparent homogeneity. caraa was found to be trimeric and to have one rieske type [2fe-2s] cluster and one mononuclear iron center in each monomer. both his-tagge ...200212450807
disruption of narh, narj, and moae inhibits heterotrophic nitrification in pseudomonas strain m19.interruptions in three nitrate reductase-related genes, narh, narj, and moae, inhibited heterotrophic nitrification in pseudomonas strain m19. no nitrate was detected in the medium, and nitrification proceeded in the presence of a nitrate reductase inhibitor. heterotrophic nitrification was greatly stimulated by the addition of nitrate.200212450879
effect of soil ammonium concentration on n2o release and on the community structure of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers.the effect of ammonium addition (6.5, 58, and 395 microg of nh4+-n g [dry weight] of soil(-1)) on soil microbial communities was explored. for medium and high ammonium concentrations, increased n2o release rates and a shift toward a higher contribution of nitrification to n2o release occurred after incubation for 5 days at 4 degrees c. communities of ammonia oxidizers were assayed after 4 weeks of incubation by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) of the amoa gene coding for the small ...200212406765
mutants of streptomyces clavuligerus with disruptions in different genes for clavulanic acid biosynthesis produce large amounts of holomycin: possible cross-regulation of two unrelated secondary metabolic pathways.a streptomyces clavuligerus ccar::aph strain, which has a disruption in the regulatory gene ccar, does not produce cephamycin c or clavulanic acid, but does produce a bioactive compound that was identified as holomycin by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and infrared and mass spectrometry. s. clavuligerus strains with disruptions in different genes of the clavulanic acid pathway fall into three groups with respect to holomycin biosynthesis. (i) mutants with mutations in the early st ...200212426344
crystal structure of d-aminoacylase from alcaligenes faecalis da1. a novel subset of amidohydrolases and insights into the enzyme mechanism.d-aminoacylase is an attractive candidate for commercial production of d-amino acids through its catalysis in the hydrolysis of n-acyl-d-amino acids. we report here the first d-aminoacylase crystal structure from a. faecalis at 1.5-a resolution. the protein comprises a small beta-barrel, and a catalytic (betaalpha)(8)-barrel with a 63-residue insertion. the enzyme structure shares significant similarity to the alpha/beta-barrel amidohydrolase superfamily, in which the beta-strands in both barrel ...200312454005
comparison of automated and nonautomated systems for identification of burkholderia pseudomallei.the identification of burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is usually not difficult in laboratories in areas where it is endemic. with the increase in international travel and the threat of bioterrorism, it has become more likely that laboratories in areas where it is not endemic could encounter this organism. the increase in the use of and dependence upon automated identification systems makes accurate identification of uncommonly encountered organisms such as b. pseud ...200212454163
development and characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies specific for dissimilatoric copper nitrite reductase.several hybridoma cell lines from mice were established, producing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the dissimilatoric copper nitrite reductase (dnir) to detect actual denitrifying bacteria at the single cell level under nondestructive conditions in the environment. the mice were immunized with native or recombinant enzyme gained from two different bacteria, ochrobactrum anthropi and alcaligenes faecalis. the antibodies obtained could be divided into two groups according to their di ...200212470477
arsenite oxidase aox genes from a metal-resistant beta-proteobacterium.the beta-proteobacterial strain ulpas1, isolated from an arsenic-contaminated environment, is able to efficiently oxidize arsenite [as(iii)] to arsenate [as(v)]. mutagenesis with a lacz-based reporter transposon yielded two knockout derivatives deficient in arsenite oxidation. sequence analysis of the dna flanking the transposon insertions in the two mutants identified two adjacent open reading frames, named aoxa and aoxb, as well as a putative promoter upstream of the aoxa gene. reverse transcr ...200312486049
precipitin response of potato processing workers to work-related microbial allergens.serum samples from 61 potato processing workers and 30 urban dwellers not exposed to organic dusts (as a reference group) were examined in agar-gel precipitation test performed by ouchterlony double diffusion method with the antigens of 12 microorganisms associated with organic dusts. each serum was tested twice: not concentrated, and three-fold concentrated, for the detection of low levels of precipitins. the antibody response of workers to the antigen of coryneform bacterium agromyces ramosus ...200212498593
genetic analysis and characterization of poly(aspartic acid) hydrolase-1 from sphingomonas sp. kt-1.sphingomonas sp. kt-1 hydrolyzes poly(aspartic acid) (paa) containing alpha- and beta-amide units and has at least two different types of paa hydrolases. the paa hydrolase-1 hydrolyzes selectively beta-beta amide units in paa. molecular cloning of paa hydrolase-1 from sphingomonas sp. kt-1 has been carried out to characterize its gene products. genetic analysis shows that the deduced amino acid sequence of paa hydrolase-1 has a similarity with those of the catalytic domain of poly(3-hydroxybutyr ...200312523851
[tn5 mutagenesis and the characteristics of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in alcaligenes faecalis a1501].the iaa production of alcaligenes faecalis wild type strain a1501 depended on addition of l-tryptopham(trp). a1501 could grow well in minimal medium without trp, but could not produce iaa. the results indicated that there was trp-dependent iaa biosynthesis pathway in a. faecalis a1501. a1501 shows a characteristic of cell density-dependent iaa biosynthesis. the tn5-induced mutant bank of a1501 was constructed using tn5 mutagenesis and one trp auxotrophic mutant at63 was selected and identified. ...200012548770
directing the mode of nitrite binding to a copper-containing nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6: characterization of an active site isoleucine.unlike the heme cd(1)-based nitrite reductase enzymes, the molecular mechanism of copper-containing nitrite reductases remains controversial. a key source of controversy is the productive binding mode of nitrite in the active site. to identify and characterize the molecular determinants associated with nitrite binding, we applied a combinatorial mutagenesis approach to generate a small library of six variants at position 257 in nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6. the activities of t ...200312538888
molecular diversity and characterization of nitrite reductase gene fragments (nirk and nirs) from nitrate- and uranium-contaminated groundwater.nitrate-contaminated groundwater samples were analysed for nirk and nirs gene diversity. the samples differed with respect to nitrate, uranium, heavy metals, organic carbon content, ph and dissolved oxygen levels. a total of 958 nirk and 1162 nirs clones were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis: 48 and 143 distinct nirk and nirs clones, respectively, were obtained. a single dominant nirk restriction pattern was observed for all six samples and was 83% identical t ...200312542709
[influence of ph control on the production of curdlan by alcaligenes faecalis strain].a two-stage ph control method was employed in batch fermentation of curdlan by alcaligenes faecalis wx-c12 where cell-growth stage was constantly controlled at ph 7.0 and stationary stage was controlled at a constant ph as well. the influence of ph control on the curdlan production was investigated. the optimal ph control of batch process for curdlan production was obtained when cell-growth stage was controlled at ph 7.0 and stationary stage was constantly controlled at ph 5.6. production and pr ...200212561215
[the construction of alcaligenes faecalis ntrc-lacz fusion gene and its expression during association with rice roots].a broad host range vector pla2917 containing ntrc gene or ntrc-lacz fusion were constructed, namely plac1 and plac2. the plasmids plac1 and plac2 were introduced into a. faecalis wild type strain a1501 by conjugation, subsequently to abtain a15c1 and a15c2. the expression and regulation of ntrc gene of a. faecalis associated with rice roots was investigated under the condition of the associative nitrogen fixation using x-gal decoration method, micrograph and ntrc partially deletion mutant. the b ...199812549327
modulation of pps10 host range by plasmid-encoded repa initiator protein.we report here the isolation and analysis of novel repa host range mutants of pps10, a plasmid originally found in pseudomonas savastanoi. upon hydroxylamine treatment, five plasmid mutants were selected for their establishment in escherichia coli at 37 degrees c, a temperature at which the wild-type form cannot be established. the mutations were located in different functional regions of the plasmid repa initiation protein, and the mutants differ in their stable maintenance, copy number, and ab ...200312562807
active site titration as a tool for the evaluation of immobilization procedures of penicillin acylase.native and immobilized preparations of penicillin acylase from escherichia coli and alcaligenes faecalis were studied using an active site titration technique. knowledge of the number of active sites allowed the calculation of the average turnover rate of the enzyme in the various preparations and allowed us to quantify the contribution of irreversible inactivation of the enzyme to the loss of catalytic activity during the immobilization procedure. in most cases a loss of active sites as well as ...200212115439
plasmid-borne genes code for an angular dioxygenase involved in dibenzofuran degradation by terrabacter sp. strain yk3.the genes responsible for angular dioxygenation of dibenzofuran in actinomycetes were cloned by using a degenerate set of pcr primers designed by using conserved sequences of the dioxygenase alpha subunit genes. one sequence of alpha subunit genes was commonly amplified from four dibenzofuran-utilizing actinomycetes: terrabacter sp. strains yk1 and yk3, rhodococcus sp. strain yk2, and microbacterium sp. strain yk18. a 5.2-kb psti fragment encoding the alpha and beta subunits of the terminal diox ...200212147464
biodiversity of denitrifying and dinitrogen-fixing bacteria in an acid forest soil.isolated soil dna from an oak-hornbeam forest close to cologne, germany, was suitable for pcr amplification of gene segments coding for the 16s rrna and nitrogenase reductase (nifh), nitrous oxide reductase (nosz), cytochrome cd(1)-containing nitrite reductase (nirs), and cu-containing nitrite reductase (nirk) of denitrification. for each gene segment, diverse pcr products were characterized by cloning and sequencing. none of the 16s rrna gene sequences was identical to any deposited in the data ...200212147477
interstrain inhibition in the sweet potato pathogen streptomyces ipomoeae: purification and characterization of a highly specific bacteriocin and cloning of its structural gene.strains of the sweet potato soil rot pathogen streptomyces ipomoeae had previously been divided into three groups based on their ability to inhibit one another during pairwise cocultivation. while group i strains are not antagonistic to members of the other groups, group ii and group iii strains produce separate substances that are inhibitory to strains outside their respective cognate groups. here, we purified the group iii inhibitory substance from the culture supernatant of a representative s ...200312676701
comparison of ribotyping and restriction enzyme analysis for inter- and intraspecies discrimination of bordetella avium and bordetella hinzii.bordetella avium is an avian respiratory disease pathogen responsible for substantial economic losses to the turkey industry. the inability to distinguish isolates has hampered outbreak investigations and prevents a complete understanding of transmission mechanisms. isolates of bordetella hinzii, often referred to as b. avium-like or as alcaligenes faecalis type ii prior to 1995, have also been acquired from the respiratory tracts of diseased poultry but are not believed to be pathogenic for bir ...200312682138
reconstitution of the type-1 active site of the h145g/a variants of nitrite reductase by ligand insertion.variants of the copper-containing nitrite reductase (nir) of alcaligenes faecalis s6 were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis, by which the c-terminal histidine ligand (his145) of the cu in the type-1 site was replaced by an alanine or a glycine. the type-1 sites in the nir variants as isolated, are in the reduced form, but can be oxidized in the presence of external ligands, like (substituted) imidazoles and chloride. the reduction potential of the type-1 site of nir-h145a reconstituted wi ...200312680761
bacteriological analysis of blood culture isolates from neonates in a tertiary care hospital in india.this study was undertaken to determine the profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of aerobic isolates from blood cultures of neonates in a tertiary care hospital in new delhi, india. all blood culture reports (n = 1,828), obtained during august 1995-september 1996 from newborns admitted to the department of pediatrics and the neonatal intensive care unit at the university college of medical sciences and gtb hospital, delhi, were analyzed, and the sensitivity patterns were recorded. the posi ...200212659415
correlation between structure of the lactones and substrate specificity in enzyme-catalyzed polymerization for the synthesis of polyesters.small-size (4-membered) and medium-size (5-, 6-, and 7-membered) unsubstituted lactones as well as unsubstituted macrolides (12 and 13 membered) were subjected to the ring-opening polymerization using the extracellular phb depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis t1 (phaz(afa)). the characteristic reactivities of the lactones were discussed based on a tertiary structure model of the active site of the phaz(afa). with respect to the ring-size of the lactones, the 4-membered beta-propiolactone and 6 ...200312741767
long-term analysis of diesel fuel consumption in a co-culture of acinetobacter venetianus, pseudomonas putida and alcaligenes faecalis.the dynamics of a microbial population isolated from superficial waters of venice lagoon and the ability to utilise diesel fuel (n-alkanes mixture c12-c28) as the sole carbon and energy source were studied in a long-term reconstruction experiment. the reconstructed microbial population consisted of three bacterial strains belonging to the species acinetobacter venetianus, pseudomonas putida, and alcaligenes faecalis, which were able to oxidise n-alkanes to alkanoates, n-alkanols to alkanoates, o ...200312755474
purification and characterization of alcaligenes faecalis penicillin g acylase expressed in bacillus subtilis.the alcaligenes faecalis pga gene encoding heterodimeric penicillin g acylase (pga) was cloned and successfully expressed in escherichia coli and bacillus subtilis respectively. in contrast to e.coli hosts where the enzymes were retained in the periplasm, b. subtilis cell secreted the recombinant enzyme into the medium. contrary to limited expression yield of e. coli (petapga), pga extracellularly expressed by b. subtilis (pbapga) and b. subtilis (pmapga) reached the highest yield of 653 u/l. th ...200312766801
purification and properties of an intracellular 3-hydroxybutyrate-oligomer hydrolase (phaz2) in ralstonia eutropha h16 and its identification as a novel intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) intracellular 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb)-oligomer hydrolase (phaz2(reu)) of ralstonia eutropha was purified from escherichia coli harboring a plasmid containing phaz2(reu). the purified enzyme hydrolyzed linear and cyclic 3hb-oligomers. although it did not degrade crystalline poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb), the purified enzyme degraded artificial amorphous phb at a rate similar to that of the previously identified intracellular phb (iphb) depolymerase (phaz1(reu)). the enzyme appeared to be an en ...200312775684
phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and archaeal arsc gene sequences suggests an ancient, common origin for arsenate reductase.the ars gene system provides arsenic resistance for a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. the arsc gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance and transforms arsenate into arsenite, which is extruded from the cell. a survey of genbank shows that arsc appears to be phylogenetically widespread both in organisms with known arsenic resistance and those organisms that have been sequenced as part of whole genome projects.200312877744
phylogeny and characterization of three nifh-homologous genes from paenibacillus this paper, we report the cloning and characterization of three paenibacillus azotofixans dna regions containing genes involved in nitrogen fixation. sequencing analysis revealed the presence of nifb1h1d1k1 gene organization in the 4,607-bp saci dna fragment. this is the first report of linkage of a nifb open reading frame upstream of the structural nif genes. the second (nifb2h2) and third (nifh3) nif homologues are confined within the 6,350-bp hindiii and 2,840-bp ecori dna fragments, respe ...200312788777
molecular diversity of denitrifying genes in continental margin sediments within the oxygen-deficient zone off the pacific coast of understand the composition and structure of denitrifying communities in the oxygen-deficient zone off the pacific coast of mexico, the molecular diversity of nir genes from sediments obtained at four stations was examined by using a pcr-based cloning approach. a total of 50 operational taxonomic units (otus) for nirk and 82 otus for nirs were obtained from all samples. forty-four of the nirs clones and 31 of the nirk clones were sequenced; the levels of similarity of the nirs clones were 52 t ...200312788762
a homology model of penicillin acylase from alcaligenes faecalis and in silico evaluation of its selectivity.a three-dimensional model of the relatively unknown penicillin acylase from alcaligenes faecalis (pa-af) was built up by means of homology modeling based on three different crystal structures of penicillin acylase from various sources. an in silico selectivity study was performed to compare this homology model to the structure of the escherichia coli enzyme (pa-ec) in order to find any selectivity differences between the two enzymes. the program grid was applied in combination with the principal ...200312851931
control of metalloprotein reduction potential: compensation phenomena in the reduction thermodynamics of blue copper proteins.the reduction thermodynamics (delta h degrees '(rc) and delta s degrees '(rc)) for native paracoccus versutus amicyanin, for alcaligenes faecalis s-6 pseudoazurin, and for the g45p, m64e, and k27c variants of pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin were measured electrochemically. comparison with the data available for other native and mutated blue copper proteins indicates that the features of metal coordination and the electrostatic potential due to the protein matrix and the solvent control the reducti ...200312885256
bioreactor cultivation of escherichia coli for production of recombinant penicillin g amidase from alcaligenes faecalis.the penicillin g amidase (pga) from alcaligenes faecalis, which has interesting properties for use in combinatorial biochemistry, was produced by recombinant expression in escherichia coli. the corresponding gene was cloned into a multicopy vector under the strict regulatory control of the rhamnose inducible promoter. cells were grown in a synthetic minimal medium in a bioreactor (5 l working vol.), and production of pga was induced by repeated addition of the inducer rhamnose, that served also ...200312882560
isolation of strains belonging to the cosmopolitan polynucleobacter necessarius cluster from freshwater habitats located in three climatic zones.more than 40 bacterial strains belonging to the cosmopolitan polynucleobacter necessarius cluster (betaproteobacteria) were isolated from a broad spectrum of freshwater habitats located in three climatic zones. sequences affiliated with the freshwater p. necessarius cluster are among the most frequently detected in studies on bacterial diversity in freshwater ecosystems. despite this frequent detection with culture-independent techniques and the cosmopolitan occurrence of members affiliated with ...200312957910
cloning of a nitrilase gene from the cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. strain pcc6803 and heterologous expression and characterization of the encoded protein.the gene encoding a putative nitrilase was identified in the genome sequence of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. strain pcc6803. the gene was amplified by pcr and cloned into an expression vector. the encoded protein was heterologously expressed in the native form and as a his-tagged protein in escherichia coli, and the recombinant strains were shown to convert benzonitrile to benzoate. the active enzyme was purified to homogeneity and shown by gel filtration to consist probab ...200312902216
nitrogen fixation genetics and regulation in a pseudomonas stutzeri strain associated with rice.the pseudomonas stutzeri strain a1501 (formerly known as alcaligenes faecalis) fixes nitrogen under microaerobic conditions in the free-living state and colonizes rice endophytically. the authors characterized a region in strain a1501, corresponding to most of the nif genes and the rnf genes, involved in electron transport to nitrogenase in rhodobacter capsulatus. the region contained three groups of genes arranged in the same order as in azotobacter vinelandii: (1) nifb fdx orf3 nifq orf5 orf6; ...200312904565
[suppurative meningitis in infant caused by alcaligenes faecalis]. 195212987217
alcaligenes faecalis meningitis complicated by hydrocephalus in a premature twin; report of case; intramuscular chloramphenicol therapy. 195212995997
[a case of alcaligenes faecalis septicemia]. 195313101207
differentiation of alcaligenes faecalis from brucella bronchisepticus by biochemical and nutritional methods. 195313034718
[a case of mixed meningitis caused by alcaligenes faecalis and flavobacterium arborescens]. 195313073497
nitrogen compounds utilized by alcaligenes faecalis. 195313096506
phosphorylation coupled to electron transport in cell-free extracts of alcaligenes faecalis. 195313117884
the nomenclatural type of the genus deleya and the consequences of deleya aesta and alcaligenes aquamarinus being synonyms.the genus deleya was created to encompass a number of marine organisms that had previously been classified in diverse genera. deleya aesta was designated as the type species of the genus. subsequent work indicated that deleya aesta, alcaligenes aquamarinus and alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari were heterotypic synonyms. consequently, akagawa & yamasato (int j syst bacteriol 39, 462-466, 1989) concluded that, based on rules 23a and 51b of the bacteriological code (1975 revision), the oldest legi ...200313130071
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