TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
synthesis and antitumor activities of mitomycin c (1----3)-beta-d-glucan conjugate.the conjugate of mitomycin c (mmc) with linear (1----3)-beta-d-glucan from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo 13140 was synthesized and its antitumor activities investigated. the conjugate (mmc-carboxymethylated linear (1----3)-beta-d-glucan (cmps)) was obtained by treatment of cmps with mmc in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide. in vitro cytotoxicity of mmc-cmps against l1210 leukemia cells was similar to that of mmc. in i.p.-i.p. system in vivo against p388 leu ...19921525956
homeostasis as regulated by activated macrophage. iii. protective effect of lpsw (lipopolysaccharide (lps) of wheat flour) on gastric ulcer in mice as compared with those of other lps from various sources.protective effect of lipopolysaccharide (lps) from various sources on gastric ulcer has been examined in mice using parenteral as well as oral route. ulcer is induced by indomethacin, stress or alcohol. lps was prepared from 6 species of bacteria (escherichia coli, pantoea agglomerans, serratia ficaria, enterobacter cloacae, bordetella pertussis, alcaligenes faecalis) and from wheat flour. when administered intravenously, lps of pantoea agglomerans was the most effective among other lps examined ...19921525959
evaluation of the 4-hour rapid nf plus method for identification of 345 gram-negative nonfermentative rods.the ability of the rapid nf plus system (innovative diagnostic systems, inc., atlanta, ga.) to identify 345 nonfermentative gram-negative rods was evaluated. kits were inoculated with no. 1 mcfarland suspensions, and reactions were interpreted after a 4-h incubation at 35 degrees c. overall, the method correctly identified 311 strains (90.1%) without additional tests and 21 strains (6.1%) with additional tests, and 13 strains (3.8%) were misidentified. five of 13 misidentified strains were alcal ...19921583129
site-directed mutagenesis of pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis s-6; pro80ala mutant exhibits marked increase in reduction potential.pseudoazurin (a blue copper protein or cupredoxin) of a denitrifying bacterium alcaligenes faecalis s-6 is a direct electron carrier for a cu-containing nitrite reductase (nir) of the same organism. site-directed mutagenesis of the pseudoazurin was carried out using an escherichia coli expression system. replacement of tyr74 by phe to remove an internal hydrogen bond in the beta-barrel caused a slight decrease in heat stability as well as a requirement for a higher concentration of cu2+ for prod ...19921594573
antimicrobial activity of essential oil from schinus molle linn.the essential oil from the fresh leaves of schinus molle isolated by hydrodistillation was tested for antibacterial activity using the hole plate diffusion method and for antifungal activity using the mycelium or single cell growth inhibition method. results obtained showed that the volatile oil exhibited significant activity against the following bacterial species: klebsiella pneumoniae, alcaligenes faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, leuconostoc cremoris, enterobacter aerogenes, proteus vulgaris ...19938055554
distinctive electrophoretic pattern of esterases produced by alcaligenes species.the esterases produced by 34 strains of alcaligenes faecalis, 16 strains of a. denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans, 5 strains of a. piechaudii and 10 strains of a. denitrificans subsp. denitrificans were analysed by horizontal polyacrylamide-agarose gel electrophoresis. these enzymes were distinguished by their spectra of hydrolytic activity towards 5 synthetic substrates (hydrolytic type) and their electrophoretic mobilities (electrophoretic type). four hydrolytic types of esterases were produced ...19938210679
a monoclonal antibody-based latex bead agglutination test for the detection of bordetella avium.the purpose of this study was to develop a rapid method to distinguish bordetella avium from closely related bordetella avium-like and b. bronchiseptica bacteria. a monoclonal antibody of the igm isotype was produced in balb/c mice against live b. avium strain 75. the monoclonal antibody, in the form of ascites fluid, was added to a bovine serum albumin-glycine buffer (ph 8.6) and adsorbed to 3.03-microns-diameter latex beads. optimum concentrations of antibody, beads, and bacteria were determin ...19938257369
a comparison of ozonation and chlorination for the disinfection of stainless steel surfaces.ozonated water and chlorinated sanitizer were compared for effectiveness against biofilms of milk spoilage bacteria. stainless steel plates were incubated in uht-pasteurized milk inoculated with pure cultures of either pseudomonas fluorescens (atcc 949) or alcaligenes faecalis (atcc 337). after incubation, the plates were removed and rinsed in sterile pbs. a control rinsed stainless steel plate was swabbed and plated on standard plate count agar. a second rinsed stainless steel plate was covered ...19938270705
identification of bordetella avium using the polymerase chain reaction.a dna fragment from bordetella pertussis, encoding the fim2 fimbrial subunit gene with adjacent sequences, was used as a probe for the detection of homologous sequences in chromosomal dna of bordetella avium. a 1.8 kb sa1i-psti fragment from the genome of b. avium, which hybridized with the probe, was isolated and sequenced. no fimbrial subunit gene was located on the b. avium dna fragment. two regions could be distinguished in the sequence of the fragment. region 1, which was 80% identical to t ...19938271920
a comparison of no and n2o production by the autotrophic nitrifier nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic nitrifier alcaligenes faecalis.soil microorganisms are important sources of the nitrogen trace gases no and n2o for the atmosphere. present evidence suggests that autotrophic nitrifiers such as nitrosomonas europaea are the primary producers of no and n2o in aerobic soils, whereas denitrifiers such as pseudomonas spp. or alcaligenes spp. are responsible for most of the no and n2o emissions from anaerobic soils. it has been shown that alcaligenes faecalis, a bacterium common in both soil and water, is capable of concomitant he ...19938285659
factors affecting pcb degradation by an implanted bacterial strain in soil microcosms.pseudomonas testosteroni b-356 was able to degrade approximately 50% of the aroclor 1242 mixture in shaken culture. the aims of the present study were to evaluate the capabilities of this bacterial strain to degrade pcbs in soil microcosms and to identify some of the factors likely to favor the degradative performance of the implanted bacteria. the presence of biphenyl as cosubstrate was the most important factor affecting pcb degradation in soil. however, because biphenyl was rapidly depleted i ...19938358671
nitrilase in biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-acetonitrile: cloning of the alcaligenes gene and site-directed mutagenesis of cysteine residues.indole-3-acetic acid is the major auxin in most plants. in cruciferae, including brassicaceae, indole-3-acetic acid is synthesized from indole-3-acetonitrile by nitrilase, after indole-3-acetonitrile is formed from tryptophan via indole-3-acetaldoxime or indole glycosinolates as the intermediate. we cloned and sequenced the gene for nitrilase (ec, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of indole-3-acetonitrile to indole-3-acetic acid, from alcaligenes faecalis jm3. the amino acid sequence deduc ...19938419930
alcaligenes faecalis corneal ulcer in a patient with cicatricial pemphigoid. 19938430740
valine dehydrogenase from a non-spore-forming bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis: purification and nad-dependent valine dehydrogenase (l-valine:nad oxidoreductase, deaminating, ec 1.4.1.-), was found in a non-spore-forming bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis, and purified about 80-fold to be characterized. the molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be about 72 kda and the enzyme consists of two identical subunits with a molecular mass of 40 kda and is thermolabile. it loses its activity fully on incubation at 50 degrees c for 5 min. the enzyme catalyzes the reversible deamination of l-v ...19938448188
efficacy of a one-step hydrogen peroxide system for disinfection of soft contact lenses.we investigated the efficacy of a one-step hydrogen peroxide system by culturing soft contact lenses before and after exposure to the aosept disinfection system. sixteen of 38 soft contact lenses obtained from asymptomatic wearers showed microbial growth. nine cultures were positive for pseudomonas sp., four showed growth of staphylococcus sp., two were positive for beta-hemolytic streptococci, and one culture was positive for alcaligenes faecalis. a second culture of the contact lenses after hy ...19938453753
cloning and characterization of a nitrite reductase gene from alcaligenes faecalis and its expression in escherichia coli.the gene (nir) encoding the copper-containing nitrite reductase (nir) of a denitrifying bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis s-6, was cloned by a synthetic oligonucleotide-probing method. the nucleotide sequence of the cloned dna fragment revealed the primary structure of the nir precursor containing the n-terminal signal sequence for secretion. a nucleotide sequence, possibly recognized by a transcriptional regulator resembling fnr was found upstream of the structural gene. when the cloned gene was ...19938515232
kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous hydrolysis of poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] film by pha depolymerases.the kinetics and mechanism of enzymatic degradation on the surface of poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (p[(r)-3hb]) film have been studied using three types of extracellular poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (pha) depolymerases from alcaligenes faecalis, pseudomonas picketti and comamonas testosteroni. the monomer and dimer of 3-hydroxybutyric acid were produced during the course of the enzymatic degradation of p[(r)-3hb] film, and the rate of production was determined by monitoring the increase in absorbance a ...19938110658
changing patterns of microbial contamination and antimicrobial sensitivity in donor eyes.contaminating microbial flora and their in vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern was determined for 1557 eyes from donor cadavers collected during five years. positive cultures were obtained in 42.77% of the eyes; bacterial growth was observed in 39.17% of the eyes and fungal growth, in 3.6%. there was significant variation in the rate of contamination from year to year during the study period. staphylococcus albus was the most frequently isolated organism (28.10%), followed by acinetobacter spp. ...19938129326
in-vitro susceptibility of alcaligenes faecalis compared with those of other alcaligenes spp. to antimicrobial agents including seven beta-lactams. 19938144436
x-ray structure and site-directed mutagenesis of a nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6: roles of two copper atoms in nitrite reduction.nitrite reductase (nir) from the denitrifying bacterium alcaligenes faecalis s-6 is a copper-containing enzyme which requires pseudoazurin, a low molecular weight protein containing a single type i copper atom, as a direct electron donor in vivo. crystallographic analysis shows that nir is a trimer composed of three identical subunits, each of which contains one atom of type i copper and one atom of type ii copper, and that the ligands to the type i and type ii copper atoms are the same as those ...19948172899
distribution of the catabolic transposon tn5271 in a groundwater bioremediation system.the distribution of tn5271-related dna sequences in samples of groundwater and a groundwater bioremediation system at the hyde park (niagara falls, n.y.) chemical landfill site was investigated. pcr amplification of target sequences within the cha genes of tn5271 revealed similar sequences in the groundwater community and in samples from the sequencing batch reactors treating that groundwater. cell dilution combined with pcr amplification indicated that cha sequences were carried in about 1 of 1 ...19948117095
differential blocking of coagulation-activating pathways of limulus amebocyte lysate.the coagulation of limulus amebocyte lysate (lal) can be activated through two pathways, one initiated by endotoxin and the other by beta-glucans. the two pathways join at the step of activation of the proclotting enzyme. we report here that the endotoxin-activated pathway can be differentially inhibited by two methods in a limulus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), either by the combined use of dimethyl sulfoxide and polymyxin b or by a monoclonal antibody against limulus factor c. lal ...19948077400
extracellular transport of pseudoazurin of alcaligenes faecalis in escherichia coli using the cooh-terminal domain of serratia marcescens serine protease.a large cooh-terminal domain of serratia marcescens serine protease (ssp) is essentially required for the excretion of the mature protease region through the outer membrane in escherichia coli. for investigation of the possibility of transporting foreign periplasmic proteins by utilizing the function of the cooh-terminal domain of ssp, the pseudoazurin (pa) gene of alcaligenes faecalis was fused to three different lengths of the cooh-terminal domain via a bglii linker sequence (agatct) which wou ...19947822250
d-aminoacylase from alcaligenes faecalis possesses novel activities on d-methionine.d-aminoacylase isolated from alcaligenes faecalis da1 has a great potential for future application in d-amino acids production. this paper reports for the first time that d-aminoacylase can reverse the catalysis direction on d-met and deacylate n-ac-d-met-ome and n-ac-d-met-gly. the results provide important insights regarding the binding and affinity of substrates to the active site of this enzyme. based on a systematic study of kinetic properties and relative reactivities for a broad range of ...19947922115
microbial synthesis and properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) in comamonas acidovorans.comamonas acidovorans ds-17 was isolated from activated sludge and found to produce copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4hb) at 30 degrees c under growth-limited conditions. when 1,4-butanediol or 4-hydroxybutyric acid was used as the sole carbon source, a p(4hb) homopolymer was produced. random copolymers of 3hb and 4hb units were produced on the addition of glucose or 3-hydroxybutyric acid to the culture solution of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. the physical properties of p(3 ...19948011595
the crystal structures of reduced pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 at two ph values.the structures of the reduced (cu1+) blue-copper protein pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis strain s-6 are refined at ph 7.8 and 4.4 using x-ray diffraction data to 1.8 a resolution. the final r-factors for the high and low ph structures are 0.178 and 0.177, respectively. comparing the reduced pseudoazurin at ph 7.8 with the oxidised (cu2+) molecule, small changes are observed in the vicinity of the copper site and on the protein surface. at ph 4.4 the copper substituent imidazole of his81 r ...19948034003
[mossbauer data on the effect of nad.h on the state of iron in bacteria].the state of fe of bacterial cultures of different systematic positions (bacillus megaterium, bacillus polymyxa, pseudomonas putida, pseudomonas fluorescens, alcaligenes faecalis, arthrobacter siderocapsulatus) grown on the medium containing fe(iii) citrate (up to 100 mg/l) with additional or without nad.h was studied. the samples were in damp air-dry, second moistened, dried at 383 k states. spectra have been obtained at 290 k and 100-200 k. the studied microorganisms have two types of atoms of ...19948043633
effects of organic acids on heterotrophic nitrification by alcaligenes faecalis okk17.factors affecting heterotrophic nitrification by alcaligenes faecalis okk17, which was isolated from sewage sludge, were examined. specific nitrifying activity increased as the ph increased up to 8.5. most of the nitrogenous compounds (88%) in the culture supernatant were converted to hydroxylamine or nitrite at ph 9 but 87% of them remained as ammonium at ph 7. these results imply that the substrate for heterotrophic nitrification is ammonium and that the organism oxidizes ammonium to lower its ...19947765476
characterization of contaminating dna in taq polymerase which occurs during amplification with a primer set for legionella 5s ribosomal amplification product that occurred in negative controls of a pcr using a primer system for legionella 55 ribosomal rna was characterized by direct sequencing. the amplification product did not hybridize to a legionella specific oligonucleotide. it was derived from bacterial dna contaminating taq dna polymerase, a phenomenon that was previously reported for amplification reactions with universal primer sets for bacterial 16s rrna. the sequence of the 5s ribosomal fragment had close homology t ...19947518037
pcr-based preparation of 23s rrna-targeted group-specific polynucleotide probes.dna coding for a variable region within domain iii of bacterial 23s rrna was used as the target for group-specific polynucleotide hybridization probes. the corresponding rdna was amplified in vitro by the pcr technique in combination with a pair of primers specific for flanking conserved target sites. the amplified fragments were cloned or used directly as probes. rna probes were generated by in vitro transcription of cloned or amplified rdna. the probes were labeled by incorporating modified nu ...19947524442
the dynamic progression of evolved character states for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in gram-negative bacteria.a systematic analysis of the evolution of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the proteobacteria, previously focussed mainly upon the gamma subdivision, has now been extended to the beta subdivision. five lineages were studied, represented by neisseria gonorrhoeae, nitrosomonas europaea, alcaligenes faecalis, rrna group-iii pseudomonads/rubrivivax gelatinosus, and rrna group-ii pseudomonads/rhodocyclus tenuis. within the phenylalanine pathway, the bifunctional p-protein (chorismate mutase/prephe ...19947533594
structure of alcaligenes faecalis nitrite reductase and a copper site mutant, m150e, that contains zinc.the structures at 2.0 and 2.25 a resolution of native and recombinant nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis show that they are identical to each other and very similar to nitrite reductase from achromobacter cycloclastes. the crystallographic structure of a mutant, m150e, which unlike the wild-type protein cannot be reduced by pseudoazurin, shows that the glutamate replacement for methionine binds to a metal at the type i cu site via only one oxygen. anomalous scattering data collected at ...19957547950
buffering capacity and h+ membrane conductance of gram-negative bacteria.buffering capacity and membrane h+ conductance were examined in seven gram-negative species: aquaspirillum serpens, pseudomonas aeruginosa, alcaligenes faecalis, escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, proteus mirabilis and aeromonas hydrophila. all strains of enterobacteriaceae studied here showed a decrease in both parameters as the external ph increased, over the ph range studied. the other four species presented an increase in buffering capacity and membrane conductance to protons as the e ...19957557289
[comparative susceptibility of ochrobactrum anthropi, agrobacterium tumefaciens, alcaligenes faecalis, alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams].ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "achromobacter sp." or cdc group vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). o. anthropi is a gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. the susceptibility of 13 strains of o. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of agrobacterium tumefaciens, alcaligenes faecalis, alcaligenes ...19957567111
morphology and biodegradability of a binary blend of poly((r)-3-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly((r,s)-lactic acid).the miscibility, morphology, and biodegradability of a binary blend of bacterial poly((r)-3-hydroxybutyric acid)(p((r)-3hb);mn = 300,000) with atactic poly((r,s)-lactic acid)(p((r,s)-la);mn = 9,000) were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and hydrolysis with an without enzyme. differential scanning calorimetry revealed that a p((r)-3hb)-p((r,s)-la) blend had a single glass-transition temperature for all proportions of the comp ...19957606667
identification of interaction site of pseudoazurin with its redox partner, copper-containing nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6.pseudoazurin, a low molecular weight protein containing a single type i copper, functions as an electron donor to a copper-containing nitrite reductase (nir) in a denitrifying bacterium alcaligenes faecalis s-6. to elucidate the protein-protein interaction between these two copper-containing proteins, each of nine out of 13 lysine residues on the surface of pseudoazurin were independently replaced by alanine or aspartate, and the effects of the mutations on the interaction with nir, as well as t ...19957630886
the crystal structure of apo-pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis s-6.the 3d structure of the apo-pseudoazurin (copper free pseudoazurin) from alcaligenes faecalis strain s-6 is determined and refined at ph 6.7 using x-ray diffraction data to 1.85 a resolution. the final crystallographic r-factor is 0.164. comparing the structures of apo-pseudoazurin and the native (cu2+) protein, we observed limited differences ranging between 0.1-0.4 a at the vicinity of the copper site, at the loops connecting the secondary structural elements, at certain beta-strands and at th ...19957635192
aliphatic nitrilase from a soil-isolated comamonas testosteroni sp.: gene cloning and overexpression, purification and primary aliphatic nitrilase, active on adiponitrile and cyanovaleric acid, was identified and purified from comamonas testosteroni sp. (ct). oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes were designed from limited amino acid (aa) sequence information and used to clone the corresponding gene, named nita. high homologies were found at the aa level between ct nitrilase and the sequences of known nitrilases. multi-alignment of sequenced nitrilases suggests that cys163 of ct plays an essential role in the active site. ...19957642130
properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from a marine bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis ae122.alcaligenes faecalis ae122 that used poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) as a sole source of carbon was newly isolated from a coastal seawater sample. the strain required seawater for growth on phb as well as in a nutrient broth, in which seawater could be replaced by an appropriate concentration of nacl. phb depolymerase was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of a. faecalis ae122 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the enzyme consisted of a monomer subunit ...19957646009
bacterial agents causing chronic suppurative otitis media.ear swabs from 350 patients with chronic otitis media attending different orthorhinolaryngological clinics at different hospitals and health centres in benin city and ekpoma in edo state were screened for the presence of bacterial agents of chronic otitis media. results revealed the presence of 19 different species indicating polymicrobial infections. species isolated comprised staphylococcus aureus (33.6%), pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.3%), proteus mirabilis (17%), alcaligenes faecalis (6.2%) and ...19957498006
epidemiological investigation of infections due to alcaligenes species in children and patients with cystic fibrosis: use of repetitive-element-sequence polymerase chain reaction.twenty-one isolates of alcaligenes species were recovered from the respiratory tract of 16 patients at texas children's hospital over a 1-year period. all but one were identified as alcaligenes xylosoxidans; the remaining isolate was identified as alcaligenes faecalis (formerly alcaligenes odorans). thirteen of 21 isolates were from the sputum of eight patients with cystic fibrosis (cf), two of whom were persistently colonized. the remaining isolates were recovered from intubated children. patte ...19957795082
biochemical and molecular characterization of the pseudomonas lemoignei polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase system.pseudomonas lemoignei has five different polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) depolymerase genes (phaz1 to phaz5), which encode the extracellularly localized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) depolymerases c, b, and d, poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (phv) depolymerase, and phb depolymerase a, respectively. four of the five genes (phaz1 to phaz4) have been cloned, and one of them (phaz1) was studied in detail earlier (d. jendrossek, b. müller, and h. g. schlegel, eur. j. biochem. 218:701-710, 1993). the fifth pha dep ...19957836292
spectroscopic evidence for a common electron transfer pathway for two tryptophan tryptophylquinone enzymes.aromatic amine dehydrogenase (aadh) and methylamine dehydrogenase (madh) are the only two enzymes known to use the cofactor tryptophan tryptophylquinone (ttq). each catalyzes oxidative deamination of a distinct class of primary amines. a detailed comparison of their circular dichroic spectra indicates that both proteins share a similar fold with their ttq cofactors residing in similar environments and that this may be a useful diagnostic probe for ttq enzymes. alcaligenes faecalis cells induced ...19957876189
isolation and characterization of a novel 5-oxoprolinase (without atp-hydrolyzing) from alcaligenes faecalis n-38a.a screening test was undertaken to isolate a microorganism that produced 5-oxoprolinase (without atp-hydrolyzing). the 5-oxoprolinase (without atp-hydrolyzing) activity (decyclization activity toward l-pyroglutamate) was found in a cell-free extract of alcaligenes faecalis n-38a, newly isolated from a soil sample. the enzyme was purified as a homogeneous preparation. the molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 47,000. the decyclization activity was specific for l-pyroglutamate, and in ...19958535001
[cerebral abscess of otic origin caused conjointly by proteus mirabilis and alcaligenes faecalis]. 19958808483
susceptibilities of non-pseudomonas aeruginosa gram-negative nonfermentative rods to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, d-ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem.agar dilution mics of 10 agents against 410 non-pseudomonas aeruginosa gram-negative nonfermentative rods were determined. mics at which 50 and 90% of the isolates were inhibited, respectively, were as follows (in micrograms per milliliter): sparfloxacin, 0.5 and 8.0; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 8.0; ciprofloxacin, 2.0 and 32.0; ofloxacin, 2.0 and 32.0; d-ofloxacin, 32.0 and > 64.0; ceftazidime, 8.0 and 64.0; piperacillin with or without tazobactam, 16.0 and > 64.0; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 0.5 ...19968851609
incidence of pyrexia in patients undergoing haemodialysis.four patients on maintenance haemodialysis at the lagos university teaching developed pyrogenic reactions during treatment. blood cultures were negative but the haemodialysates were grossly contaminated, mostly with gram-negative bacilli, implicating their endotoxin as the cause of the observed pyrogenicity. the water reservoirs supplying the dialysis centre were grossly contaminated (counts 2.0 x 10(2) cfuml-1) with gram-negative bacteria such as pseudomonas aeruginosa, ps. fluorescens, alcalig ...19968855673
bordetella trematum sp. nov., isolated from wounds and ear infections in humans, and reassessment of alcaligenes denitrificans rüger and tan 1983.ten strains recognized on the basis of a computer-assisted numerical comparison of whole-cell protein patterns as members of a novel species belonging to the family alcaligenaceae were examined by using an integrated phenotypic and genotypic approach. this species, for which we propose the name bordetella trematum sp. nov., was more closely related to the type species of the genus bordetella (bordetella pertussis) than to the type species of the genus alcaligenes (alcaligenes faecalis) and had t ...19968863408
site-directed mutagenesis of azurin from pseudomonas aeruginosa enhances the formation of an electron-transfer complex with a copper-containing nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6.kinetic analysis of electron transfer between azurin from pseudomonas aeruginosa and copper-containing nitrite reductase (nir) from akaligenes faecalis s-6 was carried out to investigate the specificity of electron transfer between copper-containing proteins. apparent values of kcat and km of nir for azurin were 300-fold smaller and 172-fold larger than those for the physiological redox partner, pseudoazurin from a. faecalis s-6, respectively, suggesting that the electron transfer between azurin ...19968925934
cloning, characterization, and expression of the nitric oxide-generating nitrite reductase and of the blue copper protein genes of achromobacter cycloclastes.the nitrite reductase (nir) and blue copper protein (bcp) genes have been cloned from achromobacter cycloclastes and characterized. nir gene encodes a protein of 378 amino acid residues including a putative signal peptide of 37 residues. bcp gene encodes a protein of 148 residues with a 24-residue signal peptide. the dna-derived amino acid sequence of nir is in complete agreement with that from edman degradation and the dna coding sequence of bcp is also consistent with its partial n-terminal am ...19968605003
uterine, cervical and vaginal microflora of the normal bitch throughout the reproductive cycle.samples for microbiological culture were collected from the uterus of bitches using transcervical uterine cannulation (31 samples, 23 bitches) and from the uterus, cervix and vagina post mortem (19 bitches) at all stages of the reproductive cycle. samples were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and for aerobic mycoplasmas. bacteria were always found in the uterus during pro-oestrus and oestrus (12 positive in 12 cultures) and rarely at other stages of the reproductive cycle: during anoe ...19968656593
studies on protein-protein interaction between copper-containing nitrite reductase and pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis mutagenesis of a copper-containing nitrite reductase (nir) from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 was carried out to identify the amino acid residues involved in interaction with its redox partner, pseudoazurin, in which four positively charged residues were previously shown to be important in the interaction. ten negatively charged residues located on the surface of nir were replaced independently by alanine or serine. all the altered nirs showed cd spectra and optical spectra identical to ...19968662745
an iron dioxygenase from alcaligenes faecalis catalyzing the oxidation of pyruvic oxime to enzyme which participated in the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite from was partially purified alcaligenes faecalis, and some of its properties were studied. the enzyme oxidized aerobically pyruvic oxime to nitrite in the presence of hydroxylamine or ascorbate. as molecular oxygen equimolar to nitrite formed was consumed in the enzymatic oxidation of pyruvic oxime to nitrite, the enzyme was thought to be a dioxygenase. it was an iron protein, and a reducing reagent was required to keep th ...19968674977
determination of the active sites serine of the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases of pseudomonas lemoignei (phaz5) and of alcaligenes faecalis.mutational analysis of the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) depolymerase a of pseudomonas lemoignei and of the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase of alcaligenes faecalis revealed that s138 (p. lemoignei) and s139 (a. faecalis) are essential for activity. both serines are part of a strictly conserved pentapeptide sequence which is present in all poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases analyzed so far (g-l-s-s(a)-g) and which resembles the lipase box of lipases and other serine hydrolases (g-x-s-x-g) ...19968764515
nitrous oxide production by alcaligenes faecalis under transient and dynamic aerobic and anaerobic conditions.nitrous oxide can be a harmful by-product in nitrogen removal from wastewater. since wastewater treatment systems operate under different aeration regimens, the influence of different oxygen concentrations and oxygen fluctuations on denitrification was studied. continuous cultures of alcaligenes faecalis tud produced n2o under anaerobic as well as aerobic conditions. below a dissolved oxygen concentration of 5% air saturation, the relatively highest n2o production was observed. under these condi ...19968779582
adsorption kinetics of bacterial phb depolymerase on the surface of polyhydroxyalkanoate films.the kinetics of adsorption and hydrolysis by an extracellular phb depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis were studied at 37 degrees c on the surface of five types of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) films. the films of poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (p(3hp)), poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (p(3hp)), and poly(4-hydroxybutyrate)(p(4hb)) were hydrolyzed by the enzyme, while the films of poly[(s)-2-hydroxypropionate)(p(2hp)) and poly(6-hydroxyhexanoate)(p(6hh)) were not eroded. the phb depolymerase with binding a ...19968782717
[bacterial endotoxins produced by alcaligenes faecalis and erwinia herbicola as potential occupational hazards for agricultural workers].laboratory animals (guinea pigs and rabbits) were exposed to the inhalation of aerosolized endotoxins derived from the cell mass of alcaligenes faecalis and erwinia herbicola, the gram-negative bacteria commonly occurring in organic dusts. single 1 hour-lasting exposure caused the significant increase in the number of free lung cell, mostly lymphocytes, compared to the control group exposed to saline (p < 0.001). prolonged exposure to tested endotoxins (fifteen 1 hour-lasting exposures every sec ...19969190244
comparative activity of trovafloxacin, alone and in combination with other agents, against gram-negative nonfermentative the first part of this study, agar dilution mics were used to test the activities of trovafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, clinafloxacin, ceftazidime, and imipenem against 458 gram-negative nonfermenters. the overall respective mics at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (mic50s) and mic90s were as follows: trovafloxacin, 1.0 and 16.0 microg/ml; ciprofloxacin, 2.0 and 16.0 microg/ml; ofloxacin, 2.0 and 32.0 microg/ml; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 16.0 microg/ml; sparfl ...19979210669
polycaprolactone depolymerase produced by the bacterium alcaligenes faecalis.several microorganisms were isolated as bacteria degrading polycaprolactone (pcl), and one of them, a strain b273 identified as alcaligenes faecalis, was selected. because this strain produced only slight pcl depolymerase activity, the hyperproducing mutant, ts22, was isolated after uv irradiation. synthesis of pcl depolymerase was derepressed, probably based on the altered regulation of metabolic pathways in strain ts22. the partially purified enzyme hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl fatty acids and tri ...19979273313
molecular cloning and analysis of the gene encoding the thermostable penicillin g acylase from alcaligenes faecalis.alcaligenes faecalis penicillin g acylase is more stable than the escherichia coli enzyme. the activity of the a. faecalis enzyme was not affected by incubation at 50 degrees c for 20 min, whereas more than 50% of the e. coli enzyme was irreversibly inactivated by the same treatment. to study the molecular basis of this higher stability, the a. faecalis enzyme was isolated and its gene was cloned and sequenced. the gene encodes a polypeptide that is characteristic of periplasmic penicillin g acy ...19979292993
site-directed mutants of pseudoazurin: explanation of increased redox potentials from x-ray structures and from calculation of redox potential order to understand the origins of differences in redox potentials among cupredoxins (small blue type i copper-containing proteins that reversibly change oxidation state and interact with redox partners), we have determined the structures of the native and two mutants (p80a and p80i) of pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 in oxidized and reduced forms at resolutions of 2.2 a in the worst case and 1.6 a in the best case. the p80a mutation creates a surface pocket filled by a new water m ...19979341204
gene cloning and characterization of maleate cis-trans isomerase from alcaligenes faecalis.maleate cis-trans isomerase, which catalyses the conversion of maleate to fumarate, was purified and characterized from alcaligenes faecalis ifo13111. the molecular weight of maleate isomerase was estimated as 60 kda, consisting of a 28 kda dimer as shown by gel-filtration chromatography and sds-page analysis. kinetic studies showed that the michaelis constant for maleate was 4.0 x 10(-5) m. the reverse reaction (fumarate to maleate) activity of the enzyme was detected even though it was quite w ...19979345272
structure of nitrite bound to copper-containing nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis. mechanistic implications.the structures of oxidized, reduced, nitrite-soaked oxidized and nitrite-soaked reduced nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis have been determined at 1.8-2.0 a resolution using data collected at -160 degrees c. the active site at cryogenic temperature, as at room temperature, contains a tetrahedral type ii copper site liganded by three histidines and a water molecule. the solvent site is empty when crystals are reduced with ascorbate. a fully occupied oxygen-coordinate nitrite occupies the ...19979353305
strains of alcaligenes faecalis from clinical material.six strains of alcaligenes faecalis, unusually isolated from clinical material, are described. alcaligenes faecalis is a gram-negative catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod. it is commonly found in a watery environment and is rarely isolated from humans. the clinical and laboratory characteristics of the clinical a. faecalis isolates are presented.19979354352
structure and function of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis t1.poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis t1 is composed of three domains: the catalytic (c) domain, the fibronectin type iii-like (f) domain, and the substrate-binding (s) domain. we constructed domain deletion, inversion, chimera, and extra-f-domain mutants and examined their enzyme activity and phb-binding ability. in addition, we performed substitution of 214asp and 273his with glycine and aspartate, respectively, to examine their participation in a catalytic triad ...19979371441
[characterization of plasmids which mediate resistance to multiple antibiotics in gram-negative bacteria of nosocomial origin].the genetic and molecular mechanisms involved in antimicrobial resistance of 10 strains of gramnegative bacilli (1 serratia marcescens; 2 escherichia coli; 1 proteus mirabilis; 4 klebsiella pneumoniae; 1 enterobacter cloacae y 1 alcaligenes faecalis), isolated from adult patients with nosocomial pulmonary infection at the in-patient facilities of the university hospital of los andes, mérida, venezuela, have been studied.19979376400
growth suppressing activity for endothelial cells induced from macrophages by carboxymethylated curdlan.a carboxymethylated derivative of a linear (1-->3)-beta-d-glucan (cmcd) from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes acted directly on mouse peritoneal macrophages and mouse lymphoma p388d1 cells, and induced a growth suppressing activity for bovine artery endothelial cells (baes) from themselves at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml. the suppressing activity was also detected in the mouse serum administered as an i.p. injection of cmcd at a dose of 100 mg/kg, suggesting that the growth suppressin ...19979404073
kinetic study of penicillin acylase from alcaligenes faecalis.penicillin acylase from alcaligenes faecalis has a very high affinity for both natural (benzylpenicillin, km = 0.0042 mm) and colorimetric (6-nitro-3-phenylacetamidobenzoic acid, km = 0.0045 mm) substrates as well as the product of their hydrolysis, phenylacetic acid (ki = 0.016 mm). the enzyme is partially inhibited at high benzylpenicillin concentrations but the triple ses complex formed still retains 43% of the maximal catalytic activity; the affinity of benzylpenicillin for the second substr ...19979409763
[isolation of bacteria which could perform nitrification and denitrification simultaneously by gene probe].the bacteria which could perform nitrification and denitrification simultaneously from nitrogen containing wastes in taiwan were isolated by using the probes made from random dna fragments of thiosphaera pantotropha. two isolates were identified and named alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis strain 1 and strain 2 respectively. the effects on nitrification and denitrification by different medium ph, oxygen content, addition of different electron donors or inhibitors were studied. the isolates not ...199710592830
purification of an extracellular d-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate oligomer hydrolase from pseudomonas sp. strain a1 and cloning and sequencing of its extracellular d-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate oligomer hydrolase was purified from a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-degrading bacterium, pseudomonas sp. strain a1. the purified enzyme hydrolyzed the d-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate dimer and trimer at similar rates. the enzyme activity was inhibited by a low concentration of diisopropylfluorophosphate. the molecular weight of the hydrolase was estimated to be about 70,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. a 10-kbp dna fragment of a1 was d ...19978981982
cloning of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from a marine bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis ae122, and characterization of its gene product.a dna fragment that carries the gene coding for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) depolymerase was cloned from the chromosomal dna of alcaligenes faecalis ae122 isolated from seawater. the open reading frame encoding the precursor of the phb depolymerase was 1905 base pairs (bp) long, corresponding to a protein of 635 amino acid residues (m(r) = 65,208). the promoter site, which could be recognized by escherichia coli rna polymerase, was upstream from the gene, and the sequence adhering to the ribos ...19979177489
nitrospira-like bacteria associated with nitrite oxidation in freshwater aquaria.oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in aquaria is typically attributed to bacteria belonging to the genus nitrobacter which are members of the alpha subdivision of the class proteobacteria. in order to identify bacteria responsible for nitrite oxidation in aquaria, clone libraries of rrna genes were developed from biofilms of several freshwater aquaria. analysis of the rdna libraries, along with results from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) on frequently sampled biofilms, indicated the ...199816349486
purification and properties of a polyester polyurethane-degrading enzyme from comamonas acidovorans tb-35.a polyester polyurethane (pur)-degrading enzyme, pur esterase, derived from comamonas acidovorans tb-35, a bacterium that utilizes polyester pur as the sole carbon source, was purified until it showed a single band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). this enzyme was bound to the cell surface and was extracted by addition of 0.2% n,n-bis(3-d-gluconamidopropyl)deoxycholamide (deoxy-bigchap). the results of gel filtration and sds-page showed that the pur esteras ...199816349494
[the construction of alcaligenes faecalis ntrc-lacz fusion gene and its expression during association with rice roots].a broad host range vector pla2917 containing ntrc gene or ntrc-lacz fusion were constructed, namely plac1 and plac2. the plasmids plac1 and plac2 were introduced into a. faecalis wild type strain a1501 by conjugation, subsequently to abtain a15c1 and a15c2. the expression and regulation of ntrc gene of a. faecalis associated with rice roots was investigated under the condition of the associative nitrogen fixation using x-gal decoration method, micrograph and ntrc partially deletion mutant. the b ...199812549327
microbiological and clinical aspects of infection associated with stenotrophomonas maltophilia.the gram-negative bacterium stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly recognized as an important cause of nosocomial infection. infection occurs principally, but not exclusively, in debilitated and immunosuppressed individuals. management of s. maltophilia-associated infection is problematic because many strains of the bacterium manifest resistance to multiple antibiotics. these difficulties are compounded by methodological problems in in vitro susceptibility testing for which there are, as y ...19989457429
characterization of chitinase c from a marine bacterium, alteromonas sp. strain o-7, and its corresponding gene and domain of the chitinase genes of alteromonas sp. strain o-7, the chitinase c-encoding gene (chic), was cloned, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. an open reading frame coded for a protein of 430 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 46,680 da. alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that chic contained three functional domains, the n-terminal domain, a fibronectin type iii-like domain, and a catalytic domain. the n-terminal domain (59 amino acids) was similar to ...19989464381
bacterial community dynamics during start-up of a trickle-bed bioreactor degrading aromatic compounds.this study was performed with a laboratory-scale fixed-bed bioreactor degrading a mixture of aromatic compounds (solvesso100). the starter culture for the bioreactor was prepared in a fermentor with a wastewater sample of a care painting facility as the inoculum and solvesso100 as the sole carbon source. the bacterial community dynamics in the fermentor and the bioreactor were examined by a conventional isolation procedure and in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rrna-targeted oligon ...19989501433
application of nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 for nitrite measurement.the enzymatic reaction of nitrite reductase (nir) from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 was applied to the measurement of nitrite. nir was immobilized on the surface of a gold electrode using filter paper and a dialysis membrane, and used as a working electrode in a three-electrode system. amperometric methods were applied using nir and the electron mediator 1-methoxy pms (1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methylsulfate). the decrease in cathodic current showed a correlation to nitrite concentration over th ...19989519447
development of a direct in situ pcr method for detection of specific bacteria in natural environments.we applied hnpp (2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid-2'-phenylanilide phosphate) to direct in situ pcr for the routine detection of specific bacterial cells at the single-cell level. pcr was performed on glass slides with digoxigenin-labeled dutp. the digoxigenin-labeled pcr products were detected with alkaline phosphatase-labeled antidigoxigenin antibody and hnpp which was combined with fast red tr. a bright red fluorescent signal was produced from conversion to hnp (dephosphorylated form) by alkaline p ...19989546190
protective effects of a human 18-kilodalton cationic antimicrobial protein (cap18)-derived peptide against murine endotoxemia.cap18 (an 18-kda cationic antimicrobial protein) is a granulocyte-derived protein that can bind lipopolysaccharide (lps) and inhibit various activities of lps in vitro. the present study examined the protective effect of a synthetic 27-amino-acid peptide (cap18(109-135)) from the lps-binding domain of cap18 against antibiotic-induced endotoxin shock, using highly lps-sensitive d-(+)-galactosamine (d-galn)-sensitized c3h/hen mice. the antibiotic-induced endotoxin (caz-endotoxin) was prepared from ...19989573062
the adsorption of substrate-binding domain of phb depolymerases to the surface of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid).the binding characteristic of phb depolymerase has been studied by using glutathione s-transferase (gst) fusion proteins with substrate-binding domain of three bacterial phb depolymerases, alcaligenes faecalis, comamonas acidovorans and comamonas testosteroni. analysis using immuno-gold labeling technique and transmission electron microscopy indicated that a novel gst fusion protein derived from a. faecalis enzyme adsorbed to the surface of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (p(3hb)) single crystals li ...19989585889
in vitro antimicrobial activity of msi-78, a magainin analog.msi-78 is a cationic peptide with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and is being developed as a topical agent. we compared the in vitro activity of msi-78 with those of ofloxacin and other antibiotics against fresh clinical isolates. based on mic distribution statistics, strains for which the msi-78 mic was < or = 64 micro/ml were assumed to be susceptible for purposes of this report. of 411 aerobic isolates tested, 91% were susceptible to msi-78, compared to 91% for ofloxacin and 92% for ci ...19989593152
aerobic mineralization of 2,6-dichlorophenol by ralstonia sp. strain rk1.a new aerobic bacterium was isolated from the sediment of a freshwater pond close to a contaminated site at amponville (france). it was enriched in a fixed-bed reactor fed with 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-dcp)as the sole carbon and energy source at ph 7.5 and room temperature. the degradation of 2,6-dcp followed monod kinetics at low initial concentrations. at concentrations above 300 microm (50 mg.liter-1), 2,6-dcp increasingly inhibited its own degradation. the base sequence of the 16s ribosomal d ...19989647831
intergeneric transfer of conjugative and mobilizable plasmids harbored by escherichia coli in the gut of the soil microarthropod folsomia candida (collembola).the gut of the soil microarthropod folsomia candida provides a habitat for a high density of bacterial cells (t. thimm, a. hoffmann, h. borkott, j. c. munch, and c. c. tebbe, appl. environ. microbiol. 64:2660-2669, 1998). we investigated whether these gut bacteria act as recipients for plasmids from escherichia coli. filter mating with e. coli donor cells and collected feces of f. candida revealed that the broad-host-range conjugative plasmid prp4-luc (prp4 with a luciferase marker gene) transfe ...19989647844
the gut of the soil microarthropod folsomia candida (collembola) is a frequently changeable but selective habitat and a vector for microorganisms.interaction potentials between soil microarthropods and microorganisms were investigated with folsomia candida (insecta, collembola) in microcosm laboratory experiments. microscopic analysis revealed that the volumes of the simple, rod-shaped guts of adult specimens varied with their feeding activity, from 0.7 to 11.2 nl. a dense layer of bacterial cells, associated with the peritrophic membrane, was detected in the midgut by scanning electron microscopy. depending on the molting stage, which oc ...19989647845
iron starvation of bordetella avium stimulates expression of five outer membrane proteins and regulates a gene involved in acquiring iron from serum.iron starvation of bordetella avium induced expression of five outer membrane proteins with apparent molecular masses of 95, 92, 91.5, 84, and 51 kda. iron-responsive outer membrane proteins (ferps) of similar sizes were detected in six of six strains of b. avium, suggesting that the five ferps are common constituents of the outer membrane of most, if not all, strains of b. avium. iron-regulated genes of b. avium were targeted for mutagenesis with the transposon tnphoa. two mutants with iron-res ...19989673238
alcaligenes defragrans sp. nov., description of four strains isolated on alkenoic monoterpenes ((+)-menthene, alpha-pinene, 2-carene, and alpha-phellandrene) and nitrate.four pseudomonad strains 51men, 54pin, 62car and 65phen were recently isolated on the monoterpenes (+)-menthene, alpha-pinene, 2-carene and alpha-phellandrene as sole carbon source and nitrate as electron acceptor. these bacteria were characterised. the motile, mesophilic, gram-negative rods had a strictly respiratory metabolism. monoterpenes as carbon sources were completely mineralised to carbon dioxide. the physiology of all strains was very similar, but displayed an individual utilisation pr ...19989704110
new nitrogen-fixing microorganisms detected in oligotrophic oceans by amplification of nitrogenase (nifh) genes.oligotrophic oceanic waters of the central ocean gyres typically have extremely low dissolved fixed inorganic nitrogen concentrations, but few nitrogen-fixing microorganisms from the oceanic environment have been cultivated. nitrogenase gene (nifh) sequences amplified directly from oceanic waters showed that the open ocean contains more diverse diazotrophic microbial populations and more diverse habitats for nitrogen fixers than previously observed by classical microbiological techniques. nitrog ...19989726895
discrimination of psychrotrophic and mesophilic strains of the bacillus cereus group by pcr targeting of major cold shock protein genes.detection of psychrotrophic strains (those able to grow at or below 7 degreesc) of the bacillus cereus group (bacillus cereus, bacillus thuringiensis, and bacillus mycoides) in food products is at present extremely slow with conventional microbiology. this is due to an inability to discriminate these cold-adapted strains from their mesophilic counterparts (those able to grow only above 7 degreesc) by means other than growth at low temperature, which takes 5 to 10 days for detection. here we repo ...19989726910
[evaluation of antibacterial activities of various antibiotics against glucose non-fermentative gram-negative rods other than pseudomonas aeruginosa].mics of piperacillin, sulbactam/cefoperazone, minocycline (mino), gentamicin, amikacin, flomoxef, ceftazidime, cefozopran, cefsulodin and imipenem were determined, against 189 clinical isolated strains of glucose non-fermentative gram-negative rods (nfgnr; acinetobacter baumannii (44), alcaligenes faecalis (5), alcaligenes xylosoxidans (25), burkholderia cepacia (12), chryseobacterium indologenes (23), chryseobacterium meningosepticum (9), pseudomonas fluorescens (8), pseudomonas putida (12), st ...19989755431
development of pcr primer systems for amplification of nitrite reductase genes (nirk and nirs) to detect denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples.a system was developed for the detection of denitrifying bacteria by the amplification of specific nitrite reductase gene fragments with pcr. primer sequences were found for the amplification of fragments from both nitrite reductase genes (nirk and nirs) after comparative sequence analysis. whenever amplification was tried with these primers, the known nir type of denitrifying laboratory cultures could be confirmed. likewise, the method allowed a determination of the nir type of five laboratory ...19989758798
bordetella avium virulence measured in vivo and in vitro.bordetella avium causes an upper-respiratory-tract disease called bordetellosis in birds. bordetellosis shares many of the clinical and histopathological features of disease caused in mammals by bordetella pertussis and bordetella bronchiseptica. in this study we determined several parameters of infection in the domestic turkey, meleagris galapavo, and compared these in vivo findings with an in vitro measure of adherence using turkey tracheal rings. in the in vivo experiments, we determined the ...19989784529
evolution of a pathway for chlorobenzene metabolism leads to natural attenuation in contaminated groundwatercomplete metabolism of chlorinated benzenes is not a feature that is generally found in aerobic bacteria but is thought to be due to a novel recombination of two separate gene clusters. such a recombination could be responsible for adaptation of a natural microbial community in response to contamination with synthetic chemicals. this hypothesis was tested in a chlorobenzene (cb)-contaminated aquifer. cb-degrading bacteria from a contaminated site were characterized for a number of years by exami ...19989797264
comparison of phenotypic and genotypic techniques for identification of unusual aerobic pathogenic gram-negative bacilli.rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology, but one that is difficult or impossible for many slow-growing and fastidious organisms. we used identification systems based on cellular fatty acid profiles (sherlock; midi, inc., newark, del.), carbon source utilization (microlog; biolog, inc., hayward, calif.), and 16s rrna gene sequence (microseq; perkin-elmer applied biosystems division, foster city, calif.) to evaluate 72 unusual aerobic ...19989817894
phenol-degrading denitrifying bacteria in wastewater attempt was made to isolate denitrifying bacteria capable of degrading phenol from anoxic wastewater sediments and compost (vegetable soil). the greatest phenol-degrading activity was shown by autochthonous microflora from petroleum wastewater sediments (pws) and by denitrifying microflora from nitrogenous wastewater reservoir sediment (nwrs). eight strains of denitrifying bacteria able to degrade phenolic compounds were isolated, six of which were from the petroleum wastewater sediments. the ...19989839379
adherence to testing criteria can minimize false-positive results for escherichia coli o157. 19989841245
molecular genetics of the genus paracoccus: metabolically versatile bacteria with bioenergetic flexibility.paracoccus denitrificans and its near relative paracoccus versutus (formerly known as thiobacilllus versutus) have been attracting increasing attention because the aerobic respiratory system of p. denitrificans has long been regarded as a model for that of the mitochondrion, with which there are many components (e.g., cytochrome aa3 oxidase) in common. members of the genus exhibit a great range of metabolic flexibility, particularly with respect to processes involving respiration. prominent exam ...19989841665
allergic alveolitis among agricultural workers in eastern poland: a study of twenty cases.the aim of this study was to identify the specific agents which caused extrinsic allergic alveolitis (eaa) in the selected group of 20 agricultural workers from eastern poland. the microbiological analysis of the samples of plant materials or dusts reported by the patients as causing symptoms has been carried out, followed by allergological tests (inhalation challenge, agar-gel precipitation test, inhibition of leukocyte migration, skin test) with extrinsic microbial antigens. it was found that ...19989852490
quantification of 16s rrnas in complex bacterial communities by multiple competitive reverse transcription-pcr in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints.a novel approach was developed to quantify rrna sequences in complex bacterial communities. the main bacterial 16s rrnas in drentse a grassland soils (the netherlands) were amplified by reverse transcription (rt)-pcr with bacterium-specific primers and were separated by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (tgge). the primer pair used (primers u968-gc and l1401) was found to amplify with the same efficiency 16s rrnas from bacterial cultures containing different taxa and cloned 16s ribosomal ...19989797325
use of subtractive hybridization to design habitat-based oligonucleotide probes for investigation of natural bacterial communities.we describe a rapid oligonucleotide probe design strategy based on subtractive hybridization which yields probes for 16s rrna or rrna genes of individual members of microbial communities that are specific within the context of those communities. this strategy circumvents the need to sequence many similar or identical clones of dominant members of a community. radioactively labeled subfragments of a cloned 16s rrna gene sequence for which a probe is required (target) were hybridized with biotinyl ...19989435075
Displaying items 301 - 400 of 1389