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partial characterization of the hemagglutinin of alcaligenes faecalis.the hemagglutinin of alcaligenes faecalis was partially characterized. hemagglutination (ha) was blocked by enzymes inactivating proteins, by heat, and by antisera but not by sugar-blocking substances. pili were not determined to be a factor in ha activity. there was no connection between virulence and ha activity.19846148928
evaluation of the rapid nft system for identification of gram-negative, nonfermenting rods.this study evaluated the ability of the rapid nft system (api system sa, montalieu-vercieu, france) to accurately identify 262 clinically isolated, gram-negative, nonfermentative rods without additional tests. identifications were classified as correct; low discrimination, with a spectrum of two or more possibilities (additional tests necessary for accurate identification); and incorrect. correct identification rates were analyzed in two categories: (i) correct to species or biotype for all orga ...19846490857
alcaligenes faecalis rhinotracheitis in manitoba turkeys.an outbreak of alcaligenes rhinotracheitis occurred on one premises housing five turkey flocks totaling 25,000 poults. prominent findings were severe respiratory difficulty resulting from excess mucus in the nasopharynx, lachrimation, and tracheal collapse. sinus and tracheal cultures consistently yielded alcaligenes faecalis. an adenovirus was isolated and four flocks became positive for celo virus by agar-gel-precipitin (agp) tests. mortality by flocks ranged from 4% to 48%. treatment was unsu ...19846525132
in vitro cellular migration of leukocytes from turkey poults infected with alcaligenes faecalis.the ability of peripheral blood leukocytes from young turkey poults to migrate in vitro was investigated. migration from capillary tubes was relatively rapid and was usually complete in 2 hours. leukocyte migration was significantly enhanced in alcaligenes faecalis-infected turkeys compared with uninfected controls at 1, 2, 5, and 6 weeks of age.19846525134
bacterial microflora participating in the removal of nitrogen from industrial wastewaters by nitrification and denitrifaction.nitrification and denitrification were used to purify industrial nitrogenous-organic wastewaters containing 1,130 mg n/l (mainly in the form of ammonium and urea) and with mean cod 1,050 mg o2/l. the use of a five-step system consisting of two denitrifying beds and three nitrifying activated sludge reactors gave 99% removal of nitrogen and 54% reduction in cod during total retention time of the wastes of 81 hours. the participation of stage i nitrifying bacteria in the activated sludge was 4.4 t ...19846205553
comparative cd-113 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cd(ii)-substituted blue copper proteins.the 113cd nmr spectra of plastocyanin (spinacea), stellacyanin (rhus vernicifera), and two azurins (pseudomonas aeruginosa and alcaligenes faecalis) have been measured after introducing cd(ii) into the blue copper-binding sites. relative to cd(c1o4)2 the chemical shifts are 432, 380, 372, and 379 ppm, respectively, all of which are found to be reasonable values for binding sites containing a cysteine thiolate ligand. the 113cd resonances of the cadmium derivatives of stellacyanin and the azurins ...19846232270
proton nmr spectroscopy of cytochrome c-554 from alcaligenes faecalis.cytochrome c-554 from the bacterium alcaligenes faecalis (atcc 8750) is a respiratory electron-transport protein homologous to other members of the cytochrome c family. its structure has been studied by 1h nmr spectroscopy in both the ferric and ferrous states. the ferric spectrum is characterized by downfield hyperfine-shifted heme methyl resonances at 46.25, 43.60, 38.40, and 36.73 ppm (25 degrees c, ph 7.1). chemical shifts of these resonances change with temperature opposite to expectations ...19846324856
heterotrophic nitrification among denitrifiers.twelve denitrifying bacteria representing six genera were tested for an ability to nitrify pyruvic oxime heterotrophically. six of these bacteria exhibited appreciable nitrification activity, yielding as much as 5.8 mm nitrite and little or no nitrate when grown in a mineral salts medium containing 7 mm pyruvic oxime and 0.05% yeast extract. of the six active bacteria, four (pseudomonas denitrificans, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and two strains of pseudomonas fluorescens) could grow on yeast extract ...19846721486
different local therapeutic effects of various polysaccharides on mh134 hepatoma in mice and its relation to inflammation induced by the polysaccharides.the local antitumor activities and inflammation-inducing activities of various antitumor polysaccharides were examined and the relation between the two types of activity was studied. the tested antitumor polysaccharides included mg (a mannoglucan prepared from the culture fluid of microellobosporia grisea), lentinan, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, tak (a glucan from alcaligenes faecalis) and their derivatives. local antitumor activity was tested by intratumoral administration of the polysaccharid ...19846745566
alcaligenes faecalis infection in turkeys: effects on serum corticosterone and serum chemistry.the serum levels of corticosterone, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, protein, sodium, and potassium were determined for turkey poults from 1 to 42 days of age. corticosterone levels were higher at days 10, 14, 21, and 28 in alcaligenes faecalis-infected turkeys than in uninfected poults. the corticosterone responses in this study indicate that a. faecalis infection stimulates adrenal cortical function even in the very young poult, which ordinarily does not show adrenal cortical responsivenes ...19853985885
purification and properties of inducible penicillin beta-lactamase isolated from alcaligenes faecalis.an inducible penicillin beta-lactamase was purified from a strain of alcaligenes faecalis resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. the purified enzyme preparation gave a single protein band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and its molecular weight was 29,000 based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. its isoelectric point was 5.9. the enzyme more rapidly hydrolyzed penicillins, such as penicillin g, ampicillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, and cloxacillin, than it hydroly ...19853873902
further characterization of the agent causing coryza in turkeys.a total of 128 isolates of alcaligenes faecalis, from the respiratory tract of turkeys and chickens, were identified and divided into two types designated type i and type ii. type i isolates were pathogenic in poults, hemagglutinated guinea pig red blood cells (rbcs), and did not grow on minimal essential medium (mem) agar, and most did not grow in 6.5% nacl broth. type ii isolates were nonpathogenic and nonhemagglutinating and grew on mem agar, and most grew in 6.5% nacl broth. hemagglutination ...19854074238
aspartate beta-decarboxylase from alcaligenes faecalis: carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect and deuterium exchange experiments.we have measured the 13c kinetic isotope effect at ph 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 6.5 and in d2o at pd 5.0 and the rate of d-h exchange of the alpha and beta protons of aspartic acid in d2o at pd 5.0 for the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aspartate beta-decarboxylase from alcaligenes faecalis. the 13c kinetic isotope effect, with a value of 1.0099 +/- 0.0002 at ph 5.0, is less than the intrinsic isotope effect for the decarboxylation step, indicating that the decarboxylation step is not entirely rate l ...19854005219
efficacy of a commercial turkey coryza vaccine (art-vax) in turkey poults.four laboratory experiments were designed to study the efficacy of the only available commercial vaccine for turkey coryza, art-vax. poults were vaccinated either once or twice at different ages and challenged with pathogenic alcaligenes faecalis. in another study, commercial turkeys vaccinated at 1 and 12 days of age on a commercial farm were brought to the laboratory for challenge with pathogenic a. faecalis. both the laboratory- and field-vaccinated poults were given the manufacturer's recomm ...19853833219
induction of tumoricidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by a linear beta-1,3-d-glucan and other immunomodulators in murine cells.the cytotoxic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn) against tumor cells induced in vitro by antitumor immunomodulators was examined by a 51cr release cytotoxicity assay. among 28 immunomodulators and other agents thus far tested, only beta-1,3-glucan from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo 13140, bacillus calmette-guérin, propionibacterium acnes, zymosan a, and nocardia cell wall skeleton were found to cause induction. the cytotoxic activity of pmn with the beta-1,3-glucan was very ...19853156669
antibiotic aerosolization: the effect on experimentally induced alcaligenes rhinotracheitis in turkeys.oxytetracycline hydrochloride was delivered by aerosol twice daily for 3 days to uninfected turkeys and to turkeys experimentally inoculated with alcaligenes faecalis. the clinical, microbiological, and histological changes in the upper respiratory tracts were studied. no lesions were observed in the tracheas of uninoculated poults exposed to the aerosol. in experimentally infected poults, clinical signs included ocular and nasal discharges and open-mouthed breathing. histologic lesions included ...19853985873
respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) in turkeys in brittany, france, 1981-1982. i. field observations and serology.during the summer of 1981, a respiratory disease epidemic occurred in turkeys in brittany, france. since this initial epizootic, which lasted through fall, epizootic waves similar to the initial one have occurred at approximately 6-month intervals, with smaller peaks at 2-month intervals. the epidemiology, clinical signs, and postmortem findings were highly suggestive of an epizootic of chlamydiosis. serological tests for chlamydia, paramyxoviruses, avian influenza, adenovirus 127, mycoplasma, a ...19853985881
hydrogen peroxide as a tumoricidal mediator of murine polymorphonuclear leukocytes induced by a linear beta-1,3-d-glucan and some other immunomodulators.polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn) of mice can destroy tumor cells effectively in vitro in the presence of antitumor polysaccharide, linear beta-1, 3-d-glucan from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo 13140 (tak), and some other immunomodulators. in the present study, we investigated the mechanism of the tumoricidal activity of pmn induced by these immunomodulators and especially tak. the tak-induced pmn cytotoxicity was concluded to involve hydrogen peroxide from the following results: (a) t ...19852990672
nucleotide sequence, secondary structure and evolution of the 5s ribosomal rna from five bacterial species.the nucleotide sequences of the 5s ribosomal rnas of the bacteria agrobacterium tumefaciens, alcaligenes faecalis, pseudomonas cepacia, aquaspirillum serpens and acinetobacter calcoaceticus have been determined. the sequences fit in a generally accepted model for 5s rna secondary structure. however, a closer comparative examination of these and other bacterial 5s rna primary structures reveals the potential of additional base pairing and of multiple equilibria between a set of slightly different ...19852408888
quantitative selection of denitrifying bacteria in continuous cultures and requirement for organic carbon. ii. maltose.a mixed population of bacteria from industrial nitrogen wastewaters was incubated in continuous culture in medium containing 1000-1300 mg nitrate nitrogen per litre and maltose as a source of organic carbon. maximal efficiency of denitrification was 8.6 mg n/1/h. the participation of denitrifying bacteria in the culture varied from 0% to about 80%, depending on the ratio of maltose concentration (cm) to nitrogen concentration (cn) in the medium. the optimal cm/cn ratio ensuring the greatest sele ...19852421546
comparative in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against non-fermenters.the in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of carbenicillin, azlocillin, cefsulodin, ceftazidime, tobramycin and amikacin against 187 non-fermenters. only one of the 131 strains of pseudomonas spp. was not inhibited by 1 mg/l of ciprofloxacin, while these isolates appeared highly resistant to carbenicillin, azlocillin and cefsulodin. ciprofloxacin was also the best agent against flavobacterium, alcaligenes faecalis and acinetobacter ca ...19853159710
[the exocellular o-antigen polysaccharide of alcaligenes faecalis]. 19852477670
quantitative selection of denitrifying bacteria in continuous cultures and requirement for organic carbon. i. starch.a mixed population of bacteria from bottom sludge of nitrogen wastewater reservoir was incubated in continuous culture in medium containing 1000 mg nitrate nitrogen/l and starch. maximal efficiency of denitrification was 5 mg n/l/h. marked changes in participation of denitrifying bacteria (16-76%) among total number of bacteria was observed, this being dependent on the ratio of starch concentration (cs) to nitrogen concentration (cn) in the medium. the optimal cs/cn ratio ensuring highest partic ...19852579531
isolation of bordetella avium from poultry.four australian isolates of gram-negative nonfermentative bacteria obtained from poultry were compared with reference strains of bordetella avium, bordetella bronchiseptica and alcaligenes faecalis. the australian isolates were identified as bordetella avium. a routine procedure for the identification of this recently recognised poultry pathogen is described.19853834901
an alcaligenes faecalis isolate from turkeys: pathogenicity in selected avian and mammalian species.an alcaligenes faecalis isolate of known pathogenicity for turkeys was examined for adherence and cytotoxicity in tracheal organ cultures of turkeys, chickens, japanese quail, guinea pigs, hamsters, and mice, and for colonization and pathogenicity in these 6 species. adherence and colonization were detected by fluorescent antibody staining. infected and noninfected tracheal rings were examined by phase-contrast microscopy for cytotoxicity (ciliostasis, blebing of the cell membrane, and sloughing ...19853890634
a comparative study of the resonance raman spectra of bacterial cytochromes.resonance raman spectra were obtained for two newly isolated bacterial cytochromes, alcaligenes faecalis (atcc 8750) c554 and alcaligenes faecalis c556. their spectra were compared with those of mammalian cytochrome c and two other bacterial cytochromes, paracoccus denitrificans c550 and pseudomonas aeruginosa c551. the positions of the raman bands indicated that, while al. c554 and al. c556 were c-type cytochromes with two thioether linkages, several common features found in their raman spectra ...19852982314
the effect of combined and separate infection by alcaligenes faecalis and paramyxovirus (yucaipa) on the surface morphology of the trachea in turkey poults.sixty-seven 1-day-old turkey poults were inoculated in the infra orbital sinus with 3 x 10(8) alcaligenes faecalis bacteria and/or by 10(5.8)eid 50/ ml of yucaipa virus. twenty-five similar birds served as controls. identification of the agents inoculated was made during the development of disease by means of isolation and serological tests. during the development of the disease, the surface morphology of the trachea in the affected animals revealed cellular oedema associated with a mucus coatin ...198518766948
the characterisation of bordetella/alcaligenes-like organisms and their effects on turkey poults and chicks.eight isolates of the bordetella or alcaligenes-like organisms associated with turkey rhino-tracheitis were examined. five of these isolates had been recovered from the united kingdom and three were foreign isolates. four of the uk isolates came from flocks with mild respiratory disease. the fifth isolate came from birds with no respiratory signs and this appears to be the first report of the recovery of bordetella/alcaligenes from apparently normal turkeys. the field isolates and type strains a ...198618766500
identification of bordetella avium sp. nov. by the api 20 ne system.the reactions of 47 bordetella avium strains in the api 20 ne micro-test system were compared to those of the species bordetella bronchiseptica, alcaligenes faecalis and alcaligenes denitrificans. the api 20 ne microtest system allowed separation between b. avium and the other species of gram-negative nonfermentative rods investigated.198618766558
relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers.biogenic emissions of nitric and nitrous oxides have important impacts on the photochemistry and chemistry of the atmosphere. although biogenic production appears to be the overwhelming source of n(2)o, the magnitude of the biogenic emission of no is very uncertain. in soils, possible sources of no and n(2)o include nitrification by autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. the availabili ...198616347068
activation of the alternative pathway of complement by an antitumor (1----3)-beta-d-glucan from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo 13140, and its lower molecular weight and carboxymethylated derivatives.an antitumor (1----3)-beta-d-glucan with a number-average degree of polymerization (dp) of 540 from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo 13140, and its lower molecular weight derivatives were found to activate the alternative pathway of complement (apc), as judged by hemolytic and immunoelectrophoretic analyses. of the native and derivative (1----3)-beta-d-glucans measured, the smallest one that showed apc-activating ability was that with a dp of about 20. the effect of carboxymethylation of ...19863957648
studies on microorganisms secured from different organs of slaughtered sheep with special reference to the microbial load in certain muscles.a total of 312 samples collected from different organs and muscles of dead, disabled, diseased, dying, and normal carcasses of sheep were examined bacteriologically to determine the different species of microorganisms as to their public health significance. in addition, the aerobic plate count (apc) and most probable number (mpn) coliform/g were determined of musculus biceps brachii, musculus quadriceps femoris, and musculus longissimus dorsi. the mean bacterial load was higher in summer than in ...19863964203
[amino acid metabolism by thin layer chromatography for the differentiation of bordetella and alcaligenes species].the amino acid metabolism of bordetella and alcaligenes strains was investigated for differentiation purposes. all species investigated reacted differently with a number of amino acids. the genus bordetella could be differentiated from that of alcaligenes by its inability to metabolize l-lysine, l-arginine and d-histidine. the recently described species bordetella avium, as well as achromobacter xylosoxidans (yabuuchi), considered as alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxidans, presented thems ...19863788350
contribution to the taxonomy of the turkey coryza agent: cellular fatty acid analysis of the bacterium.gas-liquid chromatography was used to analyze bacterial cellular fatty acids to elucidate the relatedness of the turkey coryza (tc) bacterium to alcaligenes spp., bordetella spp., and other gram-negative bacteria. the results indicated that the tc bacterium is not closely related to alcaligenes faecalis or any of the reference strains of alcaligenes and bordetella studied. most urease-positive bacterial isolates obtained from the upper respiratory tract of turkeys were identified as bordetella b ...19863729861
[antigenic polysaccharides of bacteria. 19. the structure of the o-specific polysaccharide chain of alcaligenes faecalis lipopolysaccharide].on mild acid hydrolysis of alcaligenes faecalis lipopolysaccharide, the o-specific polysaccharide containing d-rhamnose and d-xylose in the 3:2 ratio was obtained. solvolysis of the polysaccharide with hydrogen fluoride in methanol resulted in methyl glycoside of a branched tetrasaccharide including three rhamnose and one xylose residues. smith degradation of the polysaccharide led to the glycoside of disaccharide composed of two rhamnose residues and glycerol. on the basis of identification of ...19862432903
comparison of rapid nft system and conventional methods for identification of nonsaccharolytic gram-negative bacteria.this study examined the rapid nft system (analytab products, plainview, n.y.) to determine its ability to accurately identify 229 clinical isolates of mostly nonsaccharolytic gram-negative rods. identifications were classified by the following scheme: correct (corresponding to excellent, very good, good, or acceptable identification as listed in the code book); low discrimination (correct identification among a range of listed possibilities, with additional tests necessary for accurate identific ...19863536999
[physico-chemical properties and heterogeneity of alcaligenes faecalis polysaccharide].two species of o-antigenic molecules with following sedimentation characteristics s(o)20, w 1,25.10(-13) s, d(o)20, w 9,7.10(-7) cm2/s, m 8000 and s(o)20, w 2,5.10(-13) s, d(o)20, w 5.10(-7) cm2/s, m 23,000-30,000 were detected in the cell wall of the strain alcaligenes faecalis, a representative species of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms with unidentified taxonomic position. "light" and "heavy" types of molecules have a lipopolysaccharide nature and show no differences in the monosaccha ...19862432904
[aerobic bacterial flora of the nasal cavity of rabbits].on the basis of bacteriological examinations carried out in april 1984 on 60 intranasal swabs, aerobic respiratory microbes were studied in rabbits. differences in flora between animals with and without respiratory diseases were studied. fourteen bacterial species were identified with no difference due to the pathological status. they were: bordetella bronchiseptica, staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus faecalis, pasteurella multocida, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus sp., branhamella catarr ...19863096189
plasmid dna of virulent alcaligenes faecalis.alcaligenes faecalis strains originating from chickens and from epizootics of coryza in turkeys were screened for antibiotic susceptibility and for the presence of plasmid dna. seven of 35 strains contained plasmid dna ranging in size from 10.5 to approximately 32 megadaltons. all of the strains isolated from turkeys were virulent in turkey poults, but only the plasmid-containing strains were resistant to sulfonamides and streptomycin. four of the plasmid-containing strains were also resistant t ...19863008603
calcium-dependent and -independent tumoricidal activities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes induced by a linear beta-1,3-d-glucan and phorbol myristate acetate in mice.some antitumor immunomodulators, such as a linear beta-1,3-d-glucan from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo 13140 (tak), induce potent tumoricidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns). in the present study we investigated the role of calcium on the tumoricidal activity of pmns induced by immunomodulators, especially tak. the calcium chelator ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-n,n,n',n'-tetraacetic acid (egta) almost completely inhibited tak-induced pmn cytotoxicity and th ...19863079591
the purification and characterization of a beta-glucosidase from alcaligenes faecalis.the beta-glucosidase from alcaligenes faecalis has been purified to homogeneity (880-fold purification, 11% yield) using a combination of classical techniques and medium pressure ion-exchange chromatography. it is a dimeric enzyme of monomer molecular weight 50,000 and has no specific requirement for divalent metal ions. it has a high specificity for beta-glucosides and hydrolyses a wide variety of different chemical types wit retention of configuration at the anomeric centre. it has no exo-beta ...19863096349
preliminary characterization of crystals of nitrite reductase isolated from alcaligenes faecalis strain s-6.crystals of the green, copper-containing enzyme nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 have been obtained. they are monoclinic, space group p2(1) with a = 78.0 a, b = 92.9 a, c = 78.5 a and beta = 111.8 degrees. the crystals diffract to better than 2 a and are suitable for high-resolution x-ray crystallography.19863783698
survey of disc diffusion antimicrobial sensitivity testing in avian bacteriology laboratories and the evaluation of a standardised method.a survey was conducted in which 15 laboratories involved in avian bacteriology tested the antimicrobial sensitivity of cultures of staphylococcus aureus, s. epidermidis, escherichia coli, alcaligenes faecalis and salmonella typhimurium, using the disc diffusion test as routinely practised in each laboratory. up to 28 different antimicrobials or antimicrobial combinations were used. the most commonly tested agents were ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, furazolidone, neo ...19863741274
degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis t1.the extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase purified from alcaligenes faecalis t1 has two disulfide bonds, one of which appears to be necessary for the full enzyme activity. this depolymerase hydrolyzed not only hydrophobic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) but also water-soluble trimer and larger oligomers of d-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, regardless of their solubilities in water. kinetic analyses with oligomers of various sizes indicated that the substrate cleaving site of the enzyme consisted of ...19863942778
in vitro activity of imipenem towards gram-negative bacilli.the authors studied the in vitro antimicrobial activity of imipenem towards 355 gram-negative bacterial strains, taking into particular consideration unusual or dangerous species. the study was carried out on a comparative basis with piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and gentamicin. ninety percent of the fermentative gram-negative strains were inhibited at concentrations less than or equal to 2 mg/l. imipenem inhibited 100% of strains of alcaligenes faecalis, alcaligenes denitrificans, flavo ...19863466723
an evaluation of two methods of substrate alkalinization for the identification of bordetella avium and other similar organisms.the effect of using two different techniques for the detection of substrate alkalinization by bordetella avium and reference strains of alcaligenes faecalis and b. bronchiseptica was evaluated. the techniques used were those described by otto and pickett and hinz et al. each test was in tubes sealed by either screw caps or cotton wool plugs. the alkalinization patterns obtained depended upon both the technique and the type of seal used.19863739213
the efficacy of a temperature-sensitive mutant vaccine against northwest arkansas isolates of alcaligenes faecalis.the efficacy of a commercially produced temperature-sensitive mutant alcaligenes faecalis vaccine was evaluated in turkeys contact-challenged with one of three strains of a. faecalis. in the vaccinated control group, the vaccine strain of a. faecalis colonized the nasal turbinates but not the trachea, caused no clinical signs of turkey coryza, and induced humoral antibodies. in the vaccinated challenged groups, the vaccine reduced both the severity of lesions and the number of birds exhibiting l ...19863729855
tracheal mucus transport rate in normal turkeys and in turkeys infected with bordetella avium (alcaligenes faecalis).using the radiopharmaceutical 99mtechnetium-sulfur colloid, the tracheal mucus transport rate (tmtr) was measured in healthy unanesthetized turkeys and in turkeys infected with bordetella avium. the tmtr of uninfected turkeys was 35.6 +/- 14.4 cm/min. the tmtr of b. avium-infected turkeys was normal on days 0 through 14 postexposure (pe), despite heavy bacterial colonization of the tracheal epithelium. on day 21 pe, the tmtr of b. avium-infected turkeys was significantly depressed (p less than o ...19863729858
the amino acid sequence of the blue copper protein of alcaligenes faecalis.the complete amino acid sequence of a blue copper protein from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 has been determined. this protein is clearly homologous to pseudoazurins in achromobacter cycloclastes and pseudomonas am1, more distantly related to plant plastocyanins, and markedly different from the azurin of pseudomonas aeruginosa. yet all of these proteins bind copper, and analogous ligands appear to be involved.19863512305
the mechanism of inhibition of alcaligenes faecalis s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase by neplanocin a.neplanocin a, a cyclopentenyl analog of adenosine, has been reported by s. yaginuma, n. muto, m. tsujino, y. sudate, m. hayashi, and m. otari (1981) j. antibiot. 34, 359-366 to exhibit antibacterial activity against alcaligenes faecalis. since neplanocin a (npca) is a known inhibitor of eukaryotic s-adenosylhomocysteine (adohcy) hydrolase (ec 3.3.1.1) (r. t. borchardt, b. t. keller, and u. patel-thombre (1984) j. biol. chem. 259, 4353-4358), the present study was undertaken to determine the effe ...19873606132
aromatic amine dehydrogenase from alcaligenes faecalis. 19873037269
the crystal structure of pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 determined at 2.9 a resolution.the three-dimensional structure of pseudoazurin, a single copper-containing protein from alcaligenes faecalis strain s-6, has been determined at 2.9 a resolution by x-ray crystallography. the sequences of two other pseudoazurins from pseudomonas am1 and achromobacter cycloclastes may also be accommodated in this structure. the structure, an eight-stranded beta-barrel, resembles closely those of plastocyanin and azurin. it possesses two extra alpha-helices at the c-terminus, whereas azurins have ...19873595868
neplanocin a inhibition of s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase in alcaligenes faecalis has no effect on growth of the microorganism.neplanocin a, a cyclopentenyl analog of adenosine, is a naturally occurring antibiotic possessing potent inhibitory activity toward the enzyme s-adenosylhomocysteine (adohcy) hydrolase. in the present study, we examined whether there was a correlation between the inhibition of prokaryotic adohcy hydrolase and the reported antibacterial activity of neplanocin a, e.g. alcaligenes faecalis (yaginuma et al., j. antibiotics 34: 359 approximately 366, 1981). of 16 bacterial species screened, only 2 or ...19873112082
a note on the isoprenoid quinone content of bordetella avium and related species.the isoprenoid quinone content of isolates of bordetella avium (four strains), alcaligenes faecalis (one strain), bordetella bronchiseptica (one strain) and a bordetella avium-like organism (four strains) was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. all the isolates contained ubiquinones with eight isoprene units as the major component. no menaquinones were detected.19873597205
differentiation of bordetella avium and related species by cellular fatty acid analysis.the fatty acids of 18 strains of bordetella avium, 3 strains of alcaligenes faecalis, 5 strains of bordetella bronchiseptica, and 12 strains of a b. avium-like organism were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the presence of a significant amount of the acid 2-oh c14:0 characterized b. avium and the b. avium-like organism. b. avium and the b. avium-like organism differed in their relative concentrations of c16:1 and 3-oh c14:0 acids. b. bronchiseptica and a. faecalis were distingui ...19873597749
[comparative in vitro study of the antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime against clinical isolates].the antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime was tested against 1482 gram-negative and 1216 gram-positive strains isolated from fresh clinical specimens and compared with generally used antibiotics including other third generation cephalosporins and broad spectrum penicillins. minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined in a broth dilution test on microtiter plates. in the group of the gram-negative bacteria ceftazidime was the most active of the antimicrobial agents tested with an mic of 0.5 ...19873312026
[effect of silver preparations on the microflora regenerated from a condensate of atmospheric water vapor in a hermetically-sealed chamber].the effect of different silver compounds (silver sulphate, silver nitrate, electrolytic ionic silver) on microorganisms in water reclaimed from the atmospheric condensate in an enclosed environment was investigated. the following microorganisms were examined: alcaligenes faecalis, citrobacter freundii. aeromonas hydrophila, staphylococcus epidermidis, etc. the ionic silver concentrations in solution varied from 0.1 to 10 mg/l. the efficiency of the silver compounds was found to depend on the mic ...19872886695
antibacterial effect of imipenem in vitro against important aerobic and anaerobic strains isolated from clinical specimens.imipenem is a thienamycin antibiotic of the first generation with broad antibacterial activity. it covers all gram-positive organisms (including streptococcus faecalis) and gram-negative bacteria (including pseudomonas aeruginosa and serratia spp.) as well as bacteroides fragilis and other bacteroides species. in this comparative study the antimicrobic effect against 1020 gram-negative, 927 gram-positive and 352 anaerobic strains from fresh clinical isolates was tested and compared with that of ...19873477332
the blue copper protein gene of alcaligenes faecalis s-6 directs secretion of blue copper protein from escherichia coli cells.the gene encoding a blue copper protein (a member of the pseudoazurins) of 123 amino acid residues, containing a single type i cu2+ ion, was cloned from alcaligenes faecalis s-6. the nucleotide sequence of the coding region, as well as the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions, was determined. the deduced amino acid sequence after glu-24 coincided with the reported sequence of the blue protein, and its nh2-terminal sequence of 23 residues resembled a typical signal peptide. the cloned gene was expressed u ...19872824441
isolation and characterisation of bordetella avium and related species and an evaluation of their role in respiratory disease in poultry.a total of 24 gram negative non fermentative bacteria obtained from poultry were compared with reference strains of bordetella avium, alcaligenes faecalis, bordetella bronchiseptica and a bordetella avium-like organism. thirteen isolates were identified as b. avium and 11 were identified as b. avium-like. a commercial microidentification kit (the api2one) did not identify the field isolates but did separate them correctly into the 2 groups. a practical identification scheme, suitable for diagnos ...19873689262
comparative in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from clinical isolates.1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-piperazin-1- ylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (ciprofloxacin, bay o 9867, ciprobay) is a broad spectrum antibiotic of the 4-quinolone group. it possesses a bactericidal effect attributable to the property of dna-gyrase inhibition. the antimicrobial action comprises all grampositive strains (including streptococcus faecalis) and gramnegative strains (including pseudomonas aeruginosa and serratia spp.), as well as bacteroides fragilis and other bacteroides s ...19872822054
microbiological degradation of malodorous substances of swine waste under aerobic conditions.phenol, p-cresol, and volatile fatty acids (vfa; acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids) were used as odor indicators of swine waste. aeration of the waste allowed the indigenous microorganisms to grow and degrade these malodorous substances. the time required for degradation of these substances varied according to the waste used, and it was not necessarily related to their concentrations. using a minimal medium which contained one of the malodorous compounds as so ...198716347254
size of diffusion pore of alcaligenes faecalis.the diffusion pore of the outer membrane of alcaligenes faecalis was shown to be substantially smaller than the escherichia coli porin pore. in experiments with intact cells, pentoses and hexoses penetrated into the nacl-expanded periplasm, whereas saccharides of mr greater than 342 did not. cells treated with 0.5 m saccharides of mr greater than 342 weighed 33 to 38% less than cells treated with isotonic solution, suggesting that these saccharides do not permeate through the outer membrane. the ...19882835003
[utilization of 3-chlorobenzoic acid by a mixed culture of microorganisms].a mixed microbial culture (acinetobacter calcoaceticus inmi-kz-3 and alcaligenes faecalis inmi-kz-5) completely utilises 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3-cba), and the liberation of chlorine atoms is 100% of the theoretically possible one. a. faecalis growth in the mixed culture at the account of 2-chloro-cis,cis-muconic acid which is accumulated in the course of 3-cba metabolism by a. calcoaceticus inmi-kz-3.19883211007
[antibiotic sensitivity of nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria].antibiotic resistance of 132 strains of nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria (ngnb) was studied. 43, 20, 17, 14 and 12 of them belonged to acinetobacter calcoaceticus (anitratus and lwoffi), pseudomonas cepacia, alcaligenes faecalis, p. stutzeri and p. maltophilia, respectively. with rare exceptions all the strains were resistant to benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, lincomycin, ampicillin and cephaloridine. sensitivity to the other antibiotics varied within wide ranges. amikacin (94.3 per cent) and t ...19883228322
[microflora of the drinking water regenerated from atmospheric moisture condensate in hermetically sealed quarters].in an enclosed environment the species composition of microorganisms was quantified and metabolic processes in microbial cells isolated from the atmospheric condensate and reclaimed water were investigated. it was demonstrated that indicator microorganisms isolated from water and condensate samples (alcaligenes faecalis, citrobacter freundii, aeromonas hydrophila, acinetobacter-moraxella) were specific and differed from indicator microorganisms typical of regular tap water.19882898035
refinement of the structure of pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 at 1.55 a resolution.the crystal structure of the redox protein pseudoazurin (123 amino acid residues; molecular weight 13,000 daltons) from alcaligenes faecalis has been refined by fast fourier restrained least-squares minimization. cycles of rebuilding were carried out to escape from local minima. individual isotropic temperature factor values were refined separately for all atoms. the r factor was reduced from 0.400 (for 2647 reflections in the 6.0-2.8 a resolution range) to 0.180 (for all 19,770 reflections in t ...19883271558
crystallization of nitrite reductase from achromobacter cycloclastes.crystals of a green copper-containing nitrite reductase from achromobacter cycloclastes, which diffract to high resolution, belong to the cubic space group p213, with a = b = c = 98.4 a. crystals of a nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 have been made, and belong to space group p212121, with a = 77.3 a, b = 94.6 a and c = 141 a. crystals of the blue copper protein from ac. cycloclastes have also been obtained: these belong to space group p21212, with cell dimensions a = 34.9 a, b = 9 ...19883373536
effect of limited tryptic modification of a bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase on its catalytic activity.the extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase of alcaligenes faecalis t1, which hydrolyzes both hydrophobic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and water-soluble oligomers of d(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, lost its hydrolyzing activity toward the hydrophobic substrate on mile trypsin treatment, but retained its activity toward water-soluble oligomers. the molecular mass of the trypsin-treated enzyme was 44 kda, as estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, w ...19883337823
isolation and characterization of a penicillinase from pseudomonas cepacia 249.pseudomonas cepacia has an inducible beta-lactamase which is responsible for its novel ability to catabolize beta-lactam compounds. the gene encoding this enzyme, pena, was cloned from a genomic library of p. cepacia 249 on the broad-host-range cosmid plafr. this separated the pena gene from the gene encoding a second beta-lactamase in p. cepacia 249. expression of pena was inducible in an escherichia coli host strain by low levels of penicillin. the 33,500-molecular-weight enzyme had penicillin ...19883046483
nitric oxide complex of cytochrome c' in cells of denitrifying bacteria.electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) spectra at 77k have been measured for the dried cells of three groups of chemoheterotrophic bacteria cultured in the presence of nitrate: i, denitrifying bacteria containing cytochrome c' (alcaligenes sp. ncib 11015, achromobacter xylosoxidans gifu 543); ii, denitrifying bacteria in which cytochrome c' has not been found (alcaligenes faecalis iam 1015, bacillus firmus nias 237, pseudomonas stutzeri atcc 17641); iii, non-denitrifying bacterium containing cyto ...19882844743
cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression in escherichia coli of the gene for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis.the extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase gene from alcaligenes faecalis t1 was cloned into escherichia coli dh1 by using the plasmid puc8. an a. faecalis t1 genomic library was prepared in e. coli from a partial sau3ai digest and screened with antibody against the depolymerase. of the 29 antibody-positive clones, 1 (pdp14), containing about 4 kilobase pairs of a. faecalis t1 dna, caused expression of a high level of depolymerase activity in e. coli. the enzyme purified from e. coli ...19892644188
conduritol aziridine: a new mechanism-based glucosidase inactivator.a new mechanism-based glucosidase inactivator, conduritol aziridine (1,2-dideoxy-1,2-epimino-myo-inositol), has been synthesised from myo-inositol. this aziridine inactivates both the beta-glucosidase from alcaligenes faecalis and the alpha-glucosidase from yeast according to the expected pseudo-first order kinetics. inactivation constants measured are ki = 3.0mm, ki = 0.077 min-1 for the beta-glucosidase, and ki = 9.5mm, ki = 0.39 min-1 for the alpha-glucosidase. evidence for irreversible inact ...19892673241
heterotrophic nitrification by alcaligenes faecalis: no2-, no3-, n2o, and no production in exponentially growing cultures.heterotrophic nitrification by alcaligenes faecalis dsm 30030 was not restricted to media containing organic forms of nitrogen. in both peptone-meat extract and defined media with ammonium and citrate as the sole nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, no2-, no3-, no, and n2o were produced under aerobic growth conditions. heterotrophic nitrification was not attributable to old or dying cell populations. production of no2-, no3-, no, and n2o was detectable shortly after cultures started growth ...19892782877
contribution of permeability and sensitivity to inhibition of dna synthesis in determining susceptibilities of escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and alcaligenes faecalis to ciprofloxacin.to examine the correlation between bacterial cell susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and the magnitude of uptake and cell target sensitivity, the relative contribution of ciprofloxacin accumulation in intact cells and its ability to inhibit dna synthesis were investigated among strains of escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and alcaligenes faecalis. uptake studies of [14c]ciprofloxacin demonstrated diffusion kinetics for p. aeruginosa and e. coli. ciprofloxacin was more readily removed from e ...19892510591
a 2.0-a structure of the blue copper protein (cupredoxin) from alcaligenes faecalis s-6.the structure of a blue copper protein, cupredoxin, from the potent denitrifying bacterium alcaligenes faecalis s-6, has been determined and refined against 2 a x-ray diffraction data. the agreement between observed and calculated structure factors is 0.159, and estimated errors in coordinates are 0.09-0.15 a. the protein folds in a beta sandwich similar to plastocyanin and azurin and includes features such as a "kink" and a "tyrosine loop" which have been noted previously for these proteins as ...19892909547
unusual resistance to cefuroxime by strains of alcaligenes faecalis. 19892921091
enhancement of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated tumor cytotoxicity by serum factor(s).it has been reported that beta-1,3-d-glucan isolated from alcaligenes faecalis (tak) promoted tumor cytolysis by mouse polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn). we investigated the effect of serum on mouse pmn tumor cytolysis induced by tak and other pmn stimulators. addition of fetal calf serum (fcs) to the cytolysis assay enhanced tumor cytolysis by pmn in a dose-dependent manner. sera obtained from horses, mice, and rats were also effective enhancers of pmn tumor cytolysis. when fcs was added after ...19902108949
growth inhibition of selected food-borne bacteria, particularly listeria monocytogenes, by plant extracts.six extracts from chinese medicinal plants: tin men chu, sey lau pai, siu mao heung, bak tao yung, kam chin chiu and liao ya, were tested for their inhibitory effect on selected food-borne bacteria by the well assay technique. among them, tin men chu, siu mao heung and sey lau pai inhibited the growth of staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumonia, escherichia coli, shigella flexneri, streptococcus faecalis, salmonella paratyphi, salm. enteritidis, enterobacter aerogenes, pseudomonas fluorescens ...19902127264
a novel nitrilase, arylacetonitrilase, of alcaligenes faecalis jm3. purification and characterization.a new type of nitrilase, arylacetonitrilase, has been purified from isovaleronitrile-induced cells of alcaligenes faecalis jm3 in four steps. the purity of the enzyme was confirmed by sds/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, ampholyte electrofocusing and double immunodiffusion in agarose. the enzyme has a molecular mass of about 275 kda and consists of six subunits of identical molecular mass. the purified enzyme exhibits a ph optimum of 7.5 and a temperature optimum of 45 degrees c. the enzyme i ...19902269298
isolation and sequencing of the alcaligenes denitrificans azurin-encoding gene: comparison with the genes encoding blue copper proteins from pseudomonas aeruginosa and alcaligenes faecalis.the gene (azu) encoding azurin from alcaligenes denitrificans has been cloned and sequenced. the gene codes for a pre-protein with a 19-aa signal peptide. comparison with the sequences coding for the blue copper proteins from pseudomonas aeruginosa and alcaligenes faecalis reveals the presence of ntra and fnr boxes in front of all three genes, instead of a regular [-10, -35]-promoter. in p. aeruginosa, the azu gene is terminated by a bidirectional terminator and flanked by open reading frames on ...19902116366
photophysics of metalloazurins.the fluorescence lifetimes of cu(ii), cu(i), ag(i), hg(ii), co(ii), and ni(ii) azurin pae from pseudomonas aeruginosa and cu(ii), cu(i), and hg(ii) azurin afe from alcaligenes faecalis were measured at 295 k by time-correlated single-photon counting. in addition, fluorescence lifetimes of cu(ii) azurin pae were measured between 30 and 160 k and showed little change in value. ultraviolet absorption difference spectra between metalloazurin pae and apoazurin pae were measured, as were the fluoresce ...19902119804
an examination of proton translocation and energy conservation during heterotrophic nitrification.whether selected heterotrophic nitrifiers, as do the autotrophs, conserve energy during the oxidation of their nitrogenous substrates was studied. the examination of proton translocation of four different bacterial nitrifiers capable of pyruvic oxime [(po), ch3-c(noh)-cooh] nitrification and by an nh4+ oxidizing arthrobacter sp. was initiated. three of the po nitrifying bacteria, all pseudomonads, oxidize hydroxylamine (nh2oh) at a greater rate than po and yielded only stoichiometric protons whe ...19902157622
curdlan, a (1----3)-beta-d-glucan from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo13140, activates the alternative complement pathway by heat treatment.from the results of consumption experiments of guinea pig complement, curdlan, a (1----3)-beta-d-glucan obtained from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo13140, has been found to lack the ability to activate complement when unheated or preheated at either 40 degrees c or 50 degrees c. however, curdlan heated at or above 60 degrees c increased complement consumption. this activation, dependent on the temperature of the curdlan, was via the alternative complement pathway as assessed by cleavage ...19902276766
microbial metabolism of quinoline and related compounds. iv. degradation of isoquinoline by alcaligenes faecalis pa and pseudomonas diminuta 7.from sewage and soil isoquinoline-degrading organisms were enriched. two strains could be isolated which were able to utilize isoquinoline as sole carbon source. the bacteria were tentatively identified as alcaligenes faecalis and pseudomonas diminuta with respect to their morphological and physiological characters. when growing on isoquinoline both strains excrete a metabolite into the medium which was identified as 1-oxo-1,2-dihydroisoquinoline. alcaligenes faecalis was cultivated in continuou ...19902390217
resonance raman spectra of plastocyanin and pseudoazurin: evidence for conserved cysteine ligand conformations in cupredoxins (blue copper proteins).new resonance raman (rr) spectra at 15 k are reported for poplar (populus nigra) and oleander (oleander nerium) plastocyanins and for alcaligenes faecalis pseudoazurin. the spectra are compared with those of other blue copper proteins (cupredoxins). in all cases, nine or more vibrational modes between 330 and 460 cm-1 can be assigned to a coupling of the cu-s(cys) stretch with cys ligand deformations. the fact that these vibrations occur at a relatively constant set of frequencies is testimony t ...19911932014
production of r-(-)-mandelic acid from mandelonitrile by alcaligenes faecalis atcc 8750.r-(-)-mandelic acid was produced from racemic mandelonitrile by alcaligenes faecalis atcc 8750. ammonium acetate or l-glutamic acid as the carbon source and n-butyronitrile as the inducer in the culture medium were effective for bacterial growth and the induction of r-(-)-mandelic acid-producing activity. the r-(-)-mandelic acid formed from mandelonitrile by resting cells was present in a 100% enantiomeric excess. a. faecalis atcc 8750 has an r-enantioselective nitrilase for mandelonitrile and a ...19911660699
antitumor activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes activated by a beta-1,3-d-glucan.the antitumor activity of mouse polymorphonuclear leukocyte (pmn) treated with a beta-1,3-d-glucan from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo 13140 (tak-n) and its carboxymethylated derivative (cm-tak) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. icr mouse pmn showed strong cytotoxicity against sarcoma 180 cells and inhibition of the growth of the tumor cells in vitro in the presence of tak-n but not in the presence of cm-tak. since the cytotoxicity induced by tak-n was almost completely inhibited b ...19911779406
na+/h+ exchange modulates rat neutrophil mediated tumor cytotoxicity.rat neutrophils stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, bacillus calmette-guérin, zymosan a, and beta-1,3-d-glucan from alcaligenes faecalis showed cytotoxicity to various tumor cells. hydrogen peroxide was shown to be an effector molecule in tumor cytotoxicity by inhibition using various active oxygen scavengers. the following findings suggest that tumor cytotoxicity by rat neutrophils stimulated with the four reagents mentioned above is regulated by na+/h+ exchange: (a) an increase in ...19911645615
purification and characterization of d-aminoacylase from alcaligenes faecalis da1.a d-aminoacylase from alcaligenes faecalis da1 has been purified to homogeneity by a simple purification procedure with two columns, fractogel deae-650 and hw-50. the specific activity of the purified enzyme was found to be 580 u/mg of protein with n-acetyl-dl-methionine as the reaction substrate. the apparent molecular weight and isoelectric point of this enzyme were determined to be 55,000 and 5.4, respectively.199116348465
rapid identification of bordetella avium and related organisms on the basis of their cellular carbohydrate patterns.whole cell hydrolysates of bordetella avium, b. bronchiseptica, b. pertussis, b. parapertussis, alcaligenes faecalis, a. xylosoxidans ssp. denitrificans, a. xylosoxidans ssp. xylosoxidans, and a. piechaudii were analysed for their cellular carbohydrates by capillary gas-chromatography of per-acetylated aldononitriles and o-methyloximes, respectively. all alcaligenaceae species could be discriminated on the basis of their carbohydrate profiles and a few conventional features. taxometric evaluatio ...199118680060
distribution of epiphytic bacteria on olive leaves and the influence of leaf age and sampling time.mesophilic heterotrophic, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that grow on yeast tryptone glucose extract agar were isolated from the surface of olive leaves of 3 or 4 different ages in january, april, july, and october from 1984 to 1989. unweighted average linkage cluster analysis on either the jaccard coefficient or the simple matching coefficient recovered 1,701 representative strains in 32 phena defined at the 70% and 80% similarity level, respectively. of these, 25 were identified t ...199124194200
characterization of the proteins of bordetella isolates from turkeys in the uk by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.the proteins of seven bordetella bronchiseptica-like isolates were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). they were compared with three similar isolates from overseas, one of which is the type strain of bordetella avium, and with bordetella bronchiseptica nctc 452t and alcaligenes faecalis nctc 415. apart from alcaligenes faecalis, there was strong homology between the isolates suggesting their close relationship, but minor differences were apparent, too. the significance of thes ...199218670923
differentiation of gram-negative, nonfermentative bacteria isolated from biofilters on the basis of fatty acid composition, quinone system, and physiological reaction profiles.gram-negative, nonfermentative bacteria isolated from biofilters for off-gas treatment of animal-rendering-plant emissions were differentiated by whole-cell fatty acid analysis, quinone analysis, and numerical taxonomy based on their physiological reaction profiles. the last system consisted of 60 physiological tests and was arranged as a microtest system on microtitration plates. based on fatty acid analyses, 31 isolates were separated into six clusters and five single-member clusters. the isol ...199216348724
site-directed mutagenesis of pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis s-6; pro80ala mutant exhibits marked increase in reduction potential.pseudoazurin (a blue copper protein or cupredoxin) of a denitrifying bacterium alcaligenes faecalis s-6 is a direct electron carrier for a cu-containing nitrite reductase (nir) of the same organism. site-directed mutagenesis of the pseudoazurin was carried out using an escherichia coli expression system. replacement of tyr74 by phe to remove an internal hydrogen bond in the beta-barrel caused a slight decrease in heat stability as well as a requirement for a higher concentration of cu2+ for prod ...19921594573
evaluation of the 4-hour rapid nf plus method for identification of 345 gram-negative nonfermentative rods.the ability of the rapid nf plus system (innovative diagnostic systems, inc., atlanta, ga.) to identify 345 nonfermentative gram-negative rods was evaluated. kits were inoculated with no. 1 mcfarland suspensions, and reactions were interpreted after a 4-h incubation at 35 degrees c. overall, the method correctly identified 311 strains (90.1%) without additional tests and 21 strains (6.1%) with additional tests, and 13 strains (3.8%) were misidentified. five of 13 misidentified strains were alcal ...19921583129
synthesis and antitumor activities of mitomycin c (1----3)-beta-d-glucan conjugate.the conjugate of mitomycin c (mmc) with linear (1----3)-beta-d-glucan from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo 13140 was synthesized and its antitumor activities investigated. the conjugate (mmc-carboxymethylated linear (1----3)-beta-d-glucan (cmps)) was obtained by treatment of cmps with mmc in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide. in vitro cytotoxicity of mmc-cmps against l1210 leukemia cells was similar to that of mmc. in i.p.-i.p. system in vivo against p388 leu ...19921525956
extracellular poly(hydroxyalkanoate) depolymerases and their inhibitor from pseudomonas lemoignei.enzymatic degradation processes of microbial copolyesters, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate): p(3hb-co-3hv) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate): p(3hb-co-4hb), were studied by the weight loss (erosion) of copolyester films. these studies employed three extracellular depolymerases which degrade poly(3-hydroxybutyrate): p(3hb). two enzymes were purified from the culture supernatant of pseudomonas lemoignei and one from alcaligenes faecalis t1. the rate of enzymatic degradat ...19921504046
[the construction of genomic library of alcaligenes faecalis and cloning of nifh gene sequence homologous to klebsiella pneumoniae].a genomic library of alcaligenes faecalis a-15hl which possesses rather high nitrogenase activity has been constructed. the total dna of a. faecalis a-15 hl was partially digested with sau3ai. 13-20 kb of fragments recovered from agarose gel were cloned in bacteriophage em-bl4 vector. a total number of 1.2 x 10(6) of recombinants was obtained. it is much beyond the desired capacity of a library. by using nifh gene of k. pneumoniae from plasmid pgb1 as probe, we have successfully screened the clo ...19921466914
heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification in alcaligenes faecalis strain tud.heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic and anaerobic denitrification by alcaligenes faecalis strain tud were studied in continuous cultures under various environmental conditions. both nitrification and denitrification activities increased with the dilution rate. at dissolved oxygen concentrations above 46% air saturation, hydroxylamine, nitrite and nitrate accumulated, indicating that both the nitrification and denitrification were less efficient. the overall nitrification activity was, howeve ...19921416919
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