comparative study of antitumor activity and immunomodulatory effect of tetrahydro-2-furanyl and tetrahydro-2-pyranyl (1 leads to 3)-beta-d-glucans.the effects of tetrahydro-2-furanyl- and tetrahydro-2-pyranyl-ethers of (1 leads to 3)-beta-d-glucans from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes (ifo 13140) on the activities of macrophages and natural killer (nk) cells in either icr or balb/c mice were studied. the derivatives with strong antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 in icr mice induced higher macrophage tumoricidal activity (greater than 40%) than those with low antitumor activity (less than 20%). all derivatives with high or low antit ...19836655547
histamine-sensitizing factor of alcaligenes faecalis.alcaligenes faecalis produced a histamine-sensitizing factor (hsf) in turkey poults and mice, which was detected in poults by an infraorbital sinus test and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test and in mice by a rectal-temperature differential test. the a. faecalis hsf appeared to be similar to that produced by the genus bordetella and may be partly responsible for the clinical signs of alcaligenes rhinotracheitis in young poults.19836682654
the pathology of an epizootic of acquired immunodeficiency in rhesus macaques.a syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency within a group of outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) with unusually high mortality has been identified at the california primate research center. the cause of death for most of the affected animals included septicemia and/or chronic diarrhea with wasting, often complicated by other problems. in many cases, multiple or unusual infectious agents were isolated or recognized, including cytomegalovirus, cryptosporidium spp., and candida albicans. s ...19846691418
different local therapeutic effects of various polysaccharides on mh134 hepatoma in mice and its relation to inflammation induced by the polysaccharides.the local antitumor activities and inflammation-inducing activities of various antitumor polysaccharides were examined and the relation between the two types of activity was studied. the tested antitumor polysaccharides included mg (a mannoglucan prepared from the culture fluid of microellobosporia grisea), lentinan, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, tak (a glucan from alcaligenes faecalis) and their derivatives. local antitumor activity was tested by intratumoral administration of the polysaccharid ...19846745566
[characteristics of enterobacteria isolated during purulent-inflammatory processes in patients with critical diseases].a total of 238 patients were surveyed; 444 bacterial strains were isolated; of these 403 strains belonged to 7 out of 12 genera of the family enterobacteriaceae and 41 strains were identified as alcaligenes faecalis. the majority of enterobacteria were sensitive to broad-spectrum antibiotics. a characteristic feature of proteus was polyresistance to antibacterial preparations. the active and passive immunization of patients with urgent pathology against infections caused by e. coli and pr. mirab ...19807395405
development and use of amicroagglutination test to detect antibodies to alcaligenes faecalis in turkeys.a neotetrazolium-chloride-stained alcaligenes faecalis antigen was developed for use in the microagglutination (ma) test. the test was used to detect serum antibodies in naturally and experimentally infected turkeys. the highest titer observed in naturally infected birds was 1:320. in one commercial flock, antibodies were detected at 12 and 15 weeks after the initial disease outbreak. four experiments were conducted to study the serologic responses of turkeys to a. faecalis. antibodies were firs ...19807447837
altered immune function in turkey poults infected with alcaligenes faecalis, the etiologic agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (coryza).alcaligenes faecalis infection in turkey poults resulted in impaired function of the cellular immune system, as evidenced by histopathologic changes and reduced size of the thymus and by decreased lymphocyte stimulation. abnormalities of the humoral immune system were not detected.19807447838
graft-vs-host response in alcaligenes faecalis-infected turkey poults. 19836870022
bacterial agents causing chronic suppurative otitis media.ear swabs from 350 patients with chronic otitis media attending different orthorhinolaryngological clinics at different hospitals and health centres in benin city and ekpoma in edo state were screened for the presence of bacterial agents of chronic otitis media. results revealed the presence of 19 different species indicating polymicrobial infections. species isolated comprised staphylococcus aureus (33.6%), pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.3%), proteus mirabilis (17%), alcaligenes faecalis (6.2%) and ...19957498006
susceptibility of turkey poults from vaccinated and unvaccinated hens to alcaligenes rhinotracheitis (turkey coryza).one specific-pathogen-free breeder flock of beltsville small white turkeys was given two doses of oil-emulsion-adjuvanted alcaligenes faecalis bacterin 3 months apart, and another flock was left unvaccinated. progeny from each flock from eggs laid after both first and second vaccination were exposed to the homologous strain (838) of a. faecalis at 1 day of age either experimentally (10(7) colony-forming units intranasally) or naturally (continuous contact with an infected poult) and monitored fo ...19836870719
pcr-based preparation of 23s rrna-targeted group-specific polynucleotide probes.dna coding for a variable region within domain iii of bacterial 23s rrna was used as the target for group-specific polynucleotide hybridization probes. the corresponding rdna was amplified in vitro by the pcr technique in combination with a pair of primers specific for flanking conserved target sites. the amplified fragments were cloned or used directly as probes. rna probes were generated by in vitro transcription of cloned or amplified rdna. the probes were labeled by incorporating modified nu ...19947524442
antibiotic aerosolization for treatment of alcaligenes rhinotracheitis.aerosolization of oxytetracycline hydrochloride for treatment and control of rhinotracheitis caused by alcaligenes faecalis was performed in complete confinement on two turkey flocks immediately preceding vaccination with newcastle disease virus (ndv). tracheal culture results indicated populations of a. faecalis decreased following treatment. clinical observations showed the treated turkeys had greater activity and more alertness compared with untreated a. faecalis-infected flocks, and respirat ...19836870731
isolation of bacteria producing chloramphenicol acetyltransferase from soil and their characterization.after screening 107 soil samples collected from different spots around calcutta, 579 chloramphenicol resistant colonies were isolated. out of these only 58 colonies could inactivate chloramphenicol in detectable amounts. by noting the production of inactivating factor, 5 high yielding strains were further characterized to species level. three of them were escherichia coli strains, the two others were alcaligenes faecalis and klebsiella pneumoniae strains. all strains inactivated chloramphenicol ...19826956790
buffering capacity and h+ membrane conductance of gram-negative bacteria.buffering capacity and membrane h+ conductance were examined in seven gram-negative species: aquaspirillum serpens, pseudomonas aeruginosa, alcaligenes faecalis, escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, proteus mirabilis and aeromonas hydrophila. all strains of enterobacteriaceae studied here showed a decrease in both parameters as the external ph increased, over the ph range studied. the other four species presented an increase in buffering capacity and membrane conductance to protons as the e ...19957557289
proton nmr of the histidines of azurin from alcaligenes faecalis: linkage of histidine-35 with redox kinetics.on the basis of redox kinetic studies, rosen and pecht [rosen, p. & pecht, i. (1976) biochemistry 15, 775-786] postulated a slowly attained (approximately equal to 0.1 sec) conformational equilibrium between two forms of reduced azurin from the bacterium pseudomonas aeruginosa, one form being faster in electron transfer. nmr investigations have shown that at ph 7 there are two forms of reduced azurin exchanging slowly with each other, differing in the presence or absence of a proton on the imida ...19826960351
some characteristics of a urease-negative, temperature- sensitive strain of bordetella bronchiseptica as a live, attenuated vaccine.strain ts-s34 of bordetella bronchiseptica was treated jointly with two mutagens, nitrosoguanidine and uv irradiation, and a urease-negative (u-), temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant strain indistinguishable from alcaligenes faecalis in its biochemical characteristics was isolated. however, the mutant isolated was a phase iii organism. by repeating selection of smaller, hemolytic colonies observed among phase iii colonies after prolonged incubation, a phase i organism, strain ts-s34.u-, was isolat ...19827076293
evaluation of the rapid nft system for identification of gram-negative, nonfermenting rods.this study evaluated the ability of the rapid nft system (api system sa, montalieu-vercieu, france) to accurately identify 262 clinically isolated, gram-negative, nonfermentative rods without additional tests. identifications were classified as correct; low discrimination, with a spectrum of two or more possibilities (additional tests necessary for accurate identification); and incorrect. correct identification rates were analyzed in two categories: (i) correct to species or biotype for all orga ...19846490857
aliphatic nitrilase from a soil-isolated comamonas testosteroni sp.: gene cloning and overexpression, purification and primary aliphatic nitrilase, active on adiponitrile and cyanovaleric acid, was identified and purified from comamonas testosteroni sp. (ct). oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes were designed from limited amino acid (aa) sequence information and used to clone the corresponding gene, named nita. high homologies were found at the aa level between ct nitrilase and the sequences of known nitrilases. multi-alignment of sequenced nitrilases suggests that cys163 of ct plays an essential role in the active site. ...19957642130
purification and properties of a copper-containing nitrite reductase from a denitrifying bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis strain s-6.a copper-containing nitrite reductase was purified and crystallized from a potent denitrifying bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis strain s-6. the enzyme was composed of 4 subunits with a molecular weight of about 30,000, each containing 1 atom of cu2+. nitric oxide was identified as a main reduction product from nitrite in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. the enzyme activity was inhibited strongly by kcn but only slightly by sulfhydryl reagents such as p-chloromercuribenzoate and n-ethylmaleimide.19817240122
effects of organic acids on heterotrophic nitrification by alcaligenes faecalis okk17.factors affecting heterotrophic nitrification by alcaligenes faecalis okk17, which was isolated from sewage sludge, were examined. specific nitrifying activity increased as the ph increased up to 8.5. most of the nitrogenous compounds (88%) in the culture supernatant were converted to hydroxylamine or nitrite at ph 9 but 87% of them remained as ammonium at ph 7. these results imply that the substrate for heterotrophic nitrification is ammonium and that the organism oxidizes ammonium to lower its ...19947765476
phenanthrene-degrading phenotype of alcaligenes faecalis afk2.a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium that assimilated a wide range of organic compounds was isolated from a soil sample and identified as alcaligenes faecalis strain afk2. the strain degraded phenanthrene through protocatechuate, but did not utilize naphthalene. the phenanthrene-degrading phenotype (phn+) of afk2 disappeared after 20 successive subcultures in a mineral salts medium containing o-phthalate or after subculture in nutrient broth containing mitomycin c. the results suggested that the p ...19827059173
antitumor activity of tetrahydro-2-furanyl- and tetrahydro-2-pyranyl-glucans obtained by chemical modification of (1 leads to 3)-beta-d-glucan from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes ifo 13140 and its lower molecular weight glucans.the well-defined (1 leads to 3)-beta-d-glucan with dp (degree of polymerization) 540 and the various chain-length (1 leads to 3)-beta-d-glucans prepared by its hydrolysis were chemically modified to furanyl- and pyranyl-derivatives. as a primary screening, the effect of 20 derivatives thus obtained was tested on sarcoma 180 solid tumor transplanted sc into allogeneic icr mice; the dose was 10 mg/kg ip for 10 days. eleven derivatives that showed a strong antitumor effect on sarcoma 180 were also ...19836831473
field vaccination trials against turkey coryza using a temperature-sensitive mutant of alcaligenes field trials, 14 flocks of turkeys were vaccinated against coryza (rhinotracheitis) with a temperature-sensitive mutant of alcaligenes faecalis via drinking water. vaccine doses of 5 to 250 million bacteria per turkey were used. turkeys ranged in age from 2.5 to 13 weeks. doses of 5 to 7 million bacteria did not induce complete protection. doses of 50 million bacteria or more appeared to induce substantial immunity in most flocks. six-week-old birds receiving doses of 90 million bacteria deve ...19817271666
[decomposition of 3,4-dichloroaniline by an alcaligenes faecalis culture].under the conditions of co-oxidation at a considerable excess of the co-substrate, alcaligenes faecalis performs oxidative deamination of 3,4-dichloroaniline yielding 4,5-dichloropyrocatechol and cleaves its aromatic cycle. formation of a chlorinated derivative of hydroxymuconic acid as an intermediate product, as well as the 100% liberation of chloride ions under these conditions, indicate that 3,4-dichloroaniline can be completely mineralized by a. faecalis.19817311910
microbial synthesis and properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) in comamonas acidovorans.comamonas acidovorans ds-17 was isolated from activated sludge and found to produce copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4hb) at 30 degrees c under growth-limited conditions. when 1,4-butanediol or 4-hydroxybutyric acid was used as the sole carbon source, a p(4hb) homopolymer was produced. random copolymers of 3hb and 4hb units were produced on the addition of glucose or 3-hydroxybutyric acid to the culture solution of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. the physical properties of p(3 ...19948011595
alcaligenes faecalis-associated respiratory disease of chickens. 19817316903
scanning electron microscopy of tracheas from turkey poults infected with alcaligenes faecalis. 19817316906
antimicrobial activity of essential oil from schinus molle linn.the essential oil from the fresh leaves of schinus molle isolated by hydrodistillation was tested for antibacterial activity using the hole plate diffusion method and for antifungal activity using the mycelium or single cell growth inhibition method. results obtained showed that the volatile oil exhibited significant activity against the following bacterial species: klebsiella pneumoniae, alcaligenes faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, leuconostoc cremoris, enterobacter aerogenes, proteus vulgaris ...19938055554
effect of humidity on infection of turkeys with alcaligenes faecalis.turkeys maintained at 75% to 80% relative humidity were more adversely affected by alcaligenes faecalis infection than turkeys maintained at 20 to 35% relative humidity. alcaligenes faecalis was reisolated earlier and more often from turkeys maintained at the higher humidity. clinically, the turkeys maintained at high humidity exhibited both sinusitis and conjunctivitis earlier than the turkeys at low humidity. in both groups, antibody titers as determined by a microagglutination test developed ...19817337613
kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous hydrolysis of poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] film by pha depolymerases.the kinetics and mechanism of enzymatic degradation on the surface of poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (p[(r)-3hb]) film have been studied using three types of extracellular poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (pha) depolymerases from alcaligenes faecalis, pseudomonas picketti and comamonas testosteroni. the monomer and dimer of 3-hydroxybutyric acid were produced during the course of the enzymatic degradation of p[(r)-3hb] film, and the rate of production was determined by monitoring the increase in absorbance a ...19938110658
control of turkey alcaligenes rhinotracheitis in utah with a live vaccine.during the 1980 growing season in the sanpete valley of utah, about half of the 250 to 300 flocks of turkeys were vaccinated with an oral vaccine against alcaligenes rhinotracheitis (art). the vaccine consisted of a temperature-sensitive mutant of alcaligenes faecalis. most vaccinated birds developed serum antibodies. no outbreaks of art occurred in vaccinated flocks, although some outbreaks occurred in unvaccinated flocks. during 1979, when on flocks were vaccinated, over 90% of the flocks expe ...19817337606
immunization against turkey coryza by colonization with mutants of alcaligenes faecalis.temperature-sensitive mutants of alcaligenes faecalis that exhibited reduced growth at 42 c but grew well at 30 c were induced by n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine. four of the 5 mutants that were studied readily colonized the nasal mucosa of turkeys when given intranasally or in drinking water. several mutants caused no signs of coryza or depression and produced minimal colonization of the trachea. colonization of the nasal mucosa lasted 3 to 4 weeks and induced moderate levels of serum anti ...19807447839
[non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli: their distribution to clinical materials and antibiotic susceptibility (author's transl)].a total of 7898 non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli were isolated from various clinical materials. pseudomonas (7526) was the most common among them. alcaligenes faecalis (273), acinetobacter sp. (93) and flavobacterium (6) were the other non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli. most of them were found in urine and pus cultures, however they were also isolated from sputum, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. gentamicin was the most effective antibiotic in vitro. fifty four per cent of pseudomonas, ...19807453583
characterization of contaminating dna in taq polymerase which occurs during amplification with a primer set for legionella 5s ribosomal amplification product that occurred in negative controls of a pcr using a primer system for legionella 55 ribosomal rna was characterized by direct sequencing. the amplification product did not hybridize to a legionella specific oligonucleotide. it was derived from bacterial dna contaminating taq dna polymerase, a phenomenon that was previously reported for amplification reactions with universal primer sets for bacterial 16s rrna. the sequence of the 5s ribosomal fragment had close homology t ...19947518037
the dynamic progression of evolved character states for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in gram-negative bacteria.a systematic analysis of the evolution of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the proteobacteria, previously focussed mainly upon the gamma subdivision, has now been extended to the beta subdivision. five lineages were studied, represented by neisseria gonorrhoeae, nitrosomonas europaea, alcaligenes faecalis, rrna group-iii pseudomonads/rubrivivax gelatinosus, and rrna group-ii pseudomonads/rhodocyclus tenuis. within the phenylalanine pathway, the bifunctional p-protein (chorismate mutase/prephe ...19947533594
structure of alcaligenes faecalis nitrite reductase and a copper site mutant, m150e, that contains zinc.the structures at 2.0 and 2.25 a resolution of native and recombinant nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis show that they are identical to each other and very similar to nitrite reductase from achromobacter cycloclastes. the crystallographic structure of a mutant, m150e, which unlike the wild-type protein cannot be reduced by pseudoazurin, shows that the glutamate replacement for methionine binds to a metal at the type i cu site via only one oxygen. anomalous scattering data collected at ...19957547950
[comparative susceptibility of ochrobactrum anthropi, agrobacterium tumefaciens, alcaligenes faecalis, alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams].ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "achromobacter sp." or cdc group vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). o. anthropi is a gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. the susceptibility of 13 strains of o. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of agrobacterium tumefaciens, alcaligenes faecalis, alcaligenes ...19957567111
morphology and biodegradability of a binary blend of poly((r)-3-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly((r,s)-lactic acid).the miscibility, morphology, and biodegradability of a binary blend of bacterial poly((r)-3-hydroxybutyric acid)(p((r)-3hb);mn = 300,000) with atactic poly((r,s)-lactic acid)(p((r,s)-la);mn = 9,000) were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and hydrolysis with an without enzyme. differential scanning calorimetry revealed that a p((r)-3hb)-p((r,s)-la) blend had a single glass-transition temperature for all proportions of the comp ...19957606667
cytotoxic activity of pathogenic alcaligenes faecalis in turkey tracheal organ cultures.turkey tracheal organ cultures were used to study the virulence of alcaligenes faecalis isolants that have been shown to be pathogenic for turkey poults. viable infected and noninfected tracheal rings were examined by phase-contrast microscopy, and fixed stained sections were examined by light microscopy. alcaligenes faecalis at concentrations of 10(8) and 10(9) colony-forming units/ml caused ciliostasis, hydropic degeneration (characterized by blebbing of the plasma membrane, cellular swelling, ...19817340589
the crystal structure of apo-pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis s-6.the 3d structure of the apo-pseudoazurin (copper free pseudoazurin) from alcaligenes faecalis strain s-6 is determined and refined at ph 6.7 using x-ray diffraction data to 1.85 a resolution. the final crystallographic r-factor is 0.164. comparing the structures of apo-pseudoazurin and the native (cu2+) protein, we observed limited differences ranging between 0.1-0.4 a at the vicinity of the copper site, at the loops connecting the secondary structural elements, at certain beta-strands and at th ...19957635192
[degradation of monochloro-substituted anilines by alcaligenes faecalis].alcaligenes faecalis is capable of degrading 3- and 4-chloroanilines in the conditions of cooxidation. aniline is the inductor of the enzyme systems responsible for this process. growth substrates for a. faecalis are also active cosubstrates in the transformation of chloroanilines. ammonium nitrogen and chloride ions are accumulated in the cultural broth in the process of transformation of 3- and 4-chloroanilines by a. faecalis. apparently, the transformation of anilines involves cleavage of the ...19807393014
alcaligenes faecalis corneal ulcer in a patient with cicatricial pemphigoid. 19938430740
identification of interaction site of pseudoazurin with its redox partner, copper-containing nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6.pseudoazurin, a low molecular weight protein containing a single type i copper, functions as an electron donor to a copper-containing nitrite reductase (nir) in a denitrifying bacterium alcaligenes faecalis s-6. to elucidate the protein-protein interaction between these two copper-containing proteins, each of nine out of 13 lysine residues on the surface of pseudoazurin were independently replaced by alanine or aspartate, and the effects of the mutations on the interaction with nir, as well as t ...19957630886
[aniline as a single carbon, nitrogen, and energy source for alcaligenes faecalis].a microorganism capable of assimilating aniline as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as alcaligenes faecalis. enzyme systems catalyzing aniline oxidation are inducible. aniline is metabolized by a. faecalis via meta-decomposition of aromatic substances. the extracts of bacterial cells cultivated in a growth medium with aniline contain pyrocatechol 2,3-oxygenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde hydrolyase.19807392997
the effects of temperature and ph on the growth of eight enteric and nine glucose non-fermenting species of gram-negative rods.we studied the heat resistance and the range of growth temperature o gram-negative rods to find one of the bacterial factors governing their infectivity in exogenous and endogenous infections in predisposed patients. escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, serratia marcescens, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and acinetobacter calcoaceticus grew equally well at 25, 30, 37, and 42 c. among other sugar non-fermenting gram-negative rods, six species showed suppressed growth at either or both ends of the in ...19827087800
a case of bacteremia and disseminated intravascular coagulation after the conduit procedure for tetralogy of fallot with pulmonary atresia.a case undergoing conduit procedure for tetralogy of fallot with pulmonary atresia was complicated postoperatively by bacteremia due to non-fermentative gram-negative rods and by disseminated intravascular coagulation. he was able to be cured without any sequela. the patient was a 16-year-old male, who had undergone blalock-taussig anastomosis in his infancy. the present operation was carried out as follows: ventricular septal defect was closed with a teflon-patch and discontinuity between the r ...19827120653
lipid-bound saccharides in rhizobium meliloti.the lipid-bound saccharides formed by incubation of uridine diphosphate glucose with a particulate enzyme of rhizobium meliloti were studied. they behaved like polyprenyl diphosphate saccharides when treated with ammonia or hot phenol, when catalytically hydrogenated, and on deae-cellulose chromatography. the saccharide moieties obtained after heating at ph 2 for 10 min at 100 degrees c were separated with a gel filtration column. the following compounds were detected: galactose, glucosyl beta 1 ...19827085601
uterine, cervical and vaginal microflora of the normal bitch throughout the reproductive cycle.samples for microbiological culture were collected from the uterus of bitches using transcervical uterine cannulation (31 samples, 23 bitches) and from the uterus, cervix and vagina post mortem (19 bitches) at all stages of the reproductive cycle. samples were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and for aerobic mycoplasmas. bacteria were always found in the uterus during pro-oestrus and oestrus (12 positive in 12 cultures) and rarely at other stages of the reproductive cycle: during anoe ...19968656593
extracellular transport of pseudoazurin of alcaligenes faecalis in escherichia coli using the cooh-terminal domain of serratia marcescens serine protease.a large cooh-terminal domain of serratia marcescens serine protease (ssp) is essentially required for the excretion of the mature protease region through the outer membrane in escherichia coli. for investigation of the possibility of transporting foreign periplasmic proteins by utilizing the function of the cooh-terminal domain of ssp, the pseudoazurin (pa) gene of alcaligenes faecalis was fused to three different lengths of the cooh-terminal domain via a bglii linker sequence (agatct) which wou ...19947822250
biochemical and molecular characterization of the pseudomonas lemoignei polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase system.pseudomonas lemoignei has five different polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) depolymerase genes (phaz1 to phaz5), which encode the extracellularly localized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) depolymerases c, b, and d, poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (phv) depolymerase, and phb depolymerase a, respectively. four of the five genes (phaz1 to phaz4) have been cloned, and one of them (phaz1) was studied in detail earlier (d. jendrossek, b. müller, and h. g. schlegel, eur. j. biochem. 218:701-710, 1993). the fifth pha dep ...19957836292
spectroscopic evidence for a common electron transfer pathway for two tryptophan tryptophylquinone enzymes.aromatic amine dehydrogenase (aadh) and methylamine dehydrogenase (madh) are the only two enzymes known to use the cofactor tryptophan tryptophylquinone (ttq). each catalyzes oxidative deamination of a distinct class of primary amines. a detailed comparison of their circular dichroic spectra indicates that both proteins share a similar fold with their ttq cofactors residing in similar environments and that this may be a useful diagnostic probe for ttq enzymes. alcaligenes faecalis cells induced ...19957876189
d-aminoacylase from alcaligenes faecalis possesses novel activities on d-methionine.d-aminoacylase isolated from alcaligenes faecalis da1 has a great potential for future application in d-amino acids production. this paper reports for the first time that d-aminoacylase can reverse the catalysis direction on d-met and deacylate n-ac-d-met-ome and n-ac-d-met-gly. the results provide important insights regarding the binding and affinity of substrates to the active site of this enzyme. based on a systematic study of kinetic properties and relative reactivities for a broad range of ...19947922115
the crystal structures of reduced pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 at two ph values.the structures of the reduced (cu1+) blue-copper protein pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis strain s-6 are refined at ph 7.8 and 4.4 using x-ray diffraction data to 1.8 a resolution. the final r-factors for the high and low ph structures are 0.178 and 0.177, respectively. comparing the reduced pseudoazurin at ph 7.8 with the oxidised (cu2+) molecule, small changes are observed in the vicinity of the copper site and on the protein surface. at ph 4.4 the copper substituent imidazole of his81 r ...19948034003
[cerebral abscess of otic origin caused conjointly by proteus mirabilis and alcaligenes faecalis]. 19958808483
[mossbauer data on the effect of nad.h on the state of iron in bacteria].the state of fe of bacterial cultures of different systematic positions (bacillus megaterium, bacillus polymyxa, pseudomonas putida, pseudomonas fluorescens, alcaligenes faecalis, arthrobacter siderocapsulatus) grown on the medium containing fe(iii) citrate (up to 100 mg/l) with additional or without nad.h was studied. the samples were in damp air-dry, second moistened, dried at 383 k states. spectra have been obtained at 290 k and 100-200 k. the studied microorganisms have two types of atoms of ...19948043633
incidence of pyrexia in patients undergoing haemodialysis.four patients on maintenance haemodialysis at the lagos university teaching developed pyrogenic reactions during treatment. blood cultures were negative but the haemodialysates were grossly contaminated, mostly with gram-negative bacilli, implicating their endotoxin as the cause of the observed pyrogenicity. the water reservoirs supplying the dialysis centre were grossly contaminated (counts 2.0 x 10(2) cfuml-1) with gram-negative bacteria such as pseudomonas aeruginosa, ps. fluorescens, alcalig ...19968855673
differential blocking of coagulation-activating pathways of limulus amebocyte lysate.the coagulation of limulus amebocyte lysate (lal) can be activated through two pathways, one initiated by endotoxin and the other by beta-glucans. the two pathways join at the step of activation of the proclotting enzyme. we report here that the endotoxin-activated pathway can be differentially inhibited by two methods in a limulus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), either by the combined use of dimethyl sulfoxide and polymyxin b or by a monoclonal antibody against limulus factor c. lal ...19948077400
distribution of the catabolic transposon tn5271 in a groundwater bioremediation system.the distribution of tn5271-related dna sequences in samples of groundwater and a groundwater bioremediation system at the hyde park (niagara falls, n.y.) chemical landfill site was investigated. pcr amplification of target sequences within the cha genes of tn5271 revealed similar sequences in the groundwater community and in samples from the sequencing batch reactors treating that groundwater. cell dilution combined with pcr amplification indicated that cha sequences were carried in about 1 of 1 ...19948117095
changing patterns of microbial contamination and antimicrobial sensitivity in donor eyes.contaminating microbial flora and their in vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern was determined for 1557 eyes from donor cadavers collected during five years. positive cultures were obtained in 42.77% of the eyes; bacterial growth was observed in 39.17% of the eyes and fungal growth, in 3.6%. there was significant variation in the rate of contamination from year to year during the study period. staphylococcus albus was the most frequently isolated organism (28.10%), followed by acinetobacter spp. ...19938129326
in-vitro susceptibility of alcaligenes faecalis compared with those of other alcaligenes spp. to antimicrobial agents including seven beta-lactams. 19938144436
studies on the mechanism of action of the atp-dependent dnaase from alcaligenes atp-dependent dnaase has been purified to homogeneity from extracts of alcaligenes faecalis, and has been shown to couple the degradation of dna to the hydrolysis of atp. enzyme activity also requires divalent ions, with mn2+, mg2+ and co2+ being effective cofactors for both dnaase and atpase activities. we have studied the intermediates formed by the enzyme during the degradation of duplex dna with each of these cofactors using sedimentation velocity, binding to nitrocellulose filters and se ...19817215356
distinctive electrophoretic pattern of esterases produced by alcaligenes species.the esterases produced by 34 strains of alcaligenes faecalis, 16 strains of a. denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans, 5 strains of a. piechaudii and 10 strains of a. denitrificans subsp. denitrificans were analysed by horizontal polyacrylamide-agarose gel electrophoresis. these enzymes were distinguished by their spectra of hydrolytic activity towards 5 synthetic substrates (hydrolytic type) and their electrophoretic mobilities (electrophoretic type). four hydrolytic types of esterases were produced ...19938210679
a monoclonal antibody-based latex bead agglutination test for the detection of bordetella avium.the purpose of this study was to develop a rapid method to distinguish bordetella avium from closely related bordetella avium-like and b. bronchiseptica bacteria. a monoclonal antibody of the igm isotype was produced in balb/c mice against live b. avium strain 75. the monoclonal antibody, in the form of ascites fluid, was added to a bovine serum albumin-glycine buffer (ph 8.6) and adsorbed to 3.03-microns-diameter latex beads. optimum concentrations of antibody, beads, and bacteria were determin ...19938257369
a comparison of ozonation and chlorination for the disinfection of stainless steel surfaces.ozonated water and chlorinated sanitizer were compared for effectiveness against biofilms of milk spoilage bacteria. stainless steel plates were incubated in uht-pasteurized milk inoculated with pure cultures of either pseudomonas fluorescens (atcc 949) or alcaligenes faecalis (atcc 337). after incubation, the plates were removed and rinsed in sterile pbs. a control rinsed stainless steel plate was swabbed and plated on standard plate count agar. a second rinsed stainless steel plate was covered ...19938270705
identification of bordetella avium using the polymerase chain reaction.a dna fragment from bordetella pertussis, encoding the fim2 fimbrial subunit gene with adjacent sequences, was used as a probe for the detection of homologous sequences in chromosomal dna of bordetella avium. a 1.8 kb sa1i-psti fragment from the genome of b. avium, which hybridized with the probe, was isolated and sequenced. no fimbrial subunit gene was located on the b. avium dna fragment. two regions could be distinguished in the sequence of the fragment. region 1, which was 80% identical to t ...19938271920
a comparison of no and n2o production by the autotrophic nitrifier nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic nitrifier alcaligenes faecalis.soil microorganisms are important sources of the nitrogen trace gases no and n2o for the atmosphere. present evidence suggests that autotrophic nitrifiers such as nitrosomonas europaea are the primary producers of no and n2o in aerobic soils, whereas denitrifiers such as pseudomonas spp. or alcaligenes spp. are responsible for most of the no and n2o emissions from anaerobic soils. it has been shown that alcaligenes faecalis, a bacterium common in both soil and water, is capable of concomitant he ...19938285659
properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from a marine bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis ae122.alcaligenes faecalis ae122 that used poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) as a sole source of carbon was newly isolated from a coastal seawater sample. the strain required seawater for growth on phb as well as in a nutrient broth, in which seawater could be replaced by an appropriate concentration of nacl. phb depolymerase was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of a. faecalis ae122 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the enzyme consisted of a monomer subunit ...19957646009
studies on protein-protein interaction between copper-containing nitrite reductase and pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis mutagenesis of a copper-containing nitrite reductase (nir) from alcaligenes faecalis s-6 was carried out to identify the amino acid residues involved in interaction with its redox partner, pseudoazurin, in which four positively charged residues were previously shown to be important in the interaction. ten negatively charged residues located on the surface of nir were replaced independently by alanine or serine. all the altered nirs showed cd spectra and optical spectra identical to ...19968662745
strains of alcaligenes faecalis from clinical material.six strains of alcaligenes faecalis, unusually isolated from clinical material, are described. alcaligenes faecalis is a gram-negative catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod. it is commonly found in a watery environment and is rarely isolated from humans. the clinical and laboratory characteristics of the clinical a. faecalis isolates are presented.19979354352
an iron dioxygenase from alcaligenes faecalis catalyzing the oxidation of pyruvic oxime to enzyme which participated in the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite from was partially purified alcaligenes faecalis, and some of its properties were studied. the enzyme oxidized aerobically pyruvic oxime to nitrite in the presence of hydroxylamine or ascorbate. as molecular oxygen equimolar to nitrite formed was consumed in the enzymatic oxidation of pyruvic oxime to nitrite, the enzyme was thought to be a dioxygenase. it was an iron protein, and a reducing reagent was required to keep th ...19968674977
[characterization of plasmids which mediate resistance to multiple antibiotics in gram-negative bacteria of nosocomial origin].the genetic and molecular mechanisms involved in antimicrobial resistance of 10 strains of gramnegative bacilli (1 serratia marcescens; 2 escherichia coli; 1 proteus mirabilis; 4 klebsiella pneumoniae; 1 enterobacter cloacae y 1 alcaligenes faecalis), isolated from adult patients with nosocomial pulmonary infection at the in-patient facilities of the university hospital of los andes, mérida, venezuela, have been studied.19979376400
determination of the active sites serine of the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases of pseudomonas lemoignei (phaz5) and of alcaligenes faecalis.mutational analysis of the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) depolymerase a of pseudomonas lemoignei and of the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase of alcaligenes faecalis revealed that s138 (p. lemoignei) and s139 (a. faecalis) are essential for activity. both serines are part of a strictly conserved pentapeptide sequence which is present in all poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases analyzed so far (g-l-s-s(a)-g) and which resembles the lipase box of lipases and other serine hydrolases (g-x-s-x-g) ...19968764515
epidemiological investigation of infections due to alcaligenes species in children and patients with cystic fibrosis: use of repetitive-element-sequence polymerase chain reaction.twenty-one isolates of alcaligenes species were recovered from the respiratory tract of 16 patients at texas children's hospital over a 1-year period. all but one were identified as alcaligenes xylosoxidans; the remaining isolate was identified as alcaligenes faecalis (formerly alcaligenes odorans). thirteen of 21 isolates were from the sputum of eight patients with cystic fibrosis (cf), two of whom were persistently colonized. the remaining isolates were recovered from intubated children. patte ...19957795082
adsorption kinetics of bacterial phb depolymerase on the surface of polyhydroxyalkanoate films.the kinetics of adsorption and hydrolysis by an extracellular phb depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis were studied at 37 degrees c on the surface of five types of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) films. the films of poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (p(3hp)), poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (p(3hp)), and poly(4-hydroxybutyrate)(p(4hb)) were hydrolyzed by the enzyme, while the films of poly[(s)-2-hydroxypropionate)(p(2hp)) and poly(6-hydroxyhexanoate)(p(6hh)) were not eroded. the phb depolymerase with binding a ...19968782717
susceptibilities of non-pseudomonas aeruginosa gram-negative nonfermentative rods to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, d-ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem.agar dilution mics of 10 agents against 410 non-pseudomonas aeruginosa gram-negative nonfermentative rods were determined. mics at which 50 and 90% of the isolates were inhibited, respectively, were as follows (in micrograms per milliliter): sparfloxacin, 0.5 and 8.0; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 8.0; ciprofloxacin, 2.0 and 32.0; ofloxacin, 2.0 and 32.0; d-ofloxacin, 32.0 and > 64.0; ceftazidime, 8.0 and 64.0; piperacillin with or without tazobactam, 16.0 and > 64.0; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 0.5 ...19968851609
bordetella trematum sp. nov., isolated from wounds and ear infections in humans, and reassessment of alcaligenes denitrificans rüger and tan 1983.ten strains recognized on the basis of a computer-assisted numerical comparison of whole-cell protein patterns as members of a novel species belonging to the family alcaligenaceae were examined by using an integrated phenotypic and genotypic approach. this species, for which we propose the name bordetella trematum sp. nov., was more closely related to the type species of the genus bordetella (bordetella pertussis) than to the type species of the genus alcaligenes (alcaligenes faecalis) and had t ...19968863408
site-directed mutagenesis of azurin from pseudomonas aeruginosa enhances the formation of an electron-transfer complex with a copper-containing nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6.kinetic analysis of electron transfer between azurin from pseudomonas aeruginosa and copper-containing nitrite reductase (nir) from akaligenes faecalis s-6 was carried out to investigate the specificity of electron transfer between copper-containing proteins. apparent values of kcat and km of nir for azurin were 300-fold smaller and 172-fold larger than those for the physiological redox partner, pseudoazurin from a. faecalis s-6, respectively, suggesting that the electron transfer between azurin ...19968925934
purification of an extracellular d-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate oligomer hydrolase from pseudomonas sp. strain a1 and cloning and sequencing of its extracellular d-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate oligomer hydrolase was purified from a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-degrading bacterium, pseudomonas sp. strain a1. the purified enzyme hydrolyzed the d-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate dimer and trimer at similar rates. the enzyme activity was inhibited by a low concentration of diisopropylfluorophosphate. the molecular weight of the hydrolase was estimated to be about 70,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. a 10-kbp dna fragment of a1 was d ...19978981982
delayed hypersensitivity response in alcaligenes faecalis-infected turkey poults. 19827159321
the adsorption of substrate-binding domain of phb depolymerases to the surface of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid).the binding characteristic of phb depolymerase has been studied by using glutathione s-transferase (gst) fusion proteins with substrate-binding domain of three bacterial phb depolymerases, alcaligenes faecalis, comamonas acidovorans and comamonas testosteroni. analysis using immuno-gold labeling technique and transmission electron microscopy indicated that a novel gst fusion protein derived from a. faecalis enzyme adsorbed to the surface of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (p(3hb)) single crystals li ...19989585889
nitrous oxide production by alcaligenes faecalis under transient and dynamic aerobic and anaerobic conditions.nitrous oxide can be a harmful by-product in nitrogen removal from wastewater. since wastewater treatment systems operate under different aeration regimens, the influence of different oxygen concentrations and oxygen fluctuations on denitrification was studied. continuous cultures of alcaligenes faecalis tud produced n2o under anaerobic as well as aerobic conditions. below a dissolved oxygen concentration of 5% air saturation, the relatively highest n2o production was observed. under these condi ...19968779582
[bacterial endotoxins produced by alcaligenes faecalis and erwinia herbicola as potential occupational hazards for agricultural workers].laboratory animals (guinea pigs and rabbits) were exposed to the inhalation of aerosolized endotoxins derived from the cell mass of alcaligenes faecalis and erwinia herbicola, the gram-negative bacteria commonly occurring in organic dusts. single 1 hour-lasting exposure caused the significant increase in the number of free lung cell, mostly lymphocytes, compared to the control group exposed to saline (p < 0.001). prolonged exposure to tested endotoxins (fifteen 1 hour-lasting exposures every sec ...19969190244
comparative activity of trovafloxacin, alone and in combination with other agents, against gram-negative nonfermentative the first part of this study, agar dilution mics were used to test the activities of trovafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, clinafloxacin, ceftazidime, and imipenem against 458 gram-negative nonfermenters. the overall respective mics at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (mic50s) and mic90s were as follows: trovafloxacin, 1.0 and 16.0 microg/ml; ciprofloxacin, 2.0 and 16.0 microg/ml; ofloxacin, 2.0 and 32.0 microg/ml; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 16.0 microg/ml; sparfl ...19979210669
factors affecting pcb degradation by an implanted bacterial strain in soil microcosms.pseudomonas testosteroni b-356 was able to degrade approximately 50% of the aroclor 1242 mixture in shaken culture. the aims of the present study were to evaluate the capabilities of this bacterial strain to degrade pcbs in soil microcosms and to identify some of the factors likely to favor the degradative performance of the implanted bacteria. the presence of biphenyl as cosubstrate was the most important factor affecting pcb degradation in soil. however, because biphenyl was rapidly depleted i ...19938358671
nitrilase in biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-acetonitrile: cloning of the alcaligenes gene and site-directed mutagenesis of cysteine residues.indole-3-acetic acid is the major auxin in most plants. in cruciferae, including brassicaceae, indole-3-acetic acid is synthesized from indole-3-acetonitrile by nitrilase, after indole-3-acetonitrile is formed from tryptophan via indole-3-acetaldoxime or indole glycosinolates as the intermediate. we cloned and sequenced the gene for nitrilase (ec, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of indole-3-acetonitrile to indole-3-acetic acid, from alcaligenes faecalis jm3. the amino acid sequence deduc ...19938419930
valine dehydrogenase from a non-spore-forming bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis: purification and nad-dependent valine dehydrogenase (l-valine:nad oxidoreductase, deaminating, ec 1.4.1.-), was found in a non-spore-forming bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis, and purified about 80-fold to be characterized. the molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be about 72 kda and the enzyme consists of two identical subunits with a molecular mass of 40 kda and is thermolabile. it loses its activity fully on incubation at 50 degrees c for 5 min. the enzyme catalyzes the reversible deamination of l-v ...19938448188
efficacy of a one-step hydrogen peroxide system for disinfection of soft contact lenses.we investigated the efficacy of a one-step hydrogen peroxide system by culturing soft contact lenses before and after exposure to the aosept disinfection system. sixteen of 38 soft contact lenses obtained from asymptomatic wearers showed microbial growth. nine cultures were positive for pseudomonas sp., four showed growth of staphylococcus sp., two were positive for beta-hemolytic streptococci, and one culture was positive for alcaligenes faecalis. a second culture of the contact lenses after hy ...19938453753
cloning and characterization of a nitrite reductase gene from alcaligenes faecalis and its expression in escherichia coli.the gene (nir) encoding the copper-containing nitrite reductase (nir) of a denitrifying bacterium, alcaligenes faecalis s-6, was cloned by a synthetic oligonucleotide-probing method. the nucleotide sequence of the cloned dna fragment revealed the primary structure of the nir precursor containing the n-terminal signal sequence for secretion. a nucleotide sequence, possibly recognized by a transcriptional regulator resembling fnr was found upstream of the structural gene. when the cloned gene was ...19938515232
isolation and characterization of a novel 5-oxoprolinase (without atp-hydrolyzing) from alcaligenes faecalis n-38a.a screening test was undertaken to isolate a microorganism that produced 5-oxoprolinase (without atp-hydrolyzing). the 5-oxoprolinase (without atp-hydrolyzing) activity (decyclization activity toward l-pyroglutamate) was found in a cell-free extract of alcaligenes faecalis n-38a, newly isolated from a soil sample. the enzyme was purified as a homogeneous preparation. the molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 47,000. the decyclization activity was specific for l-pyroglutamate, and in ...19958535001
development of pcr primer systems for amplification of nitrite reductase genes (nirk and nirs) to detect denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples.a system was developed for the detection of denitrifying bacteria by the amplification of specific nitrite reductase gene fragments with pcr. primer sequences were found for the amplification of fragments from both nitrite reductase genes (nirk and nirs) after comparative sequence analysis. whenever amplification was tried with these primers, the known nir type of denitrifying laboratory cultures could be confirmed. likewise, the method allowed a determination of the nir type of five laboratory ...19989758798
cloning, characterization, and expression of the nitric oxide-generating nitrite reductase and of the blue copper protein genes of achromobacter cycloclastes.the nitrite reductase (nir) and blue copper protein (bcp) genes have been cloned from achromobacter cycloclastes and characterized. nir gene encodes a protein of 378 amino acid residues including a putative signal peptide of 37 residues. bcp gene encodes a protein of 148 residues with a 24-residue signal peptide. the dna-derived amino acid sequence of nir is in complete agreement with that from edman degradation and the dna coding sequence of bcp is also consistent with its partial n-terminal am ...19968605003
structure and function of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis t1.poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis t1 is composed of three domains: the catalytic (c) domain, the fibronectin type iii-like (f) domain, and the substrate-binding (s) domain. we constructed domain deletion, inversion, chimera, and extra-f-domain mutants and examined their enzyme activity and phb-binding ability. in addition, we performed substitution of 214asp and 273his with glycine and aspartate, respectively, to examine their participation in a catalytic triad ...19979371441
growth suppressing activity for endothelial cells induced from macrophages by carboxymethylated curdlan.a carboxymethylated derivative of a linear (1-->3)-beta-d-glucan (cmcd) from alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes acted directly on mouse peritoneal macrophages and mouse lymphoma p388d1 cells, and induced a growth suppressing activity for bovine artery endothelial cells (baes) from themselves at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml. the suppressing activity was also detected in the mouse serum administered as an i.p. injection of cmcd at a dose of 100 mg/kg, suggesting that the growth suppressin ...19979404073
kinetic study of penicillin acylase from alcaligenes faecalis.penicillin acylase from alcaligenes faecalis has a very high affinity for both natural (benzylpenicillin, km = 0.0042 mm) and colorimetric (6-nitro-3-phenylacetamidobenzoic acid, km = 0.0045 mm) substrates as well as the product of their hydrolysis, phenylacetic acid (ki = 0.016 mm). the enzyme is partially inhibited at high benzylpenicillin concentrations but the triple ses complex formed still retains 43% of the maximal catalytic activity; the affinity of benzylpenicillin for the second substr ...19979409763
microbiological and clinical aspects of infection associated with stenotrophomonas maltophilia.the gram-negative bacterium stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly recognized as an important cause of nosocomial infection. infection occurs principally, but not exclusively, in debilitated and immunosuppressed individuals. management of s. maltophilia-associated infection is problematic because many strains of the bacterium manifest resistance to multiple antibiotics. these difficulties are compounded by methodological problems in in vitro susceptibility testing for which there are, as y ...19989457429
characterization of chitinase c from a marine bacterium, alteromonas sp. strain o-7, and its corresponding gene and domain of the chitinase genes of alteromonas sp. strain o-7, the chitinase c-encoding gene (chic), was cloned, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. an open reading frame coded for a protein of 430 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 46,680 da. alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that chic contained three functional domains, the n-terminal domain, a fibronectin type iii-like domain, and a catalytic domain. the n-terminal domain (59 amino acids) was similar to ...19989464381
bacterial community dynamics during start-up of a trickle-bed bioreactor degrading aromatic compounds.this study was performed with a laboratory-scale fixed-bed bioreactor degrading a mixture of aromatic compounds (solvesso100). the starter culture for the bioreactor was prepared in a fermentor with a wastewater sample of a care painting facility as the inoculum and solvesso100 as the sole carbon source. the bacterial community dynamics in the fermentor and the bioreactor were examined by a conventional isolation procedure and in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rrna-targeted oligon ...19989501433
x-ray structure and site-directed mutagenesis of a nitrite reductase from alcaligenes faecalis s-6: roles of two copper atoms in nitrite reduction.nitrite reductase (nir) from the denitrifying bacterium alcaligenes faecalis s-6 is a copper-containing enzyme which requires pseudoazurin, a low molecular weight protein containing a single type i copper atom, as a direct electron donor in vivo. crystallographic analysis shows that nir is a trimer composed of three identical subunits, each of which contains one atom of type i copper and one atom of type ii copper, and that the ligands to the type i and type ii copper atoms are the same as those ...19948172899
development of a direct in situ pcr method for detection of specific bacteria in natural environments.we applied hnpp (2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid-2'-phenylanilide phosphate) to direct in situ pcr for the routine detection of specific bacterial cells at the single-cell level. pcr was performed on glass slides with digoxigenin-labeled dutp. the digoxigenin-labeled pcr products were detected with alkaline phosphatase-labeled antidigoxigenin antibody and hnpp which was combined with fast red tr. a bright red fluorescent signal was produced from conversion to hnp (dephosphorylated form) by alkaline p ...19989546190
protective effects of a human 18-kilodalton cationic antimicrobial protein (cap18)-derived peptide against murine endotoxemia.cap18 (an 18-kda cationic antimicrobial protein) is a granulocyte-derived protein that can bind lipopolysaccharide (lps) and inhibit various activities of lps in vitro. the present study examined the protective effect of a synthetic 27-amino-acid peptide (cap18(109-135)) from the lps-binding domain of cap18 against antibiotic-induced endotoxin shock, using highly lps-sensitive d-(+)-galactosamine (d-galn)-sensitized c3h/hen mice. the antibiotic-induced endotoxin (caz-endotoxin) was prepared from ...19989573062
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