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a component of the xanthomonadaceae type iv secretion system combines a virb7 motif with a n0 domain found in outer membrane transport proteins.type iv secretion systems (t4ss) are used by gram-negative bacteria to translocate protein and dna substrates across the cell envelope and into target cells. translocation across the outer membrane is achieved via a ringed tetradecameric outer membrane complex made up of a small virb7 lipoprotein (normally 30 to 45 residues in the mature form) and the c-terminal domains of the virb9 and virb10 subunits. several species from the genera of xanthomonas phytopathogens possess an uncharacterized type ...201121589901
first report of performance of the versant ct/gc dna 1.0 assay (kpcr) for detection of chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae.we evaluated the analytical, work flow, and clinical performance of the versant ct/gc dna 1.0 assay (versant ct/gc assay, where "ct" represents chlamydia trachomatis and "gc" represents neisseria gonorrhoeae). the assay simultaneously detects chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae in swab and first-catch urine (fcu) specimens. the limit of detection (lod) was determined to be 342 copies/ml for c. trachomatis and 137 copies/ml for gc. the versant ct/gc assay detected 15 c. trachomatis se ...201121307209
microbiology of animal bite wound infections.the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. our review has focused on bite wound infections in ...201121482724
partitioning core and satellite taxa from within cystic fibrosis lung bacterial communities.cystic fibrosis (cf) patients suffer from chronic bacterial lung infections that lead to death in the majority of cases. the need to maintain lung function in these patients means that characterising these infections is vital. increasingly, culture-independent analyses are expanding the number of bacterial species associated with cf respiratory samples; however, the potential significance of these species is not known. here, we applied ecological statistical tools to such culture-independent dat ...201021151003
partitioning core and satellite taxa from within cystic fibrosis lung bacterial communities.cystic fibrosis (cf) patients suffer from chronic bacterial lung infections that lead to death in the majority of cases. the need to maintain lung function in these patients means that characterising these infections is vital. increasingly, culture-independent analyses are expanding the number of bacterial species associated with cf respiratory samples; however, the potential significance of these species is not known. here, we applied ecological statistical tools to such culture-independent dat ...201021151003
high-throughput identification of bacteria and yeast by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in conventional medical microbiology laboratories.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. first, we evaluated maldi-tof ms using 327 clinical isolates previously cultured from patient materials and identified by conventional techniques (vitek-ii, api, and biochemical tests). discre ...201020053859
conjugative plasmids of neisseria gonorrhoeae.many clinical isolates of the human pathogen neisseria gonorrhoeae contain conjugative plasmids. the host range of these plasmids is limited to neisseria species, but presence of a tetracycline (tetm) determinant inserted in several of these plasmids is an important cause of the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance. previously plasmids with different backbones (dutch and american type backbones) and with and without different tetm determinants (dutch and american type tetm determinants) have ...201020376355
bacterial 16s sequence analysis of severe caries in young permanent teeth.previous studies have confirmed the association of the acid producers streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus spp. with childhood caries, but they also suggested these microorganisms are not sufficient to explain all cases of caries. in addition, health-associated bacterial community profiles are not well understood, including the importance of base production and acid catabolism in ph homeostasis. the bacterial community composition in health and in severe caries of the young permanent dentition ...201020826648
clonal analysis of the microbiota of severe early childhood caries.severe early childhood caries is a microbial infection that severely compromises the dentition of young children. the aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of severe early childhood caries.201020861633
specified species in gingival crevicular fluid predict bacterial diversity.analysis of gingival crevicular fluid (gcf) samples may give information of unattached (planktonic) subgingival bacteria. our study represents the first one targeting the identity of bacteria in gcf.201021049043
independent evolution of the core and accessory gene sets in the genus neisseria: insights gained from the genome of neisseria lactamica isolate 020-06.the genus neisseria contains two important yet very different pathogens, n. meningitidis and n. gonorrhoeae, in addition to non-pathogenic species, of which n. lactamica is the best characterized. genomic comparisons of these three bacteria will provide insights into the mechanisms and evolution of pathogenesis in this group of organisms, which are applicable to understanding these processes more generally.201021092259
transmission of diverse oral bacteria to murine placenta: evidence for the oral microbiome as a potential source of intrauterine infection.microbial infection of the intrauterine environment is a major cause of preterm birth. the current paradigm indicates that intrauterine infections predominantly originate from the vaginal tract, with the organisms ascending into the sterile uterus. with the improvements in technology, an increasing number of bacterial species have been identified in intrauterine infections that do not belong to the vaginal microflora. we have demonstrated previously that intrauterine infections can originate fro ...201020123706
genome sequencing reveals widespread virulence gene exchange among human neisseria species.commensal bacteria comprise a large part of the microbial world, playing important roles in human development, health and disease. however, little is known about the genomic content of commensals or how related they are to their pathogenic counterparts. the genus neisseria, containing both commensal and pathogenic species, provides an excellent opportunity to study these issues. we undertook a comprehensive sequencing and analysis of human commensal and pathogenic neisseria genomes. commensals h ...201020676376
immunization with salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium-derived outer membrane vesicles delivering the pneumococcal protein pspa confers protection against challenge with streptococcus pneumoniae.gram-negative bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles (omvs) that serve a variety of functions related to survival and pathogenicity. periplasmic and outer membrane proteins are naturally captured during vesicle formation. this property has been exploited as a method to derive immunogenic vesicle preparations for use as vaccines. in this work, we constructed a salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium strain that synthesized a derivative of the pneumococcal protein pspa engineered to be secreted ...201021115718
immunization with salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium-derived outer membrane vesicles delivering the pneumococcal protein pspa confers protection against challenge with streptococcus pneumoniae.gram-negative bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles (omvs) that serve a variety of functions related to survival and pathogenicity. periplasmic and outer membrane proteins are naturally captured during vesicle formation. this property has been exploited as a method to derive immunogenic vesicle preparations for use as vaccines. in this work, we constructed a salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium strain that synthesized a derivative of the pneumococcal protein pspa engineered to be secreted ...201021115718
endocarditis due to neisseria bacilliformis in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve.we report a case of endocarditis due to the rod-shaped neisseria species neisseria bacilliformis. the phenotypic characterization of this recently characterized bacteria is difficult, and the identification requires the sequencing of the 16s rrna gene. the resolution of the disease was complete after appropriate antibiotic therapy, and surgery was not required.200919386832
a common gene pool for the neisseria feta antigen.meningococcal feta is an iron-regulated, immunogenic outer membrane protein and vaccine component. the most diverse region of this protein is a previously defined variable region (vr) that has been shown to be immunodominant. in this analysis, a total of 275 neisseria lactamica isolates, collected during studies of nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage in infants, were examined for the presence of a feta gene. the feta vr nucleotide sequence was determined for 217 of these isolates, with feta appare ...200918718812
the use of cephalosporins for gonorrhea: the impending problem of resistance.gonorrhea remains an important clinical and public health problem throughout the world. gonococcal infections have historically been diagnosed by gram stain and culture but are increasingly diagnosed through nucleic acid tests, thereby eliminating the opportunity for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. gonococcal infections are typically treated with single-dose therapy with an agent found to cure > 95% of cases. unfortunately, the gonococcus has repeatedly developed resistance to antimicrobia ...200919284360
a common gene pool for the neisseria feta antigen.meningococcal feta is an iron-regulated, immunogenic outer membrane protein and vaccine component. the most diverse region of this protein is a previously defined variable region (vr) that has been shown to be immunodominant. in this analysis, a total of 275 neisseria lactamica isolates, collected during studies of nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage in infants, were examined for the presence of a feta gene. the feta vr nucleotide sequence was determined for 217 of these isolates, with feta appare ...200918718812
heat shock proteins and superantigenic properties of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of patients with kawasaki disease.we previously suggested that gut bacteria may be involved in the onset of kawasaki disease (kd). in this study, we evaluated the production of heat shock proteins (hsps) and superantigens (sags) by microorganisms isolated from the jejunal mucosa of 19 children with kd in the acute phase and from 15 age-matched control children. we identified 13 strains of gram-negative microbes from patients with kd; these microbes produced large amounts of hsp60 and induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production ...200919950419
neisseria gonorrhoeae activates the proteinase cathepsin b to mediate the signaling activities of the nlrp3 and asc-containing inflammasome.neisseria gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted pathogen that significantly impacts female fertility, neonatal health, and transmission of hiv worldwide. n. gonorrhoeae usually causes localized inflammation of the urethra and cervix by inducing production of il-1beta and other inflammatory cytokines. several nlr (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat) proteins are implicated in the formation of pro-il-1beta-processing complexes called inflammasomes in response to pathogens. we de ...200919414800
biochemical and genomic analysis of the denitrification pathway within the genus neisseria.since neisseria gonorrhoeae and neisseria meningitidis are obligate human pathogens, a comparison with commensal species of the same genus could reveal differences important in pathogenesis. the recent completion of commensal neisseria genome draft assemblies allowed us to perform a comparison of the genes involved in the catalysis, assembly and regulation of the denitrification pathway, which has been implicated in the virulence of several bacteria. all species contained a highly conserved nitr ...200919762442
engineering nt.btsci and nb.btsci nicking enzymes and applications in generating long overhangs.type iis restriction endonuclease btsci (ggatg 2/0) is a neoschizomer of foki (ggatg 9/13) and cleaves closer to the recognition sequence. although m.btsci shows 62% amino acid sequence identity to m.foki, btsci and foki restriction endonucleases do not share significant amino acid sequence similarity. btsci belongs to a group of type iis restriction endonucleases, bsmi, mva1269i and bsri, that carry two different catalytic sites in a single polypeptide. by inactivating one of the catalytic site ...200919955230
engineering nt.btsci and nb.btsci nicking enzymes and applications in generating long overhangs.type iis restriction endonuclease btsci (ggatg 2/0) is a neoschizomer of foki (ggatg 9/13) and cleaves closer to the recognition sequence. although m.btsci shows 62% amino acid sequence identity to m.foki, btsci and foki restriction endonucleases do not share significant amino acid sequence similarity. btsci belongs to a group of type iis restriction endonucleases, bsmi, mva1269i and bsri, that carry two different catalytic sites in a single polypeptide. by inactivating one of the catalytic site ...200919955230
bacteremia associated with toothbrushing and dental extraction.antibiotic prophylaxis recommendations for the prevention of infective endocarditis are based in part on studies of bacteremia from dental procedures, but toothbrushing may pose a greater threat. the purpose of this study was to compare the incidence, duration, nature, and magnitude of endocarditis-related bacteremia from single-tooth extraction and toothbrushing and to determine the impact of amoxicillin prophylaxis on single-tooth extraction.200818541739
analysis of amino acid sequences of penicillin-binding protein 2 in clinical isolates of neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone.neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of cefixime of 0.125-0.25 microg/ml and ceftriaxone of 0.031-0.125 microg/ml, were isolated from male urethritis patients in tokyo, japan, in 2006. the amino acid sequences of pena, penicillin-binding protein 2, in these strains were of two types: pena mosaic and nonmosaic strains. in the pena mosaic strain, some regions in the transpeptidase-encoding domain in pen ...200818574654
multicenter evaluation of the new vitek 2 neisseria-haemophilus identification card.the new neisseria-haemophilus identification (nh) card for vitek 2 was compared with 16s rrna gene sequencing (16s) as the reference method for accurate identification of neisseria spp., haemophilus spp., and other fastidious gram-negative bacteria. testing was performed on the vitek 2 xl system with modified software at three clinical trial laboratories. reproducibility was determined with nine atcc quality control strains tested 20 times over a minimum of 10 days at all three sites. a challeng ...200818579712
distribution of transferrin binding protein b gene (tbpb) variants among neisseria species.transferrin binding protein b (tbpb), an outer membrane lipoprotein, is required for the acquisition of iron from human transferrin. two tbpb families have been documented in neisseria meningitidis: an isotype i tbpb gene of 1.8 kb and an isotype ii tbpb gene of 2.1 kb, the former expressed by meningococci in the disease-associated st-11 clonal complex and the latter found among meningococci belonging to the hyper-invasive clonal complexes including st-8, st-18, st-32, st-41/44 as well as n. gon ...200818430216
detecting key structural features within highly recombined genes.many microorganisms exhibit high levels of intragenic recombination following horizontal gene transfer events. furthermore, many microbial genes are subject to strong diversifying selection as part of the pathogenic process. a multiple sequence alignment is an essential starting point for many of the tools that provide fundamental insights on gene structure and evolution, such as phylogenetics; however, an accurate alignment is not always possible to attain. in this study, a new analytic approac ...200717257051
characteristics of the m2000 automated sample preparation and multiplex real-time pcr system for detection of chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae.we evaluated a new real-time pcr-based prototype assay for the detection of chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae developed by abbott molecular inc. this assay is designed to be performed on an abbott m2000 real-time instrument system, which consists of an m2000sp instrument for sample preparation and an m2000rt instrument for real-time pcr amplification and detection. the limit of detection of this prototype assay was determined to be 20 copies of target dna for both c. trachomatis an ...200717202273
comparison of a taqman-based real-time polymerase chain reaction with conventional tests for the detection of trichomonas vaginalis.to compare a taqman-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with conventional pcr, culture, and wet-mount microscopy for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in women.200717090567
comparison of a taqman-based real-time polymerase chain reaction with conventional tests for the detection of trichomonas vaginalis.to compare a taqman-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with conventional pcr, culture, and wet-mount microscopy for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in women.200717090567
molecular analysis of oral and respiratory bacterial species associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia.trauma intensive care unit (ticu) patients requiring mechanical respiratory support frequently develop ventilator-associated pneumonia (vap). oral and oropharyngeal bacteria are believed to be responsible for many cases of vap, but definitive evidence of this relationship is lacking. earlier studies used conventional culture-based methods for identification of bacterial pathogens, but these methods are insufficient, as some bacteria may be uncultivable or difficult to grow. the purpose of this s ...200717301280
analysis of mutations within multiple genes associated with resistance in a clinical isolate of neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility that shows a multidrug-resistant phenotype.a neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with a reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) = 0.5 microg/ml) was isolated among 398 clinical isolates obtained from 2000-2001 in fukuoka city, japan. the n. gonorrhoeae strain was negative for penicillinase production but it showed multidrug resistance against penicillin (mic = 8 microg/ml), tetracycline (mic = 4 microg/ml), azithromycin (mic = 0.5 microg/ml) and ciprofloxacin (mic = 16 microg/ml). the molecular mechanisms o ...200616318912
plasmid diversity in neisseriae.horizontal gene transfer constitutes an important force in prokaryotic genome evolution, and it is well-known that plasmids are vehicles for dna transfer. chromosomal dna is frequently exchanged between pathogenic and commensal neisseriae, but relatively little is known about plasmid diversity and prevalence among these nasopharyngeal inhabitants. we investigated the plasmid contents of 18 neisseria lactamica isolates and 20 nasopharyngeal neisseria meningitidis isolates. of 18 n. lactamica stra ...200616861678
amino acid substitutions in mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 associated with reduced susceptibility to cefixime in clinical isolates of neisseria gonorrhoeae.the molecular mechanisms of reduced susceptibility to cefixime in clinical isolates of neisseria gonorrhoeae, particularly amino acid substitutions in mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 (pbp2), were examined. the complete sequence of pona, pena, and por genes, encoding, respectively, pbp1, pbp2, and porin, were determined for 58 strains isolated in 2002 from japan. replacement of leucine 421 by proline in pbp1 and the mosaic-like structure of pbp2 were detected in 48 strains (82.8%) and 28 stra ...200616940068
total variation in the pena gene of neisseria meningitidis: correlation between susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics and pena gene heterogeneity.in recent decades, the prevalence of neisseria meningitidis isolates with reduced susceptibility to penicillins has increased. the intermediate resistance to penicillin (pen(i)) for most strains is due mainly to mosaic structures in the pena gene, encoding penicillin-binding protein 2. in this study, susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics was determined for 60 swedish clinical n. meningitidis isolates and 19 reference strains. the pena gene was sequenced and compared to 237 pena sequences fro ...200617005811
a fast real-time polymerase chain reaction method for sensitive and specific detection of the neisseria gonorrhoeae pora pseudogene.ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. commensal neisseria species and neisseria meningitidis are closely related to n. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. we have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr), including an internal amplification control, that targets the n. gonorrhoeae pora pseudogene. dn ...200617065426
the majority of genes in the pathogenic neisseria species are present in non-pathogenic neisseria lactamica, including those designated as 'virulence genes'.neisseria meningitidis causes the life-threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and meningococcal septicemia. neisseria gonorrhoeae is closely related to the meningococcus, but is the cause of the very different infection, gonorrhea. a number of genes have been implicated in the virulence of these related yet distinct pathogens, but the genes that define and differentiate the species and their behaviours have not been established. further, a related species, neisseria lactamica is not assoc ...200616734888
nucleic acid amplification testing for neisseria gonorrhoeae: an ongoing challenge.nucleic acid amplification tests (naats) for the detection of neisseria gonorrhoeae became available in the early 1990s. although offering several advantages over traditional detection methods, n. gonorrhoeae naats do have some limitations. these include cost, risk of carryover contamination, inhibition, and inability to provide antibiotic resistance data. in addition, there are sequence-related limitations that are unique to n. gonorrhoeae naats. in particular, false-positive results are a majo ...200616436629
sequences, sequence clusters and bacterial species.whatever else they should share, strains of bacteria assigned to the same species should have house-keeping genes that are similar in sequence. single gene sequences (or rrna gene sequences) have very few informative sites to resolve the strains of closely related species, and relationships among similar species may be confounded by interspecies recombination. a more promising approach (multilocus sequence analysis, mlsa) is to concatenate the sequences of multiple house-keeping loci and to obse ...200617062411
bacterial biota in reflux esophagitis and barrett's esophagus.to identify the bacterial flora in conditions such as barrettos esophagus and reflux esophagitis to determine if they are similar to normal esophageal flora.200516437628
the laboratory diagnosis of neisseria gonorrhoeae.the present article describes the laboratory diagnosis of neisseria gonorrhoeae by culturing of the organism from different types of clinical specimens followed by confirmatory tests. the success of culture methods requires good quality collection and transport of clinical specimens. the present guide describes the media requirements and cultural conditions for n gonorrhoeae growth and the characteristics for a presumptive identification of n gonorrhoeae. confirmatory tests include biochemical t ...200518159523
snp-vista: an interactive snp visualization tool.recent advances in sequencing technologies promise to provide a better understanding of the genetics of human disease as well as the evolution of microbial populations. single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) are established genetic markers that aid in the identification of loci affecting quantitative traits and/or disease in a wide variety of eukaryotic species. with today's technological capabilities, it has become possible to re-sequence a large set of appropriate candidate genes in individual ...200516336665
specific and sensitive detection of neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical specimens by real-time pcr.early diagnosis of neisseria gonorrhoeae infections is important with regard to patients' health and infectivity. we report the development of a specific and sensitive taqman assay for the detection of n. gonorrhoeae in clinical samples. the target sequence is a 76-bp fragment of the 5' untranslated region of the opa genes that encode opacity proteins. a panel of 448 well-defined n. gonorrhoeae isolates was used to evaluate and optimize the assay. the method employs two minor-groove binding prob ...200516272500
evaluation of conventional and real-time pcr assays using two targets for confirmation of results of the cobas amplicor chlamydia trachomatis/neisseria gonorrhoeae test for detection of neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical samples.two conventional pcr-enzyme immunoassays (pcr-eias) and two real-time pcr assays (lightcycler system; roche diagnostics) were evaluated as confirmation assays with cppb and 16s rrna genes as targets. of 765 male and female genitourinary and nasopharyngeal specimens positive for neisseria gonorrhoeae in the cobas amplicor chlamydia trachomatis/neisseria gonorrhoeae pcr test (roche diagnostics), 229 (30%) were confirmed positive; 13 of these (5.7%) were lacking the cppb gene. of the 534 samples (7 ...200515872247
a novel neisserial shuttle plasmid: a useful new tool for meningococcal research.we report the identification and nucleotide sequence analysis of a cryptic plasmid pmidg2830 from the gram-negative bacterium neisseria flavescens. the largest open reading frame encodes a protein similar to the replication protein, repa, found in pab49 from acinetobacter baumannii and pni10 from pseudomonas. modified by the incorporation of a kanamycin resistance cassette, the plasmid can be stably maintained in escherichia coli and neisseria meningitidis, and can be used as a shuttle plasmid i ...200516112819
emergence and spread of neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates harboring mosaic-like structure of penicillin-binding protein 2 in central japan.of 150 clinical isolates of neisseria gonorrhoeae recovered in 2001, we examined 55 clinical isolates of n. gonorrhoeae for which cefixime mics were > or=0.125 microg/ml and randomly selected 15 isolates for which cefixime mics were < or =0.06 microg/ml for analysis of alterations in the penicillin-binding protein 2 (pbp 2) gene. we found insertion of an extra codon (asp-345a) in the transpeptidase domain of pbp 2, and this insertion occurred alone or in conjunction with other amino acid substit ...200515616287
expression of heterologous antigens in commensal neisseria spp.: preservation of conformational epitopes with vaccine potential.commensal neisseriae share with neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) a tendency towards overproduction of the bacterial outer envelope, leading to the formation and release during growth of outer membrane vesicles (omvs). omvs from both meningococci and commensal neisseriae have shown promise as vaccines to protect against meningococcal disease. we report here the successful expression at high levels of heterologous proteins in commensal neisseriae and the display, in its native conformation, ...200415501782
functional diversity of three different dsba proteins from neisseria meningitidis.the genome of neisseria meningitidis serogroup b strain mc58 contains three genes - nmb0278, nmb0294 and nmb0407 - encoding putative homologues of dsba, a periplasmic thiol disulphide oxidoreductase protein-folding catalyst of the dsb protein family. dsba assists the folding of periplasmic and membrane proteins in diverse organisms. while all three cloned genes complemented the dtt sensitivity of dsba-null escherichia coli, they showed different activities in folding specific target proteins in ...200415347757
evaluation of the specificities of five dna amplification methods for the detection of neisseria gonorrhoeae.the intragenus specificities of five molecular diagnostic methods for neisseria gonorrhoeae were determined. three assays were considered suboptimal. molecular detection of n. gonorrhoeae from sites where other neisseria spp. commonly occur or from any site in low-prevalence settings should be confirmed by a test targeting a different genetic locus.200312574295
diversity of bacterial populations on the tongue dorsa of patients with halitosis and healthy patients.the primary purpose of the present study was to compare the microbial profiles of the tongue dorsa of healthy subjects and subjects with halitosis by using culture-independent molecular methods. our overall goal was to determine the bacterial diversity on the surface of the tongue dorsum as part of our ongoing efforts to identify all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species of the oral cavity. tongue dorsum scrapings were analyzed from healthy subjects with no complaints of halitosis and subjec ...200312574246
serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of neisseria meningitidis strains recently isolated in italy.the availability of new polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines against neisseria meningitidis serogroup c prompted european national health authorities to carefully monitor isolate characteristics. in italy, during 1999-2001, the average incidence was 0.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. serogroup b was predominant and accounted for 75% of the isolates, followed by serogroup c with 24%. serogroup c was isolated almost twice as frequently in cases of septicemia than in cases of meningitis, and t ...200312567299
detection and quantification of oral treponemes in subgingival plaque by real-time pcr.oral treponemes have been associated with periodontal diseases. we developed a highly sensitive and specific method to detect and quantify cultivable oral treponemes (treponema denticola, treponema vincentii, and treponema medium) in 50 subgingival plaque samples from 13 healthy subjects as well as 37 patients with periodontal diseases using real-time pcr assays with specific primers and a taqman probe for each 16s rrna sequence. the specificity for each assay was examined by using dna specimens ...200212202575
mosaic-like structure of penicillin-binding protein 2 gene (pena) in clinical isolates of neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime.neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with reduced susceptibility to cefixime (mics, 0.25 to 0.5 micro g/ml) were isolated from male urethritis patients in tokyo, japan, in 2000 and 2001. the resistance to cephems including cefixime and penicillin was transferred to a susceptible recipient, n. gonorrhoeae atcc 19424, by transformation of the penicillin-binding protein 2 gene (pena) that had been amplified by pcr from a strain with reduced susceptibility to cefixime (mic, 0.5 micro g/ml). the sequences o ...200212435671
nonculture prediction of neisseria meningitidis susceptibility to penicillin.we developed a nonculture method to predict the susceptibility of neisseria meningitidis to penicillin g. the pena gene was amplified and submitted to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. this approach was first validated with a collection of 75 meningococcal strains of known phenotypes. it was next successfully applied to 29 clinical samples.200111709355
enhancing the specificity of the cobas amplicor ct/ng test for neisseria gonorrhoeae by retesting specimens with equivocal results.the cobas amplicor ct/ng test for neisseria gonorrhoeae cross-reacts with certain strains of nonpathogenic neisseria species. in some strains, the target sequence is identical to that of n. gonorrhoeae, whereas other strains have a small number of mismatches within the regions recognized by the primers or probe used in the cobas amplicor ng test. these cross-reactive strains are occasionally present in urogenital specimens, causing false-positive results in the cobas amplicor ng test. analysis o ...200111526134
directional gene movement from human-pathogenic to commensal-like streptococci.group a streptococci (gas) are highly pathogenic for humans, and their closest genetic relatives, group c and g streptococci (gcs and ggs, respectively), are generally regarded as commensals, although they can be found in association with human disease. as part of an effort to better understand the evolution of virulence, the phylogenetic relationships between gas, gcs, and ggs were examined. the nucleotide sequence was determined for an internal portion of seven housekeeping (neutral) loci amon ...200111447161
a putatively phase variable gene (dca) required for natural competence in neisseria gonorrhoeae but not neisseria meningitidis is located within the division cell wall (dcw) gene cluster.a cluster of 18 open reading frames (orfs), 15 of which are homologous to genes involved in division and cell wall synthesis, has been identified in neisseria gonorrhoeae and neisseria meningitidis. the three additional orfs, internal to the dcw cluster, are not homologous to dcw-related genes present in other bacterial species. analysis of the n. meningitidis strain mc58 genome for foreign dna suggests that these additional orfs have not been acquired by recent horizontal exchange, indicating t ...200111157935
diagnostics of neisseriaceae and moraxellaceae by ribosomal dna sequencing: ribosomal differentiation of medical microorganisms.fast and reliable identification of microbial isolates is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. however, in the case of some fastidious gram-negative bacterial species, classical phenotype identification based on either metabolic, enzymatic, or serological methods is difficult, time-consuming, and/or inadequate. 16s or 23s ribosomal dna (rdna) bacterial sequencing will most often result in accurate speciation of isolates. therefore, the objective of this study was to find a hypervariable ...200111230407
new tests for syphilis: rational design of a pcr method for detection of treponema pallidum in clinical specimens using unique regions of the dna polymerase i gene.a sensitive and specific pcr method to detect treponema pallidum in clinical specimens was developed. pcr primers were designed based on two unique features of the dna polymerase i gene (pola). the first distinctive characteristic is that the region codes for a high cysteine content and has low homology with similar regions of dna polymerase i gene from known microorganisms. the second unique feature is the presence of four insertions in the gene. pcr tests using primers designed on the basis th ...200111326018
groel encodes a highly antigenic protein in burkholderia pseudomallei.no recombinant protein is available for serodiagnosis of melioidosis. in this study, we report the cloning of the groel gene, which encodes an immunogenic protein of burkholderia pseudomallei. bidirectional dna sequencing of groel revealed that the gene contained a single open reading frame encoding 546 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 57.1 kda. basic local alignment search tool analysis showed that the putative protein encoded by groel is homologous to the chaperonins enco ...200111427437
structural and evolutionary inference from molecular variation in neisseria porins.the porin proteins of the pathogenic neisseria species, neisseria gonorrhoeae and neisseria meningitidis, are important as serotyping antigens, putative vaccine components, and for their proposed role in the intracellular colonization of humans. a three-dimensional structural homology model for neisseria porins was generated from escherichia coli porin structures and n. meningitidis pora and porb sequences. the neisseria sequences were readily assembled into the 16-strand beta-barrel fold charac ...199910225902
neisseria gonorrhoeae : detection and typing by probe hybridization, lcr, and pcr.neisseria gonorrhoeae, first described by neisser in 1879, is a gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming diplococcus, belonging to the family neisseriaceae. it is the etiologic agent of gonorrhea. the other pathogenic species is neisseria meningitidis, to which n. gonorrhoeae is genetically closely related. although n. meningitidis is not usually considered to be a sexually transmitted disease, it may infect the mucous membranes of the anogenital area of homosexual men (1). the other members o ...199921390726
the detection of penicillin insensitivity in neisseria meningitidis by polymerase chain reaction.strains of penicillin-sensitive and -insensitive neisseria meningitidis were examined using a range of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) primers directed at the meningococcal penicillin-binding protein 2 gene. dna from isolates whose penicillin mic was <0.2 mg/l yielded a product of the expected size with all the primers, but many amplification patterns were seen with dna from isolates whose mic was above this level. all strains whose mic was >0.25 mg/l failed to produce a product of the expected ...19989786469
local chemokine paralysis, a novel pathogenic mechanism for porphyromonas gingivalis.periodontitis, which is widespread in the adult population, is a persistent bacterial infection associated with porphyromonas gingivalis. gingival epithelial cells are among the first cells encountered by both p. gingivalis and commensal oral bacteria. the chemokine interleukin 8 (il-8), a potent chemoattractant and activator of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, was secreted by gingival epithelial cells in response to components of the normal oral flora. in contrast, p. gingivalis was found to stron ...19989529095
tn916 family conjugative transposons and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants. 19989687377
construction of recombinant neisserial hsp60 proteins and mapping of antigenic domains.here we report the cloning and expression, in escherichia coli, of pcr-amplified dna encoding the 63-kda stress-inducible protein of neisseria gonorrhoeae strains vp1 and pid2, neisseria meningitidis 2996 and the commensal neisseria flavescens. dna sequence analysis revealed in all cases one open reading frame of 541-544 amino acids corresponding to a protein of approximately 57,000 da. the various neisserial proteins were > 96% identical at the amino acid level and showed extensive homology wit ...19957746149
interspecies recombination between the pena genes of neisseria meningitidis and commensal neisseria species during the emergence of penicillin resistance in n. meningitidis: natural events and laboratory simulation.the penicillin-binding protein 2 genes (pena) of penicillin-resistant neisseria meningitidis have a mosaic structure that has arisen by the introduction of regions from the pena genes of neisseria flavescens or neisseria cinerea. chromosomal dna from both n. cinerea and n. flavescens could transform a penicillin-susceptible isolate of n. meningitidis to increased resistance to penicillin. with n. flavescens dna, transformation to resistance was accompanied by the introduction of the n. flavescen ...19948288526
phylogeny of species in the family neisseriaceae isolated from human dental plaque and description of kingella oralis sp. nov [corrected].fourteen human periodontal isolates recovered from a purported eikenella corrodens-selective medium containing 1 microgram of clindamycin per ml displayed biochemical traits which differed from those described for e. corrodens. these organisms were gram-negative rods which corroded agar. the isolates were oxidase positive and urease, indole, and esculin negative. they differed from e. corrodens in catalase, nitrate reduction, lysine decarboxylase, and ornithine decarboxylase activities. one isol ...19938347509
neisseria weaveri sp. nov., formerly cdc group m-5, a gram-negative bacterium associated with dog bite wounds.cdc group m-5 is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonmotile bacterium associated with dog bite wounds. dna-dna relatedness and biochemical and growth characteristics were studied for 54 strains from the collection at the centers for disease control and prevention. one typical m-5 strain, 8142, was further studied by 16s rrna sequencing. dna from 40 of 53 strains showed 82 to 100% relatedness (hydroxyapatite method) to labeled dna from strain 8142. the guanine-plus-cytosine (g + c) content in 8 of th ...19938408570
ige antibodies against neisseria flavescens.bacterial allergy is still a matter of controversy. we sustain that this name should be employed only in the presence of a specific ige against antigens from bacteria. in 100 atopic patients and 100 healthy controls with neisseria flavescens in their pharyngeal exudates, we performed type i immediate skin tests with neisseria flavescens and ige-rast throughout 1 year. positive wheal and flare reactions were elicited in 8 of 100 atopic patients as well as in 3 of 100 nonatopic subjects. ige-rast/ ...19921342880
unusual pathogens in narcotic-associated endocarditis.we report the cases of three adults with a history of intravenous drug abuse who developed endocarditis caused by corynebacterium xerosis, neisseria subflava, and neisseria flavescens, respectively. no cases of endocarditis caused by c. xerosis or n. flavescens and only one case caused by n. subflava have previously been reported in association with narcotic addiction. the prominent clinical features in all patients included poor response to antibiotic therapy, persistent fever, and major emboli ...19902359905
[septic shock caused by neisseria flavescens]. 19902252291
recruitment of a penicillin-binding protein gene from neisseria flavescens during the emergence of penicillin resistance in neisseria meningitidis.non-beta-lactamase-producing, penicillin-resistant strains of neisseria meningitidis produce altered forms of penicillin-binding protein 2 that have decreased affinity for penicillin. the sequence of the penicillin-binding protein 2 gene (pena) from a penicillin-resistant strain of n. meningitidis was compared to the sequence of the same gene from penicillin-sensitive strains and from penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant strains of neisseria gonorrhoeae. the pena genes from penicillin-s ...19892510173
infective endocarditis caused by neisseria flavescens.neisseria flavescens is a rare cause of human disease. this is the first reported case of endocarditis caused by n. flavescens. the organism produced beta-lactamase, and penicillin therapy failed to cure the infection. therapy with cefotaxime, to which the organism was highly sensitive, led to a complete and uneventful recovery.19873799678
campylobacter pyloridis: a new organism to explain an old problem? 19873309916
branhamella catarrhalis: significance in pulmonary infections and bacteriological features.a three-month survey revealed 29 patients at our hospital with symptoms of acute pulmonary infection, from whom branhamella catarrhalis was isolated from lower respiratory tract specimens, in 18 cases in pure culture. approximately 2% of all respiratory tract specimens examined during the period yielded growth of b. catarrhalis. all except one patient suffered from chronic pulmonary disease, notably chronic bronchitis. a phenotypic comparison was made between 55 strains of b. catarrhalis, of whi ...19863728028
the significance of nongonococcal, nonmeningococcal neisseria isolates from blood cultures.nongonococcal, nonmeningococcal neisseriae are part of the normal respiratory flora and infrequently cause disease. these organisms include neisseria lactamica, neisseria mucosa, neisseria sicca, neisseria flavescens, neisseria subflava , neisseria perflava , neisseria flava , and branhamella catarrhalis (previously classified as neisseria catarrhalis). blood cultures positive for these bacteria have been associated with serious infections, including endocarditis, septicemia, and meningitis. in ...19846374834
conjugation of plasmids of neisseria gonorrhoeae to other neisseria species: potential reservoirs for the beta-lactamase plasmid.the discovery that penicillinase production in neisseria gonorrhoeae was plasmid mediated and the spread of the beta-lactamase encoding plasmids in gonococcal isolates since 1976, raise the possibility that a nonpathogenic indigenous bacterium could serve as a reservoir for these plasmids. we initiated studies to define the ability of commensal neisseria species and branhamella catarrhalis strains, as well as strains of the pathogen neisseria meningitidis, to serve as recipients in conjugation w ...19846434640
neisseria flavescens septicaemia with meningitis. a case report.a rare case of septicaemia with meningitis caused by neisseria flavescens is reported. the clinical presentation and initial bacteriological findings were indistinguishable from those in meningococcal septicaemia with purpura. a review of the literature for n. flavescens infections revealed 15 other cases of meningitis and 1 of septicaemia. a plea is made for the full identification of all neisseria isolated, especially those isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures, so that closely ...19846474295
reevaluation of bacteriocinogeny in neisseria gonorrhoeae.bacteriocin typing has been described previously and proposed for typing gonococci. a survey has been made of 150 strains of n. gonorrhoeae from various places to determine the feasibility of a gonocin typing system. all strains were found to produce an inhibitory substance which inhibited all strains of gonococci tested, one strain of neisseria flavescens, two strains of neisseria meningitidis, as well as the producing strain itself. the inhibitory activity was enhanced by supplementary glucose ...1975805162
[studies on the normal occurrence of neisseria flavescens (branham, 1930)]. 19724641940
[2 cases of purulent meningitis caused by neisseria flavescens in the same environment]. 19684970174
septicaemia caused by neisseria flavescens.septicaemia caused by n. flavescens is reported for the first time. the septicaemia developed following dental surgery, and the clinical picture was indistinguishable from that of chronic meningococcaemia. the skin lesions resembled the cutaneous manifestations of gonococcaemia. the patient responded to treatment with sulphonamides and penicillin with no relapse over 18 months of follow-up.19684972296
neisseria flavescens as a cause of meningitis. 195713407080
a case of meningitis due to pseudomonas aeruginosa (bacillus pyocyaneus) and neisseria flavescens with recovery. 194918132992
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