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the polar and lateral flagella from plesiomonas shigelloides are glycosylated with legionaminic acid.plesiomonas shigelloides is the unique member of the enterobacteriaceae family able to produce polar flagella when grow in liquid medium and lateral flagella when grown in solid or semisolid media. in this study on p. shigelloides 302-73 strain, we found two different gene clusters, one exclusively for the lateral flagella biosynthesis and the other one containing the biosynthetic polar flagella genes with additional putative glycosylation genes. p. shigelloides is the first enterobacteriaceae w ...201526167161
bacterial flagella: twist and stick, or dodge across the kingdoms.the flagellum organelle is an intricate multiprotein assembly best known for its rotational propulsion of bacteria. however, recent studies have expanded our knowledge of other functions in pathogenic contexts, particularly adherence and immune modulation, e.g., for salmonella enterica, campylobacter jejuni, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and escherichia coli. flagella-mediated adherence is important in host colonisation for several plant and animal pathogens, but the specific interactions that promote ...201525590430
laboratory diagnosis of bacterial gastroenteritis.bacterial gastroenteritis is a disease that is pervasive in both the developing and developed worlds. while for the most part bacterial gastroenteritis is self-limiting, identification of an etiological agent by bacterial stool culture is required for the management of patients with severe or prolonged diarrhea, symptoms consistent with invasive disease, or a history that may predict a complicated course of disease. importantly, characterization of bacterial enteropathogens from stool cultures i ...201525567220
survival in water of campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from the slaughterhouse.campylobacter jejuni cause gastroenteritis in humans. the main transmission vector is the consumption or handling of contaminated chicken meat, since chicken can be colonized asymptomatically by c. jejuni. however, water has been implicated as the transmission vector in a few outbreaks. one possibility is the contamination of water effluent by c. jejuni originating from chicken farm. the ability of c. jejuni to be transmitted by water would be closely associated to its ability to survive in wate ...201526702388
smrt sequencing of the campylobacter coli bfr-ca-9557 genome sequence reveals unique methylation motifs.campylobacter species are the most prevalent bacterial pathogen causing acute enteritis worldwide. in contrast to campylobacter jejuni, about 5 % of campylobacter coli strains exhibit susceptibility to restriction endonuclease digestion by dpni cutting specifically 5'-g(m)atc-3' motifs. this indicates significant differences in dna methylation between both microbial species. the goal of the study was to analyze the methylome of a c. coli strain susceptible to dpni digestion, to identify its meth ...201526689587
molecular identification of campylobacter jejuni and coli from chicken, calves and dogs to determine its potential threat on human being.campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and one of the leading cause of foodborne infection worldwide and it has been isolated from a variety of animal species. the aim of this study was to identify campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from dogs, calves, and poultry using polymerase chain reaction (pcr).201527047055
a flagellar glycan-specific protein encoded by campylobacter phages inhibits host cell growth.we previously characterized a carbohydrate binding protein, gp047, derived from lytic campylobacter phage nctc 12673, as a promising diagnostic tool for the identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. we also demonstrated that this protein binds specifically to acetamidino-modified pseudaminic acid residues on host flagella, but the role of this protein in the phage lifecycle remains unknown. here, we report that gp047 is capable of inhibiting c. jejuni growth both on solid an ...201526694450
weakly deleterious mutations and low rates of recombination limit the impact of natural selection on bacterial genomes.free-living bacteria are usually thought to have large effective population sizes, and so tiny selective differences can drive their evolution. however, because recombination is infrequent, "background selection" against slightly deleterious alleles should reduce the effective population size (ne) by orders of magnitude. for example, for a well-mixed population with 10(12) individuals and a typical level of homologous recombination (r/m = 3, i.e., nucleotide changes due to recombination [r] occu ...201526670382
novel immunomodulatory flagellin-like protein flac in campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacterales.the human diarrheal pathogens campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli interfere with host innate immune signaling by different means, and their flagellins, flaa and flab, have a low intrinsic property to activate the innate immune receptor toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5). we have investigated here the hypothesis that the unusual secreted, flagellin-like molecule flac present in c. jejuni, c. coli, and other campylobacterales might activate cells via tlr5 and interact with tlr5. flac shows striki ...201527303676
novel immunomodulatory flagellin-like protein flac in campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacterales.the human diarrheal pathogens campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli interfere with host innate immune signaling by different means, and their flagellins, flaa and flab, have a low intrinsic property to activate the innate immune receptor toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5). we have investigated here the hypothesis that the unusual secreted, flagellin-like molecule flac present in c. jejuni, c. coli, and other campylobacterales might activate cells via tlr5 and interact with tlr5. flac shows striki ...201527303676
etiology of childhood infectious diarrhea in a developed region of china: compared to childhood diarrhea in a developing region and adult diarrhea in a developed region.in china, great differences in economy, social characteristics and hygiene exist between developing and developed regions. a comparative study of infectious diarrhea between two regions was needed. three groups of diarrheal patients were collected: children ≤5 year-olds from beijing (developed region) and henan province (developing region), and adults over 18 year-olds from beijing. a questionnaire was used to survey and feces samples were examined for 16 enteropathogens. we enrolled 1422 childr ...201526528820
quantitative microbial risk assessment for campylobacter spp. on ham in korea.the objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of illness from campylobacter spp. on ham. to identify the hazards of campylobacter spp. on ham, the general characteristics and microbial criteria for campylobacter spp., and campylobacteriosis outbreaks were investigated. in the exposure assessment, the prevalence of campylobacter spp. on ham was evaluated, and the probabilistic distributions for the temperature of ham surfaces in retail markets and home refrigerators were prepared. in addit ...201526761897
chromosomal integration vectors allowing flexible expression of foreign genes in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of human gastroenteritis yet there is limited knowledge of how disease is caused. molecular genetic approaches are vital for research into the virulence mechanisms of this important pathogen. vectors that allow expression of genes in c. jejuni via recombination onto the chromosome are particularly useful for genetic complementation of insertional knockout mutants and more generally for expression of genes in particular c. jejuni host backgrounds.201526497958
substitute sweeteners: diverse bacterial oligosaccharyltransferases with unique n-glycosylation site preferences.the central enzyme in the campylobacter jejuni asparagine-linked glycosylation pathway is the oligosaccharyltransferase (ost), pglb, which transfers preassembled glycans to specific asparagine residues in target proteins. while c. jejuni pglb (cjpglb) can transfer many diverse glycan structures, the acceptor sites that it recognizes are restricted predominantly to those having a negatively charged residue in the -2 position relative to the asparagine. here, we investigated the acceptor-site pref ...201526482295
transmission of the pabi family of restriction dna glycosylase genes: mobility and long-term inheritance.r.pabi is an exceptional restriction enzyme that functions as a dna glycosylase. the enzyme excises an unmethylated base from its recognition sequence to generate apurinic/apyrimidinic (ap) sites, and also displays ap lyase activity, cleaving the dna backbone at the ap site to generate the 3'-phospho alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde end in addition to the 5'-phosphate end. the resulting ends are difficult to religate with dna ligase. the enzyme was originally isolated in pyrococcus, a hypertherm ...201526481899
helicobacter pylori adaptation in vivo in response to a high-salt diet.helicobacter pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity. in this study, we investigated whether the diversification of h. pylori is influenced by the composition of the diet. specifically, we investigated the effect of a high-salt diet (a known risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma) on h. pylori diversification within a host. we analyzed h. pylori strains isolated from mongolian gerbils fed either a high-salt diet or a regular diet for 4 months by proteomic and whole-genome ...201526438795
pancreatic amylase is an environmental signal for regulation of biofilm formation and host interaction in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is a commensal bacterium in the intestines of animals and birds and a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. here we show that exposure to pancreatic amylase leads to secretion of an α-dextran by c. jejuni and that a secreted protease, cj0511, is required. exposure of c. jejuni to pancreatic amylase promotes biofilm formation in vitro, increases interaction with human epithelial cell lines, increases virulence in the galleria mellonella infection mode ...201526438798
important role of a putative lytic transglycosylase cj0843c in β-lactam resistance in campylobacter jejuni.beta-lactam antibiotics are an important class of antibiotics for treating bacterial infections. despite prevalent β-lactam resistance in campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human diarrhea in developed countries, molecular mechanism of β-lactam resistance in c. jejuni is still largely unknown. in this study, c. jejuni 81-176 was used for random transposon mutagenesis. screening of a 2,800-mutant library identified 22 mutants with increased susceptibility to ampicillin. of these ...201526635760
antimicrobial resistance and genotypic diversity of campylobacter isolated from pigs, dairy, and beef cattle in tanzania.foodborne campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. however, the occurrence and characteristics of campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in tanzania. the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, sts) of campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in tanzania. overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for campylobacter spp, which ...201526617582
abstracts. 201526553501
abstracts. 201526553501
a single nucleotide change in muty increases the emergence of antibiotic-resistant campylobacter jejuni mutants.mutator strains play an important role in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide and is increasingly resistant to clinically important antibiotics. the objective of this study was to identify the genetic basis that contributes to a mutator phenotype in campylobacter and determine the role of this phenotype in the development of antibiotic resistance.201526169557
multiplex detection of nine food-borne pathogens by mpcr and capillary electrophoresis after using a universal pre-enrichment medium.routine microbiological quality analyses in food samples require, in some cases, an initial incubation in pre-enrichment medium. this is necessary in order to ensure that small amounts of pathogenic strains are going to be detected. in this work, a universal pre-enrichment medium has been developed for the simultaneous growth of bacillus cereus, campylobacter jejuni, clostridium perfringens, cronobacter sakazakii, escherichia coli, enterobacteriaceae family (38 species, 27 genera), listeria mono ...201526579100
the contribution of co-reference resolution to supervised relation detection between bacteria and biotopes entities.the acquisition of knowledge about relations between bacteria and their locations (habitats and geographical locations) in short texts about bacteria, as defined in the bionlp-st 2013 bacteria biotope task, depends on the detection of co-reference links between mentions of entities of each of these three types. to our knowledge, no participant in this task has investigated this aspect of the situation. the present work specifically addresses issues raised by this situation: (i) how to detect the ...201526201352
differentiation of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli using multiplex-pcr and high resolution melt curve analysis.campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. among campylobacter spp. campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni) and c. coli are the most common causes of human infection. in this study, a multiplex pcr (mpcr) and high resolution melt (hrm) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of c. jejuni and c. coli isolates. a segment of the hippuricase gene (hipo) of c. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of c. c ...201526394042
milk modulates campylobacter invasion into caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells.raw milk is a recognized source of campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of campylobacteriosis. whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. however, in relation to campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of campylob ...201526495128
constitutive and inducible expression of the rrna methylase gene erm(b) in campylobacter.macrolides are the antimicrobials of choice for treating human campylobacteriosis. the recent emergence of erm(b) in campylobacter bacteria threatens the utility of this class of antibiotics. here we report the constitutive and inducible expression of erm(b) in campylobacter isolates derived from diarrheal patients and food-producing animals. constitutive expression of erm(b) was associated with insertion and deletion in the regulatory region of the gene, providing the first documentation of the ...201526259800
a metagenomic investigation of the duodenal microbiota reveals links with obesity.few studies have tested the small intestine microbiota in humans, where most nutrient digestion and absorption occur. here, our objective was to examine the duodenal microbiota between obese and normal volunteers using metagenomic techniques.201526356733
wild bird-associated campylobacter jejuni isolates are a consistent source of human disease, in oxfordshire, united kingdom.the contribution of wild birds as a source of human campylobacteriosis was investigated in oxfordshire, united kingdom (uk) over a 10 year period. the probable origin of human campylobacter jejuni genotypes, as described by multilocus sequence typing, was estimated by comparison with reference populations of isolates from farm animals and five wild bird families, using the structure algorithm. wild bird-attributed isolates accounted for between 476 (2.1%) and 543 (3.5%) cases annually. this prop ...201526109474
isolation and molecular identification of potentially pathogenic escherichia coli and campylobacter jejuni in feral pigeons from an urban area in the city of lima, peru.feral pigeons (columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. they can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. the objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic escherichia coli and campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of lima, peru. fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of e. coli strains in selective agar, and campylobacter by filtration method. molecular identific ...201526603225
rapid host switching in generalist campylobacter strains erodes the signal for tracing human infections.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are the biggest causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world, with human infections typically arising from zoonotic transmission associated with infected meat. because campylobacter is not thought to survive well outside the gut, host-associated populations are genetically isolated to varying degrees. therefore, the likely origin of most strains can be determined by host-associated variation in the genome. this is instructive for characte ...201526305157
effects of nitrate addition on rumen fermentation, bacterial biodiversity and abundance.this study examined changes of rumen fermentation, ruminal bacteria biodiversity and abundance caused by nitrate addition with ion torrent sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction. three rumen-fistulated steers were fed diets supplemented with 0%, 1%, and 2% nitrate (dry matter %) in succession. nitrate supplementation linearly increased total volatile fatty acids and acetate concentration obviously (p = 0.02; p = 0.02; p<0.01), butyrate and isovalerate concentration numerically (p = 0 ...201526194220
core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme for high- resolution typing of enterococcus faecium.enterococcus faecium, a common inhabitant of the human gut, has emerged in the last 2 decades as an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen. since the start of the 21st century, multilocus sequence typing (mlst) has been used to study the molecular epidemiology of e. faecium. however, due to the use of a small number of genes, the resolution of mlst is limited. whole-genome sequencing (wgs) now allows for high-resolution tracing of outbreaks, but current wgs-based approaches lack stand ...201526400782
rapid host switching in generalist campylobacter strains erodes the signal for tracing human infections.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are the biggest causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world, with human infections typically arising from zoonotic transmission associated with infected meat. because campylobacter is not thought to survive well outside the gut, host-associated populations are genetically isolated to varying degrees. therefore, the likely origin of most strains can be determined by host-associated variation in the genome. this is instructive for characte ...201526305157
mass spectrometry-based phyloproteomics (mspp): a novel microbial typing method.maldi-tof-ms of microorganisms, which identifies microbes based on masses of high abundant low molecular weight proteins, is rapidly advancing to become another standard method in clinical routine laboratory diagnostics. allelic isoforms of these proteins result in varying masses of detectable biomarker ions. these variations give rise to a novel typing method for microorganisms named mass spectrometry-based phyloproteomics (mspp). the base of mspp is an amino acid sequence list of allelic isofo ...201526303099
virulence characteristics of hcp (+) campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from retail chicken.recently the type vi secretion system (t6ss), which can play a significant role in bacterial survival and pathogenesis, was reported in campylobacter spp., having the hcp gene as a key component.201526207145
population genetics and antimicrobial susceptibility of canine campylobacter isolates collected before and after a raw feeding experiment.in recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. however, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but c. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. in this ...201526172151
genetic characterization of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli isolated from broilers using flaa pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in shiraz, southern iran.thermophilic campylobacters, particularly campylobacter jejuni and c. coli are the main agents of human campylobacteriosis. campylobacter contaminated chicken products is the most important source of foodborne gastroenteritis. evaluation of genetic diversity among campylobacter population is critical for understanding the epidemiology of this bacterium and developing effective control strategies against campylobacter infections and other related disorders.201526060566
filamentation of campylobacter in broth cultures.the transition from rod to filamentous cell morphology has been identified as a response to stressful conditions in many bacterial species and has been ascribed to confer certain survival advantages. filamentation of campylobacter jejuni was demonstrated to occur spontaneously on entry in to stationary phase distinguishing it from many other bacteria where a reduction in size is more common. the aim of this study was to investigate the cues that give rise to filamentation of c. jejuni and c. col ...201526175723
la35 poultry fecal marker persistence is correlated with that of indicators and pathogens in environmental waters.disposal of fecally contaminated poultry litter by land application can deliver pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria (fib) into receiving waters via runoff. while water quality is regulated by fib enumeration, fib testing provides inadequate information about contamination source and health risk. this microbial source tracking (mst) study compared the persistence of the brevibacterium sp. strain la35 16s rrna gene (marker) for poultry litter with that of pathogens and fib under outdoor, enviro ...201525934617
beyond campylobacter jejuni: understanding campylobacter coli infections in a systemic model of disease. 201526083465
comprehensive mapping of o-glycosylation in flagellin from campylobacter jejuni 11168: a multienzyme differential ion mobility mass spectrometry approach.glycosylation of flagellin is essential for the virulence of campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. here, we demonstrate comprehensive mapping of the o-glycosylation of flagellin from campylobacter jejuni 11168 by use of a bottom-up proteomics approach that incorporates differential ion mobility spectrometry (also known as high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry or faims) together with proteolysis with proteinase k. proteinase k provides complementar ...201525884275
narrow-spectrum inhibitors of campylobacter jejuni flagellar expression and growth.campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne illness due to its ability to reside within the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens. multiple studies have identified the flagella of c. jejuni as a major determinant of chicken colonization. an inhibitor screen of approximately 147,000 small molecules was performed to identify compounds that are able to inhibit flagellar expression in a reporter strain of c. jejuni. several compounds that modestly inhibited motility of wild-type c. jejuni in s ...201525870073
diversity of the epsilonproteobacteria dsb (disulfide bond) systems.the bacterial proteins of the dsb family-important components of the post-translational protein modification system-catalyze the formation of disulfide bridges, a process that is crucial for protein structure stabilization and activity. dsb systems play an essential role in the assembly of many virulence factors. recent rapid advances in global analysis of bacteria have thrown light on the enormous diversity among bacterial dsb systems. while the escherichia coli disulfide bond-forming system is ...201526106374
heat shock-enhanced conjugation efficiency in standard campylobacter jejuni strains.campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the united states, displays significant strain diversity due to horizontal gene transfer. conjugation is an important horizontal gene transfer mechanism contributing to the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. it has been observed that heat shock could increase transformation efficiency in some bacteria. in this study, the effect of heat shock on c. jejuni conjugation efficiency and the und ...201525911489
virulence genes and cytokine profile in systemic murine campylobacter coli infection.campylobacter coli are one of the most common bacteria in bacterial gastroenteritis and acute enterocolitis in humans. however, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms of pathogenesis and host response to c. coli infections. to investigate the influence of genetic changes, we first used pcr to demonstrate the presence of the known virulence genes cadf, virb11, cdtb, cdtc and ceue in the clinical isolate c. coli 26536, which was isolated from the liver of infected balb/c mice. sequenc ...201526039573
the epidemiology and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infancy in southern vietnam: a birth cohort study.previous studies indicate a high burden of diarrhoeal disease in vietnamese children, however longitudinal community-based data on burden and aetiology are limited. the findings from a large, prospective cohort study of diarrhoeal disease in infants in southern vietnam are presented herein.201525813553
a prospective multi-center observational study of children hospitalized with diarrhea in ho chi minh city, vietnam.we performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in ho chi minh city (hcmc), vietnam. over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009-2010. aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 (13.3 ...201525802437
detection of multi-drug resistant escherichia coli in the urban waterways of milwaukee, wi.urban waterways represent a natural reservoir of antibiotic resistance which may provide a source of transferable genetic elements to human commensal bacteria and pathogens. the objective of this study was to evaluate antibiotic resistance of escherichia coli isolated from the urban waterways of milwaukee, wi compared to those from milwaukee sewage and a clinical setting in milwaukee. antibiotics covering 10 different families were utilized to determine the phenotypic antibiotic resistance for a ...201525972844
towards fluorescence in vivo hybridization (fivh) detection of h. pylori in gastric mucosa using advanced lna probes.in recent years, there have been several attempts to improve the diagnosis of infection caused by helicobacter pylori. fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) is a commonly used technique to detect h. pylori infection but it requires biopsies from the stomach. thus, the development of an in vivo fish-based method (fivh) that directly detects and allows the visualization of the bacterium within the human body would significantly reduce the time of analysis, allowing the diagnosis to be performe ...201525915865
epidemiology of norovirus infections among diarrhea outpatients in a diarrhea surveillance system in shanghai, china: a cross-sectional study.norovirus is an important cause of gastroenteritis both in children and adults. in china, few studies have been conducted on adult populations. this study aimed to determine the contribution of norovirus to gastroenteritis, characterize the features of norovirus infections, compare them with other pathogens, and test the effectiveness of the surveillance system.201525884557
impact of oxidative stress defense on bacterial survival and morphological change in campylobacter jejuni under aerobic conditions.campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen, inescapably faces high oxygen tension during its transmission to humans. thus, the ability of c. jejuni to survive under oxygen-rich conditions may significantly impact c. jejuni viability in food and food safety as well. in this study, we investigated the impact of oxidative stress resistance on the survival of c. jejuni under aerobic conditions by examining three mutants defective in key antioxidant genes, including ahpc, kata, and so ...201525914692
multiplex polymerase chain reaction tests for detection of pathogens associated with gastroenteritis.a wide range of enteric pathogens can cause infectious gastroenteritis. conventional diagnostic algorithms are time-consuming and often lack sensitivity and specificity. advances in molecular technology have provided new clinical diagnostic tools. multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based testing has been used in gastroenterology diagnostics in recent years. this article presents a review of recent laboratory-developed multiplex pcr tests and current commercial multiplex gastrointestinal p ...201526004652
first case report of campylobacter volucris bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient.we report a case of campylobacter volucris bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient with polycythemia vera and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. to our knowledge, this is the first case report in which this organism has been isolated from a human clinical specimen.201525832303
environmental monitoring of waterborne campylobacter: evaluation of the australian standard and a hybrid extraction-free mpn-pcr method.campylobacter is the leading agent of diarrheal disease worldwide. this study evaluates a novel culture-pcr hybrid (mpn-pcr) assay for the rapid enumeration of campylobacter spp. from estuarine and wastewater systems. to first evaluate the current, culture-based, australian standard, an inter-laboratory study was conducted on 69 subsampled water samples. the proposed most-probable number (mpn)-pcr method was then evaluated, by analysing 147 estuarine samples collected over a 2 year period. data ...201525709604
agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.one of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major ...201525878509
structural and functional implications of the interaction between macrolide antibiotics and bile acids.macrolide antibiotics, such as azithromycin and erythromycin, are in widespread use for the treatment of bacterial infections. macrolides are taken up and excreted mainly by bile. additionally, they have been implicated in biliary system diseases and to modify the excretion of other drugs through bile. despite mounting evidence for the interplay between macrolide antibiotics and bile acids, the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. herein, we show by nmr measurements that macroli ...201525655041
comparison of eleven methods for genomic dna extraction suitable for large-scale whole-genome genotyping and long-term dna banking using blood samples.over the recent years, next generation sequencing and microarray technologies have revolutionized scientific research with their applications to high-throughput analysis of biological systems. isolation of high quantities of pure, intact, double stranded, highly concentrated, not contaminated genomic dna is prerequisite for successful and reliable large scale genotyping analysis. high quantities of pure dna are also required for the creation of dna-banks. in the present study, eleven different d ...201525635817
microbial contamination of drinking water and human health from community water systems.a relatively short list of reference viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens appears adequate to assess microbial risks and inform a system-based management of drinking waters. nonetheless, there are data gaps, e.g. human enteric viruses resulting in endemic infection levels if poorly performing disinfection and/or distribution systems are used, and the risks from fungi. where disinfection is the only treatment and/or filtration is poor, cryptosporidiosis is the most likely enteric disease to b ...201525821716
coiled coil rich proteins (ccrp) influence molecular pathogenicity of helicobacter pylori.pathogenicity of the human pathogen helicobacter pylori relies on its capacity to adapt to a hostile environment and to escape the host response. although there have been great advances in our understanding of the bacterial cytoskeleton, major gaps remain in our knowledge of its contribution to virulence. in this study we have explored the influence of coiled coil rich proteins (ccrp) cytoskeletal elements on pathogenicity factors of h. pylori. deletion of any of the ccrp resulted in a strongly ...201525822999
a community-based gastroenteritis outbreak after typhoon haiyan, leyte, philippines, 2013.three weeks after typhoon haiyan, an increasing number of acute gastroenteritis cases were reported in kananga, leyte, an area where evacuated residents had returned home two days after the disaster. an outbreak investigation was conducted to identify the source and risk factors associated with the increase of gastroenteritis.201525960917
prevalence of campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and anti-bio gram.during the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to campylobacter occurred, immensely. after poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of campylobacter. therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of campylobacter spp. in anand city, gujarat, india.201527046986
molecular-based approaches to characterize coastal microbial community and their potential relation to the trophic state of red sea.molecular-based approaches were used to characterize the coastal microbiota and to elucidate the trophic state of red sea. nutrient content and enterococci numbers were monitored, and used to correlate with the abundance of microbial markers. microbial source tracking revealed the presence of >1 human-associated bacteroides spp. at some of the near-shore sampling sites and at a heavily frequented beach. water samples collected from the beaches had occasional exceedances in enterococci numbers, h ...201525758166
clear distinction between burkholderia mallei and burkholderia pseudomallei using fluorescent motb primers.a frame-shift mutation in the flagellum motor gene motb coding for the chemotaxis motb protein of burkholderia mallei has been utilized to design a conventional duplex pcr assay with fluorescent labelled primers.201525887130
multicenter evaluation of the bd max enteric bacterial panel pcr assay for rapid detection of salmonella spp., shigella spp., campylobacter spp. (c. jejuni and c. coli), and shiga toxin 1 and 2 genes.diarrhea due to enteric bacterial pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in the united states and worldwide. however, bacterial pathogens may be infrequently identified. currently, culture and enzyme immunoassays (eias) are the primary methods used by clinical laboratories to detect enteric bacterial pathogens. we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the bd max enteric bacterial panel (ebp) pcr assay in comparison to culture for the detection of salmonella spp., shigella spp., cam ...201525740779
detection of thermophilic campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods iso 10272: 2006 in curitiba - parana state - brazil.the aim of this study was the detection of campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods iso 10272-1 and iso 10272-2. the overall prevalence of campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of con ...201525763066
detection of thermophilic campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods iso 10272: 2006 in curitiba - parana state - brazil.the aim of this study was the detection of campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods iso 10272-1 and iso 10272-2. the overall prevalence of campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of con ...201525763066
genome comparison provides molecular insights into the phylogeny of the reassigned new genus lysinibacillus.lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly named bacillus sphaericus) is incapable of polysaccharide utilization and some isolates produce active insecticidal proteins against mosquito larvae. its taxonomic status was changed to the genus lysinibacillus in 2007 with some other organisms previously regarded as members of bacillus. however, this classification is mainly based on physiology and phenotype and there is limited genomic information to support it.201525888315
exploiting bacterial whole-genome sequencing data for evaluation of diagnostic assays: campylobacter species identification as a case study.the application of whole-genome sequencing (wgs) to problems in clinical microbiology has had a major impact on the field. clinical laboratories are now using wgs for pathogen identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and epidemiological typing. wgs data also represent a valuable resource for the development and evaluation of molecular diagnostic assays, which continue to play an important role in clinical microbiology. to demonstrate this application of wgs, this study used publicly ...201627733632
glucose metabolism via the entner-doudoroff pathway in campylobacter: a rare trait that enhances survival and promotes biofilm formation in some isolates.isolates of the zoonotic pathogen campylobacter are generally considered to be unable to metabolize glucose due to lack of key glycolytic enzymes. however, the entner-doudoroff (ed) pathway has been identified in campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei and a few c. coli isolates. a systematic search for ed pathway genes in a wide range of campylobacter isolates and in the c. jejuni/coli pubmlst database revealed that 1.7% of >6,000 genomes encoded a complete ed pathway, including both c. jejuni and c ...201627920773
advances and challenges in viability detection of foodborne pathogens.foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. there is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (pcr), sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. among mo ...201627920757
epidemiology and rapd-pcr typing of thermophilic campylobacters from children under five years and chickens in morogoro municipality, tanzania.campylobacter species are gram negative and flagellated bacteria under the genus campylobacter, family campylobacteriaceae. these pathogens cause zoonotic infections among human and animal populations. this study was undertaken between december 2006 and may 2007 to determine prevalence, risk factors and genetic diversity of thermophilic campylobacter isolates from children less than 5 years and chickens in morogoro municipality, tanzania.201627871251
prevalence of enteropathogens in dogs attending 3 regional dog parks in northern california.the prevalence and risk factors for infection with enteropathogens in dogs frequenting dog parks have been poorly documented, and infected dogs can pose a potential zoonotic risk for owners.201627859745
methylome analysis of two xanthomonas spp. using single-molecule real-time sequencing.single-molecule real-time (smrt) sequencing allows identification of methylated dna bases and methylation patterns/motifs at the genome level. using smrt sequencing, diverse bacterial methylomes including those of helicobacter pylori, lactobacillus spp., and escherichia coli have been determined, and previously unreported dna methylation motifs have been identified. however, the methylomes of xanthomonas species, which belong to the most important plant pathogenic bacterial genus, have not been ...201627904456
bacteriophage-based tools: recent advances and novel applications.bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect bacterial hosts, and since their discovery over a century ago they have been primarily exploited to control bacterial populations and to serve as tools in molecular biology. in this commentary, we highlight recent diverse advances in the field of phage research, going beyond bacterial control using whole phage, to areas including biocontrol using phage-derived enzybiotics, diagnostics, drug discovery, novel drug delivery systems and bionanotechnolo ...201627990274
bibliometric analysis of publications on campylobacter: (2000-2015).campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. in order to better understand national and international research output on campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on campylobacter. this study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global ...201627899145
development of a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for rapid and simultaneous identification of common foodborne pathogens in soft cheese.dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., campylobacter spp., salmonella spp., listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli) arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. we wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddpcr) involving eight individual taqman™ reactions to detect ...201627840628
momp from campylobacter jejuni is a trimer of 18-stranded β-barrel monomers with a ca(2+) ion bound at the constriction zone.the gram-negative organism campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of food poisoning. unlike escherichia coli, which has two major porins, ompc and ompf, c. jejuni has one, termed major outer membrane protein (momp) through which nutrients and antibiotics transit. we report the 2.1-å crystal structure of c. jejuni momp expressed in e. coli and a lower resolution but otherwise identical structure purified directly from c. jejuni. the 2.1-å resolution structure of recombinant momp showed that alth ...201627693650
evaluation of a microfluidic chip system for preparation of bacterial dna from swabs, air, and surface water samples.the detection of bacterial pathogens from complex sample matrices by pcr requires efficient dna extraction. in this study, a protocol for extraction and purification of dna from swabs, air, and water samples using a microfluidic chip system was established. the optimized protocol includes a combination of thermal, chemical and enzymatic lysis followed by chip-based dna purification using magnetic particles. the procedure was tested using gram-positive bacillus thuringiensis berliner var. kurstak ...201627520284
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products.this study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of qena, egypt, for the presence of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni.201627847427
molecular epidemiology, virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter spreading in retail chicken meat in central china.campylobacter species are the major food-borne pathogens which could cause bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. contaminated chicken products have been recognized as the primary vehicles of campylobacter transmission to human beings. in this study, the prevalence of campylobacter in retail chicken meat in central china was investigated, and the isolates were further characterized using molecular approaches and tested for antibiotic resistance.201627800028
a direct-sensing galactose chemoreceptor recently evolved in invasive strains of campylobacter jejuni.a rare chemotaxis receptor, tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of c. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. the inactivated mutant displays reduced ...201627762269
complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant campylobacter jejuni strain 14980a (turkey feces) and campylobacter coli strain 14983a (housefly from a turkey farm), harboring a novel gentamicin resistance mobile element.multidrug resistance (mdr) in foodborne pathogens is a major food safety and public health issue. here we describe whole-genome sequences of two mdr strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from turkey feces and a housefly from a turkey farm. both strains harbor a novel chromosomal gentamicin resistance mobile element.201627795285
the risk of some veterinary antimicrobial agents on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance and their molecular basis.the risk of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance continues to be a current topic of discussion as related to animal and human public health. in the present review, resistance monitoring data, and risk assessment results of some important antimicrobial agents were cited to elucidate the possible association of antimicrobial use in food animals and antimicrobial resistance in humans. from the selected examples, it was apparen ...201627803693
new weapons to fight old enemies: novel strategies for the (bio)control of bacterial biofilms in the food industry.biofilms are microbial communities characterized by their adhesion to solid surfaces and the production of a matrix of exopolymeric substances, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, dna and lipids, which surround the microorganisms lending structural integrity and a unique biochemical profile to the biofilm. biofilm formation enhances the ability of the producer/s to persist in a given environment. pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species capable of forming biofilms are a significant problem ...201627803696
use of direct lamp screening of broiler fecal samples for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in the positive flock identification strategy.rapid identification of campylobacter-positive flocks before slaughter, following freezing and heat treatment for the campylobacter-positive carcasses at the slaughterhouses is an effective control strategy against foodborne campylobacteriosis. we evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the direct screening of naturally contaminated chicken cloacal swabs for c. jejuni/c. coli to compare this assay with conventional quantitative culture methods. in a comparison study o ...201627746777
whole-genome sequences of agricultural, host-associated campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni strains.we report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant campylobacter spp.: c. coli 11601 and c. jejuni 11601md, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and c. coli 6067 and c. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. the genomes provide insights on campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations.201627540063
complete genome sequences of the plasmid-bearing campylobacter coli strains hc2-48, cf2-75, and co2-160 isolated from retail beef liver.the complete genome sequences of campylobacter coli strains hc2-48, cf2-75, and co2-160, isolated from retail beef liver, showed the presence of 1,663,782-, 1,711,393-, and 1,683,224-bp circular chromosomes and 44,064-, 44,233-, and 44,228-bp circular plasmids, respectively. this is the first reported campylobacter coli genome sequence isolated from retail beef liver.201627635012
persistence and potential viable but non-culturable state of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates from agricultural biogas plants.despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (salmonella enterica derby, campylobacter coli and listeria monocytogenes) in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. nine samples, including raw digestates, liq ...201627695451
quantification of growth of campylobacter and extended spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria sheds light on black box of enrichment procedures.campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, and is routinely found in meat originating from poultry, sheep, pigs, and cattle. effective monitoring of campylobacter contamination is dependent on the availability of reliable detection methods. the method of the international organization for standardization for the detection of campylobacter spp. in food (iso 10272-1:2006) recommends the use of bolton broth (bb) as selective enrichment ...201627672384
cross-talk between the aeromonas hydrophila type iii secretion system and lateral flagella system.aeromonas hydrophila is responsible for aeromonad septicaemia in fish, and gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. the type iii secretion system (t3ss) is utilized by aeromonads to inject protein effectors directly into host cells. one of the major genetic regulators of the t3ss in several bacterial species is the arac-like protein exsa. previous studies have suggested a link between t3ss regulation and lateral flagella expression. the aim of this study was to determine the genetic regul ...201627656180
extraction of total nucleic acids from bacterial isolates using the biomérieux nuclisens easymag total nucleic acid extractor.the biomerieux nuclisens easymag total nucleic acid extractor was evaluated for use on bacterial isolates in the clinical microbiology laboratory. forty eight isolates were extracted, yielding quantifiable amounts of dna for all isolates. the easymag is appropriate for dna extraction from bacterial isolates and will be incorporated in the clinical laboratory.201627658494
ethyl pyruvate: an anti-microbial agent that selectively targets pathobionts and biofilms.the microbiota has a strong influence on health and disease in humans. a causative shift favoring pathobionts is strongly linked to diseases. therefore, anti-microbial agents selectively targeting potential pathogens as well as their biofilms are urgently demanded. here we demonstrate the impact of ethyl pyruvate, so far known as ros scavenger and anti-inflammatory agent, on planktonic microbes and biofilms. ethyl pyruvate combats preferably the growth of pathobionts belonging to bacteria and fu ...201627658257
the outer membrane phospholipase a is essential for membrane integrity and type iii secretion in shigella flexneri.outer membrane phospholipase a (ompla) is an enzyme located in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. ompla exhibits broad substrate specificity, and some of its substrates are located in the cellular envelope. generally, the enzymatic activity can only be induced by perturbation of the cell envelope integrity through diverse methods. although ompla has been thoroughly studied as a membrane protein in escherichia coli and is constitutively expressed in many other bacterial pathogens, litt ...201627655730
emergence of a potent multidrug efflux pump variant that enhances campylobacter resistance to multiple antibiotics.bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of "super" efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named re-cmeabc) of the predominant efflux pump cmeabc in campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibi ...201627651364
production of the bioactive compounds violacein and indolmycin is conditional in a maea mutant of pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea s4054 lacking the malic enzyme.it has previously been reported that some strains of the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea produce the purple bioactive pigment violacein as well as the antibiotic compound indolmycin, hitherto only found in streptomyces. the purpose of the present study was to determine the relative role of each of these two compounds as antibacterial compounds in p. luteoviolacea s4054. using tn10 transposon mutagenesis, a mutant strain that was significantly reduced in violacein production in m ...201627695447
prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of thermophilic campylobacter spp. of slaughtered cattle and sheep in shiraz, iranalthough poultry meat is considered as the main source for human campylobacter infections, there is limited information about non-poultry sources. the present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in fecal samples of the cattle and sheep in shiraz, iran. a total of 302 fecal samples were obtained from clinically healthy, slaughtered cattle and sheep from shiraz slaughterhouse. the animals were clinically healthy before bein ...201627872721
a new lab developed real time pcr assay for direct detection of c. difficle from stool sample without dna extraction.clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. detection of c. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (eia). however, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool eia, we developed a multiplex real-time pcr assay targeting the c. difficile toxin genes tcdb. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having c. difficile-a ...201627829823
novel methyltransferase recognition motif identified in chania multitudinisentens rb-25(t) gen. nov., sp. nov. 201627630623
antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolates from small scale and backyard chicken in kenya.thermophilic campylobacter species are a major cause of bacterial foodborne diarrhoea in humans worldwide. poultry and their products are the predominant source for human campylobacteriosis. resistance of campylobacter to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, but little is known about the antibiotic resistance in campylobacter isolated from chicken in kenya. in this study, 35 suspected campylobacter strains isolated from faeces and cloacal swabs of chicken were tested for their susceptibility to ...201627570543
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