PMID(sorted ascending)
molecular identification of campylobacter jejuni and coli from chicken, calves and dogs to determine its potential threat on human being.campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and one of the leading cause of foodborne infection worldwide and it has been isolated from a variety of animal species. the aim of this study was to identify campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from dogs, calves, and poultry using polymerase chain reaction (pcr).201527047055
the bacteriophage carrier state of campylobacter jejuni features changes in host non-coding rnas and the acquisition of new host-derived crispr spacer sequences.incorporation of self-derived crispr dna protospacers in campylobacter jejuni pt14 occurs in the presence of bacteriophages encoding a crispr-like cas4 protein. this phenomenon was evident in carrier state infections where both bacteriophages and host are maintained for seemingly indefinite periods as stable populations following serial passage. carrier state cultures of c. jejuni pt14 have greater aerotolerance in nutrient limited conditions, and may have arisen as an evolutionary response to s ...201627047470
campylobacter growth rates in four different matrices: broiler caecal material, live birds, bolton broth, and brain heart infusion broth.the objective of this study was to characterise campylobacter growth in enrichment broths (bolton broth, brain heart infusion broth), caecal material (in vitro), and in the naturally infected live broilers (in vivo) in terms of mean lag periods and generation times as well as maximum growth rates and population (cell concentration) achieved.201627052025
combined campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli rapid testing and molecular epidemiology in conventional broiler flocks.campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial zoonosis, most often transmitted by contaminated poultry meat. from an epidemiological and risk assessment perspective, further knowledge should be obtained on campylobacter prevalence and genotype distribution in primary production. consequently, 15 austrian broiler flocks were surveyed in summer for their thermophilic campylobacter spp. contamination status. chicken droppings, dust and drinking water samples were collected from each flock at ...201627061601
antibiotic resistance and polymorphism in the quinolone resistance-determining region of campylobacter spp. isolated from 1-day-old ducklings.thirty-three isolates of campylobacter coli and three isolates of campylobacter jejuni were recovered from 150 1-day-old ducklings. all isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol and amikacin, but resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (sxt) by the disc diffusion method. most isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and erythromycin, but resistant to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. of the 33 c. coli isolates, nine were positive for the tetracycline resistance gene tet(o), although only two of ...201627068149
detection of campylobacter jejuni in rectal swab samples from rousettus amplexicaudatus in the philippines.bats are the second diversity species of mammals and widely distributed in the world. they are thought to be reservoir and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. however, there is scarce report of the evidence of pathogenic bacteria kept in bats. the precise knowledge of the pathogenic bacteria in bat microbiota is important for zoonosis control. thus, metagenomic analysis targeting the v3-v4 region of the 16s rrna of the rectal microbiota in rousettus amplexicaudatus was performed using high throughput ...201627109214
protein chips for detection of salmonella spp. from enrichment pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. a pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. molecular methods such as qpcr have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. forty ml of ...201627110786
in silico analysis of the cadf gene and development of a duplex polymerase chain reaction for species-specific identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by campylobacter jejuni and c. coli. the cadf gene is considered as a genus-specific gene while other genes are mainly used for discrimination at the species level.201627127589
l-fucose influences chemotaxis and biofilm formation in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are zoonotic pathogens once considered asaccharolytic, but are now known to encode pathways for glucose and fucose uptake/metabolism. for c. jejuni, strains with the fuc locus possess a competitive advantage in animal colonization models. we demonstrate that this locus is present in > 50% of genome-sequenced strains and is prevalent in livestock-associated isolates of both species. to better understand how these campylobacters sense nutrient availabili ...201627145048
functional genomics in campylobacter coli identified a novel streptomycin resistance gene located in a hypervariable genomic region.numerous aminoglycoside resistance genes have been reported in campylobacter spp. often resembling those from gram-positive bacterial species and located in transferable genetic elements with other resistance genes. we discovered a new streptomycin (str) resistance gene in campylobactercoli showing 27-34 % amino acid identity to aminoglycoside 6-nucleotidyl-transferases described previously in campylobacter. str resistance was verified by gene expression and insertional inactivation. this ant-li ...201627154456
potential use of fosfomycin-tromethamine for treatment of recurrent campylobacter species enteritis.we report 2 cases of recurrent campylobacter coli enteritis caused by macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in 2 patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, successfully treated with a prolonged course of fosfomycin-tromethamine with no side effects. fosfomycin-tromethamine may be a feasible alternative therapy for recurrent enteritis caused by campylobacter species resistant to first-line drugs.201627161640
bacteria in an intense competition for iron: key component of the campylobacter jejuni iron uptake system scavenges enterobactin hydrolysis acquire essential fe(iii), bacteria produce and secrete siderophores with high affinity and selectivity for fe(iii) to mediate its uptake into the cell. here, we show that the periplasmic binding protein ceue of campylobacter jejuni, which was previously thought to bind the fe(iii) complex of the hexadentate siderophore enterobactin (kd ∼ 0.4 ± 0.1 µm), preferentially binds the fe(iii) complex of the tetradentate enterobactin hydrolysis product bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-l-ser) (h5-bisdhbs) (kd ...201627162326
genotyping and antibiotic resistance of thermophilic campylobacter isolated from chicken and pig meat in vietnam.campylobacter species are recognized as the most common cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. in this study nine campylobacter strains isolated from chicken meat and pork in hanoi, vietnam, were characterized using molecular methods and tested for antibiotic resistance.201627175218
multilocus sequence typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from poultry, cattle and humans in determine the genetic diversity of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from nigeria and to identify the association between multilocus sequence types and hosts (poultry, cattle and humans).201627206561
molecular epidemiology of campylobacter coli strains isolated from different sources in new zealand between 2005 and 2014.campylobacteriosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases worldwide and a significant health burden in new zealand. campylobacter jejuni is the predominant species worldwide, accounting for approximately 90% of human cases, followed by campylobacter coli most studies in new zealand have focused on c. jejuni; hence, the impact of c. coli strains on human health is not well understood. the aim of this study was to genotype c. coli isolates collected in the manawatu region of new zealand f ...201627208097
evidence of avian and possum fecal contamination in rainwater tanks as determined by microbial source tracking approaches.avian and possum fecal droppings may negatively impact roof-harvested rainwater (rhrw) water quality due to the presence of zoonotic pathogens. this study was aimed at evaluating the performance characteristics of a possum feces-associated (psm) marker by screening 210 fecal and wastewater samples from possums (n = 20) and a range of nonpossum hosts (n = 190) in southeast queensland, australia. the host sensitivity and specificity of the psm marker were 0.90 and 0.95 (maximum value, 1.00), respe ...201627208100
an overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the caribbean region.foodborne diseases (fbds) in the caribbean have a high economic burden. public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. salmonella spp., shigella spp., and campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. in spite of undertaking limited surveillance on fbd in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significanc ...201627215411
whole-genome sequencing of a campylobacter jejuni strain isolated from retail chicken meat reveals the presence of a megaplasmid with mu-like prophage and multidrug resistance genes.genome sequencing of campylobacter jejuni strain t1-21 isolated from retail chicken meat revealed the presence of a chromosome of 1,565,978 bp and a megaplasmid of 82,732 bp that contains mu-like prophage and multidrug resistance genes. this is the first reported sequence of a campylobacter megaplasmid >55 kb.201627231378
evaluation of various campylobacter-specific quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays for detection and enumeration of campylobacteraceae in irrigation water and wastewater via a miniaturized most-probable-number-qpcr assay.campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and water is increasingly seen as a risk factor in transmission. here we describe a most-probable-number (mpn)-quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay in which water samples are centrifuged and aliquoted into microtiter plates and the bacteria are enumerated by qpcr. we observed that commonly used campylobacter molecular assays produced vastly different detection rates. in irrigation water samples, detection rates varied depe ...201627235434
campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mccda and campy-cefex agar.campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. the aim of this study was to evaluate the united states department of agriculture's (usda) recommended methodology, protocol mlg 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. a plating method using both mccda and campy-cefex agars is recommended to recover campylobacter cells. it i ...201627237112
quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. the contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with campylobacter is largely unknown. in the netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosi ...201627244295
optimized cultivation of campylobacter concisus from gut mucosal biopsies in inflammatory bowel disease.campylobacter concisus is a commensal of the human oral flora that has been linked to prolonged diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). it has been detected more often from intestinal biopsies in patients with ibd compared to healthy controls using pcr-based techniques, whereas the number of c. concisus culture-positive biopsies in previous studies has been very limited. determining the rate of viable isolates present in the gut mucosa is of great importance when evaluating the role in di ...201627252786
genome sequencing and annotation of a campylobacter coli strain isolated from milk with multidrug the most prevalent bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis, food-borne campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health. whole genome sequencing (wgs) is a tool providing quick and inexpensive approaches for analysis of food-borne pathogen epidemics. here we report the wgs and annotation of a campylobacter coli strain, fnw20g12, which was isolated from milk in the united states in 1997 and carries multidrug resistance. the draft genome of fnw20g12 (ddbj/ena/genbank accession n ...201627257607
novel immunomodulatory flagellin-like protein flac in campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacterales.the human diarrheal pathogens campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli interfere with host innate immune signaling by different means, and their flagellins, flaa and flab, have a low intrinsic property to activate the innate immune receptor toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5). we have investigated here the hypothesis that the unusual secreted, flagellin-like molecule flac present in c. jejuni, c. coli, and other campylobacterales might activate cells via tlr5 and interact with tlr5. flac shows striki ...201527303676
novel immunomodulatory flagellin-like protein flac in campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacterales.the human diarrheal pathogens campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli interfere with host innate immune signaling by different means, and their flagellins, flaa and flab, have a low intrinsic property to activate the innate immune receptor toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5). we have investigated here the hypothesis that the unusual secreted, flagellin-like molecule flac present in c. jejuni, c. coli, and other campylobacterales might activate cells via tlr5 and interact with tlr5. flac shows striki ...201527303676
evaluation of a multiplex real-time pcr assay for detecting major bacterial enteric pathogens in fecal specimens: intestinal inflammation and bacterial load are correlated in campylobacter infections.a total of 1,056 native or cary-blair-preserved stool specimens were simultaneously tested by conventional stool culturing and by enteric bacterial panel (ebp) multiplex real-time pcr for campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, salmonella spp., and shigellosis disease-causing agents (shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli [eiec]). overall, 143 (13.5%) specimens tested positive by pcr for the targets named above; 3 coinfections and 109 (10.4%) campylobacter spp., 17 (1.6%) salmonella ...201627307458
monitoring antimicrobial resistance in the food supply chain and its implications for fda policy response to concerning increases in antimicrobial resistance (amr), the food and drug administration (fda) has decided to increase veterinary oversight requirements for antimicrobials and restrict their use in growth promotion. given the high stakes of this policy for the food supply, economy, and human and veterinary health, it is important to rigorously assess the effects of this policy. we have undertaken a detailed analysis of data provided by the national antimicrobial resistance monitor ...201627324772
comparative genomics of campylobacter fetus from reptiles and mammals reveals divergent evolution in host-associated lineages.campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and c fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas c fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. both c. fetus subsp. testudinum and c. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. to study t ...201627333878
optimization of quantitative pcr methods for enteropathogen detection.detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. first, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized ...201627336160
clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of campylobacter.genus campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. human campylobacter infections have caused more concern. campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. the major zoonotic species are campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing hum ...201627350611
campylobacter species and neutrophilic inflammatory bowel disease in cats.inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) is a common cause of signs of gastrointestinal disease in cats. a subset of cats with ibd has neutrophilic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.201627362482
influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.investigating campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of campylobacter strains. in the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mccda, karmali, butzler no. 2 and campyfood agar (cfa)) for the detection of campylobacter positive samples and the identification of campylobacter species, from naturally contam ...201627373751
evaluation of a protective effect of in ovo delivered campylobacter jejuni omvs.campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of a food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world, with poultry being the main source of infection. campylobacter jejuni, like other gram-negative bacteria, constitutively releases outer membrane vesicles (omvs). omvs are highly immunogenic, can be taken up by mammalian cells, and are easily modifiable by recombinant engineering. we have tested their usefulness for an oral (in ovo) vaccination of chickens. four groups of 18-day-old chicken em ...201627383607
identification of novel vaccine candidates against campylobacter through reverse vaccinology.campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the european union. human cases are mainly due to campylobacter jejuni or campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. in fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. a promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. poultry vaccination is of potential for this p ...201627413761
seroprevalence of campylobacter-specific antibodies in two german duck farms - a prospective follow-up study.several studies have shown that about 60-100% of farmed ducks are colonized by campylobacter species. because of this, a higher risk of campylobacteriosis among duck farm workers can be assumed. to estimate the risk of campylobacter infections in duck farm workers, we investigated the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in ducks of two duck farms and the seroprevalence of anti-campylobacter antibodies (iga and igg) in two cohorts of workers. the first cohort consisted of high-exposed stable workers ...201627429794
a detailed protocol to enable safe-handling, preemptive detection, and systematic surveillance of rat-vectored pathogens in the urban environment.we detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. new york city potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8-million people. however, at a time, when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. challen ...201627471725
large sequence diversity within the biosynthesis locus and common biochemical features of campylobacter coli lipooligosaccharides.despite the importance of lipooligosaccharides (loss) in the pathogenicity of campylobacteriosis, little is known about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of los in campylobacter coli in this study, we investigated the distribution of los locus classes among a large collection of unrelated c. coli isolates sampled from several different host species. furthermore, we paired c. coli genomic information and los chemical composition for the first time to investigate possible associations between l ...201627481928
simultaneous identification of 13 foodborne pathogens by using capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism coupled with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and its application in foods.capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism (ce-sscp) coupled with stuffer-free multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (mlpa) was developed to identify 13 species of foodborne pathogens simultaneously. species-specific mlpa probes were designed for nine of these species. these probes were targeted to the groel, glya, mms, tuf, inv, ipah, nuc, vvh, and 16s rrna genes, which corresponded to bacillus cereus, campylobacter coli, cronobacter sakazakii, enterococcus spp ...201627494415
mosaic tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins.first reported in 2003, mosaic tetracycline resistance genes are a subgroup of the genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins (rpps). they are formed when two or more rpp-encoding genes recombine resulting in a functional chimera. to date, the majority of mosaic genes are derived from sections of three rpp genes, tet(o), tet(w) and tet(32), with others comprising tet(m) and tet(s). in this first review of mosaic genes, we report on their structure, diversity and prevalence, and suggest that th ...201627494928
comparison of statistical algorithms for the detection of infectious disease outbreaks in large multiple surveillance systems.a large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in england and wales since the early 1990s. changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. the time series of each disease is sep ...201627513749
infection with multidrug-resistant campylobacter coli mimicking recurrence of carcinoid syndrome: a case report of a neuroendocrine tumor patient with repeated diarrhea.campylobacteriosis caused by gram-negative bacteria of the genus campylobacter (mainly c. jejuni and c. coli) is one of the most common gastrointestinal zoonotic infections with increased incidence in humans worldwide. the typical symptoms are severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea and sometimes fever. the clinical course of campylobacter infection is mainly mild and after one week self-limiting, but can take several weeks in some rare cases. however, patients with neuroendocrine tumors in the gastro ...201627519265
evaluation of a microfluidic chip system for preparation of bacterial dna from swabs, air, and surface water samples.the detection of bacterial pathogens from complex sample matrices by pcr requires efficient dna extraction. in this study, a protocol for extraction and purification of dna from swabs, air, and water samples using a microfluidic chip system was established. the optimized protocol includes a combination of thermal, chemical and enzymatic lysis followed by chip-based dna purification using magnetic particles. the procedure was tested using gram-positive bacillus thuringiensis berliner var. kurstak ...201627520284
multidrug-resistant campylobacter coli in men who have sex with men, quebec, canada, 2015. 201627533504
whole-genome sequences of agricultural, host-associated campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni strains.we report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant campylobacter spp.: c. coli 11601 and c. jejuni 11601md, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and c. coli 6067 and c. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. the genomes provide insights on campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations.201627540063
multiplex pcr assay for identifi cation and differentiation of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates.campylobacter spp. are important causative agents of gastrointestinal infections in humans. the most frequently isolated strains of this bacterial genus are campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. to date, genetic methods for bacterial identification have not been used in bulgaria. we optimized the multiplex psr assay to identify campylobacter spp. and differentiate c. jejuni from c. coli in clinical isolates. we also compared this method with the routinely used biochemical methods.201727552785
campylobacter pouchitis mimicking the appearance of crohn's unusual case of campylobacter pouchitis resembling the endoscopic appearance of crohn's disease is reported.201627555972
antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolates from small scale and backyard chicken in kenya.thermophilic campylobacter species are a major cause of bacterial foodborne diarrhoea in humans worldwide. poultry and their products are the predominant source for human campylobacteriosis. resistance of campylobacter to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, but little is known about the antibiotic resistance in campylobacter isolated from chicken in kenya. in this study, 35 suspected campylobacter strains isolated from faeces and cloacal swabs of chicken were tested for their susceptibility to ...201627570543
macrolide resistance mechanisms and virulence factors in erythromycin-resistant campylobacter species isolated from chicken and swine feces and carcasses.resistance to antimicrobials was measured in 73 isolates of campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni) and 121 isolates of campylobacter coli (c. coli) from chicken and swine feces and carcasses in korea. both bacterial species showed the highest resistance to (fluoro) quinolones (ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid) out of the nine antimicrobials tested. erythromycin resistance was much higher in c. coli (19.0%, 23/121) than in c. jejuni (6.8%, 5/73). the mutation in the 23s rrna gene was primarily responsi ...201727593510
point mutations in the major outer membrane protein drive hypervirulence of a rapidly expanding clone of campylobacter jejuni.infections due to clonal expansion of highly virulent bacterial strains are clear and present threats to human and animal health. association of genetic changes with disease is now a routine, but identification of causative mutations that enable disease remains difficult. campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans mainly via the foodborne route. c. jejuni typically colonizes the gut, but a hypervirulent and rapidly expanding clone of c. jejuni recently emerged, ...201627601641
sensitivity to enterocins of thermophilic campylobacter spp. from different poultry species.campylobacter spp. have been isolated from various animals, including poultry. they are rapidly transmitted throughout broiler sheds by the fecal-oral route. a promising strategy to reduce campylobacter spp. in poultry may be done due to the beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria and their bacteriocins. in this study, inhibition spectrum/activity of different enterocins was evaluated against campylobacter spp. (isolated from different poultry) to indicate further practical use of enterocins ...201627602434
non-alcoholic fatty liver and the gut microbiota.non-alcoholic fatty liver (nafld) is a common, multi-factorial, and poorly understood liver disease whose incidence is globally rising. nafld is generally asymptomatic and associated with other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. yet, up to 25% of nafld patients develop a progressive inflammatory liver disease termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (nash) that may progress towards cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the need for liver transplantation. in recent years, several lines of e ...201627617201
novel methyltransferase recognition motif identified in chania multitudinisentens rb-25(t) gen. nov., sp. nov. 201627630623
complete genome sequences of the plasmid-bearing campylobacter coli strains hc2-48, cf2-75, and co2-160 isolated from retail beef liver.the complete genome sequences of campylobacter coli strains hc2-48, cf2-75, and co2-160, isolated from retail beef liver, showed the presence of 1,663,782-, 1,711,393-, and 1,683,224-bp circular chromosomes and 44,064-, 44,233-, and 44,228-bp circular plasmids, respectively. this is the first reported campylobacter coli genome sequence isolated from retail beef liver.201627635012
emergence of a potent multidrug efflux pump variant that enhances campylobacter resistance to multiple antibiotics.bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of "super" efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named re-cmeabc) of the predominant efflux pump cmeabc in campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibi ...201627651364
the outer membrane phospholipase a is essential for membrane integrity and type iii secretion in shigella flexneri.outer membrane phospholipase a (ompla) is an enzyme located in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. ompla exhibits broad substrate specificity, and some of its substrates are located in the cellular envelope. generally, the enzymatic activity can only be induced by perturbation of the cell envelope integrity through diverse methods. although ompla has been thoroughly studied as a membrane protein in escherichia coli and is constitutively expressed in many other bacterial pathogens, litt ...201627655730
cross-talk between the aeromonas hydrophila type iii secretion system and lateral flagella system.aeromonas hydrophila is responsible for aeromonad septicaemia in fish, and gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. the type iii secretion system (t3ss) is utilized by aeromonads to inject protein effectors directly into host cells. one of the major genetic regulators of the t3ss in several bacterial species is the arac-like protein exsa. previous studies have suggested a link between t3ss regulation and lateral flagella expression. the aim of this study was to determine the genetic regul ...201627656180
ethyl pyruvate: an anti-microbial agent that selectively targets pathobionts and biofilms.the microbiota has a strong influence on health and disease in humans. a causative shift favoring pathobionts is strongly linked to diseases. therefore, anti-microbial agents selectively targeting potential pathogens as well as their biofilms are urgently demanded. here we demonstrate the impact of ethyl pyruvate, so far known as ros scavenger and anti-inflammatory agent, on planktonic microbes and biofilms. ethyl pyruvate combats preferably the growth of pathobionts belonging to bacteria and fu ...201627658257
extraction of total nucleic acids from bacterial isolates using the biomérieux nuclisens easymag total nucleic acid extractor.the biomerieux nuclisens easymag total nucleic acid extractor was evaluated for use on bacterial isolates in the clinical microbiology laboratory. forty eight isolates were extracted, yielding quantifiable amounts of dna for all isolates. the easymag is appropriate for dna extraction from bacterial isolates and will be incorporated in the clinical laboratory.201627658494
functional metagenomics of spacecraft assembly cleanrooms: presence of virulence factors associated with human pathogens.strict planetary protection practices are implemented during spacecraft assembly to prevent inadvertent transfer of earth microorganisms to other planetary bodies. therefore, spacecraft are assembled in cleanrooms, which undergo strict cleaning and decontamination procedures to reduce total microbial bioburden. we wanted to evaluate if these practices selectively favor survival and growth of hardy microorganisms, such as pathogens. three geographically distinct cleanrooms were sampled during the ...201627667984
polyphosphate and associated enzymes as global regulators of stress response and virulence in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni), a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium, is a predominant cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. despite its importance as a major foodborne pathogen, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying c. jejuni stress survival and pathogenesis is limited. inorganic polyphosphate (poly p) has been shown to play significant roles in bacterial resistance to stress and virulence in many pathogenic bacteria. c. jejuni contains the ...201627672264
quantification of growth of campylobacter and extended spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria sheds light on black box of enrichment procedures.campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, and is routinely found in meat originating from poultry, sheep, pigs, and cattle. effective monitoring of campylobacter contamination is dependent on the availability of reliable detection methods. the method of the international organization for standardization for the detection of campylobacter spp. in food (iso 10272-1:2006) recommends the use of bolton broth (bb) as selective enrichment ...201627672384
momp from campylobacter jejuni is a trimer of 18-stranded β-barrel monomers with a ca(2+) ion bound at the constriction zone.the gram-negative organism campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of food poisoning. unlike escherichia coli, which has two major porins, ompc and ompf, c. jejuni has one, termed major outer membrane protein (momp) through which nutrients and antibiotics transit. we report the 2.1-å crystal structure of c. jejuni momp expressed in e. coli and a lower resolution but otherwise identical structure purified directly from c. jejuni. the 2.1-å resolution structure of recombinant momp showed that alth ...201627693650
production of the bioactive compounds violacein and indolmycin is conditional in a maea mutant of pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea s4054 lacking the malic has previously been reported that some strains of the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea produce the purple bioactive pigment violacein as well as the antibiotic compound indolmycin, hitherto only found in streptomyces. the purpose of the present study was to determine the relative role of each of these two compounds as antibacterial compounds in p. luteoviolacea s4054. using tn10 transposon mutagenesis, a mutant strain that was significantly reduced in violacein production in m ...201627695447
persistence and potential viable but non-culturable state of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates from agricultural biogas plants.despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (salmonella enterica derby, campylobacter coli and listeria monocytogenes) in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. nine samples, including raw digestates, liq ...201627695451
[multilocus sequence typing analysis of human campylobacter coli in granada (spain)].different subtypes of campylobacter spp. have been associated with diarrhoea and a multilocus sequence typing (mlst) method has been performed for subtyping. in the present work, mlst was used to analyse the genetic diversity of eight strains of campylobacter coli.201627701619
exploiting bacterial whole-genome sequencing data for evaluation of diagnostic assays: campylobacter species identification as a case study.the application of whole-genome sequencing (wgs) to problems in clinical microbiology has had a major impact on the field. clinical laboratories are now using wgs for pathogen identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and epidemiological typing. wgs data also represent a valuable resource for the development and evaluation of molecular diagnostic assays, which continue to play an important role in clinical microbiology. to demonstrate this application of wgs, this study used publicly ...201627733632
use of direct lamp screening of broiler fecal samples for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in the positive flock identification strategy.rapid identification of campylobacter-positive flocks before slaughter, following freezing and heat treatment for the campylobacter-positive carcasses at the slaughterhouses is an effective control strategy against foodborne campylobacteriosis. we evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the direct screening of naturally contaminated chicken cloacal swabs for c. jejuni/c. coli to compare this assay with conventional quantitative culture methods. in a comparison study o ...201627746777
a direct-sensing galactose chemoreceptor recently evolved in invasive strains of campylobacter jejuni.a rare chemotaxis receptor, tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of c. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. the inactivated mutant displays reduced ...201627762269
association of campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni chemotaxis receptor genes with multilocus sequence types and source of isolation.campylobacter jejuni's flagellar locomotion is controlled by eleven chemoreceptors. assessment of the distribution of the relevant chemoreceptor genes in the c. jejuni genomes deposited in the national center for biotechnology information (ncbi) database led to the identification of two previously unknown tlp genes and a tlp5 pseudogene. these two chemoreceptor genes share the same locus in the c. jejuni genome with tlp4 and tlp11, but the gene region encoding the periplasmic ligand binding doma ...201627766165
occurrence and genotypes of campylobacter species in broilers during the rearing period.poultry are the main source of campylobacter infection worldwide. to obtain information on campylobacter-infected flocks and create a reference for preventing and controlling campylobacter at farm level, campylobacter isolates were recovered from broilers and the environments of nine chicken flocks in two farms during growth. the genetic relationship between the campylobacter isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing. flocks were colonized as early as 3 weeks after introduction to ...201727766896
sensitivity of direct culture, enrichment and pcr for detection of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli in broiler flocks at slaughter.broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. accurate estimates of the prevalence of both c. coli and c. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. this study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and pcr) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. a parallel interpretation approa ...201627770505
complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant campylobacter jejuni strain 14980a (turkey feces) and campylobacter coli strain 14983a (housefly from a turkey farm), harboring a novel gentamicin resistance mobile element.multidrug resistance (mdr) in foodborne pathogens is a major food safety and public health issue. here we describe whole-genome sequences of two mdr strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from turkey feces and a housefly from a turkey farm. both strains harbor a novel chromosomal gentamicin resistance mobile element.201627795285
high rates of contamination of poultry meat products with drug resistant campylobacter in metro manila, philippines.a total of 265 chicken parts were collected from 15 wet markets and 15 supermarkets in metro manila, philippines. campylobacter spp. was isolated on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar plates and identified through biochemical tests and pcr amplification of genus and species specific genes. antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined following clinical and laboratory standards institute protocols. two hundred seven (78%) campylobacter spp. were isolated. c. jejuni and c. coli ...201627795478
molecular epidemiology, virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter spreading in retail chicken meat in central china.campylobacter species are the major food-borne pathogens which could cause bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. contaminated chicken products have been recognized as the primary vehicles of campylobacter transmission to human beings. in this study, the prevalence of campylobacter in retail chicken meat in central china was investigated, and the isolates were further characterized using molecular approaches and tested for antibiotic resistance.201627800028
occurrence of thermotolerant campylobacter in raw poultry meat, environmental and pigeon stools collected in open-air markets.campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis for confirmed human cases in european union during 2011. poultry meat was very often implicated in campylobacter infections in humans. in italy commerce of raw poultry meat is common in open-air markets: these areas can be considered at high risk of bacterial contamination due to the high presence birds like pigeons. the aim of this study was to collect data about the contamination by thermotolerant campylobacter of raw poultry meat comm ...201427800355
the risk of some veterinary antimicrobial agents on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance and their molecular basis.the risk of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance continues to be a current topic of discussion as related to animal and human public health. in the present review, resistance monitoring data, and risk assessment results of some important antimicrobial agents were cited to elucidate the possible association of antimicrobial use in food animals and antimicrobial resistance in humans. from the selected examples, it was apparen ...201627803693
new weapons to fight old enemies: novel strategies for the (bio)control of bacterial biofilms in the food industry.biofilms are microbial communities characterized by their adhesion to solid surfaces and the production of a matrix of exopolymeric substances, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, dna and lipids, which surround the microorganisms lending structural integrity and a unique biochemical profile to the biofilm. biofilm formation enhances the ability of the producer/s to persist in a given environment. pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species capable of forming biofilms are a significant problem ...201627803696
pfge genotyping and molecular characterization of campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken meat.a total of 70 samples were collected from chicken meat obtained from 10 markets in tehran, iran from which 39 campylobacter coli were isolated. among 10 antibiotics used, maximum resistance was seen to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (sxt) (97.36%), nalidixic acid (94.8%), ciprofloxacin (87.7%), streptomycin (89.72%), and tetracycline (97.4%). no resistance was to gentamycin was observed. none of the campylobacter strains under study harbored integron, suggesting the involvement of other resistan ...201627822247
a new lab developed real time pcr assay for direct detection of c. difficle from stool sample without dna extraction.clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. detection of c. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (eia). however, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool eia, we developed a multiplex real-time pcr assay targeting the c. difficile toxin genes tcdb. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having c. difficile-a ...201627829823
development of a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for rapid and simultaneous identification of common foodborne pathogens in soft cheese.dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., campylobacter spp., salmonella spp., listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli) arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. we wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddpcr) involving eight individual taqman™ reactions to detect ...201627840628
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products.this study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of qena, egypt, for the presence of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni.201627847427
antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from broilers in live bird markets in shanghai, china.this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter spp. isolates from broilers in live bird markets (lbms). a total of 209 campylobacter spp. isolates (84 campylobacter jejuni; 125 campylobacter coli) were recovered from 364 broiler cecum samples collected from five lbms in shanghai, china. minimum inhibitory concentrations of 13 antimicrobials were determined using agar dilution method. more than 96% of the campylobacter spp. isolates were resistan ...201727854542
prevalence of enteropathogens in dogs attending 3 regional dog parks in northern california.the prevalence and risk factors for infection with enteropathogens in dogs frequenting dog parks have been poorly documented, and infected dogs can pose a potential zoonotic risk for owners.201627859745
isolation of campylobacter spp. from client-owned dogs and cats, and retail raw meat pet food in the manawatu, new zealand.campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. the disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on new zealand pets are limited. this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food ...201627860343
epidemiology and rapd-pcr typing of thermophilic campylobacters from children under five years and chickens in morogoro municipality, tanzania.campylobacter species are gram negative and flagellated bacteria under the genus campylobacter, family campylobacteriaceae. these pathogens cause zoonotic infections among human and animal populations. this study was undertaken between december 2006 and may 2007 to determine prevalence, risk factors and genetic diversity of thermophilic campylobacter isolates from children less than 5 years and chickens in morogoro municipality, tanzania.201627871251
prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of thermophilic campylobacter spp. of slaughtered cattle and sheep in shiraz, iranalthough poultry meat is considered as the main source for human campylobacter infections, there is limited information about non-poultry sources. the present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in fecal samples of the cattle and sheep in shiraz, iran. a total of 302 fecal samples were obtained from clinically healthy, slaughtered cattle and sheep from shiraz slaughterhouse. the animals were clinically healthy before bein ...201627872721
bibliometric analysis of publications on campylobacter: (2000-2015).campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. in order to better understand national and international research output on campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on campylobacter. this study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global ...201627899145
methylome analysis of two xanthomonas spp. using single-molecule real-time sequencing.single-molecule real-time (smrt) sequencing allows identification of methylated dna bases and methylation patterns/motifs at the genome level. using smrt sequencing, diverse bacterial methylomes including those of helicobacter pylori, lactobacillus spp., and escherichia coli have been determined, and previously unreported dna methylation motifs have been identified. however, the methylomes of xanthomonas species, which belong to the most important plant pathogenic bacterial genus, have not been ...201627904456
genomic variations leading to alterations in cell morphology of campylobacter spp.campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease, is normally helical. however, it can also adopt straight rod, elongated helical and coccoid forms. studying how helical morphology is generated, and how it switches between its different forms, is an important objective for understanding this pathogen. here, we aimed to determine the genetic factors involved in generating the helical shape of campylobacter. a c. jejuni transposon (tn) mutant library was screened for non ...201627910897
identification of a campylobacter coli methyltransferase targeting adenines at gatc sites.campylobacter coli can infect humans and colonize multiple other animals but its host-associated genes or adaptations are poorly understood. adenine methylation at gatc sites, resulting in mboi resistance of genomic dna, was earlier frequently detected among c. coli from swine but not among turkey-derived isolates. the underlying genetic basis has remained unknown. comparative genome sequence analyses of c. coli 6461, a swine-derived strain with mboi-resistant dna, revealed two chromosomal orfs, ...201627915251
advances and challenges in viability detection of foodborne pathogens.foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. there is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (pcr), sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. among mo ...201627920757
glucose metabolism via the entner-doudoroff pathway in campylobacter: a rare trait that enhances survival and promotes biofilm formation in some isolates.isolates of the zoonotic pathogen campylobacter are generally considered to be unable to metabolize glucose due to lack of key glycolytic enzymes. however, the entner-doudoroff (ed) pathway has been identified in campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei and a few c. coli isolates. a systematic search for ed pathway genes in a wide range of campylobacter isolates and in the c. jejuni/coli pubmlst database revealed that 1.7% of >6,000 genomes encoded a complete ed pathway, including both c. jejuni and c ...201627920773
a current overview of commercially available nucleic acid diagnostics approaches to detect and identify human gastroenteritis pathogens.gastroenteritis is caused by a wide range of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens and causes millions of deaths worldwide each year, particularly in infant populations in developing countries. traditional microbiological culture and immunological based tests are time consuming, laborious and often lack diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. as a result patients can receive suboptimal and/or inappropriate antimicrobial treatment. in recent years, rapid nucleic acid diagnostics (nad) technolo ...201427920992
systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the helicobacter pylori cagl protein of the cag type iv secretion system identifies novel functional domains.the cag type iv secretion system, which contributes to inflammation and cancerogenesis during chronic infection, is one of the major virulence factors of the bacterial gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori. we have generated and characterized a series of non-marked site-directed chromosomal mutants in h. pylori to define domains of unknown function of the essential tip protein cagl of the cag secretion system. characterizing the cagl mutants, we determined that their function to activate cells an ...201627922023
restriction glycosylases: involvement of endonuclease activities in the restriction process.all restriction enzymes examined are phosphodiesterases generating 3'-oh and 5'-p ends, but one restriction enzyme (restriction glycosylase) excises unmethylated bases from its recognition sequence. whether its restriction activity involves endonucleolytic cleavage remains unclear. one report on this enzyme, r.pabi from a hyperthermophile, ascribed the breakage to high temperature while another showed its weak ap lyase activity generates atypical ends. here, we addressed this issue in mesophiles ...201627980098
bacteriophage-based tools: recent advances and novel applications.bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect bacterial hosts, and since their discovery over a century ago they have been primarily exploited to control bacterial populations and to serve as tools in molecular biology. in this commentary, we highlight recent diverse advances in the field of phage research, going beyond bacterial control using whole phage, to areas including biocontrol using phage-derived enzybiotics, diagnostics, drug discovery, novel drug delivery systems and bionanotechnolo ...201627990274
first case report of myopericarditis linked to campylobacter coli enterocolitis.campylobacter spp. are a common cause of mostly self-limiting enterocolitis. although rare, pericarditis and myopericarditis have been increasingly documented as complications following campylobacteriosis. such cases have occurred predominantly in younger males, and involved a single causative species, namely campylobacter jejuni. we report the first case of myopericarditis following campylobacter coli enterocolitis, with illness occurring in an immunocompetent middle-aged female.201728056838
campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern italy.avian species are considered as the main reservoir of campylobacter spp. however, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. this study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern italy. faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. a total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for campylobacte ...201728061877
prevalence of thermotolerant campylobacter spp. in chicken meat in croatia and multilocus sequence typing of a small subset of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli order to detect thermotolerant campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86%. campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35% of the samples, respectively. in 4.98% of isolates thermotolerant campylobacter spp. were n ...201628115906
activity of fosfomycin on clinical isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli of enteric origin. 201728119317
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