PMID(sorted descending)
analysis of the human population bitten by ixodes scapularis ticks in quebec, canada: increasing risk of lyme disease.ixodes scapularis, the main vector of borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of lyme disease, is expanding its range in southern canada and bringing risk to the public from lyme disease. the aims of this study were to (i) describe how risk of lyme disease in quebec, canada, has changed from 2008 to 2014 by analysis of the number of tick submissions, the geographic scope of ticks submitted and the prevalence of b. burgdorferi in ticks removed from people and submitted through the quebec pass ...201627650641
genome-wide survey and phylogeny of s-ribosylhomocysteinase (luxs) enzyme in bacterial genomes.the study of survival and communication of pathogenic bacteria is important to combat diseases caused by such micro-organisms. bacterial cells communicate with each other using a density-dependent cell-cell communication process called quorum sensing (qs). luxs protein is an important member of interspecies quorum-sensing system, involved in the biosynthesis of autoinducer-2 (ai-2), and has been identified as a drug target. despite the above mentioned significance, their evolution has not been f ...201627650568
lyme disease. 201627650153
socio-economic characteristics in notified erythema migrans patients.lyme borreliosis disease results from infection by members of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. the most common clinical presentation of lyme borreliosis is erythema migrans (em). to gain knowledge of the epidemiological parameters and the risk factors of em in slovenia, a survey has been carried out in 2010.201527647412
a general pediatrics and integrative medicine approach to pervasive refusal syndrome: a case report.pervasive refusal syndrome (prs) describes children with social withdrawal who become unable to walk, eat, or care for themselves. this case report examines whether an integrative medicine approach is useful for treating prs.201627644046
personalized medicine: evidence of normativity in its quantitative definition of medicine, which is based on computational modelling of biological systems, is emerging as an increasingly prominent part of the personalized medicine movement. it is often promoted as 'p4 medicine' (predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory). in this article, we test promises made by some of its proponents that systems medicine will be able to develop a scientific, quantitative metric for wellness that will eliminate the purported vagueness, ambiguity, and incompleteness-th ...201627638683
ehrlichia sp. infection in carthorses of low-income owners, southern brazil.although well established in dogs, ehrlichia sp. infection has been scarcely reported in horses. the aim was to perform a comprehensive serological and molecular survey for the detection of ehrlichia spp. in carthorses from southern brazil. blood samples from 190 carthorses from paraná state were sampled. horses were also tested for borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum. anti-ehrlichia sp. antibodies were detected by a commercial rapid elisa, and immunofluorescence antibody assays ( ...201627638113
autoimmune arthritides, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or peripheral spondyloarthritis following lyme describe systemic autoimmune joint diseases that develop following lyme disease, and to compare their clinical features with those of lyme arthritis (la).201727636905
lyme disease presenting with multiple cranial nerve deficits: report of a case.lyme disease is a tick-transmitted multisystem inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. with more than 25,000 cdc reported cases annually, it has become the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. we report a case of 38-year-old man with lyme disease presenting with simultaneous palsy of 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.201627635267
intravascular large b-cell lymphoma associated with silicone breast implant, hla-drb1*11:01, and hla-dqb1*03:01 manifesting as macrophage activation syndrome and with severe neurological symptoms: a case report.silicone implants have been successfully used for breast augmentation and reconstruction in millions of women worldwide. the reaction to the silicone implant is highly variable; it can lead to local inflammatory symptoms, and sometimes to systemic symptoms and disease. over 80 cases of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma have been reported in patients with silicone breast implants and have been accepted as a new clinical entity. to the best of our knowledge, an int ...201627634631
recurrent evolution of host and vector association in bacteria of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex.the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) species complex consists of tick-transmitted bacteria and currently comprises approximately 20 named and proposed genospecies some of which are known to cause lyme borreliosis. species have been defined via genetic distances and ecological niches they occupy. understanding the evolutionary relationship of species of the complex is fundamental to explaining patterns of speciation. this in turn forms a crucial basis to frame testable hypotheses concerning ...201627632983
long-term study of the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in ticks (ixodes ricinus) feeding on blackbirds (turdus merula) in ne poland.seeking evidence to confirm that blackbirds (turdus merula) may be involved in environmental maintenance of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (the causative agent of lyme borreliosis), we conducted a long-term study over three separate 2-year periods, together embracing a span of almost 20 years, all in the same area in northeastern poland. we examined a total of 78 blackbirds and collected 623 ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on them. the tick infestation prevalence was found to be very high (89.7 %). amon ...201627631764
bilateral panuveitis associated with whipple disease - case describe a clinical case and literature review of whipple disease.201427625936
neuro-behçet, pseudotumor cerebri and ocular signs: a rare association.the central nervous system involvement in behçet's disease occurs in 5-30% of cases. the diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri is even rarer (only 22 cases reported worldwide).201327625934
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in synanthropic rodents in two rural communities of yucatán, méxico.lyme disease is a multisystemic zoonotic disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. this spirochete circulates in an enzootic cycle between the primary vertebrate reservoir and its tick vectors. different species of rodents are known to be efficient natural reservoirs for b. burgdorferi s.l.201627622631
identification of b-cell epitopes of borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein c by screening a phage-displayed gene fragment library.outer surface protein c (ospc) of borrelia stimulates remarkable immune responses during early infection and is therefore currently considered a leading diagnostic and vaccine candidate. the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests based on whole protein ospc for diagnosis of lyme disease are still unsatisfactory. minimal b-cell epitopes are key in the development of reliable immunodiagnostic tools. using ospc fragments displayed on phage particles (phage library) and anti-ospc antibodie ...201627619624
the modular nature of the β-barrel assembly machinery, illustrated in borrelia burgdorferi.diderm bacteria have an outer membrane that provides defense against environmental factors including antibiotics. understanding the process of outer membrane biogenesis is, therefore, of critical importance in order to envisage new treatments of these bacterial pathogens. borrelia burgdorferi is the pathogen responsible for lyme disease. its outer membrane contains integral, β-barrel proteins as well as swathes of externally exposed lipoproteins. previous work has demonstrated that the β-barrel ...201627618357
white matter diseases with radiologic-pathologic correlation.white matter diseases include a wide spectrum of disorders that have in common impairment of normal myelination, either by secondary destruction of previously myelinated structures (demyelinating processes) or by primary abnormalities of myelin formation (dysmyelinating processes). the pathogenesis of many white matter diseases remains poorly understood. demyelinating disorders are the object of this review and will be further divided into autoimmune, infectious, vascular, and toxic-metabolic pr ...201727618323
transition metals and virulence in bacteria.transition metals are required trace elements for all forms of life. due to their unique inorganic and redox properties, transition metals serve as cofactors for enzymes and other proteins. in bacterial pathogenesis, the vertebrate host represents a rich source of nutrient metals, and bacteria have evolved diverse metal acquisition strategies. host metal homeostasis changes dramatically in response to bacterial infections, including production of metal sequestering proteins and the bombardment o ...201627617971
specificity of mass spectrometry (maldi-tof) in the diagnosis of babesia canis regarding to other canine vector-borne diseases.the canine vector-borne diseases (cvbd) is a term, which describes a range of infectious or/and parasitic diseases whose etiological agents are transmitted by vectors. cvbd are becoming more widely in the world in relation to global warming and the increasing number of infected vectors. the aim of this study was to assess rapid mass spectrometry (ms) - based proteomics analyses for diagnosis of babesia canis, anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi infections in dogs. the study was co ...201727614473
lyme disease surveillance in new york state: an assessment of case underreporting.despite the mandatory nature of lyme disease (ld) reporting in new york state (nys), it is believed that only a fraction of the ld cases diagnosed annually are reported to public health authorities. lack of complete ld case reporting generally stems from (i) lack of report of provider-diagnosed cases where supportive laboratory testing is not ordered or results are negative (i.e. provider underreporting) and (ii) incomplete case information (clinical laboratory reporting only with no accompanyin ...201627612955
not all erythema migrans lesions are lyme disease.lyme disease is the number one arthropod-transmitted disease in the us, and one of the diagnostic criteria for the illness is development of an erythematous bull's-eye rash around a tick bite that may expand over time, hence the term erythema migrans. however, there are other erythema migrans-like rashes, such as those from a condition known as southern tick-associated rash illness. this article describes a patient with an erythema migrans-like lesion similar to that associated with lyme disease ...201727612442
in vivo imaging demonstrates that borrelia burgdorferi ospc is uniquely expressed temporally and spatially throughout experimental infection.borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochetal bacterium transmitted by the ixodes tick that causes lyme disease in humans due to its ability to evade the host immune response and disseminate to multiple immunoprotective tissues. the pathogen undergoes dynamic genetic alterations important for adaptation from the tick vector to the mammalian host, but little is known regarding the changes at the transcriptional level within the distal tissues they colonize. in this study, b. burgdorferi infection and gen ...201627611840
concomitant appearance of morphea and vitiligo in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis. 201627605907
expression profiles of toll-like receptors in the differentiation of an infection with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes.the similarity of lyme borreliosis to other diseases and its complex pathogenesis present diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. the changes that occur at the cellular and molecular levels after a borrelia sp. infection still remain poorly understood. therefore, the present study focused on the expression of tlr and tlr-signaling genes in human dermal fibroblasts in the differentiation of an infection with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes. normal human dermal fibroblasts were cultur ...201727604757
longer-term therapy for symptoms attributed to lyme disease. 201627602675
longer-term therapy for symptoms attributed to lyme disease. 201627602674
longer-term therapy for symptoms attributed to lyme disease. 201627602673
need for a new lyme disease vaccine. 201627602662
bunyaviruses are common in male and female ixodes scapularis ticks in central pennsylvania.the blacklegged tick ixodes scapularis is widely distributed in the united states and transmits multiple pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. recently, several novel viruses in the family bunyaviridae (south bay virus (sbv) and blacklegged tick phlebovirus (btpv)) were identified infecting female i. scapularis ticks collected in new york state. we used metagenomic sequencing to investigate the distribution of viruses infecting male and female i. scapularis ticks collected in centr ...201627602290
pseudolymphoma versus lymphoma: an important diagnostic decision.small innocuous growths on the face usually do not pose difficulty in diagnosis on histopathology. however, some benign inflammatory lesions might mimic malignancy and hence need further investigations for final diagnosis. the distinction between a benign/inflammatory/malignant lesion needs no emphasis as the treatment plan, prognosis and the patient's well-being depends on it. lymphocytoma cutis, or spiegler-fendt sarcoid, is classed as one of the pseudolymphomas, referring to inflammatory diso ...201627601833
microarray-based comparative genomic and transcriptome analysis of borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of lyme disease, is maintained in nature in a cycle involving a tick vector and a mammalian host. adaptation to the diverse conditions of temperature, ph, oxygen tension and nutrient availability in these two environments requires the precise orchestration of gene expression. over 25 microarray analyses relating to b. burgdorferi genomics and transcriptomics have been published. the majority of these studies has explored the global transcriptome under ...201627600075
steroid use in lyme disease-associated facial palsy is associated with worse long-term outcomes.the purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in long-term facial function outcomes following acute lyme disease-associated facial palsy (ldfp) exist between patients who received antibiotic monotherapy (mt); dual therapy (dt) with antibiotics and corticosteroids; and triple therapy (tt) with antibiotics, corticosteroids, and antivirals.201627598389
[lyme disease: the french infectious diseases society's statement]. 201627592140
the tamb ortholog of borrelia burgdorferi interacts with the β-barrel assembly machine (bam) complex protein bama.two outer membrane protein (omp) transport systems in diderm bacteria assist in assembly and export of omps. these two systems are the β-barrel assembly machine (bam) complex and the translocation and assembly module (tam). the bam complex consists of the omp component bama along with several outer membrane associated proteins. the tam also consists of an omp, designated tama, and a single inner membrane (im) protein, tamb. together tama and tamb aid in the secretion of virulence-associated omps ...201627588694
cloning, purification and characterization of the collagenase cola expressed by bacillus cereus atcc 14579.bacterial collagenases differ considerably in their structure and functions. the collagenases colh and colg from clostridium histolyticum and cola expressed by clostridium perfringens are well-characterized collagenases that cleave triple-helical collagen, which were therefore termed as ´true´ collagenases. cola from bacillus cereus (b. cereus) has been added to the collection of true collagenases. however, the molecular characteristics of b. cereus cola are less understood. in this study, we id ...201627588686
microbiome changes through ontogeny of a tick pathogen vector.blacklegged ticks (ixodes scapularis) are one of the most important pathogen vectors in the united states, responsible for transmitting lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. the structure of a host's microbial community has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of the host. we employed high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rrna gene v3-v4 hypervariable regions in the first study to investigate the tick microbiome across all developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, adults). in addi ...201627588381
lyme disease risk in dogs in new brunswick.this study assessed the seroprevalence of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in new brunswick dogs. testing of 699 serum samples from dogs across the province revealed a 6% province-wide seropositivity, more than 6 times higher than that found in 2008. the rapid increase in seropositivity indicates increased lyme disease risk to both canine and human health.201627587892
expression of c-reactive protein and serum amyloid a in early to late manifestations of lyme disease.infection with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, triggers host immune responses that affect the clinical outcome and are a source of biomarkers with diagnostic utility. although adaptive immunity to b. burgdorferi has been extensively characterized, considerably less information is available about the development of innate acute-phase responses in lyme disease. our aim in this study was to evaluate the expression of c-reactive protein (crp) and serum amyloid a (saa), the ...201627585799
the eye and tick-borne disease in the united states.tick-borne diseases are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution. several diseases endemic to the united states have ophthalmic manifestations, including the most common tick-borne disease, lyme borreliosis. as ocular complaints may lead a patient to seek medical evaluation, it is important to be aware of the systemic and ophthalmic manifestations of tick-borne diseases in order to make the correct diagnosis.201627585218
substrate prediction of ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during borrelia afzelii infection.evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. this salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. high-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. this study was initiated by mini ...201627584086
how rheumatoid arthritis can result from provocation of the immune system by microorganisms and viruses.the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (ra), similar to development of a majority of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, is largely due to an inappropriate or inadequate immune response to environmental challenges. among these challenges, infectious agents are the undisputed leaders. since the 1870s, an impressive list of microorganisms suspected of provoking ra has formed, and the list is still growing. although a definite causative link between a specific infectious agent and the disease ...201627582741
lichen sclerosus associated with localized scleroderma: dermoscopy contribution.lichen sclerosus is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis with preferential involvement of the urogenital region. the extragenital involvement is uncommon and is characterized by small rounded macules or papules, pearly white in color. the coexistence of lichen sclerosus and scleroderma plaques in most cases with extragenital location has been reported in the literature. we report a case of lichen sclerosus associated with scleroderma in children, highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in diagn ...201627579757
dexamethasone intravitreal implants in the management of tubercular multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis.continuous progression of lesions despite an adequate treatment has been described in tubercular multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis. reported treatments for this paradoxical response include systemic steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and intravitreal methotrexate. we describe the use of dexamethasone intravitreal implants in a patient presenting with this condition.201627576870
[acute transverse myelitis in a traveler].acute transverse myelitis is defined as an acquired neuroimmune disorder of the spinal cord, which occurs as a consequence of a primary event, or directly related to an autoimmune inflammatory disease, an infectious or post-infectious disease. amongst infectious etiologies, borrelia spp., a tick-bourne anthropozoonosis of the ixodidae family, prevails. approximately 10 to 15% of patients with lyme disease undergo neurologic manifestations, with an assorted and uncertain array of clinical syndrom ...201727576284
occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodes ricinus ticks with first identification of borrelia miyamotoi in vojvodina, serbia.lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in eurasia. borrelia miyamotoi is the only known relapsing fever borrelia group spirochete transmitted by ixodes species. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of lyme borrelia spp. and relapsing fever borrelia spp. in ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of vojvodina, serbia. a total of 71 ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and screened for the presence of lyme borrelia ...201627574731
canine bicavitary carcinomatosis with transient needle tract metastasis diagnosed by multiplex immunocytochemistry.a 6-year-old, male castrated, mixed-breed dog was referred to the james l. voss veterinary teaching hospital at colorado state university for bicavitary effusion. on examination, the dog was tachycardic and tachypneic with bilaterally decreased lung sounds. thoracic and abdominal ultrasonic examination revealed pleural and peritoneal effusions, which were aspirated and submitted for fluid analysis and cytology. both cavity fluids were classified as exudates with a large population of vacuolated ...201627571570
surveillance of infectious diseases by the sentinel laboratory network in belgium: 30 years of continuous 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. during the study period of 30 years (1983-2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. this resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. during this period, adaptations to data collecti ...201627571203
colonic spirochetosis in a 60-year-old immunocompetent patient: case report and review.spirochetes, a genetically and morphologically distinct group of bacteria, are thin, spiral-shaped, and highly motile. they are known causes of several human diseases such as syphilis, lyme disease, relapsing fever, and leptospirosis. we report a case of colonic spirochetosis in a healthy patient presenting for surveillance colonoscopy. the diagnosis of intestinal spirochetosis was made accidentally during the histological examination of colonic polyps, which were removed during colonoscopy. we ...201727570780
cooperation of doxycycline with phytochemicals and micronutrients against active and persistent forms of borrelia sp.phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. a better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards borrelia sp. in this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-had, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins d3 and c were tested in ...201627570483
biomechanics of borrelia burgdorferi vascular interactions.systemic dissemination of microbes is critical for progression of many infectious diseases and is associated with most mortality due to bacterial infection. the physical mechanisms mediating a key dissemination step, bacterial association with vascular endothelia in blood vessels, remain unknown. here, we show that endothelial interactions of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi under physiological shear stress mechanistically resemble selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling. specifical ...201627568563
first human case of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection acquired in the netherlands, july july 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) had been found in dutch ticks. a person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. tbev serology was positive and the tick was positive in tbev qrt-pcr. tbev infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the netherlands.201627562931
how do biting disease vectors behaviourally respond to host availability?ecological theory predicts a diverse range of functional responses of species to resource availability; but in the context of human blood consumption by disease vectors, a simplistic, linear response is ubiquitously assumed. a simple and flexible model formulation is presented that extends the holling's types to account for a wider range of qualitatively distinct behaviours, and used to examine the impact of different vector responses to the relative availability of multiple blood-host species.201627562086
the skin microbiome: is it affected by uv-induced immune suppression?human skin apart from functioning as a physical barricade to stop the entry of pathogens, also hosts innumerable commensal organisms. the skin cells and the immune system constantly interact with microbes, to maintain cutaneous homeostasis, despite the challenges offered by various environmental factors. a major environmental factor affecting the skin is ultraviolet radiation (uv-r) from sunlight. uv-r is well known to modulate the immune system, which can be both beneficial and deleterious. by ...201627559331
borrelia mayonii sp. nov., a member of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, detected in patients and ticks in the upper midwestern united states.lyme borreliosis (lb) is a multisystem disease caused by spirochetes in the borrelia burgdorferisensu lato (bbsl) genospecies complex. we previously described a novel bbsl genospecies (type strain mn14-1420t) that causes lb among patients with exposures to ticks in the upper midwestern usa. patients infected with the novel bbsl genospecies demonstrated higher levels of spirochetemia and somewhat differing clinical symptoms as compared with those infected with other bbsl genospecies. the organism ...201627558626
lyme borreliosis serology: performance of several commonly used laboratory diagnostic tests and a large resource panel of well-characterized patient samples.the current recommendation for the laboratory confirmation of lyme disease is serology-based diagnostics. specifically, a standardized two-tiered testing (sttt) algorithm is applied that utilizes a first-tier immunofluorescence assay or enzyme immunoassay (eia) that, if the result is positive or equivocal, is followed by second-tier immunoblotting. despite the standardization and performance achievements, sttt is considered technically complex and subjective, as well as insensitive for early acu ...201627558183
microglial priming and alzheimer's disease: a possible role for (early) immune challenges and epigenetics?neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to alzheimer's disease (ad) pathogenesis that is, to a large extent, mediated by microglia. given the tight interaction between the immune system and the brain, peripheral immune challenges can profoundly affect brain function. indeed, both preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that an aberrant inflammatory response can elicit behavioral impairments and cognitive deficits, especially when the brain is in a vulnerable state, e.g., during early ...201627555812
fatigue in patients with erythema migrans.fatigue is a common symptom in patients with lyme disease. the purpose of this study was to characterize fatigue in untreated adult patients presenting with erythema migrans. selected variables were assessed to determine if any correlated with the presence or severity of fatigue. fatigue was assessed on the day of the evaluation by a visual analogue scale (vas), over the past 14days by the 11-item fatigue severity scale (fss-11) and over the past 28days based on a question from the 36-item short ...201627553702
intentions to receive a potentially available lyme disease vaccine in an urban sample.the only human lyme disease vaccine of lymerix was voluntarily removed from the market in the united states in 2002 for a number of reasons. a new human lyme disease vaccine is currently being developed. we would like any future approved human lyme disease vaccine to be of interest and marketable to consumers.201627551427
gene bb0318 is critical for the oxidative stress response and infectivity of borrelia burgdorferi.a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that borrelia burgdorferi uses to survive during mammalian infection is critical for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools to improve the clinical management of lyme disease. by use of an in vivo expression technology (ivet)-based approach to identify b. burgdorferi genes expressed in vivo, we discovered the bb0318 gene, which is thought to encode the atpase component of a putative riboflavin abc transport system. riboflavin ...201627550932
cd4+ cell-derived interleukin-17 in a model of dysregulated, borrelia-induced arthritis.lyme borreliosis, which is caused in the united states by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, may manifest as different arrays of signs, symptoms and severities between infected individuals. recent studies have indicated that particularly severe forms of lyme borreliosis in humans are associated with an increased th17 response. here, we hypothesized that a murine model combining the dysregulated immune response of an environment lacking interleukin-10 (il-10) with a robust t-cell-driven inflamm ...201627549424
2-cys peroxiredoxin is required in successful blood-feeding, reproduction, and antioxidant response in the hard tick haemaphysalis longicornis.ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that feed on vertebrate blood that contains iron. ticks also concentrate host blood with iron; this concentration of the blood leads to high levels of iron in ticks. the host-derived iron reacts with oxygen in the tick body and this may generate high levels of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (h2o2). high levels of h2o2 cause oxidative stress in organisms and therefore, antioxidant responses are necessary to regulate h2o2. here, we ...201627542835
molecular evidence of bartonella species in ixodid ticks and domestic animals in palestine.ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the gram-negative pathogen bartonella. here, we evaluated the presence of bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from palestine. we tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for bartonella using its-pcr. bartonella dna was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. none of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive f ...201627540374
the anti-borreliae efficacy of phytochemicals and micronutrients: an update.naturally occurring substances have been used for centuries to fight against various pathogens. they serve as a source for new chemical entities or provide options to already existing therapeutics. while there is an increasing interest in studying antimicrobial properties of naturally derived agents, little is known about their effects against borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative pathogens of lyme disease. a better understanding of this aspect could advance knowledge about pathophysiol ...201627536352
human exposure to anaplasma phagocytophilum in two cities of northwestern morocco.anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. epidemiological data are available in several regions of the usa, europe and asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as north africa. blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific a. phagocytophilum igg. two dilutions were used to assess ...201627532208
infections in the differential diagnosis of bell's palsy: a plea for performing csf analysis.peripheral facial nerve palsy (fp) is the most common single nerve affection. most cases are idiopathic, but a relevant fraction is caused by potentially treatable aetiologies including infections. not all current diagnosis and treatment guidelines recommend routine cerebrospinal fluid (csf) analysis in the diagnostic workup of this symptom. in this study, we evaluated frequency of aetiologies and relevance of csf analysis in an interdisciplinary cohort.201727530390
seropositivity of borrelia burgdorferi in a cohort of symptomatic cats from europe based on a c6-peptide assay with discussion of implications in disease aetiology.there are only few reports on lyme borreliosis (lb) in cats. the reasons might be a different tick infestation in cats compared to dogs, a low susceptibility for tick-borne infections or a low awareness of veterinarians for tick-borne diseases in feline patients. the aim of this study was to determine the proportion of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bbsl) in feline sera, to compare the significance of feline versus canine lb, as well as to evaluate possible implications on d ...201627529996
a novel isothermal assay of borrelia burgdorferi by recombinase polymerase amplification with lateral flow detection.a novel isothermal detection for recombinase polymerase amplification with lateral flow (lf-rpa) was established for borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) detection in this study. this assay with high sensitivity and specificity can get a visible result without any additional equipment in 30 min. we designed a pair of primers according to reca gene of b. burgdorferi strains and a methodology evaluation was performed. the results showed that the rpa assay based on the reca gene was successfully a ...201627527151
two different virulence-related regulatory pathways in borrelia burgdorferi are directly affected by osmotic fluxes in the blood meal of feeding ixodes ticks.lyme disease, caused by borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a ...201627525653
emerging borreliae - expanding beyond lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis (or lyme disease) has become a virtual household term to the exclusion of other forgotten, emerging or re-emerging borreliae. we review current knowledge regarding these other borreliae, exploring their ecology, epidemiology and pathological potential, for example, for the newly described b. mayonii. these bacteria range from tick-borne, relapsing fever-inducing strains detected in some soft ticks, such as b. mvumii, to those from bat ticks resembling b. turicatae. some of these ...201727523487
csf b - lymphocyte chemoattractant (cxcl13) in the early diagnosis of acute lyme neuroborreliosis.recent studies have suggested a diagnostic role of the b-lymphocyte attracting chemokine (cxcl13) in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) in lyme neuroborreliosis (lnb). our aim was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of csf cxcl13 in a cohort of 59 consecutive patients referred to hospital for suspected lnb. thirty-seven patients were classified as definite lnb and used as the reference standard. seven were classified as probable, and seven as possible lnb. eight patients did not fulfil case definitions a ...200827517589
evaluation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato seroprevalencein the province of bolu, turkey.the aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the city center and the province of bolu, turkey.201627513248
lyme disease and relapsing fever borrelia elongate through zones of peptidoglycan synthesis that mark division sites of daughter cells.agents that cause lyme disease, relapsing fever, leptospirosis, and syphilis belong to the phylum spirochaetae-a unique lineage of bacteria most known for their long, spiral morphology. despite the relevance to human health, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of spirochete growth. here, using quantitative microscopy to track peptidoglycan cell-wall synthesis, we found that the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi displays a complex pattern of growth. b. burgdorferi elonga ...201627506799
interaction of staphylococcus aureus persister cells with the host when in a persister state and following awakening.persister cells, a tolerant cell sub-population, are commonly associated with chronic and recurrent infections. however, little is known about their ability to actually initiate or establish an infection, become virulent and cause pathogenicity within a host. here we investigated whether staphylococcus aureus persister cells initiate an infection and are recognized by macrophages, while in a persister cell status, and upon awakening due to exposure to cis-2-decenoic acid (cis-da). our results sh ...201627506163
antibody profile to borrelia burgdorferi in veterinarians from nuevo león, mexico, a non-endemic area of this zoonosis.lyme disease is a tick-borne disease caused by infections with borrelia. persons infected with borrelia can be asymptomatic or can develop disseminated disease. diagnosis and recognition of groups at risk of infection with borrelia burgdorferi is of great interest to contemporary rheumatology. there are a few reports about borrelia infection in mexico, including lymphocytoma cases positive to b. burgdorferi sensu stricto by pcr and a patient with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. veterinarian ...201627504018
live-vaccinia virus encapsulation in ph-sensitive polymer increases safety of a reservoir-targeted lyme disease vaccine by targeting gastrointestinal release.the incidence of lyme disease has continued to rise despite attempts to control its spread. vaccination of zoonotic reservoirs of human pathogens has been successfully used to decrease the incidence of rabies in raccoons and foxes. we have previously reported on the efficacy of a vaccinia virus vectored vaccine to reduce carriage of borrelia burgdorferi in reservoir mice and ticks. one potential drawback to vaccinia virus vectored vaccines is the risk of accidental infection of humans. to reduce ...201627502570
systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticides: a review of the efficacy against ticks and fleas on dogs.acaricidal (tick) and insecticidal (flea) efficacy of systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticide products for dogs are compared based on permethrin and fluralaner as representative molecules. results of efficacy studies against fleas and ticks are reviewed that show generally good to excellent results. both externally and systemically distributed treatments have benefits and weaknesses in potentially preventing pathogen transmission by these arthropod vectors.four general properti ...201627502490
investigating the potential role of non-vls genes on linear plasmid 28-1 in virulence and persistence by borrelia burgdorferi.the lp28-1 plasmid is required for persistent infection by the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. mutational studies on this plasmid have shown that the vls locus is important for antigenic variation of the vlse lipoprotein that leads to immune evasion and persistence. however, it is still unknown whether the vls system is the only genetic locus on this plasmid necessary for long-term infection, and thus the potential role of non-vls genes on lp28-1 in virulence and persistence is ye ...201627502325
a souvenir from france: acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans presenting in the united states.a 70-year-old man was referred by his rheumatologist to our dermatology clinic for evaluation of dermatitis on his right arm that appeared 3 months earlier. the skin lesion was asymptomatic and the patient denied current systemic symptoms, including fever, chills, and joint pain; however, 10 months prior to this presentation he experienced arthritis in the left knee. at that time, borrelia serology revealed positive igg (6.07; <0.8 negative, 0.8 to 0.99 borderline, ≥1 positive) and negative igm ...201627502263
multiple independent transmission cycles of a tick-borne pathogen within a local host community.many pathogens are maintained by multiple host species and involve multiple strains with potentially different phenotypic characteristics. disentangling transmission patterns in such systems is often challenging, yet investigating how different host species contribute to transmission is crucial to properly assess and manage disease risk. we aim to reveal transmission cycles of bacteria within the borrelia burgdorferi species complex, which include lyme disease agents. we characterized borrelia g ...201627498685
the latest evidence on lyme disease. 201627498520
are the current notification criteria for lyme borreliosis in norway suitable? results of an evaluation of lyme borreliosis surveillance in norway, 1995-2013.the approach to surveillance of lyme borreliosis varies between countries, depending on the purpose of the surveillance system and the notification criteria used, which prevents direct comparison of national data. in norway, lyme borreliosis is notifiable to the surveillance system for communicable diseases (msis). the current notification criteria include a combination of clinical and laboratory results for borrelia infection (excluding erythema migrans) but there are indications that these cri ...201627495236
the exposed proteomes of brachyspira hyodysenteriae and b. pilosicoli.brachyspira hyodysenteriae and brachyspira pilosicoli are well-known intestinal pathogens in pigs. b. hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a disease with an important impact on pig production while b. pilosicoli is responsible of a milder diarrheal disease in these animals, porcine intestinal spirochetosis. recent sequencing projects have provided information for the genome of these species facilitating the search of vaccine candidates using reverse vaccinology approaches. h ...201627493641
arthritis is developed in borrelia-primed and -infected mice deficient of interleukin-17.interleukin-17 (il-17) has been shown to participate in the development of lyme arthritis in experimental mice. for example, neutralization of il-17 with antibodies inhibits induction of arthritis in borrelia-primed and -infected c57bl/6 wild-type mice. we hypothesized that mice lacking il-17 would fail to develop borrelia-induced arthritis. il-17-deficient and wild-type c57bl/6 mice were primed with heat-inactivated borrelia and then infected with viable spirochetes 3 weeks later. no swelling o ...201627493062
lyme disease in west virginia: an assessment of distribution and clinicians' knowledge of disease and surveillance.lyme disease case misclassification, a top public health concern, may be attributed to the current disconnect between clinical diagnosis and surveillance. this study examines lyme disease distribution in west virginia (wv) and determines clinicians' knowledge of both disease and surveillance. lyme disease surveillance data for 2013 were obtained from the wv bureau for public health. a validated survey, distributed to clinicians at an academic medical center, assessed clinicians' knowledge of dis ...201627491103
validation of random sampling as an estimation procedure for lyme disease surveillance in massachusetts and minnesota.many disease surveillance programs, including the massachusetts department of public health and the minnesota department of health, are challenged by marked increases in lyme disease (ld) reports. the purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyse ld reports from 2005 through 2012 to determine whether key epidemiologic characteristics were statistically indistinguishable when an estimation procedure based on sampling was utilized. estimates of the number of ld cases were produced by taking ...201627488080
interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.cattle are the reservoir hosts of leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other leptospira species such as l. kirschneri, and leptospira interrogans. as a reservoir host, cattle shed leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or net formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of leptospira. humans, comp ...201627486445
identification of a novel β-adrenergic octopamine receptor-like gene (βaor-like) and increased atp-binding cassette b10 (abcb10) expression in a rhipicephalus microplus cell line derived from acaricide-resistant ticks.the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus is an economically important parasite of livestock. effective control of ticks using acaricides is threatened by the emergence of resistance to many existing compounds. several continuous r. microplus cell lines have been established and provide an under-utilised resource for studies into acaricide targets and potential genetic mutations associated with resistance. as a first step to genetic studies using these resources, this study aimed to de ...201627484910
reversible corticospinal tract hyperintensities in neurologic lyme disease. 201627481458
species interactions in occurrence data for a community of tick-transmitted pathogens.interactions between tick species, their realized range of hosts, the pathogens they carry and transmit, and the geographic distribution of species in the western palearctic were determined based on evidence published between 1970-2014. these relationships were linked to remotely sensed features of temperature and vegetation and used to extract the network of interactions among the organisms. the resulting datasets focused on niche overlap among ticks and hosts, species interactions, and the fra ...201627479213
texas occurrence of lyme disease and its neurological, lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borne disease in the united states and europe. the culprits behind lyme disease are the borrelia species of bacteria. in the usa, borrelia burgdorferi causes the majority of cases, while in europe and asia borrelia afzelii and borrelia garinii carry the greatest burden of disease. the clinical manifestations of lyme disease have been identified as early localized, early disseminated, and late chronic. the neurological effects of lyme disease ...201627478852
molecular survey on the presence of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in wild red deer (cervus elaphus).to estimate the prevalence of some zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in red deer (cervus elaphus) living in italian areas with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 60 red deer were tested by pcr for a. phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi s.l., coxiella burnetii, francisella tularensis, and piroplasms. thirty-four (56.67%) animals resulted positive for one or more pathogens. in particular, 24 (40%) red deer were positive for a. phagocytophilum, 16 (26.67%) for babesia divergens, 6 (1 ...201627477510
beyond the bull's eye: recognizing lyme disease.a rash occurs in 80% of lyme disease cases, but only about a third of the rashes develop into a classic bull's-eye lesion. here's what to look for and how best to treat.201627474818
countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for anaplasma spp., borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), dirofilaria immitis and ehrlichia canis in mexico.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbd) have become a major concern for canine and human public health. the aim of the study described here is to add epidemiological data regarding four pathogens responsible for cvbd, namely anaplasmosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis and ehrlichiosis in a national survey conducted in mexico.201627474020
management of patients with non-hodgkin's lymphoma: focus on adoptive t-cell therapy.non-hodgkin's lymphoma (nhl) represents a heterogeneous group of malignancies with high diversity in terms of biology, clinical responses, and prognosis. standard therapy regimens produce a 5-year relative survival rate of only 69%, with the critical need to increase the treatment-success rate of this patient population presenting at diagnosis with a median age of 66 years and many comorbidities. the evidence that an impaired immune system favors the development of nhl has opened the stage for n ...201527471712
characterizing lyme disease surveillance in an endemic state.lyme disease (ld) is the most common vector-borne disease in maryland and the united states. surveillance for ld is valuable for understanding the burden of the disease, particularly to assess whether the disease is spreading and to appreciate who is affected. however, not all cases of ld in maryland are reported, and surveillance practices vary across each of maryland's 24 local health departments (lhds). to better understand this variability and to systematically characterize the surveillance ...201627469460
feasibility of a simple microsieve-based immunoassay platform.the intrinsic properties of silicon microsieves, such as an optically flat surface, high overall porosity, and low flow resistance have led to an increasing number of biotechnology applications. in this report, the feasibility of creating a microsieve-based immunoassay platform was explored. microsieves containing 5μm pores were coupled with poly-acrylic acid chains, and then mounted into a plastic holder to enable rapid reagent exchanges via a wicking mechanism. the mounted microsieves were coa ...201627448458
lyme disease in a young brief: an 11 1/2-year-old girl had a seven-month history of bilateral knee pain and swelling; her x-rays and bone scan were normal. she had been treated unsuccessfully with rest and physical therapy before being referred to a sports medicine clinic. laboratory studies demonstrated a positive titer for lyme disease. she was treated with tetracycline and had an uneventful recovery.198927447326
coxiella burnetii induces inflammatory interferon-like signature in plasmacytoid dendritic cells: a new feature of immune response in q fever.plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdcs) play a major role in antiviral immunity via the production of type i interferons (ifns). there is some evidence that pdcs interact with bacteria but it is not yet clear whether they are protective or contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. we wished to investigate whether coxiella burnetii, the agent of q fever, interacts with pdcs. the stimulation of pdcs with c. burnetii increased the expression of activation and migratory markers (cd86 and ccr7) as determine ...201627446817
hereditary hemochromatosis predisposes mice to yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection even in the absence of the type iii secretion system.the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (hh) predisposes humans to serious disseminated infection with pathogenic yersinia as well as several other pathogens. recently, we showed that the iron-sulfur cluster coordinating transcription factor iscr is required for type iii secretion in y. pseudotuberculosis by direct control of the t3ss master regulator lcrf. in e. coli and yersinia, iscr levels are predicted to be regulated by iron bioavailability, oxygen tension, and oxidative stre ...201627446816
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