PMID(sorted ascending)
concurrent babesiosis and serological evidence of lyme disease in a young patient.human babesiosis co-infected with lyme disease in a young patient is an important condition. here, we describe a case of a 39-year-old male patient with concurrent babesiosis and lyme disease. co-infections of tick borne diseases are often difficult to diagnose and underreported, and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality to patients. while co-infections have been infrequently described, it is of paramount importance that clinicians should be able to diagnose early and treat them effec ...201728634526
regulation of escherichia coli pathogenesis by alternative sigma factor n.σ(n) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the rna polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. it is broadly conserved in the eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(n) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpon (σ(n)), ptsn, hpf, rapz, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of escherichia, shigella, and salmonella. in an increasing numb ...201728635589
reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against typical and atypical forms of borrelia sp.borrelia sp., a causative pathogenic factor of lyme disease (ld), has become a major public health threat. current treatments based on antibiotics often lead to relapse after their withdrawal. naturally derived substances that could work synergistically to display higher efficacy compared with the individual components may serve as a resource for the development of novel approaches to combat both active and latent forms of borrelia sp.201728644529
in vivo imaging of lyme arthritis in mice by [(18)f]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.lyme borreliosis (lb) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi spirochaetes, which are able to disseminate from the tick-bite site to distant organs. mouse models are widely used to study lb and especially lyme arthritis (la), but only a few whole-animal in vivo imaging studies on the pathogenesis of b. burgdorferi infection in mice have been published so far. the existing imaging techniques have their drawbacks and, therefore, novel tools to complement the array of avai ...201728649922
adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome as a manifestation of brazilian lyme disease-like syndrome: a case report and review of literature.described in 1962, the opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome (omas) is a rare, neurologically debilitating disorder with distinct characteristics that may begin in childhood or adult life. although many cases remain without etiological diagnosis, others are related to neoplasms and infectious diseases. we report a 41-year-old previously healthy male with an 8-day history of headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and nystagmus. after a normal brain computed tomography and lymphocytic pleocytosis in ...201728652990
neuroborreliosis in swedish children: a population-based study on incidence and clinical characteristics.borrelia burgdorferi is a common cause of bacterial meningitis but there are very few studies on incidence in europe.201728654563
interaction of primary mast cells with borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto): role in transmission and dissemination in c57bl/6 mice.borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of lyme borreliosis is a bacterium transmitted by hard ticks, ixodes spp. bacteria are injected into the host skin during the tick blood meal with tick saliva. there, borrelia and saliva interact together with skin cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, mast cells and other specific immune cells before disseminating to target organs.201728655322
segregation lag in polyploid cells of the pathogen genus borrelia: implications for antigenic variation
.relapsing fever agents like borrelia hermsii undergo multiphasic antigenic variation that is attributable to spontaneous dna non-reciprocal transpositions at a particular locus in the genome. this genetic switch results in a new protein being expressed on the cell surface, allowing cells with that phenotype to escape prevailing immunity. but the switch occurs in only one of several genomes in these spirochetes, and a newly-switched gene is effectively "recessive" until homozygosity is achieved. ...201728656008
small rnas of borrelia burgdorferi: characterizing functional regulators in a sea of srnas
.borrelia (borreliella) burgdorferi and closely related genospecies are the causative agents of lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease north of the equator. the bacterium, a member of the spirochete phylum, is acquired by a tick vector that feeds on an infected vertebrate host and is transmitted to another vertebrate during subsequent feeding by the next tick stage. the precise navigation of this enzootic cycle entails the regulation of genes required for these two host-specific phases ...201728656017
diagnosis of lyme-associated uveitis: value of serological testing in a tertiary determine the frequency and clinical presentation of lyme disease in patients with uveitis and to assess the value of borrelia burgdorferi serological testing.201728659389
necrotizing autoimmune myopathy: a rare variant of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are an unusual group of myopathies with annual incidence of 1 in 100 000 people in the united states. necrotizing autoimmune myopathy comprises only 16% of this group. it usually presents with severe proximal weakness, lower extremity weakness, and severe fatigue while very rarely does it present with dysphagia and respiratory muscle weakness. statin use, cancer, and connective tissue disorder are the usual associated risk factors. anti-signal recognition parti ...201728660228
vaccination of horses with lyme vaccines for dogs induces short-lasting antibody responses.borrelia burgdorferi can induce lyme disease. approved lyme vaccines for horses are currently not available. in an effort to protect horses, veterinarians are using lyme vaccines licensed for dogs. however, data to assess the response of horses to, or determine the efficacy of this off-label vaccine use are missing. here, antibodies against outer surface protein a (ospa), ospc, and ospf were quantified in diagnostic serum submissions from horses with a history of vaccination with canine lyme vac ...201728668566
a biochip-based combined immunoassay for detection of serological status of borrelia burgdorferi in lyme borreliosis.dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) modified gold surface biochip were used as a combined immunoassay platform for concurrently detecting immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) sensu lato antigens, flagellin, outer surface protein c, variable major protein-like sequence proteins, and 3 vlse protein ir6 peptides. the peptides represented intrinsic borrelia genospecies: b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, b. garinii, and b. afzelii, respectively.201728676442
management of lyme disease in european children: a review for practical purpose.lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonosis transmitted through a bite of a tick carrying a spirochete belonging to borrelia species. in the last 20 years, the reported incidence of lyme disease is increased by three times in europe. clinically, the illness develops through a primary stage with a typical skin rash (erythema marginatum), then a secondary stage with possible neurologic or cardiac involvement. the last stage (chronic lyme disease) is mainly represented by arthritis or late neurological c ...201728681315
babesiosis surveillance - wisconsin, 2001-2015.babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by babesia microti, an intraerythocytic protozoan. babesia microti, like the causal agents for lyme disease and anaplasmosis, is endemic to the northeastern and upper midwestern united states where it is usually transmitted by the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis. although babesiosis is usually a mild to moderate illness, older or immunocompromised persons can develop a serious malaria-like illness that can be fatal without prompt tr ...201728683059
modeling the effects of variable feeding patterns of larval ticks on the transmission of borrelia lusitaniae and borrelia afzelii.spirochetes belonging to the borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato (sl) group cause lyme borreliosis (lb), which is the most commonly reported vector-borne zoonosis in europe. b. burgdorferi sl is maintained in nature in a complex cycle involving ixodes ricinus ticks and several species of vertebrate hosts. the transmission dynamics of b. burgdorferi sl is complicated by the varying competence of animals for different genospecies of spirochetes that, in turn, vary in their capability of causing disease ...201728690096
culture and identification of borrelia spirochetes in human vaginal and seminal secretions.background: recent reports indicate that more than 300,000 cases of lyme disease are diagnosed yearly in the usa. preliminary clinical, epidemiological and immunological studies suggest that infection with the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi (bb) could be transferred from person to person via intimate human contact without a tick vector. failure to detect viable borrelia spirochetes in vaginal and seminal secretions would argue against this hypothesis. methods: patients with and wit ...201428690828
a mercury toxicity case complicated by hyponatremia and abnormal endocrinological test results.mercury (hg) poisoning is considered a rare disease by the national institutes of health and the diagnosis can present great challenges to clinicians. children who are exposed to hg can present with a wide variety of symptoms, including acrodynia, tremor, excessive salivation, and psychiatric symptoms, including insomnia. however, endocrinologic manifestations from hg exposure are less well known. this is a case report of a 12-year-old boy who presented with body rash, irritability, insomnia, an ...201728701428
[one year of infectious diseases : a review].several outbreaks have made the news in 2016 : ebola has come at an end, zika is booming and a resurgence of yellow fever takes place in africa. in switzerland, two hospital outbreaks have been reported, caused by mycobacterium chimerae and burkholderia cepacia. a major new article has consolidated the notion that prolonged antibiotic therapy is unnecessary in lyme disease. as multiresistant bacteria are increasing in frequency, innovative therapeutic approaches are under development. for lung i ...201728703540
crossed total hemiatrophy associated with atrophoderma of pasini-pierini.a 45-year-old chinese man had begun to show asymmetry of the face 30 years previously. subsequently, he developed visual extinction of the right eye, slight numbness, and weakness of the left extremities. simultaneously, multiple atrophic brownish patches occurred on his side. he denied prior trauma or tick bites at those sites. there was no report of preceding redness, induration, or a history of trauma. the atrophic lesions extended and enlarged slowly. ten years previously, some brownish patc ...201728705290
progression of lyme disease to bell's palsy despite treatment with doxycycline. 201728705754
completed genome sequences of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto b31(nrz) and closely related patient isolates from europe.borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is a causative agent of human lyme borreliosis in the united states and europe. we report here the completed genome sequences of strain b31 isolated from a tick in the united states and two closely related strains from europe, pali and pabe, which were isolated from patients with erythema migrans and neuroborreliosis, respectively.201728705983
clinical association: lyme disease and guillain-barre syndrome.guillain-barre syndrome (gbs) is a life-threatening condition in which patients may present to the emergency department in respiratory distress leading to death. the early identification and treatment of such a condition is paramount in preventing mortality. while there are many infections associated with gbs, the association with lyme disease is uncommon. through our case we aim to highlight borrelia burgdorferi as an important antecedent infection associated with the development of gbs. in thi ...201728711274
lyme carditis buried beneath st-segment elevations.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and is carried to human hosts by infected ticks. there are nearly 30,000 cases of lyme disease reported to the cdc each year, with 3-4% of those cases reporting lyme carditis. the most common manifestation of lyme carditis is partial heart block following bacterial-induced inflammation of the conducting nodes. here we report a 45-year-old gentleman that presented to the hospital with intense nonradiating chest pressure and tightness. ...201728713599
[borrelia miyamotoi: a recently identified human pathogenic tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete].borrelia miyamotoi is a recently described relapsing fever spirochete transmitted by ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. this pathogen is different from borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the lyme borreliosis spirochetes) in its epidemiology, ecology and also genetics. over 50 patients have been described worldwide with borrelia miyamotoi disease, and three immunocompromised patients were reported with neurological symptoms. our knowledge about borrelia miyamotoi infection in ticks and its distri ...201728714333
phagocytic receptors activate syk and src signaling during borrelia burgdorferi phagocytosis.phagocytosis of the lyme disease causing pathogen borrelia burgdorferi has been shown to be important in generating an inflammatory response to the pathogen. as a result, understanding the mechanisms of phagocytosis has been an area of great interest in the field of lyme disease. several cell surface receptors that participate in b. burgdorferi phagocytosis have been reported, including scavenger receptor marco and integrin α3β1. we sought to define the mechanisms by which these receptors mediat ...201728717031
risk factors for severe infection, hospitalization, and prolonged antimicrobial therapy in patients with babesiosis.babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease transmitted by the hard tick ixodes scapularis, which also transmits lyme disease. better gradation of prognostic indicators are needed to determine which patients may develop serious complications requiring hospitalization, and to provide early guidance on appropriate therapy. in this study, we evaluated 128 patients with smear or real time polymerase chain reaction-confirmed babesia microti infections over a period of 16 years. patients with aspleni ...201728722598
cascading effects of predator activity on tick-borne disease risk.predators and competitors of vertebrates can in theory reduce the density of infected nymphs (din)-an often-used measure of tick-borne disease risk-by lowering the density of reservoir-competent hosts and/or the tick burden on reservoir-competent hosts. we investigated this possible indirect effect of predators by comparing data from 20 forest plots across the netherlands that varied in predator abundance. in each plot, we measured the density of questing ixodes ricinus nymphs (don), din for thr ...201728724731
serologic evidence of powassan virus infection in patients with suspected lyme disease(1).powassan virus (powv) lineage ii is an emerging tickborne flavivirus with an unknown seroprevalence in humans. in a lyme disease-endemic area, we examined the seroreactivity to powv in 2 patient cohorts and described the clinical features of the powv-seroreactive patients. powv disease might be less neuroinvasive than previously thought.201728726610
lyme borreliosis in finland, 1995-2014.we investigated the epidemiology of lyme borreliosis (lb) in finland for the period 1995-2014 by using data from 3 different healthcare registers. we reviewed data on disseminated lb cases from the national infectious diseases register (21,051 cases) and the national hospital discharge register (10,402 cases) and data on primary lb (erythema migrans) cases from the register for primary health care visits (11,793 cases). incidence of microbiologically confirmed disseminated lb cases increased fro ...201728726624
brave new worlds: the expanding universe of lyme disease.projections around the globe suggest an increase in tick-vectored disease incidence and distribution, and the potential for emergence of novel tick-borne pathogens. lyme disease is the most common reported tick-borne illness in the unites states and is prevalent throughout much of central europe. in recent years, the worldwide burden of lyme disease has increased and extended into regions and countries where the disease was not previously reported. in this review, we discuss the trends for incre ...201728727515
infectious diseases causing autonomic review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction.201728730326
bactericidal activity of octenidine to various genospecies of borrelia burgdorferi, sensu lato spirochetes in vitro and in vivo.the aim of our studies was to invent a reliable method for detection of the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against borrelia burgdorferi in suspension (in vitro) and in cell line cultures (in vivo). in the suspension method, 0.01% octenidine at 20°c and 35°c was bactericidal to borrelia afzeli; borrelia garini, b. burgdorferi sensu stricto after 5 minutes treatment. increase of the temperature to 35°c speed up the bactericidal effect to 1 minute. the bactericidal action of octenidine towa ...201728735308
lyme and dopaminergic function: hypothesizing reduced reward deficiency symptomatology by regulating dopamine transmission.the principal vector of lyme disease in the united states is ixodes scapularis: black legged or deer ticks. there is increased evidence that those infected may be plagued by anxiety or depression as well. researchers have identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks, which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. it is hypothesized that protracted lyme disease sequelae may be due to impairment of dopaminergic function of the brain reward ci ...201728736624
predicting the risk of lyme borreliosis after a tick bite, using a structural equation model.understanding and quantification of the risk of lyme borreliosis after a tick bite can aid development of prevention strategies against lyme borreliosis.201728742149
deceptive lyme disease diagnosis linked with serious infections. 201728742918
detection of lyme disease causing borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in questing ixodes ricinus ticks on jersey. 201728751172
bioassays to evaluate non-contact spatial repellency, contact irritancy, and acute toxicity of permethrin-treated clothing against nymphal ixodes scapularis ticks.summer-weight clothing articles impregnated with permethrin are available as a personal protective measure against human-biting ticks in the united states. however, very few studies have addressed the impact of contact with summer-weight permethrin-treated textiles on tick vigor and behavior. our aim was to generate new knowledge of how permethrin-treated textiles impact nymphal ixodes scapularis ticks, the primary vectors in the eastern united states of the causative agents of lyme disease, hum ...201728754599
improved serodiagnostic performance for lyme disease by use of two recombinant proteins in elisa as compared to standardized two tier testing.the most reliable test method for the serological confirmation of lyme disease (ld) is a 2-tiered method recommended by the cdc in 1995. the first-tier test is a low specificity elisa test and the second-tier tests are higher specificity igg and igm western blots. this study describes the selection of two borrelia burgdorferi-recombinant proteins and evaluation of their performance in a simple 1-tier test for the serological confirmation of ld. these two proteins were generated from (a) the full ...201728768731
interactions between host immune response and antigenic variation that control borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics.the population dynamics of pathogens within hosts result from interactions between host immune responses and mechanisms of the pathogen to evade or resist immune responses. vertebrate hosts have evolved adaptive immune responses to eliminate the infection, while many pathogens evade immune clearance through altering surface antigens. such interactions can result in a characteristic pattern of pathogen population dynamics within hosts consisting of population growth after infection, rapid populat ...201728771127
modulation of the tick gut milieu by a secreted tick protein favors borrelia burgdorferi colonization.the lyme disease agent, borrelia burgdorferi, colonizes the gut of the tick ixodes scapularis, which transmits the pathogen to vertebrate hosts including humans. here we show that b. burgdorferi colonization increases the expression of several tick gut genes including pixr, encoding a secreted gut protein with a reeler domain. rna interference-mediated silencing of pixr, or immunity against pixr in mice, impairs the ability of b. burgdorferi to colonize the tick gut. pixr inhibits bacterial biof ...201728775250
seroprevalence and risk factors associated with ehrlichia canis, anaplasma spp., borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and d. immitis in hunting dogs from southern italy.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods. the present study investigates ehrlichia canis, anaplasma spp., borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and dirofilaria immitis seroprevalences in hunting dogs from southern italy. dogs (no. 1335) were tested using a commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. odds ratios (ors) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. overall, 138/1335 dogs (10.3%) ...201728776227
impact of life stage-dependent dispersal on the colonization dynamics of host patches by ticks and tick-borne infectious agents.when colonization and gene flow depend on host-mediated dispersal, a key factor affecting vector dispersal potential is the time spent on the host for the blood meal, a characteristic that can vary strongly among life history stages. using a 2-patch vector-pathogen population model and seabird ticks as biological examples, we explore how vector colonization rates and the spread of infectious agents may be shaped by life stage-dependent dispersal. we contrast hard (ixodidae) and soft (argasidae) ...201728778181
[research progress in laboratory diagnosis of lyme disease]. 201728780833
leptospira spp. vaccinal antibodies do not react with borrelia burgdorferi peptides used in the accuplex 4.we attempted to determine if leptospira spp. antibodies induced by vaccination would cross-react with borrelia burgdorferi antigens used in a commercial automated immunofluorescent assay (accuplex 4 biocd; antech). staff- and student-owned dogs ( n = 31) were recruited at a veterinary teaching hospital in a b. burgdorferi nonendemic area. the dogs were randomized and administered 1 of 4 commercial leptospira spp. vaccines that contained serovars canicola, grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, and ...201728782459
the humtick study: protocol for a prospective cohort study on post-treatment lyme disease syndrome and the disease and cost burden of lyme borreliosis in belgium, different routine surveillance systems are in place to follow-up lyme borreliosis trends. however, accurate data on the disease and monetary burden for the different clinical manifestations are lacking. despite recommended antibiotic treatment, a proportion of lyme patients report persisting aspecific symptoms for six months or more (e.g. fatigue, widespread musculoskeletal pain, cognitive difficulties), a syndrome now named "post-treatment lyme disease syndrome" (ptlds). controversy ...201728794875
detecting and attributing health burdens to climate change.detection and attribution of health impacts caused by climate change uses formal methods to determine a) whether the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has changed, and b) the extent to which that change could be attributed to climate change. there have been limited efforts to undertake detection and attribution analyses in health.201728796635
ecological factors influencing small mammal infection by anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in agricultural and forest landscapes.small mammals are key components of numerous tick-borne disease systems, as hosts for immature ticks and pathogen reservoirs. to study the factors influencing tick-borne infection in small mammals, we trapped small mammals and collected questing ticks in spring and autumn in 2012 and 2013 at 24 sites in a 10x15 km rural landscapes (brittany, france). tissue samples were screened by real-time pcr for anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. of the two dominant small mammal s ...201728799685
exposure to vector-borne pathogens in privately owned dogs living in different socioeconomic settings in brazil.this survey was conducted in four brazilian cities, from three federative units (pernambuco, minas gerais, and federal district), representing different socioeconomic settings, to determine the presence of antibodies to or antigens and dna of selected pathogens in privately owned dogs. from january to april 2015, blood and serum samples were collected and assayed using different tests. in particular, antibodies to anaplasma spp., borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and ehrlichia spp., and antigens ...201728807290
metabolic differentiation of early lyme disease from southern tick-associated rash illness (stari).lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the united states, results from infection with borrelia burgdorferi. early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. this, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (stari), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is coprevalent with lyme dise ...201728814545
suicidal and homicidal tendencies after lyme disease: an ignored problem. 201728814875
postinfectious anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody positive optic neuritis and myelitis.we report the case of a 9-year-old girl admitted with fever, headache, and a cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytic pleocytosis. polymerase chain reaction was positive for human herpes virus 6. she subsequently developed ataxia and bilateral loss of vision. magnetic resonance imaging (mri) showed bilateral optic nerve lesions with extension to optic chiasm and a short-segment myelitis. serologic studies were positive for borrelia burgdorferi igm. anti-aquaporin 4 antibody was negative and anti-myelin o ...201728820014
nonpyrogenic molecular adjuvants based on norabu-muramyldipeptide and norabu-glucosaminyl muramyldipeptide: synthesis, molecular mechanisms of action, biological activities in vitro and in vivo.apyrogenic fatty acyl analogues of muramyldipeptide (mdp) (abbreviated n-l18norabugmdp, n-b30norabugmdp, norabumdp-lys(l18), norabumdp-lys(b30), norabugmdp-lys(l18), norabugmdp-lys(b30), (b30)norabumdp, (l18)norabumdp) were designed and synthesized comprising the normuramyl-l-α-aminobutanoyl (norabu) structural moiety. all new analogues show depressed pyrogenicity both as free compounds and in liposomal formulations when tested in vivo in rabbits (s.c. and i.v. application). the potency of analo ...201728829599
two distinct mechanisms govern rpos-mediated repression of tick-phase genes during mammalian host adaptation by borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease spirochete.the alternative sigma factor rpos plays a key role modulating gene expression in borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease spirochete, by transcribing mammalian host-phase genes and repressing σ(70)-dependent genes required within the arthropod vector. to identify cis regulatory elements involved in rpos-dependent repression, we analyzed green fluorescent protein (gfp) transcriptional reporters containing portions of the upstream regions of the prototypical tick-phase genes ospab, the glp operon, a ...201728830947
sleeper cells: the stringent response and persistence in the borreliella (borrelia) burgdorferi enzootic cycle.infections with tick-transmitted borreliella (borrelia) burgdorferi, the cause of lyme disease, represent an increasingly large public health problem in north america and europe. the ability of these spirochetes to maintain themselves for extended periods of time in their tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs is crucial for continuance of the enzootic cycle as well as for the increasing exposure of humans to them. the stringent response mediated by the alarmone (p)ppgpp has been determined to b ...201728836724
chronic lyme disease: an unresolved controversy. 201728838739
the role of host immune cells and borrelia burgdorferi antigens in the etiology of lyme disease.lyme disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with bacteria belonging to the borrelia burgdorferi species after the bite of an infected tick. even though an infection by this bacterium can be effectively treated with antibiotics, when the infection stays unnoticed b. burgdorferi can persist and chronic post-treatment lyme disease syndrome is able to develop. although a cellular and humoral response is observed after an infection with the borrelia bacteria, these pathogens are still capable to s ...201728840838
prevalence of borrelia miyamotoi and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing ticks from a recreational coniferous forest of east saxony, germany.the hard tick ixodes ricinus is the most important vector of tick-transmitted pathogens in europe, frequently occurring in urban parks and greenbelts utilized for recreational activities. this species is the most common vector of the causative agents of lyme borreliosis in europe. similarly, the species spreads borrelia miyamotoi, causing a relapsing-fever like illness. a total of 1774 ixodes ricinus (50 females, 68 males, 840 nymphs and 818 larvae) were collected with flagging between march and ...201728843481
prevalence and distribution of borrelia and babesia species in ticks feeding on dogs in the u.k.ticks were collected during march-july 2015 from dogs by veterinarians throughout the u.k. and used to estimate current prevalences and distributions of pathogens. dna was extracted from 4750 ticks and subjected to polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis to identify borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) and babesia (piroplasmida: babesiidae) species. of 4737 ticks [predominantly ixodes ricinus linneaus (ixodida: ixodidae)], b. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in ...201728846148
infection of ixodes ricinus by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of france.lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. in europe, it is transmitted by ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. the objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of france (sénart, notre-dame and rambouillet). we investigated whether the introduction of tamias sibiricus in sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. moreover, the densit ...201728846709
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodes longiscutatus ticks from brazilian pampa.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex includes the agents of lyme disease/borreliosis in north america, europe, and asia, such borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia afzelii, borrelia garinii, borrelia bavariensis, borrelia spielmanii, borrelia bissettiae, and borrelia mayonii. in 2013 b. burgdorferi s.l. was reported for the first time in the neotropical region, from ixodes aragaoi ticks in uruguayan pampa. in addition, from 2011 to 2016, 17 suspected human cases of borreliosis-l ...201728847698
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