PMID(sorted ascending)
pathophysiology of ebola haemorrhagic fever. 20049850413
survey among survivors of the 1995 ebola epidemic in kikwit, democratic republic of congo: their feelings and experiences.this study describes experiences of the survivors of the 1995 ebola epidemic in kikwit, democratic republic of congo. most of the survivors in our sample had cared for a sick family member before becoming ill themselves, and most had never heard of ebola before they developed symptoms and therefore did not suspect that they were infected by the virus. fear, denial and shame were their principal initial feelings. after release from hospital, survivors were abandoned by family or friends more ofte ...19989855400
ebola virus inhibits induction of genes by double-stranded rna in endothelial cells.fatal cases of filoviral infection are accompanied by a marked immunosuppression. endothelial cells play a vital role in the host immune response through the expression of several immunomodulatory genes in addition to the expression of the antiviral genes, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase [2'-5'(a)n], and the double-stranded rna (dsrna)-activated protein kinase (pkr). dsrna, an intermediate generated during viral replication and gene transcription of many viruses, leads to the induction of immuno ...19989875327
endoproteolytic processing of the ebola virus envelope glycoprotein: cleavage is not required for function.proteolytic processing is required for the activation of numerous viral glycoproteins. here we show that the envelope glycoprotein from the zaire strain of ebola virus (ebo-gp) is proteolytically processed into two subunits, gp1 and gp2, that are likely covalently associated through a disulfide linkage. murine leukemia virions pseudotyped with ebo-gp contain almost exclusively processed glycoprotein, indicating that this is the mature form of ebo-gp. mutational analysis identified a dibasic moti ...19999882347
processing of the ebola virus glycoprotein. 19999893377
ebola virus outbreaks in the ivory coast and liberia, 1994-1995. 19999893379
comparison of the transcription and replication strategies of marburg virus and ebola virus by using artificial replication systems.the members of the family filoviridae, marburg virus (mbgv) and ebola virus (ebov), are very similar in terms of morphology, genome organization, and protein composition. to compare the replication and transcription strategies of both viruses, an artificial replication system based on the vaccinia virus t7 expression system was established for ebov. specific transcription and replication of an artificial monocistronic minireplicon was demonstrated by reporter gene expression and detection of the ...19999971816
an introduction to ebola: the virus and the disease. 19999988154
ebola hemorrhagic fever in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo: clinical observations in 103 patients.during the 1995 outbreak of ebola hemorrhagic fever in the democratic republic of the congo, a series of 103 cases (one-third of the total number of cases) had clinical symptoms and signs accurately recorded by medical workers, mainly in the setting of the urban hospital in kikwit. clinical diagnosis was confirmed retrospectively in cases for which serum samples were available (n = 63, 61% of the cases). the disease began unspecifically with fever, asthenia, diarrhea, headaches, myalgia, arthral ...19999988155
epidemiologic and clinical aspects of the ebola virus epidemic in mosango, democratic republic of the congo, 1995.twenty-three ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) cases (15 males, 8 females) were identified in mosango, democratic republic of the congo; 18 (78%) of them died. eight of the patients came from kikwit general hospital and were hospitalized at mosango general hospital, 10 acquired their infection at the mosango hospital and were treated there, and 5 acquired their infection through contact with a hospitalized patient but were never hospitalized themselves. for most of the ehf cases, it was clear that t ...19999988156
ebola hemorrhagic fever and pregnancy.fifteen (14%) of 105 women with ebola hemorrhagic fever hospitalized in the isolation unit of the kikwit general hospital (democratic republic of the congo) were pregnant. in 10 women (66%) the pregnancy ended with an abortion. in 3 of them, a curettage was performed, and all 3 received a blood transfusion from an apparently healthy person. one woman was prematurely delivered of a stillbirth. four pregnant women died during the third trimester of their pregnancy. all women presented with severe ...19999988157
late ophthalmologic manifestations in survivors of the 1995 ebola virus epidemic in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo.three (15%) of 20 survivors of the 1995 ebola outbreak in the democratic republic of the congo enrolled in a follow-up study and 1 other survivor developed ocular manifestations after being asymptomatic for 1 month. patients complained of ocular pain, photophobia, hyperlacrimation, and loss of visual acuity. ocular examination revealed uveitis in all 4 patients. all patients improved with a topical treatment of 1% atropine and steroids.19999988158
isolated case of ebola hemorrhagic fever with mucormycosis complications, kinshasa, democratic republic of the congo.a patient with undiagnosed ebola (ebo) hemorrhagic fever (ehf) was transferred from kikwit to a private clinic in kinshasa, democratic republic of the congo. a diagnosis of ehf was suspected on clinical grounds and was confirmed by detection of ebo virus-specific igm and igg in serum of the patient. during the course of the disease, although she had no known predisposing factors, the patient developed a periorbital mucormycosis abscess on eyelid tissue that was biopsied during surgical drainage; ...19999988159
treatment of ebola hemorrhagic fever with blood transfusions from convalescent patients. international scientific and technical committee.between 6 and 22 june 1995, 8 patients in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, who met the case definition used in kikwit for ebola (ebo) hemorrhagic fever, were transfused with blood donated by 5 convalescent patients. the donated blood contained igg ebo antibodies but no ebo antigen. ebo antigens were detected in all the transfusion recipients just before transfusion. the 8 transfused patients had clinical symptoms similar to those of other ebo patients seen during the epidemic. all were ...19999988160
ebola hemorrhagic fever, democratic republic of the congo, 1995: determinants of may 1995, an international team characterized and contained an outbreak of ebola hemorrhagic fever in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo. this study reports the descriptive features of this outbreak along with a statistical analysis of the outbreak data. proportional hazards analysis was used to examine the effect of age, phase of the outbreak, and sex on the risk of death, and a conditional probability analysis was used to examine the effectiveness of whole blood transfusion from conva ...19999988161
clinical, virologic, and immunologic follow-up of convalescent ebola hemorrhagic fever patients and their household contacts, kikwit, democratic republic of the congo. commission de lutte contre les epidémies à kikwit.a cohort of convalescent ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) patients and their household contacts (hhcs) were studied prospectively to determine if convalescent body fluids contain ebola virus and if secondary transmission occurs during convalescence. twenty-nine ehf convalescents and 152 hhcs were monitored for up to 21 months. blood specimens were obtained and symptom information was collected from convalescents and their hhcs; other body fluid specimens were also obtained from convalescents. arthr ...19999988162
a novel immunohistochemical assay for the detection of ebola virus in skin: implications for diagnosis, spread, and surveillance of ebola hemorrhagic fever. commission de lutte contre les epidémies à kikwit.laboratory diagnosis of ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) is currently performed by virus isolation and serology and can be done only in a few high-containment laboratories worldwide. in 1995, during the ehf outbreak in the democratic republic of congo, the possibility of using immunohistochemistry (ihc) testing of formalin-fixed postmortem skin specimens was investigated as an alternative diagnostic method for ehf. fourteen of 19 cases of suspected ehf met the surveillance definition for ehf and we ...19999988163
human infection due to ebola virus, subtype côte d'ivoire: clinical and biologic november 1994 after 15 years of epidemiologic silence, ebola virus reemerged in africa and, for the first time, in west africa. in côte d'ivoire, a 34-year-old female ethologist was infected while conducting a necropsy on a wild chimpanzee. eight days later, the patient developed a syndrome that did not respond to antimalarial drugs and was characterized by high fever, headache, chills, myalgia, and cough. the patient had abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and a macular rash, and was repatri ...19999988164
histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of lesions associated with ebola virus in a naturally infected chimpanzee.lesions caused by the côte d'ivoire subtype of ebola virus in a naturally infected young chimpanzee were characterized by histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. the predominant lesions consisted of multifocal necrosis in the liver and diffuse fibrinoid necrosis in the red pulp of the spleen. in these sites, macrophages contained large eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. immunohistochemical staining indicated that macrophages were a major site of viral replication. the abs ...19999988165
ebola between outbreaks: intensified ebola hemorrhagic fever surveillance in the democratic republic of the congo, 1981-1985.surveillance for ebola hemorrhagic fever was conducted in the democratic republic of the congo from 1981 to 1985 to estimate the incidence of human infection. persons who met the criteria of one of three different case definitions were clinically evaluated, and blood was obtained for antibody confirmation by ifa. contacts of each case and 4 age- and sex-matched controls were also clinically examined and tested for immunofluorescent antibody. twenty-one cases of ebola infection (persons with an a ...19999988166
ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in gabon, 1994-1997: epidemiologic and health control issues.from the end of 1994 to the beginning of 1995, 49 patients with hemorrhagic symptoms were hospitalized in the makokou general hospital in northeastern gabon. yellow fever (yf) virus was first diagnosed in serum by use of polymerase chain reaction followed by blotting, and a vaccination campaign was immediately instituted. the epidemic, known as the fall 1994 epidemic, ended 6 weeks later. however, some aspects of this epidemic were atypical of yf infection, so a retrospective check for other eti ...19999988167
the reemergence of ebola hemorrhagic fever, democratic republic of the congo, 1995. commission de lutte contre les epidémies à may 1995, an international team characterized and contained an outbreak of ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo. active surveillance was instituted using several methods, including house-to-house search, review of hospital and dispensary logs, interview of health care personnel, retrospective contact tracing, and direct follow-up of suspect cases. in the field, a clinical case was defined as fever and hemorrhagic signs, fever plus contact with a case-patie ...19999988168
transmission of ebola hemorrhagic fever: a study of risk factors in family members, kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, 1995. commission de lutte contre les epidémies à kikwit.the surviving members of 27 households in which someone had been infected with ebola virus were interviewed in order to define the modes of transmission of ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf). of 173 household contacts of the primary cases, 28 (16%) developed ehf. all secondary cases had direct physical contact with the ill person (rate ratio [rr], undefined; p < .001), and among those with direct contact, exposure to body fluids conferred additional risk (rr, 3.6; 95% confidence interval [ci], 1.9-6. ...19999988169
ebola hemorrhagic fever, kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, 1995: risk factors for patients without a reported 1995, 316 people became ill with ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo. the exposure source was not reported for 55 patients (17%) at the start of this investigation, and it remained unknown for 12 patients after extensive epidemiologic evaluation. both admission to a hospital and visiting a person with fever and bleeding were risk factors associated with infection. nineteen patients appeared to have been exposed while visiting someone with suspected ehf, a ...19999988170
serologic survey among hospital and health center workers during the ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, 1995.from may to july 1995, a serologic and interview survey was conducted to describe ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) among personnel working in 5 hospitals and 26 health care centers in and around kikwit, democratic republic of the congo. job-specific attack rates estimated for kikwit general hospital, the epicenter of the ehf epidemic, were 31% for physicians, 11% for technicians/room attendants, 10% for nurses, and 4% for other workers. among 402 workers who did not meet the ehf case definition, 12 ...19999988171
prevalence of igg antibodies to ebola virus in individuals during an ebola outbreak, democratic republic of the congo, 1995.during the 1995 outbreak of ebola (ebo) hemorrhagic fever in kikwit, democratic republic of congo, two surveys using a new elisa for ebo (subtype zaire) virus antigen were conducted to assess the prevalence of ebo igg antibodies among residents of kikwit and the surrounding area. the first study determined the proportion of antibody-positive individuals who were self-identified forest and city workers from the kikwit area. serum samples from 9 (2.2%) of 414 workers had igg ebo antibodies. the se ...19999988172
ebola (subtype reston) virus among quarantined nonhuman primates recently imported from the philippines to the united april 1996, laboratory testing of imported nonhuman primates (as mandated by quarantine regulations) identified 2 cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis) infected with ebola (subtype reston) virus in a us-registered quarantine facility. the animals were part of a shipment of 100 nonhuman primates recently imported from the philippines. two additional infected animals, who were thought to be in the incubation phase, were identified among the remaining 48 animals in the affected quarantine ro ...19999988173
epidemiology of ebola (subtype reston) virus in the philippines, 1996.ebola (subtype reston [ebo-r]) virus infection was detected in macaques imported into the united states from the philippines in march 1996. studies were initiated in the philippines to identify the source of the virus among monkey-breeding and export facilities, to establish surveillance and testing, and to assess the risk and significance of ebo-r infections in humans who work in these facilities. over a 5-month period, acutely infected animals were found at only one facility, as determined usi ...19999988174
ebola virus outbreak among wild chimpanzees living in a rain forest of côte d' outbreak of ebola in nature is described for the first time. during a few weeks in november 1994, approximately 25% of 43 members of a wild chimpanzee community disappeared or were found dead in the taï national park, côte d'ivoire. a retrospective cohort study was done on the chimpanzee community. laboratory procedures included histology, immunohistochemistry, bacteriology, and serology. ebola-specific immunohistochemical staining was positive for autopsy tissue sections from 1 chimpanzee. d ...19999988175
ecology of marburg and ebola viruses: speculations and directions for future research.marburg and virulent ebola viruses are maintained in hosts that are rare and have little contact with humans or do not readily transmit virus. bats (particularly solitary microchiropteran species) are leading contenders as reservoir hosts. virus transfer to humans occurs by contact with the primary reservoir or via an intermediate animal that acquired infection from the reservoir and is, in turn, hunted by humans. an interesting possibility is that filoviruses may be arthropod or plant viruses, ...19999988176
a search for ebola virus in animals in the democratic republic of the congo and cameroon: ecologic, virologic, and serologic surveys, 1979-1980. ebola virus study teams.more than 30 years after the first outbreak of marburg virus disease in germany and yugoslavia and 20 years after ebola hemorrhagic fever first occurred in central africa, the natural history of filoviruses remains unknown. in 1979 and 1980, animals in the democratic republic of the congo and cameroon were collected during the dry season near the site of the 1976 ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic. the study objectives were to identify local animals and search for evidence of ebola virus in their ...19999988177
field investigations of an outbreak of ebola hemorrhagic fever, kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, 1995: arthropod studies.during the final weeks of a 6-month epidemic of ebola hemorrhagic fever in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, an extensive collection of arthropods was made in an attempt to learn more of the natural history of the disease. a reconstruction of the activities of the likely primary case, a 42-year-old man who lived in the city, indicated that he probably acquired his infection in a partly forested area 15 km from his home. collections were made throughout this area, along the route he follo ...19999988178
search for the ebola virus reservoir in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo: reflections on a vertebrate collection.a 3-month ecologic investigation was done to identify the reservoir of ebola virus following the 1995 outbreak in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo. efforts focused on the fields where the putative primary case had worked but included other habitats near kikwit. samples were collected from 3066 vertebrates and tested for the presence of antibodies to ebola (subtype zaire) virus: all tests were negative, and attempts to isolate ebola virus were unsuccessful. the investigation was hampered ...19999988179
detection and molecular characterization of ebola viruses causing disease in human and nonhuman primates.ebola (ebo) viruses were detected in specimens obtained during the hemorrhagic fever outbreak among humans in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo (drc), in 1995 (subtype zaire) and during an outbreak of disease in cynomolgus macaques in alice, texas, and the philippines in 1996 (subtype reston). reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays were developed and proven effective for detecting viral rna in body fluids and tissues of infected individuals. little change was seen in the n ...19999988180
persistence and genetic stability of ebola virus during the outbreak in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, 1995.ebola virus persistence was examined in body fluids from 12 convalescent patients by virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) during the 1995 ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo. virus rna could be detected for up to 33 days in vaginal, rectal, and conjunctival swabs of 1 patient and up to 101 days in the seminal fluid of 4 patients. infectious virus was detected in 1 seminal fluid sample obtained 82 days after disease ...19999988181
clinical virology of ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf): virus, virus antigen, and igg and igm antibody findings among ehf patients in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, 1995.ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) patients treated at kikwit general hospital during the 1995 outbreak were tested for viral antigen, igg and igm antibody, and infectious virus. viral antigen could be detected in virtually all patients during the acute phase of illness, while antibody was not always detectable before death. virus was also isolated from patients during the course of their febrile illness, but attempts to quantify virus in vero e6 cells by standard plaque assay were often unsuccessful ...19999988182
markedly elevated levels of interferon (ifn)-gamma, ifn-alpha, interleukin (il)-2, il-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha associated with fatal ebola virus infection.the role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) remains to be elucidated. in this report, the serum cytokine levels of patients who died of ehf were compared with those of patients who recovered and those of control patients. a marked elevation of interferon (ifn)-gamma levels (>100 pg/ml) was observed in sequential serum samples from all fatal ehf cases compared with patients who recovered or controls. markedly elevated serum levels of interleukin (il)-2, il-1 ...19999988183
elisa for the detection of antibodies to ebola viruses.eias for igg and igm antibodies directed against ebola (ebo) viral antigens have been developed and evaluated using sera of animals and humans surviving infection with ebo viruses. the igm capture assay detected anti-ebo (subtype reston) antibodies in the sera of 5 of 5 experimentally infected animals at the time they succumbed to lethal infections. igm antibodies were also detected in the serum of a human who was infected with ebo (subtype reston) during a postmortem examination of an infected ...19999988184
an analysis of features of pathogenesis in two animal models of ebola virus infection.virus reproduction and the time course of changes in liver and kidney functions and in the blood clotting system were studied in the visceral organs of green monkeys and baboons infected with ebola virus (subtype zaire). it was shown that monocytes and macrophages were the first cells to be infected with the virus, followed by hepatocytes, adrenocorticocytes, fibroblasts, and endotheliocytes. the early and late pathologic changes in the monkey organs are described. biochemical data on changes in ...19999988185
pathogenesis of experimental ebola virus infection in guinea pigs.the subtype zaire of ebola (ebo) virus (mayinga strain) was adapted to produce lethal infections in guinea pigs. in many ways, the disease was similar to ebo infections in nonhuman primates and humans. the guinea pig model was used to investigate the pathologic events in ebo infection that lead to death. analytical methods included immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system, primarily macrophages, were identified as the early a ...19999988186
preparation and use of hyperimmune serum for prophylaxis and therapy of ebola virus obtain hyperimmune serum appropriate for the treatment of filovirus infection, methods were developed to immunize nonsusceptible animals with live ebola (ebo) virus preparations. immune plasma with high elisa and neutralization-specific antibody titers was obtained by multiple immunization of sheep and goats with preparations of live ebo virus. goat immunoglobulin was prepared by cohn's method and tested on guinea pigs, using an ebo virus strain that is highly pathogenic for guinea pigs. prop ...19999988187
evaluation of immune globulin and recombinant interferon-alpha2b for treatment of experimental ebola virus infections.a passive immunization strategy for treating ebola virus infections was evaluated using balb/ c mice, strain 13 guinea pigs, and cynomolgus monkeys. guinea pigs were completely protected by injection of hyperimmune equine igg when treatment was initiated early but not after viremia had developed. in contrast, mice were incompletely protected even when treatment was initiated on day 0, the day of virus inoculation. in monkeys treated with one dose of igg on day 0, onset of illness and viremia was ...19999988188
recombinant human monoclonal antibodies to ebola virus.human fab (igg1kappa) phage display libraries were constructed from bone marrow rna from 2 donors who recovered from infection with ebola (ebo) virus during the 1995 outbreak in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo. the libraries were initially panned against a radiation-inactivated ebo virus-infected vero cell lysate, but only weak binders were identified. in contrast, panning against secreted ebo glycoprotein (sgp) resulted in fabs showing very strong reactivity with sgp in elisa. these fa ...19999988189
antiviral drug therapy of filovirus infections: s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors inhibit ebola virus in vitro and in a lethal mouse model.ebola (subtype zaire) viral replication was inhibited in vitro by a series of nine nucleoside analogue inhibitors of s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, an important target for antiviral drug development. adult balb/c mice lethally infected with mouse-adapted ebola virus die 5-7 days after infection. treatment initiated on day 0 or 1 resulted in dose-dependent protection, with mortality completely prevented at doses > or =0.7 mg/kg every 8 h. there was significant protection (90%) when treatment w ...19999988190
a mouse model for evaluation of prophylaxis and therapy of ebola hemorrhagic fever.the zaire subtype of ebola virus (ebo-z) is lethal for newborn mice, but adult mice are resistant to the virus, which prevents their use as an animal model of lethal ebola infection. we serially passed ebo-z virus in progressively older suckling mice, eventually obtaining a plaque-purified virus that was lethal for mature, immunocompetent balb/c and c57bl/6 inbred and icr (cd-1) outbred mice. pathologic changes in the liver and spleen of infected mice resembled those in ebo-z-infected primates. ...19999988191
ebola outbreak in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo: discovery and control measures.the ebola epidemic in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, was recognized because of a nosocomial outbreak in kikwit general hospital. initially, a diagnosis of shigella infection was suspected because many patients presented with bloody diarrhea. on 4 may 1995, blood samples from 14 acutely ill patients were sent to the centers for disease control and prevention (atlanta), and on 9 may, a diagnosis of ebola hemorrhagic fever was confirmed. the major disease control measures that were under ...19999988192
interventions to control virus transmission during an outbreak of ebola hemorrhagic fever: experience from kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, 1995.on 6 may 1995, the médecins sans frontières (msf) coordinator in kinshasa, democratic republic of the congo (drc), received a request for assistance for what was believed to be a concurrent outbreak of bacillary dysentery and viral hemorrhagic fever (suspected ebola hemorrhagic fever [ehf]) in the town of kikwit, drc. on 11 may, the msf intervention team assessed kikwit general hospital. this initial assessment revealed a nonfunctional isolation ward for suspected ehf cases; a lack of water and ...19999988193
organization of patient care during the ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, contrast with procedures in previous ebola outbreaks, patient care during the 1995 outbreak in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, was centralized for a large number of patients. on 4 may, before the diagnosis of ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) was confirmed by the centers for disease control and prevention, an isolation ward was created at kikwit general hospital. on 11 may, an international scientific and technical committee established as a priority the improvement of hygienic conditio ...19999988194
long-term disease surveillance in bandundu region, democratic republic of the congo: a model for early detection and prevention of ebola hemorrhagic fever.after the large-scale outbreak of ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) in bandundu region, democratic republic of the congo, a program was developed to help detect and prevent future outbreaks of ehf in the region. the long-term surveillance and prevention strategy is based on early recognition by physicians, immediate initiation of enhanced barrier-nursing practices, and the use of an immunohistochemical diagnostic test performed on formalin-fixed skin specimens of patients who die of suspected viral ...19999988195
us policy for disease control among imported nonhuman 1990, in response to the occurrence of ebola virus (subsequently identified as subtype reston) infection among cynomolgus monkeys imported from the philippines, the united states implemented strict disease control measures for handling nonhuman primates during transit and quarantine and initiated importer facility compliance inspections. disease control measures emphasized protection of workers from exposure, use of containment facilities and procedures, measures to prevent spread of infectio ...19999988196
ebola hemorrhagic fever: lessons from kikwit, democratic republic of the congo.the outbreak of ebola hemorrhagic fever in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo, clearly signaled an end to the days when physicians and researchers could work in relative obscurity on problems of international importance, and it provided many lessons to the international public health and scientific communities. in particular, the outbreak signaled a need for stronger infectious disease surveillance and control worldwide, for improved international preparedness to provide support when simil ...19999988197
gleanings from the harvest: suggestions for priority actions against ebola virus epidemics. 19999988198
characteristics of filoviridae: marburg and ebola viruses.filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded rna viruses. the two species, marburg and ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in europe in 1967, and ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern sudan and northern zaire. although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filo ...199910024977
characterization of the l gene and 5' trailer region of ebola virus.the nucleotide sequences of the l gene and 5' trailer region of ebola virus strain mayinga (subtype zaire) have been determined, thus completing the sequence of the ebola virus genome. the putative transcription start signal of the l gene was identical to the determined 5' terminus of the l mrna (5' gaggaagauuaa) and showed a high degree of similarity to the corresponding regions of other ebola virus genes. the 3' end of the l mrna terminated with 5' auuauaaaaaa, a sequence which is distinct fro ...199910073695
ebola virus selectively inhibits responses to interferons, but not to interleukin-1beta, in endothelial cells.ebola virus infection is highly lethal and leads to severe immunosuppression. in this study, we demonstrate that infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvecs) with ebola virus zaire (ez) suppressed basal expression of the major histocompatibility complex class i (mhc i) family of proteins and inhibited the induction of multiple genes by alpha interferon (ifn-alpha) and ifn-gamma, including those coding for mhc i proteins, 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase [2'-5'(a)n], and ifn regula ...199910074208
core structure of the envelope glycoprotein gp2 from ebola virus at 1.9-a resolution.ebola virions contain a surface transmembrane glycoprotein (gp) that is responsible for binding to target cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and host-cell membranes. gp is expressed as a single-chain precursor that is posttranslationally processed into the disulfide-linked fragments gp1 and gp2. the gp2 subunit is thought to mediate membrane fusion. a soluble fragment of the gp2 ectodomain, lacking the fusion-peptide region and the transmembrane helix, folds into a stable, highly helical s ...199910077567
[ebola hemorrhagic fever and marburg virus disease: their virological and clinical aspects]. 199910088344
the role of ems systems in public health emergencies.until now, the public health response to the threat of an epidemic has involved coordination of efforts between federal agencies, local health departments, and individual hospitals, with no defined role for prehospital emergency medical services (ems) providers.201110166372
[effects of repeated administration of ebola virus preparations on dynamics of immunologic parameters]. 199910190013
surviving ebola virus infection. 199910202917
defective humoral responses and extensive intravascular apoptosis are associated with fatal outcome in ebola virus-infected patients.ebola virus is very pathogenic in humans. it induces an acute hemorrhagic fever that leads to death in about 70% of patients. we compared the immune responses of patients who died from ebola virus disease with those who survived during two large outbreaks in 1996 in gabon. in survivors, early and increasing levels of igg, directed mainly against the nucleoprotein and the 40-kda viral protein, were followed by clearance of circulating viral antigen and activation of cytotoxic t cells, which was i ...199910202932
ebola: the virus and the disease. 199910207327
[intramuscular injections in sub-saharan african children, apropos of a frequently misunderstood pathology: the complications related to intramuscular quinine injections].in west africa, the incidence of poliomyelitis has decreased in the past years thanks to intensive immunization campaigns. nowadays intramuscular injection is the main reason for paralysis of the legs in african children as well as attendance at rehabilitation centres. intramuscular injection of quinine is the most frequently reported. faced with the lack of sterile material, health workers do not rationalize the use of intramuscular injections. although the use of the same needle has decreased, ...199910214519
risk for ebola virus infection in côte d'ivoire. 200910221898
sicarius (six-eyed crab spider): a homeopathic treatment for ebola haemorrhagic fever and disseminated intravascular coagulation? 199910228601
structural basis for membrane fusion by enveloped viruses.enveloped viruses such as hiv-1, influenza virus, and ebola virus express a surface glycoprotein that mediates both cell attachment and fusion of viral and cellular membranes. the membrane fusion process leads to the release of viral proteins and the rna genome into the host cell, initiating an infectious cycle. this review focuses on the hiv-1 gp41 membrane fusion protein and discusses the structural similarities of viral membrane fusion proteins from diverse families such as retroviridae (hiv- ...199910332732
are the fusion processes involved in birth, life and death of the cell depending on tilted insertion of peptides into membranes?various peptide segments have been modeled as asymmetric amphipathic alpha-helices. theoretical calculations have shown that they insert obliquely into model membranes. they have been named "tilted peptides". molecular modeling results reported here also evidence the presence of tilted peptides in adm-1 protein of caenorhabditis elegans that may be involved in fusion events, in meltrin alpha, a protein implicated in myoblast fusion, in hemagglutinin of influenza virus, in the e2 glycoprotein of ...199910339392
leptospirosis and ebola virus infection in five gold-panning villages in northeastern exhaustive epidemiologic and serologic survey was carried out in five gold-panning villages situated in northeastern gabon to estimate the degree of exposure of to leptospirosis and ebola virus. the seroprevalence was 15.7% for leptospirosis and 10.2% for ebola virus. sixty years after the last seroepidemiologic survey of leptospirosis in gabon, this study demonstrates the persistence of this infection among the endemic population and the need to consider it as a potential cause of hemorrhagi ...199910348236
ebola virus can be effectively neutralized by antibody produced in natural human infection.the activity of antibodies against filoviruses is poorly understood but has important consequences for vaccine design and passive prophylaxis. to investigate this activity, a panel of recombinant human monoclonal antibodies to ebola virus antigens was isolated from phage display libraries constructed from rna from donors who recovered from infection in the 1995 ebola virus outbreak in kikwit, democratic republic of congo. antibodies reactive with nucleoprotein (np), envelope glycoprotein (gp), a ...199910364354
threat to humans from virus infections of non-human primates.several hundred distinct non human primate species are recognised, and they are likely to harbour a similar range of viruses to humans. simians such as cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, african green monkeys, and marmosets are widely used for biomedical research, but despite this extensive close contact very few simian viruses have been shown to pose a threat of infection or illness to humans. herpesvirus simiae is the best recognised zoonotic hazard of simians. it is an alphaherpes virus of asiat ...199710398488
suppressive effect of ebola virus on t cell proliferation in vitro is provided by a 125-kda gp viral protein.ebola virus (ev), an extremely infectious pathogen, causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. the disease pattern includes damage of parenchymal cells of vital organs in association with hemostatic and immune disorders. vaccination with the inactivated virions does not provide an effective immune protection against the disease. the inadequate immune response may be directly caused by the virus, and, hence, it may presumably be crucial in the pathogenic process and prophyla ...199910424429
emerging infectious diseases and risk to the traveler.this article examines the relationship between travel and emerging infections. the authors begin with an overview of disease emergence and follow with a brief infection-by-infection examination of selected emerging pathogens of particular relevance to travelers and the medical care providers who counsel them. emphasis is given to those agents that clearly have emerged as significant new or increased risk to travelers; or are of sufficiently new interest, even in the face of inadequate data in tr ...199910453254
cytotoxic t lymphocytes to ebola zaire virus are induced in mice by immunization with liposomes containing lipid eight amino acid sequence (telrtfsi) present in the carboxy terminal end (aa 577-584) of membrane-anchored gp, the major structural protein of ebola virus, was identified as an h-2k-specific murine cytotoxic t cell epitope. cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) to this epitope were induced by immunizing mice intravenously with either irradiated ebola virus or with irradiated ebola virus encapsulated in liposomes containing lipid a. the ctl response induced by irradiated ebola virus could not ...199910462234
the glycoproteins of marburg and ebola virus and their potential roles in pathogenesis.filoviruses cause systemic infections that can lead to severe hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates. the primary target of the virus appears to be the mononuclear phagocytic system. as the virus spreads through the organism, the spectrum of target cells increases to include endothelial cells, fibroblasts, hepatocytes, and many other cells. there is evidence that the filovirus glycoprotein plays an important role in cell tropism, spread of infection, and pathogenicity. biosynthesis of ...199910470276
mutational analysis of the putative fusion domain of ebola virus glycoprotein.ebola viruses contain a single glycoprotein (gp) spike, which functions as a receptor binding and membrane fusion protein. it contains a highly conserved hydrophobic region (amino acids 524 to 539) located 24 amino acids downstream of the n terminus of the ebola virus gp2 subunit. comparison of this region with the structural features of the transmembrane subunit of avian retroviral gps suggests that the conserved ebola virus hydrophobic region may, in fact, serve as the fusion peptide. to test ...199910482652
procedures utilized for primate import quarantine at the international center for gibbon studies.the intent of the foreign quarantine requirements (42 cfr 71.53) for nonhuman primates (nhps) is to prevent the importation of potentially serious infectious diseases that are not endemic to the united states. in 1990, prompted by an outbreak of ebola (reston) hemorrhagic fever at an (nhp) quarantine facility, the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) initiated unannounced inspections of all nhp importers' quarantine facilities. during the inspections, the majority did not meet the re ...199910484134
[emergence of "new" viral zoonoses].in the last two to three decades a significant increase of viral zoonotic infections was observed. these zoonoses are not only newly (or previously unrecognized) emerging diseases, but also due to the reappearance of diseases thought to have been defeated (re-emerging diseases). "new" viral diseases can arise when viruses broaden their host-range (monkey poxvirus; equine morbillivirus), or can be a consequence of intrinsic properties of the virus itself, such as high mutation rates (influenza a ...199910488638
ebola virus defective interfering particles and persistent infection.ebola virus (zaire subtype) is associated with high mortality disease outbreaks that commonly involve human to human transmission. surviving patients can show evidence of prolonged virus persistence. the potential for ebola virus to generate defective interfering (di) particles and establish persistent infections in tissue culture was investigated. it was found that serial undiluted virus passages quickly resulted in production of an evolving population of virus minireplicons possessing both del ...199910489346
lassa and mopeia virus replication in human monocytes/macrophages and in endothelial cells: different effects on il-8 and tnf-alpha gene expression.cells of the mononuclear and endothelial lineages are targets for viruses which cause hemorrhagic fevers (hf) such as the filoviruses marburg and ebola, and the arenaviruses lassa and junin. a recent model of marburg hf pathogenesis proposes that virus directly causes endothelial cell damage and macrophage release of tnf-alpha which increases the permeability of endothelial monolayers [feldmann et al. , 1996]. we show that lassa virus replicates in human monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cel ...199910534741
[effect of an infections dose of the ebola virus on survivability and immunologic indicators in guinea pigs].analysis of the time course of immunological parameters in intact guinea pigs and animals immunized with inactivated ebola virus (ev) inoculated with high and low doses of ev strain lethal for guinea pigs showed that high doses induced a higher resistance of the lymphocytic component of immunity than low doses, but activation of the neutrophil phagocytosis was far less expressed after high doses than after low ones. this indicates a qualitative effect of the infective dose of ev on the developme ...199910544449
identification of ebola virus sequences present as rna or dna in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the central african republic.the life cycle of the ebola (ebo) virus remains enigmatic. we tested for ebo virus in the organs of 242 small mammals captured during ecological studies in the central african republic. ebo virus glycoprotein or polymerase gene sequences were detected by reverse transcription pcr in rna extracts of the organs of seven animals and by pcr in dna extract of one animal. neither live virus nor virus antigen was detected in any organ sample. direct sequencing of amplicons identified the virus as being ...199910580275
a discrete stage of baculovirus gp64-mediated membrane fusion.viral fusion protein trimers can play a critical role in limiting lipids in membrane fusion. because the trimeric oligomer of many viral fusion proteins is often stabilized by hydrophobic 4-3 heptad repeats, higher-order oligomers might be stabilized by similar sequences. there is a hydrophobic 4-3 heptad repeat contiguous to a putative oligomerization domain of autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus envelope glycoprotein gp64. we performed mutagenesis and peptide inhibition stu ...199910588652
unsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review.unsafe injections are suspected to occur routinely in developing countries. we carried out a literature review to quantify the prevalence of unsafe injections and to assess the disease burden of bloodborne infections attributable to this practice. quantitative information on injection use and unsafe injections (defined as the reuse of syringe or needle between patients without sterilization) was obtained by reviewing the published literature and unpublished who reports. the transmissibility of h ...199910593026
delta-peptide is the carboxy-terminal cleavage fragment of the nonstructural small glycoprotein sgp of ebola the present study we have investigated processing and maturation of the nonstructural small glycoprotein (sgp) of ebola virus. when sgp expressed from vaccinia virus vectors was analyzed by pulse-chase experiments using sds-page under reducing conditions, the mature form and two different precursors have been identified. first, the endoplasmic reticulum form sgp(er), full-length sgp with oligomannosidic n-glycans, was detected, sgp(er) was then replaced by the golgi-specific precursor pre-sgp ...199910603327
ebola and the filoviruses: reducing the threat by improving third world medical care and education of aircrew members. 201010622852
ebola virus secretory glycoprotein (sgp) diminishes fc gamma riiib-to-cr3 proximity on neutrophils.previous studies have shown that ebola virus' secretory glycoprotein (sgp) binds to fc gamma riiib (cd16b) and inhibits l-selectin shedding. in this study, we test the hypothesis that sgp interferes with the physical linkage between cr3 and fc gamma riiib. neutrophils were stained with rhodamine-conjugated anti-cd16b mab (which does not inhibit sgp binding) and fluorescein-conjugated anti-cr3 mab reagents and then incubated in media with or without sgp. physical proximity between fluorochrome-la ...200010623844
latest developments in gene transfer technology: achievements, perspectives, and controversies over therapeutic applications.over the last decade, more than 300 phase i and phase ii gene-based clinical trials have been conducted worldwide for the treatment of cancer and monogenic disorders. lately, these trials have been extended to the treatment of aids and, to a lesser extent, cardiovascular diseases. there are 27 currently active gene therapy protocols for the treatment of hiv-1 infection in the usa. preclinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the possibility of increasing the number of gene therapy c ...200010661569
unexpected ebola virus in a tertiary setting: clinical and epidemiologic describe the clinical manifestations of viral hemorrhagic fever, and to increase clinicians' awareness and knowledge of these illnesses.200010667531
an outbreak of ebola virus: lessons for everyday activities in the intensive care unit. 200010667555
diagnosis of ebola haemorrhagic fever by rt-pcr in an epidemic setting.this study reports the first field evaluation of a new diagnostic technique for ebola virus disease with sensitivity and specificity. ebola virus causes rare but fulminating outbreaks in equatorial africa. rapid differentiation from other infections is critical for timely implementation of public health measures. patients usually die before developing antibodies, necessitating rapid virus detection. a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay was developed, implemented and e ...200010686031
epitopes involved in antibody-mediated protection from ebola determine the ability of antibodies to provide protection from ebola viruses, monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the ebola glycoprotein were generated and evaluated for efficacy. we identified several protective mabs directed toward five unique epitopes on ebola glycoprotein. one of the epitopes is conserved among all ebola viruses that are known to be pathogenic for humans. some protective mabs were also effective therapeutically when administered to mice 2 days after exposure to lethal ebola v ...200010698744
apoptosis induced in vitro and in vivo during infection by ebola and marburg viruses.induction of apoptosis has been documented during infection with a number of different viruses. in this study, we used transmission electron microscopy (tem) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling to investigate the effects of ebola and marburg viruses on apoptosis of different cell populations during in vitro and in vivo infections. tissues from 18 filovirus-infected nonhuman primates killed in extremis were evaluated. apoptotic lymphocyte ...200010701687
immune and pathophysiological processes in baboons experimentally infected with ebola virus adapted to guinea pigs.the dynamics of pathophysiological and immunological parameters monitored in monkeys papio hamadryas infected with the guinea pig-adapted ebola virus strain demonstrated that this viral strain preserved its virulence for monkeys and caused the disease with characteristic features similar to those caused by non-adapted ebola virus. however, certain previously unknown patterns have been observed: (1) prolongation of the febrile period by two days; (2) extended period was characterized by stability ...200010714441
antibodies that protect mice against ebola virus hold promise of vaccine and therapy for disease 200010715280
ebola and marburg virus antibody prevalence in selected populations of the central african republic.with the natural history of the filovirus family seemingly unknown, filovirus ecology in its natural environment remains a rudimentary field of research. in order to investigate the maintenance cycle of filovirus in central africa, a study was conducted within the rain forest of the central african republic. the epidemiological study determines the frequency and distribution of filovirus seroprevalence in a selected human population. using an elisa, serum samples from pygmy and non-pygmy populat ...200010717539
[is mbsl-level ward needed for the treatment of viral hemorrhagic diseases and pest?].the recently revised japanese law on infectious diseases designates pest, lassa, marburg, ebola and crimean-congo hemorrhagic diseases should be treated in an mbsl-level ward and that it should be constructed in each prefecture. however, pest can be treated with several antibiotics easily in an ordinary infectious disease ward. lassa, marburg and ebola virus diseases are endemic in tropical africa and only lassa fever was imported into japan in 1987. the probability of its importation to each pr ...200010740998
ebola haemorrhagic fever--a review. 200010762106
globalization, coca-colonization and the chronic disease epidemic: can the doomsday scenario be averted?there are at present approximately 110 million people with diabetes in the world but this number will reach over 220 million by the year 2010, the majority of them with type 2 diabetes. thus there is an urgent need for strategies to prevent the emerging global epidemic of type 2 diabetes to be implemented. tackling diabetes must be part of an integrated program that addresses lifestyle related disorders. the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes and the other major noncommunicable diseases ( ...200010762445
distinct mechanisms of entry by envelope glycoproteins of marburg and ebola (zaire) viruses.since the marburg (mbg) and ebola (ebo) viruses have sequence homology and cause similar diseases, we hypothesized that they associate with target cells by similar mechanisms. pseudotype viruses prepared with a luciferase-containing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 backbone and packaged by the mbg virus or the zaire subtype ebo virus glycoproteins (gp) mediated infection of a comparable wide range of mammalian cell types, and both were inhibited by ammonium chloride. in contrast, they exhibit ...200010775638
evolutionary conservation of the membrane fusion machine.recent structural studies of proteins mediating membrane fusion reveal intriguing similarities between diverse viral and mammalian systems. particularly striking is the close similarity between the transmembrane envelope glycoproteins from the retrovirus htlv-1 and the filovirus ebola. these similarities suggest similar mechanisms of membrane fusion. the model that fits most currently available data suggests fusion activation in viral systems is driven by a symmetrical conformational change trig ...199910794590
Displaying items 301 - 400 of 7763