PMID(sorted ascending)
[development and study of the properties of immunoglobulin against ebola fever].immunoglobulin to ebola fever has been for the first time prepared from hyperimmune equine blood sera by alcohol fractionation after cohn. preclinical study of the physicochemical and immunobiological properties of immunoglobulin showed that it protects up to 100% papio hamadryas infected intramuscularly at doses of 110 to 29 ld50 ebola virus. scheme for the use of ebola immunoglobulin has been experimentally validated.19958686265
the emergence of "emerging diseases": a lesson in holistic epidemiology.the term "emerging diseases" is a loosely defined category of entities comprising resurgent or recurrent old diseases (usually caused by "new" or mutated previously known agents), diseases truly new to man, but caused by preexisting ("old") zoonotic agents, and syndromes newly defined by the discovery of new agents through advances in biotechnology. identification and solution of these problems depends, first, on recognition of their differences, and then upon tailoring appropriate strategies fo ...19968692162
short report: lack of virus replication in arthropods after intrathoracic inoculation of ebola reston evaluate the potential for arthropods to serve as reservoir hosts of ebola virus, three mosquito species, aedes albopictus, aedes taeniorhynchus, and culex pipiens, and a soft tick, ornithodoros sonrai, were inoculated with 1o2.5 plaque-forming units of ebola reston virus. after incubation at 22 degrees c for 11 days, at least six specimens of each species were triturated and examined for evidence of viral replication by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque assay. there was no evidenc ...19968702028
lethal experimental infection of rhesus monkeys with ebola-zaire (mayinga) virus by the oral and conjunctival route of exposure.the source of infection or mode of transmission of ebola virus to human index cases of ebola fever has not been established. field observations in outbreaks of ebola fever indicate that secondary transmission of ebola virus is linked to improper needle hygiene, direct contact with infected tissue or fluid samples, and close contact with infected patients. while it is presumed that the virus infects through either breaks in the skin or contact with mucous membranes, the only two routes of exposur ...19968712894
ebola bar creates monkey shortage. 19968752264
emerging infections--ebola and other filoviruses. 19968779200
characterization of a new marburg virus isolated from a 1987 fatal case in 1987, an isolated case of fatal marburg disease was recognized during routine clinical haemorrhagic fever virus surveillance conducted in kenya. this report describes the isolation and partial characterization of the new marburg virus (strain ravn) isolated from this case. the ravn isolate was indistinguishable from reference marburg virus strains by cross-neutralization testing. virus particles and aggregates of marburg nucleocapsid matrix in ravn-infected vero cells, were visualized by immu ...19968800792
experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques with ebola-reston filoviruses from the 1989-1990 u.s. epizootic.this study describes the pathogenesis of the ebola-reston (ebo-r) subtype of ebola virus for experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys. the disease course of ebo-r in macaques was very similar to human disease and to experimental diseases in macaques following ebo-zaire and ebo-sudan infections. cynomolgus monkeys infected with ebo-r in this experiment developed anorexia, occasional nasal discharge, and splenomegaly, petechial facial hemorrhages and severe subcutaneous hemorrhages in venipunctu ...19968800793
passive immunization of ebola virus-infected cynomolgus monkeys with immunoglobulin from hyperimmune horses.a commercially available immunoglobulin g (igg) from horses, hyperimmunized to ebola virus, was evaluated for its ability to protect cynomolgus monkeys against disease following i.m. inoculation with 1 000 pfu ebola virus (zaire '95 strain). six monkeys were treated immediately after infection by i.m. infection of 6.0 ml igg; these animals developed passive elisa titers of 1:160 to 1:320 to ebola, two days afer inoculation. however, the beneficial effects of igg treatment were limited to a delay ...19968800795
emerging and reemerging of filoviruses.filoviruses are causative agents of a hemorrhagic fever in man with mortalities ranging from 22 to 88%. they are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded rna viruses and are separated into two types, marburg and ebola, which can be serologically, biochemically and genetically distinguished. in general, there is little genetic variability among viruses belonging to the marburg type. the ebola type, however, is subdivided into at least three distinct subtypes. marburg virus was first isolated dur ...19968800808
termini of all mrna species of marburg virus: sequence and secondary structure.the 3' and 5' ends of marburg virus (mbg)-specific mrna species have been determined using reverse transcription-pcr, rapid amplification of cdna ends, or the reverse ligation-mediated pcr procedure after removal of cap structures with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase. the polyadenylation sites of all mbg-specific mrnas were strictly conserved and corresponded to the predicted transcriptional stop signals of genomic rna. determination of the 5' ends of the mrna species showed that mrna synthesis sta ...19968806574
retrovirus and filovirus "immunosuppressive motif" and the evolution of virus pathogenicity in hiv-1, hiv-2, and ebola viruses.the "immunosuppressive motif" was found to be present in the glycoproteins of retroviruses and filoviruses. this sequence is also conserved in the pathogenic lentiviruses, hiv-1 and siv, and is absent from hiv-2 gp41 and from an apathogenic simian retrovirus. the present analysis deals with the possible involvement of the "immunosuppresessive motif" in the pathogenicity of retroviruses and filoviruses, and the reasons for the conservation of this motif. the ancestral gene from which the "immunos ...19958828145
evaluation of arthropod-borne viruses and other infectious disease pathogens as the causes of febrile illnesses in the khartoum province of sudan.the relative importance of arthropod-borne and other disease pathogens as the cause of an outbreak of febrile illnesses was assessed during august 1988, following severe flooding in khartoum, sudan. a total of 200 patients with acute febrile illness and 100 afebrile controls were enrolled in the study during october and november 1988; at the omdurman military hospital, khartoum, sudan. sera were tested for igm and igg antibodies to six arthropod-borne viruses by an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent ...19968835346
differentiation of filoviruses by electron microscopy.cultured monolayers of ma-104, vero 76, sw-13, and dbs-frhl-2 cells were infected with marburg (mbg), ebola-sudan (ebo-s), ebola-zaire (ebo-z), and ebola-reston (ebo-r) viruses (filoviridae, filovirus) and examined by electron microscopy to provide ultrastructural details of morphology and morphogenesis of these potential human pathogens. replication of each filovirus was seen in all cell systems employed. filoviral particles appeared to enter host cells by endocytosis. filoviruses showed a simi ...19958837880
outbreak of ebola haemorrhagic fever in gabon. 19968839188
ebola hemorrhagic fever: why were children spared? 19968852904
negative-strand rna viruses: genetic engineering and applications.the negative-strand rna viruses are a broad group of animal viruses that comprise several important human pathogens, including influenza, measles, mumps, rabies, respiratory syncytial, ebola, and hantaviruses. the development of new strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of negative-strand rna viruses has provided us with new tools to study the structure-function relationships of the viral components and their contributions to the pathogenicity of these viruses. it is also now possible ...19968876139
marburg and ebola viruses. 19968895830
reemergence of ebola virus in africa. 19958903173
are all diseases infectious?the complex interactions between microorganisms and human hosts include the well-known, traditional infectious diseases and the symbiotic relation we have with our normal flora. the media have brought to the public's attention many newly described infectious diseases, such as ebola virus hemorrhagic fever, that were not part of common medical parlance a decade ago. while flooding us with interesting and often dramatic reports of so-called emerging infectious diseases, the media have largely igno ...19968928993
ebola virus infection: an overview.the current outbreak of the ebola virus infection in africa has yet again proven that highly dangerous diseases that are transmitted via the blood-borne route may be endemic in some parts of the world and may emerge as sporadic outbreaks causing worldwide concern. health care professionals are at the forefront of combatting these diseases and treating infected individuals. though dental professionals are unlikely to be directly involved in the management of such acute infections, with very high ...19968935292
ebola haemorrhagic fever. 19968937257
in the heart of darkness: sleeping sickness in zaire.human african trypanosomiasis (hat) control programs existed during the colonial era in the belgian congo. hat cases peaked in 1930 at 33,562. they declined gradually to about 1000 cases in 1959. the civil war that erupted after zaire's independence in 1960 crippled the public health system. during 1960-1967, no active case finding was conducted and notification of hat cases fell greatly. mismanagement and corruption maintained a severe social and economic crisis after the civil war. at th ...19968937285
a novel hypothesis to explain the hemorrhagic and connective tissue manifestations of ebola virus infection.the hemorrhagic and connective tissue complications of infection with ebola virus are poorly understood. while searching for homologies and motifs of the aortic aneurysm-associated autoantigenic protein 40 kda (aaap-40), we have noted some short sequences (possibly shared epitopes) that occur in the envelope glycoprotein (40 kda) of the ebola virus. as a first step toward determining whether molecular mimicry of human matrix proteins by the ebola virus protein might explain some of the severe co ...19968938109
fears over ebola spread as nurse dies. 19968956694
perspectives in fatal epidemics.this article discusses four epidemics of fatal infectious diseases: a 1993 cluster of deaths among previously healthy persons in the southwestern united states that led to the identification of a new clinical syndrome, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; the first epidemic of ebola hemorrhagic fever identified in nearly two decades occurring in 1995 in zaire, which resulted in 317 cases with a mortality rate of 77%; an outbreak of legionnaires' disease among cruise ship passengers in 1994; and a 1989 ...19968958175
the thucydides syndrome: ebola déjà vu? (or ebola reemergent?) 19968964060
[development of the immunoenzyme test-system for detection of ebola virus antigen].an enzyme immunoassay system has been developed for the detection of ebola virus antigen. it permits a highly accurate and sensitive rapid detection of the antigen. optimal dilutions of specific immunoglobulin (1:500, corresponding to protein concentration of 50 micrograms/ml) and conjugate were found. the resolving capacity of the new test system is 1.9 x 10(-7) g protein.19968967072
occupationally acquired infections in health care workers. part care workers are at occupational risk for a vast array of infections that cause substantial illness and occasional deaths. despite this, few studies have examined the incidence, prevalence, or exposure-associated rates of infection or have considered infection-specific interventions recommended to maintain worker safety.19968967673
social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. outbreaks of ebola, aids, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. such models--which strive to incorporate change a ...20138969243
experimental inoculation of plants and animals with ebola virus.thirty-three varieties of 24 species of plants and 19 species of vertebrates and invertebrates were experimentally inoculated with ebola zaire virus. fruit and insectivorous bats supported replication and circulation of high titers of virus without necessarily becoming ill; deaths occurred only among bats that had not adapted to the diet fed in the laboratory.19968969248
[ebola virus infection]. 19968975095
ebola haemorrhagic fever. a summary of the outbreak in gabon. 19979002779
[ebola: "a fatal syndrome"].no other clinical entity has attached more attention now-a-day than those precipitated by the infection with a hemorrhagic fever virus. potentially caused by arena, bunya, flavi, and filoviradae, only the latter has had such a major impact throughout the world. two major genuses have been recognized since they become evident for the first time in 1967, the single-species marburg, and the 3-species-ebola (e. zaire, sudan and reston). with the exception of the 2 outbreaks of e. reston (washington, ...19969004731
computer simulations of proteolysis of marburg and ebola-zaire filovirus coded proteins to generate nonapeptides with motifs of known hla class i haplotypes and detection of antigenic domains in the viral glycoproteins.the primary amino acid sequences of the proteins coded by marburg and ebola-zaire filoviruses were studied by computer programs to search for putative proteolytic cleavages which yield nonapeptides with motifs of binding to known hla class i haplotypes. the computer analyses predicted that numerous nonapeptides with motifs to bind hla class i a68 and a2 haplotypes were detected. a few nonapeptides with motifs hla class i a24, b8, b27 and b35 were predicted in marburg virus proteins. a similar fi ...19969035363
konzo and ebola in bandundu region of zaire. 19979057741
[developing principles for emergency prevention and treatment of ebola fever].the authors validate the efficiency of pathogenetic approach to the development of urgent measures for the prevention and therapy of ebola fever. the virus circulating in the body is to be blocked as soon as possible and the impaired functions and systems repaired. therapy of ebola fever should be based on the earliest possible and sufficiently prolonged administration of specific immunoglobulins in combination with pathogenetic drugs.19979103042
isolation and partial molecular characterisation of a strain of ebola virus during a recent epidemic of viral haemorrhagic fever in gabon. 19979111552
identification of the ebola virus in gabon in 1994. 19979111553
isolation and phylogenetic characterization of ebola viruses causing different outbreaks in gabon.three outbreaks of ebola hemorrhagic fever have recently occurred in gabon. virus has been isolated from clinical materials from all three outbreaks, and nucleotide sequence analysis of the glycoprotein gene of the isolates and virus present in clinical samples has been carried out. these data indicate that each of the three outbreaks should be considered an independent emergence of a different ebola virus of the zaire subtype. as in earlier ebola virus outbreaks, no genetic variability was dete ...19979126445
ebola fever.ebola fever is a serious, life-threatening disease found in areas of africa, south america and asia. this update examines transmission, symptoms, diagnosis and nursing management.19969137050
computational genomic analysis of hemorrhagic fever viruses. viral selenoproteins as a potential factor in pathogenesis.a number of distinct viruses are known as hemorrhagic fever viruses based on a shared ability to induce hemorrhage by poorly understood mechanisms, typically involving the formation of blood clots ("disseminated intravascular coagulation"). it is well documented that selenium plays a significant role in the regulation of blood clotting via its effects on the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio, and effects on the complement system. selenium has an anticlotting effect, whereas selenium deficiency has ...19979152513
[study of the phagocytic ability of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rabbits and guinea pigs upon administering ebola virus].study of the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmnl) of rabbits resistant to ebola virus and guinea pigs susceptible to it, repeatedly challenged with live or inactivated ebola virus in accordance with the immunization protocols, showed a much higher phagocytic activity in animals resistant to the virus than in those susceptible to it. such behavior of pmnl in guinea pigs may be explained by the absence of the necessary cytokine background activating the neutrophils.19979182399
[false-positive reactions in laboratory diagnosis of lassa, marburg, and ebola viral hemorrhagic fevers and aids].sera of normal subjects and aids patients living in minsk and odessa were tested for antibodies to hazardous viral infections lassa, marburg, and ebola. four to 16% of examinees were seropositive to ebola virus, 0.8 to 2.3% to lassa, and up to 0.8% to marburg virus. common b-epitopes were found in viruses belonging to different families: lassa, ebola, and hiv. antibodies specific to these viruses antigens were found in the reference sera to influenza a and b, respiratory syncytial virus, and ade ...19979182402
[effect of inactivated ebola virus on colony forming activity of human hematopoietic stem cells].the effect of ebola virus antigen on the growth of hemopoietic precursors was studied. incubation of mononuclear cells with the viral antigen led to a dose-dependent decrease of erythroid colony formation but did not alter the growth of the granulocyto-macrophagal precursors. hence, ebola virus antigen is capable of directly affecting the hemopoietic activity of precursors in man by inhibiting the growth of erythroid colonies.19979182409
emergence of subtype zaire ebola virus in gabon.gabon has recently been struck three times by ebola hemorrhagic fever. the first isolate originating from the 1994 outbreak has been subjected to molecular characterization of its gp and vp24 genes. sequence analysis demonstrates that the agent, gabon-94 virus, belongs to subtype zaire of ebola virus. the isolate is closely related to the kikwit-95 isolate, and both viruses seem to have evolved from a progenitor virus different from that of the zaire-76 isolates. the relatively close relationshi ...19979185597
global aspects of emerging and potential zoonoses: a who perspective.many new human pathogens that have emerged or reemerged worldwide originated from animals or from products of animal origin. many animal species as well as categories of agents have been involved in the emergence of diseases. wild (e.g., bats, rodents) as well as draught animals (e.g., horses) and food animals (e.g., poultry, cattle) were implicated in the epidemiologic cycles of these diseases. many of the agents responsible for new infections and diseases in humans were viruses (e.g., hantavir ...19979204308
[ebola virus epidemic]. 19959244676
the origin and evolution of ebola and marburg viruses.molecular evolutionary analyses for ebola and marburg viruses were conducted with the aim of elucidating evolutionary features of these viruses. in particular, the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions for the glycoprotein gene of ebola virus was estimated to be, on the average, 3.6 x 10(-5) per site per year. marburg virus was also suggested to be evolving at a similar rate. those rates were a hundred times slower than those of retroviruses and human influenza a virus, but were of the same order ...19979254917
ground zero: ebola. 19969271926
[virus transmission in the tropical environment, the socio-ecology of primates and the balance of ecosystems].we studied the contribution of non human primates to the transmission of yellow fever and hiv in the wild. we demonstrate the consequences of the modification of ecosystems on the emergence of new viral diseases and the reappearance of diseases believed to be eradicated. in the primary forest, the natural yellow fever cycle is limited to monkeys and mosquitoes living high in the canopy. transmission to man is an anomaly, requiring the circumstances found in the forest and savanna contact zones, ...19979273125
emerging and reemerging infections. progress and challenges in the subspecialty of infectious disease pathology.emerging and reemerging infections are attracting greater attention from the public health and medical communities. pathologists and other physicians are increasingly aware of the importance of the subspecialty of infectious disease pathology as a tool for diagnosis, surveillance, and research of emerging infections. in this communication, we describe the role that infectious disease pathologists have played during the last 2 years in broadening our understanding of selected emerging infections, ...19979278604
pathology of experimental ebola virus infection in african green monkeys. involvement of fibroblastic reticular cells.ebola virus has been responsible for explosive lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in both humans and nonhuman primates. previous studies showed a predilection of ebola virus for cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system and endothelial cells.19979278608
[ultrastructural stereological analysis of monkey lungs during experimental ebola fever]. 19979280497
[viral haemorrhagic fever].viral haemorrhagic fever denotes various kinds of febrile illness caused by certain viruses which often presents with bleeding tendency and occasionally shock. out of these, the four maladies, lassa fever, ebola haemorrhagic fever, marburg haemorrhagic fever and crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever which are endemically present in africa or eastern europe, are known to be such diseases with high man-to-man communicability. these four haemorrhagic fevers are, therefore, designated as special conditio ...19979283226
summary of antibody workshop: the role of humoral immunity in the treatment and prevention of emerging and extant infectious the era before antibiotics, human diseases were commonly treated with immune animal and human sera, often with life-saving results. with the advent of emerging infectious diseases, many of which cannot be adequately treated or prevented, attempts to develop antibody treatments have taken on new importance. the role of humoral immunity in treatment and prevention was the focus of discussion at a 1996 workshop. the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neutralization were examined in detail. it ...19979291299
[immunobiological properties of vp24 protein of ebola virus expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus].immunological and biochemical parameters were studied in guinea pigs immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus containing full-sized gene of ebola virus vp24 protein and then infected with virulent strain of ebola virus. the majority of the studied parameters changed similarly in guinea pigs immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus and control guinea pigs inoculated with vaccinia virus both before and after challenge with ebola virus. however, in animals immunized with recombinant vaccinia viru ...19979297340
[changes in certain indicators of hemostasis in rabbits upon administration of ebola virus preparations].changes in some parameters of hemostasis in rabbits insusceptible to ebola virus (ev) in various periods after reinoculations with live and inactivated virus are described. challenge with both control protein and live and inactivated ev leads to imbalance in the hemostasis system, which is compensated for in the course of follow-up and does not result in clinically manifest disorders of blood clotting. however, the mechanisms of development of the hemostasis imbalance caused by the control prote ...19979297348
[change in biochemical and hemostatic indicators in guinea pigs upon administering ebola virus preparations].the biochemical and hemostatic parameters were compared in guinea pigs after inoculation of ebola virus strains lethal and nonlethal for them and of inactivated antigen of this virus. the time course of the main hemostatic and biochemical parameters in animals challenged with the lethal strain of ebola virus differed much from that in other groups. this permits us to hypothesize that modification of the virus in the course of adaptation to the host results in the appearance of properties boostin ...19979304298
[methods for controlling colonization of air and laboratory surfaces by pathogens of certain especially dangerous viral infections].regular check-ups of the laboratory environment (air and working surfaces) for contamination with the objects of investigations are obligatory for laboratories working with viruses causing grave diseases, such as ebola, marburg, and machupo fevers and venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. methods for indication and identification of these agents have been developed and experimentally tried.19979304303
international colloquium on ebola virus research: summary report. 19979333167
a week in the life of a travel travel has increased enormously in recent years. with the greater movement of people have come increased encounters with a wide variety of diseases: malaria, dengue, cholera, typhoid fever, ebola virus, and many more. the need for greater scope, consistency, and knowledgeability in pretravel health care to meet these challenges has been met by the emergence of the discipline of travel medicine. travelers are well advised to become informed of the risks they face and to take steps t ...19979336667
ebola and hantaviruses. 19979348164
a system for functional analysis of ebola virus glycoprotein.ebola virus causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, resulting in mortality rates of up to 90%. studies of this virus have been hampered by its extraordinary pathogenicity, which requires biosafety level 4 containment. to circumvent this problem, we developed a novel complementation system for functional analysis of ebola virus glycoproteins. it relies on a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) that contains the green fluorescent protein gene instead of the receptor-bindi ...19979405687
[care of a patient with a rare and highly contagious virus disease. an emergency situation resulted in good preparedness].ever since the eradication of smallpox, sweden has been poorly furnished with emergency facilities for the care of patients with serious, very infectious diseases. national interest in creating such facilities was aroused by epidemics of haemorrhagic disease (first and foremost due to ebola virus during the present decade), at the same time as the first scandinavian case of haemorrhagic fever associated with a risk of person-to-person infection occurred in linköping. a special laboratory which h ...19979411086
haemorrhagic fevers and ecological perturbations.hemorrhagic fever is a clinical and imprecise definition for several different diseases. their main common point is to be zoonoses. these diseases are due to several viruses which belong to different families. the flaviviridae have been known for the longest time. they include the amaril virus that causes yellow fever and is transported by mosquitoes. viruses that have come to light more recently belong to three other families: arenaviridae, bunyaviridae, and filoviridae. they are transmitted by ...19979413538
[study of the treatment-prophylactic effect of immunomodulators in experimental infections, caused by marburg, ebola, and venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses].therapeutic and prophylactic effects of immunomodifiers ridostin, reaferon, and polyribonate used alone and in various combinations were assessed in experiments on guinea pigs infected with venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) (strain trinidad), marburg (strain popp), and ebola (m/c-8 variant of zaire strain) viruses at doses 5 to 20 respiratory ld50 through the respiratory airways. urgent prophylactic simultaneous intramuscular and intranasal administration of ridostin protected the animal ...19979424849
ebola takes a punch. 19989427596
immunization for ebola virus infection.infection by ebola virus causes rapidly progressive, often fatal, symptoms of fever, hemorrhage and hypotension. previous attempts to elicit protective immunity for this disease have not met with success. we report here that protection against the lethal effects of ebola virus can be achieved in an animal model by immunizing with plasmids encoding viral proteins. we analyzed immune responses to the viral nucleoprotein (np) and the secreted or transmembrane forms of the glycoprotein (sgp or gp) a ...19989427604
variation in the glycoprotein and vp35 genes of marburg virus strains.marburg virus, the prototype of the family filoviridae, differs genetically, serologically, and morphologically from ebola viruses. to better define the genetic variation within the species, vp35 and glycoprotein (gp) genes of representative human isolates from four known episodes of marburg virus hemorrhagic fever were analyzed. the percentage nucleotide differences in the gp gene coding regions of marburg viruses (0.1-21%) was nearly equal to the percentage amino acid changes (0-23%), while th ...19989448698
ebola/athens revisited. 19989452412
distinct cellular interactions of secreted and transmembrane ebola virus glycoproteins.the mechanisms by which ebola virus evades detection and infects cells to cause hemorrhagic fever have not been defined, though its glycoprotein, synthesized in either a secreted or transmembrane form, is likely involved. here the secreted glycoprotein was found to interact with neutrophils through cd16b, the neutrophil-specific form of the fc gamma receptor iii, whereas the transmembrane glycoprotein was found to interact with endothelial cells but not neutrophils. a murine retroviral vector ps ...19989461435
[emerging infectious diseases--ebola hemorrhagic fever]. 19979480303
marburg hemorrhagic fever: report of a case studied by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.the histologic and ultrastructural findings in a fatal human case of marburg hemorrhagic fever are reported. marburg virus was isolated from fluids and tissues and was identified in tissues by immunohistochemistry and electron and immunoelectron microscopy. the distribution of viral antigen by light level immunohistochemistry correlated with histologic lesions and also with the ultrastructural localization of virions. the tissue distribution and lesions of marburg virus in this patient were cons ...19989491211
phosphatidylinositol-dependent membrane fusion induced by a putative fusogenic sequence of ebola virus.the membrane-interacting abilities of three sequences representing the putative fusogenic subdomain of the ebola virus transmembrane protein have been investigated. in the presence of calcium, the sequence ebo(ge) (gaaiglawipyfgpaae) efficiently fused unilamellar vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol, and phosphatidylinositol (molar ratio, 2:1:1:0.5), a mixture that roughly resembles the lipid composition of the hepatocyte plasma membrane. analysis of th ...19989499027
characterization of ebola virus entry by using pseudotyped viruses: identification of receptor-deficient cell lines.studies analyzing ebola virus replication have been severely hampered by the extreme pathogenicity of this virus. to permit analysis of the host range and function of the ebola virus glycoprotein (ebo-gp), we have developed a system for pseudotyping these glycoproteins into murine leukemia virus (mlv). this pseudotyped virus, mlv(ebola), can be readily concentrated to titers which exceed 5 x 10(6) infectious units/ml and is effectively neutralized by antibodies specific for ebo-gp. analysis of m ...19989525641
two strings to the bow of ebola virus. 19989546777
[viral hemorrhagic fever].viral haemorrhagic fevers, such as lassa fever and yellow fever, cause tens of thousands of deaths annually outside the netherlands. the viruses are mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks or via excreta of rodents. important to travellers are yellow fever, dengue and lassa and ebola fever. for yellow fever there is an efficacious vaccine. dengue is frequently observed in travellers; prevention consists in avoiding mosquito bites, the treatment is symptomatic. lassa and ebola fever are extremely ...19989562757
processing of the ebola virus glycoprotein by the proprotein convertase the present study, we have investigated processing and maturation of the envelope glycoprotein (gp) of ebola virus. when gp expressed from vaccinia virus vectors was analyzed by pulse-chase experiments, the mature form and two different precursors were identified. first, the endoplasmic reticulum form pregper, full-length gp with oligomannosidic n-glycans, was detected. pregper (110 kda) was replaced by the golgi-specific form pregp (160 kda), full-length gp containing mature carbohydrates. p ...19989576958
the central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple-stranded coiled coil.the ectodomain of the ebola virus gp2 glycoprotein was solubilized with a trimeric, isoleucine zipper derived from gcn4 (piigcn4) in place of the hydrophobic fusion peptide at the n terminus. this chimeric molecule forms a trimeric, highly alpha-helical, and very thermostable molecule, as determined by chemical crosslinking and circular dichroism. electron microscopy indicates that gp2 folds into a rod-like structure like influenza ha2 and hiv-1 gp41, providing further evidence that viral fusion ...19989600912
ebola goes pop: the filovirus from literature into film. 19989604849
[microscopic study of species specific features of hemostatic impairment in ebola virus infected monkeys].pathological changes were studied in the blood vessels of baboons, green, rhesus, and cynomolgus monkeys at the end-stage ebola (zaire) infection. marked microvascular lesions (capillary stasis, blood engorgement, thrombosis with blood cells, neutrophil accumulation, endothelial edema) were found in all the monkeys. these changes clearly indicate impaired organ blood supply. multiple hemorrhages were formed by diapedesis without vascular wall destruction. fibrin deposition and thrombi were featu ...19989608279
release of viral glycoproteins during ebola virus infection.maturation and release of the ebola virus glycoprotein gp were studied in cells infected with either ebola or recombinant vaccinia viruses. significant amounts of gp were found in the culture medium in nonvirion forms. the major form represented the large subunit gp1 that was shed after release of its disulfide linkage to the smaller transmembrane subunit gp2. the minor form were intact gp1,2 complexes incorporated into virosomes. vector-expressed gp formed spikes morphologically indistinguishab ...19989614872
[developing methods of specific heterologic immunoglobulins preparation for urgent prevention of ebola fever and study of their properties].methods for preventing and treating ebola virus hemorrhagic fever are not still available despite the fact that this virus have been studied for 20 years. methods of immunization of the animals (sheep, goats) non-susceptible to ebola virus with live virus preparations were developed to obtain the hyperimmune anti-ebola virus sera required to have highly immune antivirus gamma-globulins. these methods made it possible to obtain the immune sera having high virus-neutralizing antibodies. caprine im ...19989633237
dna vaccines expressing either the gp or np genes of ebola virus protect mice from lethal challenge.dna vaccines expressing the envelope glycoprotein (gp) or nucleocapsid protein (np) genes of ebola virus were evaluated in adult, immunocompetent mice. the vaccines were delivered into the skin by particle bombardment of dna-coated gold beads with the powderject-xr gene gun. both vaccines elicited antibody responses as measured by elisa and elicited cytotoxic t cell responses as measured by chromium release assays. from one to four vaccinations with 0.5 microgram of the gp dna vaccine resulted i ...19989657001
biochemical analysis of the secreted and virion glycoproteins of ebola virus.the glycoproteins expressed by a zaire species of ebola virus were analyzed for cleavage, oligomerization, and other structural properties to better define their functions. the 50- to 70-kda secreted and 150-kda virion/structural glycoproteins (sgp and gp, respectively), which share the 295 n-terminal residues, are cleaved near the n terminus by signalase. a second cleavage event, occurring in gp at a multibasic site (rrtrr downward arrow) that is likely mediated by furin, results in two glycopr ...19989658086
the refugee crisis in africa and implications for health and disease: a political ecology approach.political violence in civil war and ethnic conflicts has generated millions of refugees across the african continent with unbelievable pictures of suffering and unnecessary death. using a political ecology framework, this paper examines the geographies of exile and refugee movements and the associated implications for re-emerging and newly emerging infectious diseases in great detail. it examines how the political ecologic circumstances underlying the refugee crisis influences health services de ...19989672401
ebola haemorrhagic fever. 19989692135
marburg and ebola hemorrhagic fevers: does the primary course of infection depend on the accessibility of organ-specific macrophages? 19989709901
unrecognized ebola hemorrhagic fever at mosango hospital during the 1995 epidemic in kikwit, democratic republic of the congo. 20099716990
pathogenesis of ebola virus infection: recent insights. 19989717212
[viral hemorrhagic fever--ebola hemorrhagic fever, marburg disease and lassa fever].viral hemorrhagic fevers include ebola hemorrhagic fever, marburg disease and lassa fever. the etiologic agents of the diseases, ebola virus, marburg virus and lassa virus, respectively, are categorized as viruses with biosafety level 4, because of their high mortality, high transmissibility and the lack of effective vaccines and therapeutic measures. ebola and marburg viruses are members of the filoviridae family and easily distinguishable from viruses of other families by the characteristic mo ...19989721531
a mouse model for evaluation of prophylaxis and therapy of ebola hemorrhagic fever.the zaire subtype of ebola virus (ebo-z) is lethal for newborn mice, but adult mice are resistant to the virus, which prevents their use as an animal model of lethal ebola infection. we serially passed ebo-z virus in progressively older suckling mice, eventually obtaining a plaque-purified virus that was lethal for mature, immunocompetent balb/c and c57bl/6 inbred and icr (cd-1) outbred mice. pathologic changes in the liver and spleen of infected mice resembled those in ebo-z-infected primates. ...19989728532
[ebola virus: what the practitioner needs to know].the ebola virus is an rna virus of filoviridae family. the earliest documented fatal epidemic of ebola hemorrhagic occurred in 1976. there are four genetically different subtypes of ebola virus. the virus remains in the blood for several weeks, can maintain its infectivity for several weeks at 20 degrees c outside the body, and survives for several weeks in corpses. isolation of ebola virus requires level 4 laboratory security conditions. specimens are obtained by culturing mammal cells. identif ...19989791600
[dynamics of immunologic indicators in guinea pigs upon administering various preparations of the ebola virus].immunological and hematological values are analyzed in guinea pigs infected with ebola virus (ev) strain weakly pathogenic for these animals, inactivated ev, and ev strain adapted to guinea pigs and causing a lethal infection in them. the disease induced by lethal ev differed from that induced by other ev strains. blastic wave in lymphoid organs in the absence of antibodies to ev detected by enzyme immunoassay, elimination of circulating immune complexes, and appearance of eosinophils in the blo ...19989791881
the nonstructural small glycoprotein sgp of ebola virus is secreted as an antiparallel-orientated homodimer.the nonstructural small glycoprotein sgp, which unlike the transmembrane gp is synthesized from primary nonedited mrna species, is secreted from infected cells as a disulfide-linked homodimer. site-directed mutagenesis of all cysteine residues revealed that dimerization is due to an intermolecular disulfide linkage between cysteine residues at positions 53 and 306. formic acid hydrolysis of sgp demonstrated that sgp dimers consist of monomers in antiparallel orientation. another editing product ...19989792851
malaria prophylaxis during an ebola outbreak: a difficult choice. 19969815453
recombinant ebola virus nucleoprotein and glycoprotein (gabon 94 strain) provide new tools for the detection of human infections.after cloning and sequencing the glycoprotein (gp) gene of one of the gabonese strains of ebola virus isolated during the 1994-1996 outbreak, it was shown that the circulating virus was of the zaire subtype. this was confirmed in this study by cloning and sequencing the nucleoprotein (np) gene of this strain. these two structural proteins were also expressed as recombinant proteins and used in elisa tests. np was expressed as a his-tagged fusion protein in escherichia coli and was purified on re ...19989820131
crystal structure of the ebola virus membrane fusion subunit, gp2, from the envelope glycoprotein ectodomain.we have determined the structure of gp2 from the ebola virus membrane fusion glycoprotein by x-ray crystallography. the molecule contains a central triple-stranded coiled coil followed by a disulfide-bonded loop homologous to an immunosuppressive sequence in retroviral glycoproteins, which reverses the chain direction and connects to an alpha helix packed antiparallel to the core helices. the structure suggests that fusion peptides near the n termini form disulfide-bonded loops at one end of the ...19989844633
tropical myeloneuropathies interesting neurological syndrome, characterized by recurrent optic neuritis, cervical myelopathy from syringomyelia, paraparesis, amenorrhea-galactorrhea, and other endocrine problems, has been described among young black women in the french west indies. the etiology remains unknown, but possible links with devic's disease, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and neurotoxicity from quinolines in annona muricata teas have been postulated. the largest epidemic of neuropathy in this century o ...19989848004
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