Publications

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a survey by questionnaire of parasitic worm control in cattle and sheep at the glasgow university lanark practice.the results of a questionnaire circulated in 1984 concerning parasitic worm control on cattle and sheep farms in a veterinary practice in the west of scotland are reported. control by grazing management or anthelmintic treatment was used in 92 per cent of the cattle herds and in all the sheep flocks. the use of anthelmintic drugs was greatest on farms where grazing control was also practised. benzimidazoles were the most frequently used anthelmintic drugs.19873424632
real-time ultrasonic scanning in sheep: the results of the first year of its application on farms in south-west scotland.after a two-day period of instruction in the use of a linear real-time ultrasonic scanning machine the results obtained by three operators scanning a variety of types of ewe under different conditions were recorded and compared with the actual lambing results. in the first season an overall accuracy of 95 per cent was achieved for the diagnosis of barren ewes and ewes carrying either one or two or more lambs. however, monitoring the accuracy achieved for the diagnosis of zero, one, two, three or ...19873310374
many causes of calf scours. 19873824853
occurrence and properties of fy(att25)+ escherichia coli associated with diarrhoea in calves.escherichia coli producing the adhesive antigen fy(att25) were isolated from 46 of 1341 (3.4 per cent) e coli isolated from calves on 20 of 164 (12.1 per cent) farms in scotland and england. twenty of the 46 calves had diarrhoea and in nine of these animals there were mixed infections with rotavirus, coronavirus, cryptosporidium and salmonella typhimurium. the f41 fimbrial adhesin was found on one of the fy(att25)+ e coli. this strain also produced heat stable enterotoxin. the remaining fy(att25 ...19872889286
group l beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection in meat handlers: another streptococcal zoonosis?group l, beta-haemolytic streptococci can cause infection in dogs, pigs, cattle and sheep but there have been very few reports in man. in studies of skin infection in meat handlers we cultured group l streptococci from clinically infected wounds, impetigo and paronychia of 15 patients involved in the slaughter and processing of chickens and pigs. staphylococcus aureus was also present in eight (53%) of the lesions. at least five other infections with group l streptococci in meat and animal handl ...19873678390
ovine parvovirus infection in scottish sheep. 19872821669
ram fertility in south-west scotland. 19883345416
keratoconjunctivitis in a hill sheep flock.keratoconjunctivitis affected many ewes on a large, experimental husbandry, hill farm in early and midwinter in two consecutive years. small sporadic outbreaks occurred among ewes during the following winters and among ewes and lambs in the summer and autumn. mycoplasma conjunctivae was isolated from conjunctival swabs taken from affected sheep. keratoconjunctivitis had not been recognised on the farm before and the infection was probably introduced with purchased rams. prompt treatment prevente ...19883363825
systemic diseases common in cattle this spring. 19883413955
rickets associated with vitamin d deficiency in young sheep.an outbreak of rickets in sheep under a year old (hoggs) appeared clinically as stiffness and rotation of the carpal joints. histological studies confirmed the diagnosis and biochemical analyses of blood demonstrated a primary vitamin d deficiency.19883394220
nematodirus infection in lambs on an alternate grazing system of husbandry.the epidemiology of nematodirus battus infection under a husbandry system based on an annual alternation of sheep and cattle was studied from 1983 to 1985. pasture larval levels and sheep and cattle worm egg outputs were monitored from april to september each year. the level of n battus contamination on the sheep pasture and the number of clinically affected lambs increased over the three years despite grazing with cattle in the intervening year. examination of cattle faeces demonstrated that si ...19883222554
alexander wood (1725-1807): deacon of the incorporation of surgeons, surgeon-in-ordinary, edinburgh royal infirmary, and 'doctor of mirth'.this account of the edinburgh surgeon, alexander wood (1725-1807), brings together information from a number of sources including the diaries of his friend and patient, james boswell, and anecdotes recorded by james paterson who wrote the biographical notes for kay's portraits. wood was a fashionable eccentric who took a sheep and raven on his home visits and he was as popular with the poor and working classes as he was with more well-to-do patients. he was a deacon of the incorporation of surge ...19883067353
the size and weight of cattle and sheep in early modern scotland. 198811616468
the epidemiology of echinococcus granulosus in great britain. v. the status of subspecies of echinococcus granulosus in great britain.twenty-five years ago williams and sweatman suggested that in great britain there are two subspecies of echinococcus granulosus--e. granulosus granulosus and e. granulosus equinus. echinococcus granulosus granulosus does not mature either in foxes or in horses: e. granulosus equinus will mature in either. the prepatent period of e. granulosus granulosus in the definitive host is about 42 days while that of e. granulosus equinus is about 70 days. each subspecies has a characteristic morphology. m ...19892596902
transfer of radiocesium from different environmental sources to ewes and suckling lambs.indoor experiments are described that compare the transfer of radiocesium to ewe and lamb tissues from different sources. lactating ewes were fed either perennial ryegrass contaminated by chernobyl fallout, or saltmarsh vegetation contaminated by marine discharges from the sellafield reprocessing plant. the transfer to ewe tissues and milk was greater from the chernobyl contaminated herbage than from saltmarsh vegetation. lambs receiving a mixture of vegetation and milk were given radiocesium fr ...19892793473
acute nephropathy in young lambs.acute renal failure was diagnosed by clinical, necropsy and histological criteria in 39 flocks (20 low ground, 13 hill and six marginal upland) in areas served by six veterinary investigation centres. forty-eight lambs of 12 different breeds or crosses were investigated. the mean age of affected lambs was 38 days (range seven to 84 days); 21 lambs (44 per cent) were aged seven to 28 days, while only eight (17 per cent) were older than two months. mortality in clinically affected lambs was almost ...19892916311
an assessment of the risks to the health of grazing animals from the radioactive contamination of pastures.as a result of the chernobyl accident sheep and cattle in wales, cumbria and scotland became contaminated with radionuclides of caesium and iodine. in the worst case, the maximum levels of contamination were of the order of 4000 bq/kg of caesium-137 and 2000 bq/kg of caesium-134 in muscle and 2,000,000 bq/kg of iodine-131 in the thyroid gland. calculations show that the radiation dose rates to the animals from these burdens of the radionuclides of caesium would have been approximately one thousa ...19892736377
chernobyl radiocaesium in an upland sheep farm ecosystem.following the deposition of radiocaesium from the chernobyl accident the movement and slaughter of sheep in upland areas of west cumbria, scotland and wales was restricted. studies on the radioecology of cs-137 and cs-134 have been conducted at a farm within the affected area of west cumbria since july 1986. the radiocaesium activity of upland sheep was found to decline when they were brought on to the farms' enclosed pastures and rise when they were returned to the open fell, where the radiocae ...19892736378
cesium-137, 134cs and 110mag in lambs grazing pasture in ne scotland contaminated by chernobyl fallout.the decline in cs radioisotope levels has been studied in tissues from lambs grazing lowland pasture. the lambs were slaughtered 18 and 115 d after contamination with chernobyl fallout. during this time the cs activity decreased to 13% of the initial amount in animals that had continued to graze contaminated pasture and to 3.5% in animals consuming uncontaminated feed. the 137cs concentration in grass from the field grazed by the lambs decreased with a half-time of 22 d over the period 11-100 d ...19892925385
a myopathy of sheep associated with sarcocystis infection and monensin administration.an outbreak of muscle disease affected approximately 20 of 600 ewes in spring 1987 in south-east scotland. the clinical signs were a flaccid paralysis of the hind limbs and in severe cases collapse. serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were increased. clinically affected sheep had a mean reciprocal serum antibody titre in a sarcocystis immunofluorescence antibody test of 557 whereas 22 sheep from the same flock, sampled one year earlier, showed a mean reciprocal titre ...19892501929
turkey problems herald christmas. 19892694581
staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in december 1984 and january 1985. bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin a produced by staphylococcus aureus was present. this was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the uk which was associated with poisoning and from which viable staph. aureus could not be isolated. subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from th ...19892691265
use of long-acting oxytetracycline against pasteurellosis in lambs.the efficacy of long-acting oxytetracycline in the control of pneumonic pasteurellosis in lambs was tested on seven scottish farms. after laboratory confirmation of pasteurella-related deaths in lambs, half the lambs in each flock were given long-acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg intramuscularly) and half were left untreated. on three farms a single treatment was given and on four farms two doses were administered four days apart. eighteen of the 878 control lambs died as a result of confirmed pa ...19902321337
causes of death and illness in the native sheep of north ronaldsay, orkney. i. adult sheep.post-mortem examinations on 71 native sheep found dead on the island of north ronaldsay, orkney in four visits between april 1983 and july 1985 were carried out. the sheep in this almost feral flock have access to a small area of unmanaged moorland pasture but are otherwise restricted to the foreshore where they subsist largely on laminaria spp. and other seaweeds. young adult animals died largely of heavy parasite burdens combined with inadequate nutrition, while the older sheep often starved b ...19902331590
causes of death in the native sheep of north ronaldsay, orkney. ii. lambs.investigation showed that the common causes of death in north ronaldsay lambs were trauma due to behavioural patterns and starvation/hypothermia due in part to poor condition of the ewes.19902331591
molecular biology lies down with the lamb. 19902371561
isolation of actinobacillus seminis from rams in the united kingdom.actinobacillus seminis was isolated from the semen of five rams on four farms. four of the rams had abnormal semen and three were also infertile. the isolates of a seminis showed similar phenotypic profiles and electrophoretic protein patterns to the type strain of a seminis but were distinct from histophilus ovis previously isolated from rams with epididymitis in scotland. the infection appeared to be subclinical but two of the five rams had palpable abnormalities of their testes. three rams we ...19911746101
body concentration of caesium-137 in patients from western isles of scotland.to compare caesium-137 concentrations in patients from the western isles health board, glasgow area, and other parts of the scottish mainland, and to investigate the source of 137cs in patients from the western isles.19911906765
[decontamination of soil after bacterial warfare experiments on gruinard island].bombs containing b. anthracis spores were detonated on gruinard island in 1942 and 1943 as a part of a british research programme set up in response to fears that the germans were developing biological weapons. in 1986 island was decontaminated by spraying with 5% formaldehyde. as a demonstration of confidence in the success of the decontamination operation a flock of 40 sheep was allowed to graze for several months with no ill effects.19911819816
evidence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in a strain of teladorsagia circumcincta (ostertagia circumcincta) isolated from goats in scotland.the efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and levamisole was determined in lambs individually infected with 5000 third stage larvae of teladorsagia (ostertagia) species isolated from a herd of goats with a history of benzimidazole resistance and where the efficacy of ivermectin had also suffered an apparent decline. efficacies, calculated using geometric means, for groups where treatments were directed against adult worms were 90.3 per cent (ivermectin), 43.4 per cent (fenbendazole) and 100 per c ...19921465512
scrapie: a clinical assessment. 19921604786
a speculative discussion of some problems arising from the use of ammonium nitrate fertiliser on acid soil.some personal farming experiences are described, and attention is drawn to four anomalies associated with the use of ammonium nitrate. these can be explained if the changes that took place in the formulation of fertilisers around 1960 have led to acidic soils becoming depleted in calcium, and if crops growing in high nitrogen conditions take up their nitrogen as ammonium. it is concluded that the fertiliser recommendations that have been formulated at rothamsted are unsuitable for use upon acidi ...19921488214
parasitic otitis in sheep associated with psoroptes infestation: a clinical and epidemiological study.parasitic otitis associated with psoroptes infestation was diagnosed in a small pedigree flock of sheep with aural haematomas, abscessation and cauliflower ears. thirteen of the 15 lambs were affected but the clinical signs were mild; small, discrete, crusty lesions on the inner aspect of the ear at the junction of its anterior and posterior borders were typical. nine of the 20 adults were affected but the lesions were more severe. eighteen of the 64 members of the breed society who responded to ...19921441096
an estimate of the prevalence of enzootic abortion of ewes in scotland.the prevalence of enzootic abortion of ewes in scotland was estimated over a period of five years. between 1987 and 1991, 30.7 per cent of all flocks with breeding ewes in scotland submitted ovine abortion material, and of these flocks 28 per cent showed evidence of the infection, giving a prevalence of 8.6 per cent. regional differences were observed in both the submission rate and the prevalence.19938236713
an outbreak of pregnancy toxaemia in a flock of scottish blackface sheep. 19938116171
lyme disease in scotland: results of a serological study in sheep. 19938212486
oil on shetland. 19938456544
the association of a codon 136 prp gene variant with the occurrence of natural scrapie.incidence of both experimental and natural scrapie in sheep has been associated with polymorphisms of the prp gene. in case/control studies the prp allele which encodes valine at codon 136 (val136) is found in 96-100% of naturally infected scrapie sheep of shetland, scottish halfbred and blue du maine breeds. in contrast, in healthy animals from the same flocks, the most frequent allele encodes ala136 (91-100% of sheep). however val136 does not correlate with incidence of scrapie in two other fl ...19947979991
identification of bloodmeals of the scottish biting midge, culicoides impunctatus, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been developed to identify the bloodmeal sources of culicoides impunctatus goetghebuer. nightly light trapping in scotland, between april and september 1992, caught a total of 344 blood-engorged female c. impunctatus, all in may, june and july. the insects were stored in 70% ethanol and tested 5-7 months later. bloodmeal sources were positively identified for 246 (71.5%). bovine hosts were most common (38.4%), followed by deer (23.0%) and ...19948161839
lyme disease in scotland. 19948778964
the distribution of faecal nematode egg counts in scottish blackface lambs following natural, predominantly ostertagia circumcincta infection.faecal samples were taken in 2 consecutive years from scottish blackface lambs on a commercial farm in central scotland to examine variation among lambs in the number of nematode eggs in their faeces. samples were taken at intervals of 4 weeks from 1 to 5 months of age. lambs were treated with a broad-spectrum anthelmintic at each sample date. ewes and lambs were naturally infected by grazing pasture contaminated with mixed, predominantly ostertagia circumcincta, nematode species. the ewes were ...19957596641
molecular genetic variation and individual survival during population crashes of an unmanaged ungulate population.theoretical models of the effect of population bottlenecks on genetic variation assume that individuals are removed at random from the population. we investigated this assumption in a naturally regulated, unstable population of soay sheep (ovis aries). during rapid population declines or 'crashes', individuals were not removed at random with respect to genotype: we found associations between individual survival and certain genotypes at five polymorphic protein or microsatellite dna loci (ada, go ...19957777592
apparent resistance of p ovis to flumethrin. 19958525587
differentiation between human and ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.the genetic relatedness of 18 human and 29 ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis was examined by macrorestriction digestion of dna with the rarely cutting enzyme xbai and resolution by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. there was clear separation of human and ovine isolates and variation within host types. the human isolates were separated into three types as were the 24 scottish ovine isolates. species-specific bands were observed with the human isolates at 114, 134, 166, 213, 346 and 372 k ...19968598269
resistance of the sheep scab mite psoroptes ovis to propetamphos. 19968931304
intestinal torsion and red gut in sheep. 19968931306
bloodless castration of lambs: results of a questionnaire.interviews of nine flockmasters who used bloodless castrators to castrate lambs revealed wide variation in the size of castrator used and the techniques employed. eight flockmasters used inappropriately sized instruments which were cumbersome to operate and probably applied excessive crushing pressures over an unnecessarily large area of the lambs' scrotums. the methods of restraining lambs were often inefficient in terms of labour requirement. in 11 of 15 flocks, some lambs were not properly ca ...19968634865
leptospirosis in farm animals. 19968711882
microbiological research at the centre for tropical veterinary medicine (ctvm).the nature of the research carried out by the staff of the microbiology section of the centre for tropical veterinary medicine (ctvm) at home and abroad is illustrated by precis of projects on rinderpest, orf in goats and sheep, bovine dermatophilosis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, tick-borne fever in goats and sheep, bovine petechial fever, and caprine cowdriosis.19968815612
ovine psoroptic otoacariasis: an abattoir survey. 19968883348
acute fascioliasis in sheep. 19968890467
insulin-like growth factors-i and -ii, somatotropin, prolactin, and placental lactogen are not acute effectors of lipolysis in ruminants.the acute regulation of lipolysis in the adipose tissue of ruminants was evaluated with lactating cows (n = 4) and growing ewe lambs (n = 11). subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy or at slaughter and was incubated with varying concentrations of biologically active insulin-like growth factors-i and -ii (igf-i, igf-ii), somatotropin (st), prolactin (prl), or placental lactogen (pl) to determine the effect of these hormones on lipolysis. complimentary studies were conducted to examine ...19968738865
the incidence and level of listeria monocytogenes contamination of food sources at primary production and initial processing.listeria monocytogenes was isolated in low numbers from a variety of environmental samples associated with the primary production of food, including vegetation, faeces and meat. the organism was rarely detected on growing grass and vegetables prior to processing. the excretion of l. monocytogenes by farm animals was linked to their diet, with animals fed entirely on hay or manufactured diets not excreting detectable levels of listeria (i.e. absence in 25 g). however, animals fed on silage, which ...19968972091
the epidemiology of louping-ill, a tick borne infection of red grouse (lagopus lagopus scoticus).the epidemiology of louping-ill in red grouse was studied in northern britain concentrating on the possible role of other species and mechanisms of disease persistence. this tick borne viral disease caused heavy mortality in red grouse, particularly chicks. louping-ill induced mortality reduced the strength of the density dependence that generates the tendency of grouse populations to cycle and in some populations may cause population sinks. four routes of transmission were examined and non-vira ...19979802086
clone sheds light on research, ethical questions. 19979140547
human cloning requires a moratorium, not a ban. 19979052767
e coli o157: lessons of the scottish outbreak. 19979141219
cloning technique 'reveals legal loophole'. 19979039895
scientists flock to hear cloner wilmut at the nih. 19979087453
electrophoretic and antigenic characterisation of dermatophilus congolensis extracellular products.dermatophilus congolensis is the causative agent of bovine dermatophilosis and lumpy wool in sheep. two field isolates of d. congolensis, one each from a cow in ghana and a sheep in scotland, were cultured for 24-72 h in a synthetic medium based on rpmi-1640. culture filtrates were examined by sds-page and considered to contain extracellular products released by growing hyphae and filaments. electrophoretic profiles of culture filtrates of the two isolates contained common bands and bands that w ...19979460195
molecular variation, evolution and geographical distribution of louping ill virus.following the demonstration that the tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) subgroup viruses are distributed as a cline across the northern hemisphere (zanotto et al., 1995), we have analyzed the dispersal pattern of louping ill (li) virus, the most westerly located member in the cline. a total number of 21 li or li-related virus e gene sequences have been used for a detailed molecular analysis of the evolution, phylogeny and geographical distribution of li virus in the british isles and ireland. the res ...19979607079
roslin patents come under the spotlight. 19979153376
streamwater nitrate concentrations in six agricultural catchments in scotland.the concentrations of nitrate-n (no3-n) in catchment inputs and outputs have been compared and contrasted between 6 farm catchments in scotland, 3 in the west and 3 in the north-east. forms of intensive animal farming ranging between beef and dairy cattle, sheep and poultry give different sources for potential no3-n leakage from the systems. while stream reaches bordered by intensive cereal production give rise to the largest inputs to surface waters, climatic influences result in the more-effic ...19979232025
caseous lymphadenitis in a commercial ram stud in scotland. 19979413123
scottish scientists clone adult sheep: technique's use with humans is feared. 199711647144
with cloning of a sheep, the ethical ground shifts. 199711647276
one small step for a sheep. 199711656628
suffering of the lambs. 199711656635
blowfly species composition in sheep myiasis in scotland.samples of dipteran larvae were collected from live sheep throughout scotland, reared in the laboratory, and identified once adult flies emerged. lucilia sericata was found in 77% of samples, and other species in 49%. the most common alternative species were l.caesar, which occurred in 31% of samples, and protophormia terraenovae, which occurred in 18%. three other calliphorid species, calliphora vomitoria, c.vicina and l.illustris, and the muscid muscina pabulorum were also found. the proportio ...19979330256
serological survey of chlamydial antibody in post-natal sera.questionnaires (3426; 72.8%) and blood samples (3890; 82.6%) were analysed from 4704 women post-natally. the answers to the questionnaire confirmed that those patients living in areas with the highest percentage employed in agriculture were most likely to be in direct or indirect contact with sheep or sheep products. when the 788 (20.3%) of the sera with group specific antibody were examined for type-specific antibody, 291 (7.5%) reacted with chlamydia trachomatis, 153 (3.9%) with chlamydia pneu ...19979459402
association between natural scrapie and prp genotype in a flock of suffolk sheep in scotland.the incidence of natural scrapie in sheep is associated with polymorphisms of the prp gene, particularly those at codons 136, 154 and 171. in many breeds, the prp allele encoding valine at codon 136 confers an extremely high risk of scrapie, but in suffolk sheep this allele is vanishingly rare. in this study of a single closed flock of suffolk sheep in scotland, scrapie occurred primarily in animals which were homozygous for glutamine at codon 171, a genotype which was significantly less frequen ...19979023905
tracing the origins of louping ill virus by molecular phylogenetic analysis.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of louping ill (li) virus isolates, collected from representative regions of the british isles and norway, were determined for either the entire envelope gene (20 isolates) or for a portion of the envelope gene that spans a hypervariable region and includes an li virus specific marker sequence (53 isolates). phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of three major geographical populations of li virus in the british isles, viz. irish, welsh and bri ...19989603312
little lamb, who made thee? a letter from edinburgh. 19989532398
natural prevalence of infection with ehrlichia (cytoecetes) phagocytophila of ixodes ricinus ticks in scotland.ixodes ricinus nymphs and adults were collected from vegetation and from sheep at four sites in scotland typical of areas endemic for tick-borne fever in sheep caused by infection with ehrlichia (cytoecetes) phagocytophila (rickettsiales). the great majority of ticks examined was from woodland sites adjacent to sheep farms where there was a high probability of them feeding on roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in a non-domestic focus of infestation and infection. ticks were examined for infection by ...19989760062
dolly researcher plans further experiments after challenges. 19989495322
human but not ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis are highly clonal as determined by pcr-based rapd fingerprinting.the dna fingerprints of 170 human isolates and ten ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis were examined by arbitrarily-primed pcr/rapd with 29 primers. based on this technique, all the human isolates appear highly genetically homogeneous. the ovine isolates could be distinguished from human isolates and they showed diversity among themselves. therefore, human isolates of b. parapertussis are a highly clonal group adapted to infect humans and they are distinct from polymorphic ovine isolates.19989795782
india's short cow drags roslin institute into controversy. 19989732859
patent clash looming over cloning techniques? 19989697758
epidemiological study of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in scotland.a survey of 22 farms confirmed the presence of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in scotland. regional differences were apparent in the prevalence of the disease in rabbits, with a significantly higher incidence occurring in the tayside region. statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between a previous history or current problem of paratuberculosis in cattle and the presence of paratuberculosis in rabbits on the farms. molecular genetic typing techniques could not discriminate betw ...199910325318
[about the shieling: summer grazing in the british isles in the 17th and 18th centuries]. 199921213932
prevalence of vacuolar lesions consistent with scrapie in the brains of healthy cull sheep of the shetland islands.to determine the levels of background scrapie-like pathology in the brains of clinically normal adult sheep, the brains of 1106 sheep from 28 known scrapie-infected flocks and nine apparently uninfected flocks were examined during 1998 and 1999. one per cent of the brains had vacuolar pathology and disease-specific accumulations of prion protein consistent with a diagnosis of scrapie. all the positive animals had at least one allele of the prion protein gene encoding valine at codon 136, and ori ...200011079439
role of small mammals in the persistence of louping-ill virus: field survey and tick co-feeding studies.louping-ill (li) is a tick-borne viral disease of red grouse, lagopus lagopus scoticus lath. (tetraonidae: galliformes), and sheep, ovis aries l. (bovidae: artiodactyla), that causes economic loss to upland farms and sporting estates. unvaccinated sheep, grouse and mountain hares, lepus timidus l. (leporidae: lagomorpha), are known to transmit li virus, whereas red deer, cenrus elaphus l. (cervidae: artiodactyla), and rabbits, oryctolagus cuniculus l. (leporidae: lagomorpha), do not. however, th ...200011016435
arsenic metabolism in seaweed-eating sheep from northern scotland.cation exchange and anion exchange liquid chromatography were coupled to an icp-ms and optimised for the separation of 13 different arsenic species in body fluids (arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (dmaa), monomethylarsonic acid (mmaa), trimethylarsine oxide (tmao), tetramethylarsonium ion (tma), arsenobetaine (asb), arsenocholine (asc), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (dmae) and four common dimethylarsinoylribosides (arsenosugars). the arsenic species were determined in seaweed extracts and in ...200011220824
the role of lambs in louping-ill virus amplification.in some areas of scotland, the prevalence of louping-ill virus has not decreased despite the vaccination of replacement ewes for over 30 years. the role of unvaccinated lambs in viral persistence was examined through a combination of an empirical study of infection rates of lambs and mathematical modelling. serological sampling revealed that most lambs were protected by colostral immunity at turnout in may/june but were fully susceptible by the end of september. between 8 and 83% of lambs were i ...200010726271
anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in sheep in scotland. 200111497405
population dynamics of a scrapie outbreak.a detailed analysis of a scrapie outbreak in a flock of cheviot sheep is described. a total of 33 cases of 1473 sheep born to the flock were reported between 1985 and 1994. the epidemiology of scrapie can only be understood with reference to sheep demography, the population genetics of susceptibility to scrapie, pathogenesis during a long incubation period, and the rate of transmission (by both horizontal and vertical routes), all of which interact in complex ways. in recent work a mathematical ...200111504423
hepatic encephalopathy associated with cobalt deficiency and white liver disease in lambs. 200111808665
an epidemiological study of the relations between exposure to organophosphate pesticides and indices of chronic peripheral neuropathy and neuropsychological abnormalities in sheep farmers and dippers.to investigate the hypothesis that chronic low level exposure to organophosphates (ops) in sheep dips is related to clinically detectable measures of polyneuropathy.200111600725
positive genetic correlation between parasite resistance and body size in a free-living ungulate population.parasite resistance and body size are subject to directional natural selection in a population of feral soay sheep (ovis aries) on the island of st. kilda, scotland. classical evolutionary theory predicts that directional selection should erode additive genetic variation and favor the maintenance of alleles that have negative pleiotropic effects on other traits associated with fitness. contrary to these predictions, in this study we show that there is considerable additive genetic variation for ...200111761070
a survey of the prevalence of escherichia coli o157 in raw meats, raw cow's milk and raw-milk cheeses in south-east scotland.2429 samples of foodstuffs were examined for the presence of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o157 (vtec o157) by means of immunomagnetic separation (ims) over a 2-year period commencing april 1997. specimens comprised 1190 raw meats, 500 raw milks and 739 raw-milk cheeses. the meat and cheese samples were purchased from retail premises in south-east scotland; raw milk samples were obtained directly from farms. in addition, total e. coli counts were performed on milk and cheese samples, and th ...200111407549
an outbreak of e. coli o157 infection with evidence of spread from animals to man through contamination of a private water supply.an outbreak of e. coli o157 infection occurred in the highland region of scotland in the summer of 1999. the source of the outbreak was traced to an untreated private water supply. all six cases identified arose in visitors to the area, and most had very limited exposure to the contaminated water. permanent residents on the same supply were unaffected. the e. coli o157 isolates from the water, sheep faeces collected from around the source and the human stool samples were indistinguishable using ...200111293673
increased risk of maedi-visna. 200212036248
landscape with dead sheep: what they did to gruinard island.in the context of intensified international concern about biological weapons (bw), this article looks at the pioneering british research in this field during the second world war, which caused the long-term contamination of gruinard island in north-west scotland. public record office documents have been examined to show how scientists reported on the experiments at the time and what they thought about their (top secret) work, as well as how politicians directed their efforts and used their resul ...200212044028
bse in sheep? humiliated lab fights to save face. 200211823623
ringworm caused by trichophyton verrucosum--an emerging problem in sheep flocks. 200212092624
reporting of sheep lameness conditions to veterinarians in the scottish borders. 200212120925
sheep farming in sutherland in the eighteenth century. 200215889509
epidemiology of salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis and typhimurium in animals and people in scotland between 1990 and 2001.two serovars of salmonella which are currently of particular importance in both human and animal infections are salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis phage type 4 (pt4) and typhimurium definitive type 104 (dt104). this paper describes the trends in the relationships between the levels of infection of people and a range of farm animal species with these two serovars and explores some of the reasons behind them. in 1996, there was a peak of 520 reports of s typhimurium dt104 infection in people ...200314620550
foot and mouth epidemic reduces cases of human cryptosporidiosis in scotland.in scotland, rates of cryptosporidiosis infection in humans peak during the spring, a peak that is coincident with the peak in rates of infection in farm animals (during lambing and calving time). here we show that, during the outbreak of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in 2001, there was a significant reduction in human cases of cryptosporidiosis infection in southern scotland, where fmd was present, whereas, in the rest of scotland, there was a reduction in cases that was not significant. we asso ...200312934196
scottish sheep scab initiative. 200314582736
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