infectious center assay of intracellular virus and infective virus titer for equine mononuclear cells infected in vivo and in vitro with equine herpesviruses.a novel, simple method of infectious center assay was developed to detect and quantitate the intracellular existence of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected in vivo and in vitro with the viruses by cocultivation of these cells with a permissive equine cell culture. the infectious center titers were correlated with the infectious virus titers. in vivo equine herpesvirus 1-infected mononuclear cells obtained from ponies experimentally infecte ...19836299486
application of a chemically inactivated, adjuvanted vaccine to control abortigenic infection of mares by equine herpesvirus i.a chemically inactivated, adjuvanted vaccine prepared from a virulent strain of equine herpesvirus i (ehv-i) was used to immunize pregnant thoroughbred broodmares during a five-year field test designed to determine its safety and efficacy. each mare in the vaccinated groups received 3 intramuscular injections of vaccine beginning immediately prior to and during the last half of pregnancy. vaccine was injected at approximately 60-day intervals. the accumulated incidence of ehv-i abortions among v ...19826299858
immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1) and equine rhinovirus type 1 (erhv1) following inactivation by betapropiolactone (bpl) and ultraviolet (uv) light.some kinetic data on the inactivation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1) and equine rhinovirus type 1 (erhv1) by betapropiolactone (bpl) and ultraviolet (uv) irradiation are reported. 0.25% bpl at 37 degrees c for 1 h reduced the titre of ehv1 by greater than 10(3 . 4) and of erhv1 by greater than 10(4 . 1) tcid50/ml. uv irradiation (334 microw/cm2) produced similar reductions in titre after 2 min. these data were used as a basis for inactivating ehv1 and erhv1 by the combined action of bpl and ...19826301141
vaccines for ehv1 abortion. 19836302971
in vivo harboring of equine herpesvirus-1 in leukocyte populations and subpopulations and their quantitation from experimentally infected ponies. 19836309042
equine immunology 4: vaccines and antisera.this paper attempts to relate the practicalities of vaccine development to the ideals which should be aimed for in a new vaccine. the type of immune response induced is dependent upon the nature of the antigen in the vaccine and the site and timing of its presentation to the immune system. in this respect the influence of age, maternal immunity and antigenic competition are discussed. the possible side effects associated with vaccination are defined and vaccines which are currently available for ...19836309511
the pathogenicity in mice of respiratory, abortion and paresis isolates of equine herpesvirus-1.eleven isolates of equine herpesvirus-1 (subtype 1) all infected the brain following intracerebral inoculation of 2 d.o. mice. most isolates were from cases of paresis, abortion or respiratory disease in the u.k., but established strains were also included. they divided into two subgroups. the 5 less pathogenic isolates were characterized by being restricted predominantly to the olfactory lobes. the 6 pathogenic isolates included the three known to cause equine paresis and were detected in neuro ...19836310851
a common code of practice for the control of contagious equine metritis and other equine reproductive diseases for the 1984 covering season in france, ireland and the united kingdom. 19836318420
trials of an inactivated equid herpesvirus 1 vaccine: challenge with a subtype 2 virus.serological responses following two and three doses of an inactivated equid herpesvirus 1 ( ehv -1) vaccine containing a subtype 1 strain were examined in yearling ponies. complement fixing antibody responses were significantly higher against the subtype 1 vaccine strain than against a subtype 2 virus. complement fixing antibody responses declined rapidly after the second dose of vaccine and had returned to almost pre-vaccination levels eight weeks after the second dose of vaccine. complement fi ...19846328729
ulcerative duodenitis in foals aged 18 days to 3 1/2 months had either single or multiple full-circumference segments or long antimesenteric bands of necrotizing duodenitis, sharply delineated from adjacent viable duodenum. perforation of the necrotic wall had occurred in all foals, leading to acute fibrinous peritonitis. on the mucosal surface severe diffuse, acute inflammation and ulceration involved the anterior half of the duodenum. two further foals, aged 28 and 30 days, had lesions that are believed to be a ...19836649336
role of the virion host shutoff (vhs) of herpes simplex virus type 1 in latency and pathogenesis.the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) ul41 gene product, virion host shutoff (vhs), has homologs among five alphaherpesviruses (hsv-1, hsv-2, pseudorabies virus, varicella-zoster virus, and equine herpesvirus 1), suggesting a role for this protein in neurotropism. a mutant virus, termed ul41nhb, which carries a nonsense linker in the ul41 open reading frame at amino acid position 238 was generated. ul41nhb and a marker-rescued virus, ul41nhb-r, were characterized in vitro and tested for their ...19957474089
equine herpesvirus 1 gene 12, the functional homologue of herpes simplex virus vp16, transactivates via octamer sequences in the equine herpesvirus ie gene promoter.the hsv-1 transactivator of immediate-early (ie) gene expression, vp16, has several functional homologues among the alphaherpesviruses which have not yet been extensively studied in relation to their modes of action. to date, nothing is known of the exact sites or mechanism of interaction of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) homologue, the gene 12 protein, with the ehv-1 ie promoter. we show that the gene 12 protein utilises the promoter proximal region of the ie gene to induce activation an ...19957483272
characterization of dna binding properties of the immediate-early gene product of equine herpesvirus type 1.the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) gene encodes a phosphoprotein that is essential for the activation of transcription from viral early and late promoters and that regulates the transcription from its own promoter. employment of ehv-1 ie promoter dna probes and glutathione s-transferase fusion proteins harboring truncated portions of the ie gene product in gel shift assays, super shift assays with anti-ie monoclonal antibodies, and dnase i footprinting analyses revealed: ...19957483278
the nucleotide sequence of asinine herpesvirus 3 glycoprotein g indicates that the donkey virus is closely related to equine herpesvirus 1.the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein g (gg) homologue of asinine herpesvirus 3 (ahv3), a respiratory alphaherpesvirus of donkeys, was determined. the ahv3 gg gene consists of 1233 base pairs (bp) and codes for a predicted protein of 411 amino acids. this is identical in size to the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) gg gene and 6 amino acids longer than the equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4) gg gene. the predicted amino acid sequence of ahv3 gg has characteristics of a class 1 membrane protein. the ami ...19957487497
use of lambda gt11 to identify antigenic components of equine herpesvirus 4.a library of the equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) genome was constructed in the lambda gt11 expression vector. recombinant bacteriophage expressing ehv-4 antigens as beta-galactosidase fusion proteins were detected with rabbit antiserum raised against ehv-4 virions and convalescent horse serum. ehv-4 dna sequences contained in the immunopositive recombinants were used as hybridization probes for mapping the genes encoding the antigens on the viral genome. the dna sequence of the probes was determine ...19947521096
application of an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) type-specific elisa to the management of an outbreak of ehv1 abortion.sera from 33 australian thoroughbred mares were tested during an outbreak of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) abortion with an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (elisa) for the presence of ehv1-specific antibodies. the elisa used a recombinant ehv1 antigen derived from glycoprotein g (gg) and distinguished antibodies to ehv1 from those of the antigenically related and widespread herpesvirus ehv4. sera were obtained from most of the mares on three occasions, three, 13 and 67 days after the first abort ...19957571249
guidelines for vaccination of horses. the american association of equine practitioners' vaccination guidelines subcommittee of the avma council on biologic and therapeutic agents. 19957591939
transcriptional analyses of the unique short segment of ehv-1 strain kentucky a.the unique short (us) segment of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strain kya is comprised of six open reading frames (orfs) that encode: a) a homolog of the us2 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1); b) a serine threonine protein kinase that is a homolog of the hsv-1 us3 protein; c) a homolog of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein gx and hsv-2 gg; d) a novel glycoprotein, eus4, not encoded by other herpesviruses sequenced to date; e) a homolog of hsv-1 gd; and f) a homolog of ...19957597804
sequence characteristics of a gene in infectious laryngotracheitis virus homologous to glycoprotein d of herpes simplex infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv, gallid herpesvirus 1) gene homologous to glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus (hsv) was identified and characterized by its nucleotide and derived amino acid sequence. the iltv gd gene is located in the unique short region (u(s)) and contains an open reading frame capable of specifying a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, including n- and c- terminal hydrophobic domains consistent with signal and anchor regions respectively, and no potential sites for ...19957612933
characterization of an antigenic site on glycoprotein 13 (gc) of equid herpesvirus type-1.six monoclonal antibodies directed against ehv-1 glycoprotein 13 were characterized. five antibodies neutralized ehv-1 and were directed against a single antigenic site which comprised type-specific and type cross-reactive epitopes. inhibition of monoclonal antibody binding to this site by post-infection equine sera suggests that it is a target of host antibody during natural infection with either ehv-1 or ehv-4.19937682404
epitopes of glycoprotein g of equine herpesviruses 4 and 1 located near the c termini elicit type-specific antibody responses in the natural host.specific serological diagnosis of equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4; equine rhinopneumonitis virus) and ehv1 (equine abortion virus) hitherto has not been possible because of extensive antigenic cross-reactivity between these two closely related but distinct viruses. recently, we identified ehv4 glycoprotein g (gg) and characterized it as a type-specific, secreted glycoprotein (b. s. crabb, h. s. nagesha, and m. j. studdert, virology 190:143-154, 1992). this paper shows that ehv1 gg also possesses type ...19937690425
response of ponies to adjuvanted ehv-1 whole virus vaccine and challenge with virus of the homologous strain.five yearling ponies were vaccinated with inactivated equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in freund's complete adjuvant as a double emulsion and revaccinated 6 weeks later with ehv-1 in freund's incomplete adjuvant. these ponies and three age-matched controls were challenged intra-nasally after a further 6 weeks with homologous live virus and monitored clinically, biologically and serologically. after challenge, clinical signs were mild in both groups. no cell-associated viraemias were detected in ...19957735868
nuclear localization and transcriptional activation activities of truncated versions of the immediate-early gene product of equine herpesvirus 1.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) gene product encodes a nuclear regulatory protein capable of negatively autoregulating its own promoter, transactivating representative ehv-1 early promoters, and acting in a concerted fashion with accessory ehv-1 regulatory factors to transactivate ehv-1 late promoters. to identify ie amino acid sequences involved in nuclear localization and to examine the contribution of c-terminal portions of the ie polypeptide to transactivation, vectors ...19957745735
expression of membrane-bound and secreted forms of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d by recombinant baculovirus.analyses of the synthesis and processing of recombinant full-length glycoprotein d of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1; gd392) or recombinant truncated gd (gd352) expressed in baculovirus-infected sf9 cells revealed the following: (1) gd polypeptides encoded by both recombinant baculoviruses react with gd-specific antibodies including peptide-specific antiserum that neutralizes ehv-1 in a plaque reduction assay, (2) both the full-length recombinant gd392 and the truncated gd352 are expressed pre ...19957754672
replication of equid herpesvirus 4 in endothelial cells and synovia of a field case of viral pneumonia and synovitis in a foal.equid herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) infection was diagnosed as the cause of interstitial pneumonia in a 6-week-old conventionally reared welsh pony foal, by cocultivation and immunolabelling with specific monoclonal antibodies, ehv-4 specific amplification of viral dna, and immunohistological examination of infected tissues. the case was novel in that replication of the ehv-4 isolate in endothelial cells and in the synovial epithelium was a feature. restriction digests of this isolate were compared with ...19957769144
equine herpesviruses 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus) and 1 (equine abortion virus). 19957793324
immunization with glycoprotein c of equine herpesvirus-1 is associated with accelerated virus clearance in a murine model.the glycoprotein c (gc) gene of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) was expressed in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus as several products with apparent molecular weights of 66 kda-80 kda. the baculovirus ehv-1 gc products were recognised by monoclonal antibody and by ehv-1 convalescent equine sera, indicating conservation of antigenic determinants and confirming this glycoprotein as a target for the equine immune system. mice immunized with recombinant ehv-1 gc showed accelerated clearance of ...19957794119
amplification of strains of bovine herpesvirus 1 by use of polymerase chain reaction with primers in the thymidine kinase region.a primer pair was designed from the published nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) thymidine kinase (tk) gene for use in detection of the virus by use of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of 12 bhv-1 strains (3 atcc and 9 local isolates). a tk deletion mutant bhv-1, and 2 bhv-4 strains from atcc were used as negative controls. one strain each of feline herpes-virus, equine herpesvirus, and bovine adenovirus, and 2 noninoculated bovine cultured ...19947802385
another fence jumped in the ehv-1 stakes. 19947889915
distribution of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in the respiratory tract of ponies: implications for vaccination strategies.twelve adult ponies and 2 conventional foals were exposed to 10(6.6) tcid50 of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), strain ab4 and samples of respiratory tract tissues were recovered. infectious virus in tissue homogenates was detected using susceptible cell monolayers and expression of viral antigens was monitored using indirect immunoperoxidase histochemistry of paraffin sections. the results illustrated the rapid dissemination of ehv-1 throughout the respiratory tract, with early replication in the l ...19947889920
expression and characterisation of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein h using a recombinant baculovirus.a recombinant baculovirus capable of expressing the glycoprotein h (gh) gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was constructed. ehv-1 gh gene products in recombinant baculovirus infected insect cells were identified as 105 kda and 110 kda species compared with a 115 kda product detected in ehv-1 infected mammalian cells. the extent of n-glycosylation of ehv-1 gh in both insect and mammalian cells was indicated by a shift in apparent molecular weights after pngase f treatment to 90 kda and 95 kda f ...19947944958
mapping, cloning and sequencing of a glycoprotein-encoding gene from bovine herpesvirus type 1 homologous to the ge gene from order to map and identify the glycoprotein-encoding gene from bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), homologous to the ge glycoprotein from herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), a region of the unique short sequence from the bhv-1 genome has been sequenced. the sequenced region contains an orf coding for a polypeptide of 575 amino acids (aa). the aa sequence presents substantial similarity to that of the glycoprotein ge from hsv-1 and to homologous proteins of related viruses such as pseudorabies ...19947958994
the gene downstream of the gc homologue in feline herpes virus type 1 is involved in the expression of virulence.feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1) mutants were constructed, carrying a beta-galactosidase marker gene integrated into the region downstream of the gene encoding the homologue of glycoprotein c (gc) of herpes simplex virus type 1. in cell culture, no differences in replication were observed between mutants and the parent fhv-1 strain. however, in experimentally infected cats, mutants caused fewer clinical signs after oronasal administration although they replicated to the same extent as the paren ...19947964620
the extreme carboxyl terminus of the equine herpesvirus 1 homolog of herpes simplex virus vp16 is essential for immediate-early gene activation.gene 12 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), the homolog of herpes simplex virus (hsv) vp16 (alpha tif, vmw65), was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector by pcr and used in transactivation studies of both the ehv-1 and hsv-1 ie1 promoters. results demonstrated that the product of gene 12 is a potent transactivator of immediate-early gene expression of both viruses, which requires sequences in the upstream hsv-1 promoter for activity. mutational analysis of the gene 12 open reading frame indicat ...19948035487
identification and initial characterization of the ir6 protein of equine herpesvirus 1.the ir6 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a novel gene that maps within each inverted repeat (ir), encodes a potential protein of 272 amino acids, and is expressed as a 1.2-kb rna whose synthesis begins at very early times (1.5 h) after infection and continues throughout the infection cycle (c. a. breeden, r. r. yalamanchili, c.f. colle, and d.j. o'callaghan, virology 191:649-660,1992). to identify the ir6 protein and ascertain its properties, we generated an ir6-specific polyclonal antise ...19948057419
large and small subunits of the aujeszky's disease virus ribonucleotide reductase: nucleotide sequence and putative structure.we determined the entire dna sequence of two adjacent open reading frames of aujeszky's disease virus encoding ribonucleotide reductase genes with the intergenic sequence of 9 bp. from the sequence analysis we deduce that orfs encode large and small subunits, with sizes of 835 and 303 amino acids, respectively. amino acid sequence comparison of adv rr2 with that of equine herpesvirus type 1, bovine herpesvirus type 1, hsv-1 and varicella zoster virus revealed that 48% of amino acids represent cl ...19948086454
molecular evolution of herpesviruses: genomic and protein sequence comparisons.phylogenetic reconstruction of herpesvirus evolution is generally founded on amino acid sequence comparisons of specific proteins. these are relevant to the evolution of the specific gene (or set of genes), but the resulting phylogeny may vary depending on the particular sequence chosen for analysis (or comparison). in the first part of this report, we compare 13 herpesvirus genomes by using a new multidimensional methodology based on distance measures and partial orderings of dinucleotide relat ...19948107249
the equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein homologous to herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein m is a major constituent of the virus particle.glycoprotein 45 is a major envelope glycoprotein of equine herpesvirus type 1. the gene encoding this protein is located between map units 0.615 and 0.636 on the virus genome and evidence has suggested that it is encoded by gene 52, one of four genes within this region. using pcr we have amplified gene 52 and subsequently cloned it into a mammalian expression vector under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early gene promoter. the gene was expressed in cos-7 cells and its product ...19948113768
helicase-primase complex of herpes simplex virus type 1: a mutation in the ul52 subunit abolishes primase activity.the ul52 gene product of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) comprises one subunit of a 3-protein helicase-primase complex that is essential for replication of viral dna. the functions of the individual subunits of the complex are not known with certainty, although it is clear that the ul8 subunit is not required for either helicase or primase activity. examination of the predicted amino acid sequence of the ul5 gene reveals the existence of conserved helicase motifs; it seems likely, therefore, ...19948189507
identification of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus gene encoding an immunogenic protein with a predicted m(r) of 32 kilodaltons.the nucleotide sequence of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv) gene which maps immediately upstream from the glycoprotein 60 (gp60) gene was determined. the gene, designated p32, encodes a predicted polypeptide of 298 amino acids with an estimated m(r) of 32,000 daltons. the predicted protein sequence has four potential n-glycosylation sites and a signal sequence at the n-terminal region. amino acid residues in the nh2-terminal region of the p32 protein exhibit similarity to glycoprotei ...19938212855
[recent information about the etiopathogenesis of paretic-paralytic forms of herpesvirus infection in horses].from spring 1990 to summer 1991 we investigated 21 horses with clinical symptoms of ehv-infection by means of serological and virological methods including dna-hybridization to identify the causative agents. the results indicated that, as already reported by us, ehv4 may also cause the paralytic form of the infection. the possibility of double infection with ehv4 and ehv1 cannot be excluded. in 3 out of 21 affected horses we could investigate brain tissue and/or spinal fluid by dotblot hybridiza ...19938248905
transcriptional control of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate early gene.transient expression assays measuring induction of an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate early (ie) promoter construct, pie beta gal, were used to examine trans-induction of the ie gene (ir1) promoter by superinfection with intact ehv-1 (kentucky a strain), uv-inactivated ehv-1, or ehv-1 stocks highly enriched for defective interfering particles (dips), and by cotransfection with plasmids containing ehv-1 dna fragments. our results confirm reports by others in that the ie promoter can be ind ...19938249301
association of microbiologic flora with clinical, endoscopic, and pulmonary cytologic findings in foals with distal respiratory tract infection.undifferentiated distal respiratory tract disease (nasal discharge, cough, pneumonia) in foals (1 to 8 months old) is a burdensome economic problem on breeding farms; yet, the infective agents associated with these episodes have not been well described. possible causes of these episodes of illness were investigated by culturing specimens of proximal and distal airways of clinically diseased foals (n = 101), prior to any treatment, for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and viruses (rhinoviruses, equ ...19938250386
a novel arrangement of zinc-binding residues and secondary structure in the c3hc4 motif of an alpha herpes virus protein family.a highly conserved, cysteine-rich region plays a crucial role in the function of a family of regulatory proteins encoded by alpha herpes viruses. the so-called c3hc4 motif spans approximately 60 residues and has been predicted to bind zinc. this motif occurs in a number of other viral and cellular proteins, many of which appear to be involved in some aspect of the regulation of gene expression. we have cloned and expressed in bacteria a portion of immediate-early protein vmw110 of herpes simplex ...19938263911
herpesvirus icp18.5 and dna-binding protein genes are conserved in equine herpesvirus-1.the genome of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) contained three open reading frames (orfs) in a 3.9 kbp bamhi-smai fragment at 0.38-0.41 map units in the long unique region. the most 5' orf encoded the carboxy terminus of a protein with 45-55 percent amino acid homology to the dna-binding proteins (icp8-dbp) of four other alpha-herpesviruses. the middle orf translated to a polypeptide of 775 residues with 43-55% homology to the icp18.5 proteins. the most 3' orf encoded the ehv-1 glycoprotein b (gb) g ...19938279122
inter- and intra-strain genomic variation in equine herpesvirus type 1 isolates.restriction enzyme digests of dna from 22 unselected isolates of ehv-1 were analysed by hybridization with cloned dna fragments covering the genome. in addition to a small amount of inter-strain variation, heterogeneity within strains was observed, caused by loss of specific restriction endonuclease sites in the dna of a proportion of the virus particles of any one stock. fifteen strains demonstrated the same intra-strain variation involving loss of the bamhi l-m site which was shown to lie with ...19948279952
[vaccination against rhinopneumonia]. 19948291048
the horserace betting levy board's code of practice for equine viral arteritis for the 1994 breeding season.the horserace betting levy board formulates codes of practice for the control of contagious equine metritis and other equine bacterial venereal diseases, and equine viral arteritis and equid herpesvirus 1. this year's codes have just been published and the code of practice for eva, reproduced below, has been substantially amended following the recent outbreak in the uk. the code is intended for use by veterinary surgeons and breeders of thoroughbred and non-thoroughbred horses. the hblb states t ...19938310626
an immunohistological study of the uterus of mares following experimental infection by equid herpesvirus 1.twelve welsh mountain pony mares in late gestation were infected intranasally with ehv-1 (ab4 isolate) at dose rates from 10(3) to 10(7.3) tcid50. this resulted in 3 cases of paresis, at days 9, 10 and 12 after inoculation, and 5 abortions, at days 6, 9, 18, 19 and 20. euthanasia was performed between days 6 and 21, with collection of uterine specimens for histopathology, virus isolation and immunoperoxidase staining from the pregnant horn, non-pregnant horn and body. ehv-1 replication in endome ...19938380768
the pseudorabies virus host-shutoff homolog gene: nucleotide sequence and comparison with alphaherpesvirus protein counterparts.the virion host shutoff function (vhs) of many herpesviruses is required for inhibition of cellular gene expression in infected cells. this function corresponds to the ul41 open reading frame of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and homolog sequences have been found in other alphaherpesvirus, like hsv-2, varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). in this work, we have cloned and sequenced a pseudorabies virus (prv) gene which is homologous to the vhs genes of the other ...19938384744
use of an immunoperoxidase technique to detect equine herpesvirus-1 antigen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded equine fetal indirect immunoperoxidase (ip) procedure using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex detection technique was developed to detect viral equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) antigen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from aborted equine fetuses. the procedure was applied to liver, lung, and other tissues from 20 cases of confirmed or suspected ehv-1-induced abortions. specific staining was observed in tissue sections from ehv-1-infected fetuses. positive ip staining was present in tissues of 7 ...19938385497
equine herpesvirus type 1 neurological disease and enterocolitis in mature standardbred horses. 19938389601
development of a dna probe for identification of bovine herpesvirus 4.a sensitive and specific dna probe for detection and identification of bovine herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4) was developed. cloned fragments from a library of hindiii fragments of the bhv-4 (dn-599) genome were labeled with 32p or digoxigenin and were tested for sensitivity and specificity in detecting viral dna by dot-blot hybridization. two probes were identified that detected 10 pg of purified viral dna, and detected viral dna in 0.001 micrograms of total dna extracted from bhv-4-infected cells. both ...19938391228
identification and nucleotide sequence of a gene in feline herpesvirus type 1 homologous to the herpes simplex virus gene encoding the glycoprotein h.a gene encoding the glycoprotein h (gh) homologue of feline herpesvirus type 1 was identified and sequenced. it was located immediately downstream of the thymidine kinase gene within an ecori 6.6 kbp fragment. in addition, a partial ul21 homologous gene was located downstream of the gh homologous gene. the primary translation product of the gh homologous gene is predicted to consist of 821 amino acids with a molecular weight of 92.5 kda. it possesses several characteristics typical of transmembr ...19938394688
expression of small regions of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein c in escherichia coli.a series of truncated equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) glycoprotein c (gc) molecules was examined for use as serodiagnostic antigens for ehv1 and ehv4. small regions of ehv1 glycoprotein c, an immunodominant ehv1 glycoprotein, were expressed in escherichia coli as glutathione s-transferase (gst) fusion proteins using the bacterial expression vector pgex-2t. sera obtained from horses, including sera from specific-pathogen-free (spf) foals, following exposure to either ehv1, ehv4 or both viruses were u ...19958545955
high molecular weight polypeptide bands specific for equine herpesvirus 4.serum neutralisation (sn) and immunoblotting were used in attempts to distinguish between natural infections with the closely related viruses equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpes-virus 4 (ehv-4). horse sera (n = 323) collected in 1990 from studs with no experience of ehv-1 abortions as well as 197 sera collected in 1992 from studs with a history of ehv-1 abortions were tested by sn. the two groups differed in the proportion with measurable ehv-1 antibody, the 1992 group being significa ...19958545957
the equine herpesvirus 1 ir6 protein is nonessential for virus growth in vitro and modified by serial virus passage in cell culture.the ir6 protein of different plaque isolates from three passages of the equine herpesvirus 1 strain rac was investigated. southern blot and dna sequence analyses revealed that plaque isolates from the 12th passage (racl11 and racl22) retained both copies of the ir6 gene, whereas two different genotypes were observed by the 185th passage: racm24 still harbored both copies of the ir6 gene, whereas racm36 deleted one of the two copies. in the 256th passage (rach), both copies of the ir6 gene were a ...19968610435
localization of the us protein kinase of equine herpesvirus type 1 is affected by the cytoplasmic structures formed by the noval ir6 protein.previous work revealed that the us (unique short) segment of equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1), like that of other alphaherpesviruses, encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase (pk). experiments were carried out to identify the pk encoded by the ehv-1 eus2 gene (orf 69) and to ascertain its time course of synthesis and cellular localization. western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses of ehv-1-infected cell extracts using a pk-specific polyclonal antibody generated against a bacterially expres ...19968661393
prolonged gene expression and cell survival after infection by a herpes simplex virus mutant defective in the immediate-early genes encoding icp4, icp27, and icp22.very early in infection, herpes simplex virus (hsv) expresses four immediate-early (ie) regulatory proteins, icp4, icp0, icp22, and icp27. the systematic inactivation of sets of the ie proteins in cis, and the subsequent phenotypic analysis of the resulting mutants, should provide insights into how these proteins function in the hsv life cycle and also into the specific macromolecular events that are altered or perturbed in cells infected with virus strains blocked very early in infection. this ...19968709264
in vitro cytotoxic activity of equine lymphocytes on equine herpesvirus-1 infected allogenic fibroblasts.the objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a technique to analyze the in vitro cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes from adult horses against equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infected allogenic equine dermal fibroblasts (edf); (2) evaluate the ability of a 72-h in vitro incubation with interleukin-2 (il-2) to enhance the lymphocytic cytolytic activity against ehv-1 infected edf; (3) compare the cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes isolated from pregnant mares and non-pregnant mares against ehv-1 in ...19968809999
the detection of latency-associated transcripts of equine herpesvirus 1 in ganglionic neurons.neural tissues from specific pathogen-free ponies that had been experimentally infected with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) were analysed by in situ hybridization. digoxigenin-labelled ehv-1 bamhi fragments spanning almost the entire ehv-1 genome were hybridized to rna in tissue sections from latently infected trigeminal ganglia. the bamhi e fragment detected ehv-1 rna antisense to gene 63 (hsv-1 homologue icp0) in a small number of neurons. sixteen other bamhi fragments gave negative results in 2 ...19958847517
alterations in the equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) strain rach during attenuation.the equine herpesvirus type-1 modified live-vaccine strain rach (256th passage on porcine embryonic kidney cells) was investigated by restriction-enzyme analysis and compared to representative plaque isolates of the 12th passage (racl11, racl22) and 185th passage (racm24, racm36). the restriction patterns of all rac plaque isolates differed compared with reference strain ab4. the left ul terminus was shortened by 0.1 kbp and a missing bamhi site led to the fusion of the f and t fragments. in som ...19968919964
association of herpes simplex virus regulatory protein icp22 with transcriptional complexes containing eap, icp4, rna polymerase ii, and viral dna requires posttranslational modification by the u(l)13 proteinkinase.the expression of herpes simplex virus 1 gamma (late) genes requires functional alpha proteins (gamma1 genes) and the onset of viral dna synthesis (gamma2 genes). we report that late in infection after the onset of viral dna synthesis, cell nuclei exhibit defined structures which contain two viral regulatory proteins (infected cell proteins 4 and 22) required for gamma gene expression, rna polymerase ii, a host nucleolar protein (eap or l22) known to be associated with ribosomes and to bind smal ...19978995634
replication of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in the testes and epididymides of ponies and venereal shedding of infectious virus.six welsh mountain pony colts were infected intranasally with the ab4 isolate of ehv-1. clinical and virological monitoring demonstrated mild upper respiratory tract disease, with nasal shedding of virus and establishment of a cell-associated viraemia. detailed pathological examination of the urogenital tract was performed post mortem on days 4-9 post-infection (pi). ehv-1 was isolated from the epididymis on day 8 and the testis on day 9 pi, with viral replication in endothelial cells of these o ...19969004080
direct detection of equine herpesvirus dna in tissues of aborted equine fetuses.restriction endonuclease analysis of equine herpesviruses 1 (ehv-1) and 4 has been investigated using cultured cells infected with these viruses. the dna cleavage patterns of these viruses were observed in the intracellular dna after digestion with eco ri and electrophoresis. this procedure was applied to the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus infection in aborted equine fetuses. the characteristic eco ri restriction pattern of ehv-1 dna was directly detectable in the emulsion of lungs collected fr ...19969011160
analysis of the contributions of the equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein gb homolog to virus entry and direct cell-to-cell spread.experiments to analyze the functions of the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein gb were performed. cell lines which stably expressed either the full-length ehv-1 gb or only the extracellular portion of gb (amino acids 1 to 844) were constructed and were termed tcgbf and tcgb delta, respectively. using the cell line tcgbf, a gb-negative viral mutant, l11delta gb, was generated by replacing a 2.1-kb bglii-nrui fragment in the ehv-1 strain racl11 gb with the escherichia coli lacz gene. ehv-1 ...19979018127
lack of virulence of the murine fibroblast adapted strain, kentucky a (kya), of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in young horses.the virulence of the cell culture adapted kya strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), which lacks at least six genes by deletions in its genome, was assessed by intranasal inoculation of six young horses that were serologically negative for ehv-1. no horses showed clinical signs, and a neutralizing antibody response against ehv-1 was detected in two horses which had antibodies against ehv-4 prior to the inoculation. a challenge experiment using a highly virulent strain of ehv-1 conducted 4 ...19969054131
demonstration of equine herpesvirus-1 neuronal latency in murine olfactory bulbs using a novel combined in situ pcr and protein synthesis method.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) latency in murine olfactory bulbs was demonstrated by a novel combined in situ pcr and in vitro protein synthesis method (in situ ps-pcr). the escherichia coli lacz gene replacing a deletion in ehv-1 gene 71 (eus4) was thus amplified and transcribed/translated in situ followed by enzymatic detection using x-gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside). beta-galactosidase was found to be concentrated over mitral/tufted neurons indicating those to be the si ...19979123871
immunohistochemical demonstration of equine herpesvirus-1 antigen in neurons and astrocytes of horses with acute paralysis.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection in a few widely scattered neurons and astrocytes plus endothelial cells in brain and spinal cord of two horses with naturally occurring paralytic disease was demonstrated by use of an immunoperoxidase technique. these horses were euthanatized less than 48 hours after the onset of clinical signs. no staining for ehv-1 was demonstrated in brain or spinal cord of three horses that had a longer duration of clinical disease or in two uninfected horses.19979150548
synthesis and processing of the equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein a previous report, the function of the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein m (gm) homolog was investigated. it was shown that ehv-1 gm is involved in both virus entry and direct cell-to-cell spread of infection (n. osterrieder et al., j. virol. 70, 4110-4115, 1996). in this study, experiments were conducted to analyze the synthesis, posttranslational processing, and the putative ion channel function of ehv-1 gm. it was demonstrated that ehv-1 gm is synthesized as an mr 44,000 polypeptid ...19979185606
herpesviral abortion in domestic animals.abortion or neonatal disease may follow infection with several alpha, beta and gamma-herpesviruses. the alpha-herpesvirus, equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), causes single or epizootic abortions or neonatal deaths in equids, and the closely related virus ehv-4 causes sporadic equine abortions. in cattle, the alpha-herpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) and bovine herpesvirus-5 (bovine encephalitis virus), and a gamma-herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus-4, have all be ...19979232116
high level expression of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins d and h and their role in protection against virus challenge in the c3h (h-2kk) murine model.n and c-terminal truncated forms of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) glycoproteins gd and gh were expressed in baculovirus resulting in the production of secreted recombinant proteins. a carboxy-terminal histidine tag was included on each of the genes for protein isolation by nickel affinity chromatography. recombinant gd was recognized by three gd specific monoclonal antibodies, 20c4, 5h6 and f3132. f3132 is a conformationally dependent monoclonal antibody with virus neutralizing activity. expressi ...19979282781
the nucleotidylylation of herpes simplex virus 1 regulatory protein alpha22 by human casein kinase ii.the products of the alpha genes of herpes simplex virus 1, the infected cells proteins (icp) 0, 4, 22, and 27 perform regulatory functions, are nucleotidylylated, and share the signaling or recognition sequence (rr(a/t)(p/s)r) that correctly predicted the nucleotidylylation of viral proteins encoded by ul21, ul31, ul49, and ul47 genes expressed later in infection. extracts from uninfected hela cells or casein kinase ii purified from sea star nucleotidylylated the icp22 moiety of a glutathione s- ...19979312161
antibodies against equine herpesviruses in free-ranging mountain zebras from namibia.twenty-one blood samples of free-ranging mountain zebras (equus zebra) from namibia were tested for equine herpesvirus (ehv-1, -2, -3, -4) specific antibodies by immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and neutralization test (nt). additionally, type-specific nested polymerase chain reactions (nested pcr) were employed for detection of ehv-1, -2 and -4 dna. equine herpesvirus-1 antibodies were detected by ifa in all zebras, while only seven serum samples contained ehv-4 ifa antibodies. sera with high ifa ...19979391966
sequencing of a 5.5-kb dna fragment and identification of a gene coding for a subunit of the helicase/primase complex of avian laryngotracheitis virus (iltv).the nucleotide sequence of a 5,520-bp ecori restriction fragment of avian infectious laryngotracheitis (iltv) dna was reported and submitted to genebank with an accession number of af001078. computer prediction revealed one large potential open reading frame (orf) with sequence similar to one subunit of the dna helicase-primase complex of alpha-herpesviruses. the dna helicase/primase complex of hsv-1 consists of three sub-units with molecular weights of 12,000, 97,000 and 70,000, encoded by gene ...19979421876
nucleotide sequences of glycoprotein i and e genes of equine herpesvirus type 4.the nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein i (gi) and e (ge) genes of equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) strain th20 were determined. the predicted region encoding the ehv-4 gi gene is 1,263 nucleotides, corresponding to a polypeptide of 420 amino acids in length. the predicted region encoding the ehv-4 ge gene is 1,647 nucleotides, corresponding to a polypeptide of 548 amino acids in length. the ehv-4 gi and ge genes show 74% and 85% identity at the amino acid level with those of equine herpes ...19989524947
genomic organization of the canine herpesvirus us region.canine herpesvirus (chv) is an alpha-herpesvirus of limited pathogenicity in healthy adult dogs and infectivity of the virus appears to be largely limited to cells of canine origin. chv's low virulence and species specificity make it an attractive candidate for a recombinant vaccine vector to protect dogs against a variety of pathogens. as part of the analysis of the chv genome, the authors determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the chv us region as well as portions of the flanking inver ...19989620207
phosphorylation of structural components promotes dissociation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument.the role of phosphorylation in the dissociation of structural components of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) tegument was investigated, using an in vitro assay. addition of physiological concentrations of atp and magnesium to wild-type virions in the presence of detergent promoted the release of vp13/14 and vp22. vp1/2 and the ul13 protein kinase were not significantly solubilized. however, using a virus with an inactivated ul13 protein, we found that the release of vp22 was severely impa ...19989696804
diversity of genomic electropherotypes of naturally occurring equine herpesvirus 1 isolates in argentina.the genomes of 10 equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strains isolated in argentina from 1979 to 1991, and a japanese hh1 reference strain were compared by restriction endonuclease analysis. two restriction enzymes, bamhi and bglii, were used and analysis of the electropherotypes did not show significant differences among isolates obtained from horses with different clinical signs. this suggests that the ehv-1 isolates studied, which circulated in argentina for more than 10 years, belong to a single ge ...19989698821
herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses: 11 cases (1982-1996).to determine results of csf analysis in horses with equid herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) and to determine whether results of csf analysis were associated with outcome.19989731262
neuropathological study of gazelle herpesvirus 1 (equine herpesvirus 9) infection in thomson's gazelles (gazella thomsoni).gazelle herpesvirus (ghv-1), correctly designated as equine herpesvirus 9, is a new type of equine herpesvirus immunologically related to equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1). as a sequel to a virological study, the neuropathology of encephalitis caused by ghv-1 in thomson's gazelles (gazella thomsoni) was examined. seven gazelles died with or without neurological symptoms between early september and mid-october in 1993. no gross abnormalities were observed at necropsy, but all animals had non-suppurati ...19989749360
protective immunity against equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) infection in mice induced by recombinant ehv-1 gd.the ability of recombinant preparations of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein d (gd) to elicit specific antibody and t lymphocyte responses in the balb/c mouse model of respiratory infection was investigated. recombinant gd (rgd) expressed as a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) fusion protein in escherichia coli elicited both high titer neutralizing antibody (nab) and cd4 t cell proliferative responses following subcutaneous or intranasal immunization, but elicited only a weak antibody ...19989784062
the equine herpesvirus 1 ir6 protein that colocalizes with nuclear lamins is involved in nucleocapsid egress and migrates from cell to cell independently of virus infection.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) ir6 protein forms typical rod-like structures in infected cells, influences virus growth at elevated temperatures, and determines the virulence of ehv-1 rac strains (osterrieder et al., virology 226:243-251, 1996). experiments to further elucidate the functions and properties of the ir6 protein were conducted. it was shown that the ir6 protein of wild-type racl11 virus colocalizes with nuclear lamins very late in infection as demonstrated by confocal laser scan m ...19989811716
diagnosis and sero-epizootiology of equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 4 infections in japan using a type-specific elisa.recently, a type-specific elisa using equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4) glycoprotein gs (ggs) was developed by crabb and studdert [1993]. to investigate the dissemination of ehv-1 and -4 among horses in japan, we applied their elisa as suitable for discriminating between ehv-1 and -4 infections serologically. type-specificity of the elisa was confirmed by using paired sera of infected horses with either ehv-1 or -4. application of the elisa to sera collected before and after t ...19989819768
epidemiology of equine herpesvirus abortion: searching for clues to the future. 19989830567
systemic infection by equid herpesvirus-1 in a grevy's zebra stallion (equus grevyi) with particular reference to genital pathology.a severe multi-systemic form of equid herpesvirus-1 infection is described in an adult zebra stallion. there was multifocal necrotizing rhinitis, marked hydrothorax and pulmonary oedema, with viral antigen expression in degenerating epithelial cells, local endothelial cells and intravascular leucocytes of the nasal mucosa and lung. specific localization of ehv-1 infection was seen in the testes and epididymides, including infection of leydig cells and germinal epithelium, which would have facili ...19989839210
an equine herpesvirus 1 mutant with a lacz insertion between open reading frames 62 and 63 is replication competent and causes disease in the murine respiratory equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) mutant was constructed by inserting a lacz expression cassette into the intergenic region upstream of gene 62 (glycoprotein l; gl) and downstream of gene 63 (a homologue of the herpes simplex virus transcriptional activator icp0). the recombinant lacz62/63-ehv-1 had similar growth kinetics in cell culture to those of the parental wild type (wt) virus, with indistinguishable cytopathic effects and plaque morphology. reverse transcriptase pcr confirmed that the lacz ...19989856103
in vitro reactivation of latent equid herpesvirus-1 from cd5+/cd8+ leukocytes indirectly by il-2 or chorionic and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (ecg) initiated reactivation of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) from venous lymphocytes at a frequency of 1/10(-5). indirect immunofluorescence showed that > 80% of virus-positive leukocytes were cd5+/cd8+ with the remaining 20% being cd5+/cd8-/cd4-. cocultivation demonstrated that the reactivated virus was infectious. in addition, virus was reactivated in vitro from leukocytes of > 70% of horses by the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin (pha) and pokeweed mitogen ( ...19989880014
dna-mediated immunization with glycoprotein d of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in a murine model of ehv-1 respiratory infection.dna-mediated immunization was assessed in a murine model of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) respiratory infection. a single intramuscular injection with plasmid dna encoding ehv-1 glycoprotein d (ehv-1 gd), including its predicted c-terminal membrane anchor sequence, induced a specific antibody response detectable by 2 weeks and maintained through 23 weeks post injection. a second injection at 4 weeks markedly enhanced the antibody response and all ehv-1 gd-injected mice developed neutralizing anti ...19999987159
the defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus 1 encode an icp22/icp27 hybrid protein that alters viral gene regulation.the genomes of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) defective interfering (di) particles that mediate persistent infection were shown to encode a unique hybrid open reading frame composed of sequences that encode the 196 n-terminal amino acids of icp22 linked in-frame to the c-terminal 68 amino acids of icp27. previous studies demonstrated that this hybrid gene, designated as icp22/icp27. was expressed abundantly at both the mrna and the protein levels in di particle-enriched infections, but not in stan ...199910082387
construction and characterization of an equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein c negative equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain racl 11 mutant was constructed that carries the escherichia coli lacz gene instead of the open reading frame encoding glycoprotein c (gc). the engineered virus mutant (l11(delta)gc) lacked codons 46-440 of the 1404 bp gene. on rabbit kidney cell line rk13 and equine dermal cell line edmin337, the l11(delta)gc virus grew to titers which were reduced by approximately 5- to 10-fold compared with wild-type racl11 virus or a repaired virus (r-l11(delta)gc). howe ...199910082388
infection with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain hvs25a in pregnant mice.the abortigenic effects of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain hvs25a, given intranasally, were assessed in pregnant balb/c, c57bl/6j and quakenbush mice at day 16 of pregnancy. all ehv-1-infected balb/c mice showed clinical signs typical of ehv-1-induced disease, together with evidence of abortion. however, although there were fetal and neonatal deaths in some c57bl/6j and quakenbush litters, the respiratory and systemic effects of ehv-1 infection in the dams were inconsistent. balb/c dams were ...199910098013
the gamma2 late glycoprotein k promoter of equine herpesvirus 1 is differentially regulated by the ie and eicp0 proteins.the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early (ie) phosphoprotein is essential for the activation of transcription from viral early and late promoters and trans-represses its own promoter. transient-transfection assays showed that the ie protein trans-represses the gamma2 late gk promoter. gel shift and dnase i footprinting assays demonstrated that the ie protein binds to the gk promoter sequences from -42 to -26 and from -13 to +12 that overlap the transcription initiation site (+1). these results i ...199910191181
a novel cellular protein, p60, interacting with both herpes simplex virus 1 regulatory proteins icp22 and icp0 is modified in a cell-type-specific manner and is recruited to the nucleus after infection.herpes simplex virus 1 encodes two multifunctional regulatory proteins, infected-cell proteins 22 and 0 (icp22 and icp0). icp0 is a promiscuous transactivator, whereas icp22 is required in vivo and for efficient replication and expression of a subset of late (gamma2) genes in rodent or rabbit cell lines and in primary human cell strains (restrictive cells) but not in hep-2 or vero (permissive) cells. we report the identification in the yeast two-hybrid system of a cellular protein designated p60 ...199910196275
functional anatomy of herpes simplex virus 1 overlapping genes encoding infected-cell protein 22 and us1.5 protein.earlier studies have shown that (i) the coding domain of the alpha22 gene encodes two proteins, the 420-amino-acid infected-cell protein 22 (icp22) and a protein, us1.5, which is initiated from methionine 147 of icp22 and which is colinear with the remaining portion of that protein; (ii) posttranslational processing of icp22 mediated largely by the viral protein kinase ul13 yields several isoforms differing in electrophoretic mobility; and (iii) mutants lacking the carboxyl-terminal half of the ...199910196329
icp22 and the ul13 protein kinase are both required for herpes simplex virus-induced modification of the large subunit of rna polymerase ii.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) infection alters the phosphorylation of the large subunit of rna polymerase ii (rnap ii), resulting in the depletion of the hypophosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated forms of this polypeptide (known as iia and iio, respectively) and induction of a novel, alternatively phosphorylated form (designated iii). we previously showed that the hsv-1 immediate-early protein icp22 is involved in this phenomenon, since induction of iii and depletion of iia are deficient ...199910364308
epidemiological studies of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in thoroughbred foals: a review of studies conducted in the hunter valley of new south wales between 1995 and 1997.sero-epidemiological studies conducted between 1995 and 1997 on two large thoroughbred stud farms in the hunter valley of nsw showed clear evidence of ehv-1 infection in foals as young as 30 days of age. similarly, serological evidence suggested that these foals were infected with ehv-1 from their dams or from other lactating mares in the group, with subsequent foal to foal spread of infection prior to weaning. these studies also provided evidence of ehv-1 infection of foals at and subsequent to ...199910501158
determination of equid herpesvirus 1-specific, cd8+, cytotoxic t lymphocyte precursor frequencies in ponies.the frequency of antigen-specific, genetically restricted cytotoxic t lymphocyte precursors (ctlp) was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of ponies before and after infection with equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv1). split-well limiting dilution analysis (lda) was developed to measure ctlp frequency using ehv1-infected 51cr-labelled lymphoblasts as targets. extensive characterisation showed that recombinant human interleukin-2, autologous antigen presenting cells and equine serum conta ...199910507286
replication of equine herpesvirus type 1 in freshly isolated equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and changes in susceptibility following mitogen the present study, the outcome of an inoculation of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was studied in vitro. cytoplasmic and plasma membrane expression of viral antigens, intra- and extracellular virus titres, and plaque formation in co-culture were determined. ehv-1 replicated in monocytes, although in a highly restricted way. viral antigens were found at maximum levels (8.7% of the monocytes) at 12 h post-infection. the infection was prod ...200010640538
expression of two related viral early genes in epstein-barr virus-associated tumors.the transcription of two early "leftwardly" expressed genes carrying repetitive sequences, ir2 and ir4, has been studied for epstein-barr virus-associated tumors, and for established b-cell lines, using sequence-specific probes generated for this purpose. whereas the ir4 transcript was identified in every tumor and cell line assessed (except b95-8, with a deletion that removes the gene), expression of the ir2 gene was restricted to b lymphocytes. though the promoters for both transcripts lie wit ...200010684296
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