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[consequences of short term fluctuations of the environmental temperatures in calves--part 2: effects on the health status of animals within three weeks after exposure].the aim of the present study was to examine consequences of sudden changes in ambient temperature over a 4-hour period (see part 1 [elmer & reinhold, 2002]) on respiratory health in clinically healthy calves. therefore, the relationship between short-term changes in ambient temperature and the occurrence of clinical respiratory disease was checked over a period of 3 weeks after exposure in 10 calves exposed to 5 degrees c, in 9 calves exposed to 35 degrees c and in 8 control calves (kept at 18-2 ...200211998372
bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) 1b: predominant bvdv subtype in calves with respiratory disease.the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) infections was determined in 2 groups of stocker calves with acute respiratory disease. both studies used calves assembled after purchase from auction markets by an order buyer and transported to feedyards, where they were held for approximately 30 d. in 1 study, the calves were mixed with fresh ranch calves from a single ranch. during the studies, at day 0 and at weekly intervals, blood was collected for viral antibody testing and virus isola ...200212146890
surveillance for antibiotic resistance in veterinary pathogens from the perspective of a regional diagnostic laboratory.the toowoomba veterinary laboratory tests for antibiotic resistance through passive surveillance of bacterial pathogens from diseased, frequently intensively managed, animals. testing is carried out on the basis of the number of animals involved, the nature and severity of the disease and the identity and significance of the bacterium, the results guiding the submitting veterinarian in implementing appropriate treatment. the antibiotics chosen for testing are those that are currently registered ...200312807288
in vitro activities of florfenicol against bovine and porcine respiratory tract pathogens.florfenicol in vitro activities for a total of 756 bacterial isolates from respiratory tract infections of cattle and swine were comparatively investigated by the agar diffusion method and the microdilution broth method. florfenicol showed high in vitro activity against pasteurella multocida, mannheimia haemolytica, actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and streptococcus suis, with all of the isolates inhibited by </=2 micro g of florfenicol per ml.200312878547
isolation of mycoplasmas from nasal swabs of calves affected with respiratory diseases and antimicrobial susceptibility of their isolates.nasal swabs of 293 calves were examined for mycoplasma. the samples were collected from calves affected with respiratory diseases on 71 farms in various parts of japan between 1996 and 1997. mycoplasma bovirhinis was isolated from 47 of 293 calves (16.0%). mycoplasma alkalescens, m. bovis, m. arginini, m. bovigenitalium and acholeplasma spp. were isolated from 19 (6.5%), seven (2.4%), four (1.4%), four (1.4%) and 18 (6.1%) calves, respectively. pasteurella multocida and p. haemolytica were isola ...200314535934
in vitro activities of spectinomycin and comparator agents against pasteurella multocida and mannheimia haemolytica from respiratory tract infections of cattle.prior to the renewal of spectinomycin licensing for veterinary uses in germany, 154 pasteurella multocida and 148 mannheimia haemolytica strains from respiratory tract infections in cattle were investigated for their mics of spectinomycin and other antimicrobial agents. the data obtained should serve as a baseline from which to judge the future development of resistance. moreover, the in vitro activity of spectinomycin in comparison with other antimicrobials should be assessed.200414729757
otitis in cattle, an aetiological review.otitis externa in cattle has a significant impact in tropical and subtropical regions, and the aetiological agents are predominantly rhabditiform nematodes and mites of the genus raillietia. its prevalence is higher in mature and zebu cattle. in advanced clinical cases there can be irreversible and fatal neural lesions. ear infection in calves has been associated with concurrent respiratory diseases and mixed infection. the principal reported agents of otitis in calves are bacteria such as actin ...200414995970
isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial pathogens from bovine pneumonia: 1994--2002.between 1994 and 2002, a total of 390 (46.3%) mannheimia haemolytica, 292 (34.7%) pasteurella multocida, and 160 (19.0%) histophilus somni were isolated at the oklahoma animal disease diagnostic laboratory from lungs from 6-18-month-old beef cattle with pneumonia. the ratio of m. haemolytica isolations to p. multocida isolations decreased from 3.1 in 1994 to 0.8 in 2000 while increasing to 1.5 in 2002. mannheimia haemolytica isolations significantly (p < 0.05) decreased from 62.5% in 1994 to bet ...200415460326
[pasteurella: insights into the virulence determinants of a heterogenous bacterial type].pasteurella (p.) multocida is the causative agent of numerous economically relevant diseases worldwide. these are enzootic bronchopneumonia in cattle and sheep and hemorraghic septicemia in cattle and buffaloes, rhinitis atrophicans in swine, snuffles in rabbit, and fowl cholera. all disease complexes are associated with certain capsular and somatic antigens. even as human pathogen p. multocida is of increasing importance, causing wound infections, and even septicemia, meningitis, and endocardit ...200415495927
evaluation of a live trivalent vaccine for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, para-influenza type-3 virus and pasteurella multocida in calves.a live trivalent vaccine for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibr), para-influenza type-3 virus (pi3) and pasteurella multocida type b vaccine was prepared. the preparation contained 10(7) tcid50 of ibr, 10(7) tcid50 of pi3 & 10(9) cfu of p. multocida type b per 3 ml. ten calves (5-7 days old) were vaccinated intranasally while five unvaccinated calves of the same age were used as control. vaccinated calves were examined daily for disease manifestation. serum and nasal secretion specimen ...200416734122
dfra20, a novel trimethoprim resistance gene from pasteurella multocida.a novel trimethoprim resistance gene, designated dfra20, was detected on the 11-kb plasmid pcck154 from pasteurella multocida. the dfra20 gene codes for a dihydrofolate reductase of 169 amino acids. sequence comparisons revealed that the dfra20 protein differed distinctly from all dihydrofolate reductases known so far.200515616323
the efficacy of valnemulin (econor) in the control of disease caused by experimental infection of calves with mycoplasma bovis.mycoplasma bovis infection was experimentally induced in groups of six young calves. a further group was uninfected and served as a control. ten days after infection, medication with either enrofloxacin (baytril, bayer) or valnemulin (econor, novartis) was instituted via the milk replacer for a further 10 days, after which all calves were killed. infection resulted in depression, pyrexia, inappetance and prominent respiratory signs. arthritis occurred in two animals and two (unmedicated) animals ...200515766939
tet(l)-mediated tetracycline resistance in bovine mannheimia and pasteurella isolates.tetracycline-resistant mannheimia and pasteurella isolates, which were negative for the tetracycline resistance genes (tet) commonly detected among these bacteria, were investigated for other tet genes present and their location.200515972309
characterization of sucrose-negative pasteurella multocida variants, including isolates from large-cat bite wounds.to validate the identification of pasteurella multocida-like bacteria negative for acid formation from sucrose, including isolates from bite wounds caused by large cats, 17 strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. phylogenetic analysis of partially sequenced rpob and infb genes showed the monophyly of the strains characterized and the reference strains of p. multocida. the sucrose-negative strains formed two groups, one related to reference strains of p. multocida and the oth ...200515634981
contribution of respiratory burst activity to innate immune function and the effects of disease status and agent on chemiluminescence responses by ruminant phagocytes in vitro.the mechanisms of interaction between phagocytes and different bacteria that help resolve lung infections or contribute to lung pathology are poorly defined. alveolar phagocytes (resident macrophages and recruited neutrophils) make a major contribution to innate immunity by mounting a respiratory burst that helps kill internalised bacteria. however, this ability may be altered during or after exposure to infection. this review considers the application and limitations of a variety of analytical ...200616678912
pasteurella multocida pathogenesis: 125 years after pasteur.pasteurella multocida was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by louis pasteur in 1881. since then, this gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many other economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. the mechanisms by which these bacteria can invade the mucosa, evade innate immunity and cause systemic disease are slowly being elucidated. key virulence factors identified to date include capsule and lipopolysaccharide. the capsule is cl ...200617107417
pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. p. multocida serogroup a isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (brd), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. p. multocida a:3 is the most common serotype isolated from brd, and these isolates have limited ...200718218157
the response of mannheimia haemolytica to iron limitation: implications for the acquisition of iron in the bovine lung.mannheimia haemolytica is the major causative agent of shipping fever, a severe pneumonia in cattle causing high morbidity and mortality. a prerequisite of successful lung colonization by m. haemolytica is the necessity to adapt to the paucity of iron. the lack of genome information has precluded an assessment of the genetic repertoire available to m. haemolytica to adapt to low iron environments. to close this knowledge-gap, we have determined 90% of a virulent m. haemolytica serotype a1 genome ...200717240088
experimental transmission of pasteurella multocida 6:b in goats.haemorrhagic septicaemia (hs) is an acute disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by pasteurella multocida 6:b. outbreaks of the disease have been closely associated with carrier animals that transmit the organism to susceptible animals during stressful condition. this study was conducted to determine whether goats exposed intranasally to p. multocida 6:b can transmit the organism to contact goats. thirty-six healthy local katjang goats were divided into four groups and goats of groups 1 and 3 we ...200717381677
efficacy of metaphylactic florfenicol therapy during natural outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease.the efficacy of an injectable formulation of florfenicol (300 mg/ml) as metaphylactic control of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease (brd) was evaluated in two double-blind randomly controlled field studies on two dutch veal calf herds (a and b). cattle aged not older than 3 months and in the direct presence of calves with clinical respiratory disease were randomly allocated to treatment with 40 mg/kg florfenicol subcutaneously (s.c.) a positive control treatment (12.5 mg/kg tilmicosi ...200819000268
in vitro activities of tulathromycin and ceftiofur combined with other antimicrobial agents using bovine pasteurella multocida and mannheimia haemolytica isolates.the purpose of this study was to determine the activities of two antibacterial agents used in the treatment of bovine respiratory infections-tulathromycin, a macrolide, and ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin-alone, in combination with each other, and in combination with each of seven additional antibiotics (tilmicosin, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and penicillin g) against bovine pasteurella multocida (n = 60) and mannheimia haemolytica (n = 10) iso ...200819003782
a comparison of 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever/bovine respiratory disease.the aim of this study was to compare 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever (uf)/bovine respiratory disease (brd). at feedlot arrival, 3882 calves were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to 2 groups, which were housed by group in 12 pens. at the time of allocation, 1 group (mlv3-bt2) received a multivalent, modified-live viral vaccine containing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) and types i and ii bovine viral diarr ...200818512457
molecular analysis of florfenicol-resistant pasteurella multocida isolates in germany.three florfenicol-resistant pasteurella multocida isolates from germany, two from swine and one from a calf, were investigated for the genetics and transferability of florfenicol resistance.200818786941
influence of systemic fluoroquinolone administration on the presence of pasteurella multocida in the upper respiratory tract of clinically healthy calves.the influence of enrofloxacin administration (5 mg/kg) for five consecutive days on the occurrence of pasteurella multocida in the upper respiratory tract of two healthy calves was monitored over a 10-day period. from nasal swabs of two additional healthy control calves, which received a placebo saline administration, p. multocida was isolated throughout the study period. in the enrofloxacin treated calves, p. multocida was not demonstrated in the nasopharynx from 48 h after the first injection ...200818808692
respiratory disease in calves: microbiological investigations on trans-tracheally aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid and acute phase protein response.trans-tracheal aspirations from 56 apparently healthy calves and 34 calves with clinical signs of pneumonia were collected in six different herds during september and november 2002. the 90 samples were cultivated and investigated by pcr tests targeting the species histophilus somni, mannheimia haemolytica, pasteurella multocida, mycoplasma bovis, mycoplasma dispar, and mycoplasma bovirhinis. a pcr test amplifying the lktc-artj intergenic region was evaluated and shown to be specific for the two ...200919186010
identification of pasteurella multocida isolates of ruminant origin using polymerase chain reaction and their antibiogram study.a total of 100 isolates of pasteurella multocida from various ruminant species (cattle, buffalo and sheep) belonging to different parts of country were identified using pasteurella multocida-pcr (pm-pcr) and capsular pcr assays. pm-pcr revealed an amplicon of approximately 460 bp in all the isolates tested. as regards capsular pcr, 36 of 38 cattle isolates and 30 of 34 buffalo isolates were found to belong to capsular serogroup b whereas rest of the cattle and buffalo isolates belonged to serogr ...200918759064
identification of immunogenic proteins associated with protection against haemorrhagic septicaemia after vaccination of calves with a live-attenuated aroa derivative of pasteurella multocida b:2.pasteurella multocida serotype b:2 is the causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (hs), a fatal disease of cattle and buffaloes. as a step towards the identification of individual antigens that may protect against hs, proteins present in a sonicated cell extract (sce) and outer-membrane protein (omp) preparation of a wild-type p. multocida serotype b:2 were investigated by immunoblotting with sera from calves which had been protected against challenge with a virulent strain of p. multocida b ...200919243798
characterization and time course of pulmonary lesions in calves after intratracheal infection with pasteurella multocida a:3.pasteurella multocida a:3 is a common cause of suppurative bronchopneumonia in calves and results in significant production losses and mortality. here we describe the lesions in three calves at each of four time points (1 day and 4, 7 and 10 days) after experimental intratracheal infection with approximately 1x10(9) colony-forming units of p. multocida a:3 moredun research institute (mri isolate 671/90). equivalent age- and time-matched sham-dosed negative control animals were also studied. infe ...201019951821
comparison of genotypic and phenotypic characterization methods for pasteurella multocida isolates from fatal cases of bovine respiratory disease.bovine respiratory disease (brd) is the most costly disease of beef cattle in north america. because pasteurella multocida is a commensal of the upper respiratory tract, it is generally considered an opportunistic pathogen. however, studies in swine indicated that there may be a limited number of strains associated with disease, suggesting that some are more virulent than others. although this may also be true of isolates from cattle, appropriate typing methods must be established before this po ...201020453209
bacterial pathogens of the bovine respiratory disease complex.pneumonia caused by the bacterial pathogens discussed in this article is the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality of the brdc. most of these infectious bacteria are not capable of inducing significant disease without the presence of other predisposing environmental factors, physiologic stressors, or concurrent infections. mannheimia haemolytica is the most common and serious of these bacterial agents and is therefore also the most highly characterized. there are other important bact ...201020619191
a bighorn sheep die-off in southern colorado involving a pasteurellaceae strain that may have originated from syntopic cattle.we investigated a pasteurellosis epizootic in free-ranging bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) wherein a pasteurellaceae strain carried by syntopic cattle (bos taurus) under severe winter conditions appeared to contribute to pneumonia in affected bighorns. twenty-one moribund or dead bighorn sheep were found on the "fossil ridge" herd's winter range, colorado, usa, between 13 december 2007 and 29 february 2008. eight carcasses examined showed gross or microscopic evidence of acute to subacute fibrin ...201020966277
immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of moringa oleifera in animals.aim: the aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulatory action of methanolic extract of moringa oleifera (memo) in an experimental model of immunity. the cellular immunity was evaluated using neutrophil adhesion test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and carbon clearance assay, whereas, humoral immunity was tested by mice lethality test, serum immunoglobulin estimation and indirect haemagglutination assay in animals. administration of memo (250 and 750 mg/kg, po) and ocimum ...201021090530
molecular epidemiology of pasteurella multocida in dairy and beef calves.the molecular epidemiology of pasteurella multocida has rarely been studied at the farm level in cattle. the aim of this study was to determine whether single or multiple strains of p. multocida tend to exist within farms. molecular characterisation was carried out on isolates obtained from nasal swabs from 105 calves from 32 randomly selected beef and dairy farms located throughout scotland, and from 131 calves from 20 farms in the mayenne region of france, where sampling occurred in response t ...201121511409
prevalence of respiratory pathogens in diseased, non-vaccinated, routinely medicated veal calves.the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in diseased veal calves was determined in 24 respiratory disease outbreaks in 15 herds in belgium. bacteria were cultured from nasopharyngeal swabs and seroconversion against viruses and mycoplasma bovis was determined on paired sera. at the individual calf level, mycoplasma species, mannheimia haemolytica and pasteurella multocida, were isolated from 70.5 per cent, 21.5 per cent and 26.0 per cent of swabs, respectively. at the herd level, the presence of ...201121831999
Identification of Pasteurella multocida capsular types isolated from rabbits and other domestic animals in Mexico with respiratory diseases.Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of pasteurellosis, a major disease in most domestic animals and livestock. In this study, a total of 34 isolates of P. multocida from rabbits and other domestic animals from Mexico with respiratory diseases underwent polymerase chain reaction-based capsular typing. One sheep isolate was found to belong to capsular serogroup D, whereas the rest of the rabbit, sheep, cattle, pig, goat, and duck isolates belonged to capsular serogroup A of P. multocida. ...201122068635
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and sensitivity to tulathromycin in goat respiratory bacterial isolates.bacterial pneumonia is a common and often life-threatening respiratory problem in both meat and dairy goats. options for approved antibiotic therapy in goats to combat these bacterial infections are severely limited and frequently drugs must be used in an extra-label manner. tulathromycin, a triamilide macrolide antimicrobial drug shown to be effective against swine and cattle respiratory bacterial agents, has been identified as a potentially useful drug in caprines. the present study was conduc ...201122078276
a review of hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffalo.hemorrhagic septicemia (hs), an acute, fatal and septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by pasteurella multocida, is important in tropical regions of the world, especially in african and asian countries. the prevalence of disease has been well documented with predominant isolation of p. multocida serotypes b:2 and e:2. conventional methods of identification such as serotyping, biotyping, antibiogram determination and pathogenicity as well as molecular methods (p. multocida-specific po ...201121676341
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