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bovine serum panel for evaluating foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein antibody tests.a panel of 36 sera has been assembled from experimental cattle that had been infected by inoculation or contact exposure with 4 serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with or without prior vaccination. virus replication and persistence had been characterized in all of the animals. the proportion of the sera scored positive by 5 tests for antibodies to the nonstructural proteins of fmdv varied, suggesting that the panel can discriminate between the sensitivity with which such tests are ...200717823399
animal vaccination and the evolution of viral pathogens.despite reducing disease, vaccination rarely protects against infection and many pathogens persist within vaccinated animal populations. circulation of viral pathogens within vaccinated populations may favour the development of vaccine resistance with implications for the evolution of virus pathogenicity and the emergence of variant viruses. the high rate of mutations during replication of ribonucleic acid (rna) viruses is conducive to the development of escape mutants. in vaccinated cattle, unu ...200717892155
further evaluation of higher potency vaccines for early protection of cattle against fmdv direct contact challenge.the effect of administering higher payload fmd vaccines 10 days prior to severe direct contact challenge on protection from clinical disease and sub-clinical infection was investigated in cattle using two antigen payloads (single strength and 10-fold). regardless of antigen payload, vaccination was shown to significantly reduce the number of clinically infected animals, and significantly reduce virus excretion shortly after challenge, when compared with the unvaccinated group (p<0.05). although ...200717913309
use of a standardized bovine serum panel to evaluate a multiplexed nonstructural protein antibody assay for serological surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease.liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof of principle of a multiplexed nonstructural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected and vaccinated animals. the current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3a, 3b, and 3d and the recombinant protein signature 3abc in combination with four controls. to determine the diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a n ...200717913861
the nsp immune response of vaccinated animals after in-field exposure to fmdv.the aim was to examine the immune response (ir) to non-structural proteins (nsps), in order to assess the validity of the detection of antibodies to nsps as a means of diagnosing foot and mouth disease (fmd infection) infection when vaccinated populations are in close contact with clinically sick animals. the study was performed during fmd outbreaks in israel in january 2004; the ir was examined in vaccinated dairy and feedlot cattle herds under natural field exposure to fmdv, and in vaccinated ...200717981376
[development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against vp1 protein of asiai type foot-and-mouth virus].to prepare the monoclonal antibodies against vp1 protein of type asiai foot-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) and identify the characterization.200717988586
genetic characterisation of the recent foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a/irn/2005.according to the world reference laboratory for fmd, a new subtype of fmdv serotype a was detected in iran in 2005. this subtype was designated a/irn/2005, and rapidly spread throughout iran and moved westwards into saudi arabia and turkey where it was initially detected from august 2005 and subsequently caused major disease problems in the spring of 2006. the same subtype reached jordan in 2007. as part of an ongoing project we have also detected this subtype in pakistan with the first positive ...200718001482
non-structural protein 3a for differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease infected and vaccinated animals in haryana (india).there are severe international trade restrictions on foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) affected areas. because of endemic nature of fmd, india started fmd control programme (fmd-cp) using mass vaccination in selected states including haryana (year 2003). although no significant incidence of the disease was reported after launching fmd-cp in the state but in order to participate in international trade of animal and animal products, veterinary authorities have to prove that there is no fmd virus (fmdv) ...200718035976
application of modelling to determine the absence of foot-and-mouth disease in the face of a suspected incursion.to use disease modelling to inform a response team about the number of animals per herd/flock to be examined, and the start date and duration of clinical surveillance required to be confident that foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was not present on an island in new zealand with a population of approximately 1,600 cattle, 10,000 sheep and a small number of pigs, goats and alpacas.200718059646
[molecular cloning and characteristics of cdna encoding pig beta6 subunit for fmdv receptor].in order to study the roles of integrin beta6 in foot-and-mouth disease virus infection, pig integrin beta6 was firstly molecularly cloned from rna of the tongue and lung of recovered pig infected experimentally with foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv), and was compared with the beta6 gene of other animals available in genbank at nucleotide and amino acid leves. genebank association number of the beta6 gene is ef432729. pig integrin beta6 gene (2367bp) encodes a polypeptide of 788 amino acids co ...200718064756
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a in egypt.we describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype a virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in egypt. phylogenetic analysis of vp1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent fmd virus isolates from east africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the middle east.200718258017
[cloning and sequence analysis of cdna encoding porcine alphav subunit for fmdv receptor].receptors play a crucial role in determining the pathogenesis and tissue tropism of virus. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been showed to use four integrins, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 as receptors to initiate infection. in this study, the porcine integrin alphav gene was cloned by rt-pcr from the lung tissue of healed pig infected experimently with fmdv, and compared its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence with the av gene of other animals. the 3141bp c ...200718268814
john burns brooksby cbe: 25 december 1914 - 17 december 1998.john brooksby was an outstanding veterinary virologist, who worked at the animal virus disease research institute, pirbright, for 40 years, for 16 of which he was director of the institute. he will be remembered for his contributions to the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease, for his discovery of four new types, for the classification of subtypes and for fundamental studies of the virus. as deputy director and director he was responsible for programmes on fundamental investigations of foot-and- ...200718543463
fred brown: 31 january 1925 - 20 february 2004.fred brown was a major figure in british and international virology during most of the latter half of the twentieth century. he brought to the subject a rigorous and critical attitude acquired during his early training in chemistry. in addition, he was passionately interested in the practical application of his work and that of others to the prevention and alleviation of disease. he always believed that his research would make a significant contribution to the welfare of agricultural livestock. ...200718543464
foot and mouth disease in the borana pastoral system, southern ethiopia and implications for livelihoods and international trade.participatory epidemiology (pe) was used on the borana plateau of southern ethiopia to understand pastoralist's perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in cattle. matrix scoring showed good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs of acute and chronic fmd, and findings were cross-checked by clinical examination of cattle and assessment of previous clinical fmd at herd level by detection of antibody to non structural proteins of fmd ...200818551776
generation and characterization of an npro-disrupted marker bovine viral diarrhea virus derived from a bac cdna.in vitro studies showed that n(pro) protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) interferes with cellular antiviral defense. to understand the role of n(pro) protein in successful viral invasion of the host and establishment of the lifetime persistence, an infectious n(pro)-disrupted virus with a noncytopathic (ncp) background is desired. in this study, an n(pro)-disrupted cdna, pbsd1-n(pro)/egfp2a, was constructed based on an infectious full-length bac cdna clone of ncp bvdv strain sd1, pbsd1. ...200818555541
evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the sat serotypes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in south africa. vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (as) adjuvanted vaccines containing the south african territories (sat) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlli ...200818575060
variation in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a associated with epidemiological characteristics of outbreaks in the 2001 epizootic in argentina.a mixed binomial bayesian regression model was used to quantify the relation between nucleotide differences in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a, and epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreaks from which the viruses were obtained between january and december 2001 in argentina. an increase in the probability of different nucleotides between isolates was associated with a longer time between isolation dates, a greater distance between isolation locations, an increa ...200818599847
experimental transmission of foot-and-mouth disease among indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and from buffalo to cattle.indian buffalo and cattle were infected experimentally with a serotype o strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus of buffalo origin. whereas intradermolingual inoculation of buffalo produced largely sub-clinical infection, inoculation in the dental pad produced vesicles in the mouth and on the feet. a buffalo infected via the dental pad transmitted infection to cattle and buffalo by direct contact with them for 24h. the contact-exposed buffalo developed (1) delayed-onset clinical signs, and (2) sh ...200818619607
uv inactivation and model of uv inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suspension.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes one of the most contagious diseases affecting cloven-hoofed animals (e.g., cattle and swine) and causes severe economic loss for many countries. the resistance to uv irradiation of fmdv strains isolated from outbreaks in thailand was investigated in phosphate-buffered saline at 25 degrees c. since the regression coefficients of linear regression were large and root mean square errors were small, uv inactivation could be appropriately summarized and fitt ...200818625534
herd reproduction ratio and time-space analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in peru in 2004.the herd reproductive ratio (rh) and spatio-temporal clustering were estimated in the 2004 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in peru. the epidemic lasted 39 days and involved 26 herds. movement of cattle was restricted, all susceptible species within a 25-km buffer zone were revaccinated, and infected animals with clinical signs of fmd were killed or destroyed to control and eradicate the disease. the rh declined from 5.3 on the second day of the epidemic to 1.31 on the 25th day. spatio-temp ...200818631231
multiplexed molecular assay for rapid exclusion of foot-and-mouth disease.a nucleic acid-based multiplexed assay was developed that combines detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with rule-out assays for two other foreign animal diseases and four domestic animal diseases that cause vesicular or ulcerative lesions indistinguishable from fmdv infection in cattle, sheep and swine. the fmdv "look-alike" diagnostic assay panel contains 5 pcr and 12 reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) signatures for a total of 17 simultaneous pcr amplifications for 7 diseases plus ...200818634827
enhanced mucosal immune response in cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the mucosal immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia 1 was examined in experimentally infected cattle by assaying antibodies by the virus-neutralizing test (vnt) and iga elisa in two secretory fluids, oesophageal pharyngeal fluid (opf) and oro-nasal fluid (onf). out of 17 animals infected by the intradermo-lingual route, 12 became persistently infected (carriers), as defined by positive antigen capture rt-pcr reactions for fmdv rna in opf samples collected at 28 days or l ...200818656268
clinical and laboratory investigations of the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in southern england in 2007.a case of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) on a cattle farm in normandy, surrey, was confirmed on friday august 3, 2007, the first case in the uk since 2001. the infection was detected nearby on a second farm on august 6. on september 12, fmd was confirmed on a farm approximately 20 km from normandy in egham, and this was followed by cases on five more farms in that area in the next three weeks. the majority of the infected farms consisted of multiple beef cattle holdings in semi-urban areas. in tot ...200818676997
comparison of the characters of the plaque-purified viruses from foot-and-mouth disease virus o/jpn/2000.at least two biotypes were observed at the 2nd passage stage after the isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2000 strain. these 2 types of viruses differed from their plaque phenotypes and were distinguishable by using a monoclonal antibody (mab) 64g8 that was made for the fmdv o/jpn/2000 strain. one of these 2 biotypes formed small plaque (sp) and with immuno staining showed a positive reaction to mab 64g8, while the other formed clear large plaque (lp) and did not react with m ...200818685235
[construction of recombinant retroviral vector carrying lab gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its expression in bovine kidney (mdbk) cells].in this study, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain oa/58 rnas were used as templates for rt-pcr. by the molecular cloning, the lab gene encoding leader protease called lpro were cloned in retroviral vector pbpstr1 to obtain reconstruction retroviral vector termed pbpstr1-lab. at different concentrations of puromycin and tetracycline respectively in the cell culture mediums, the growth of bovine kidney cells (mdbk) showed that the optimal puromycin resistant selection concentration was 3 m ...200818724691
[cloning of foot-and-mouth disease virus integrin receptor beta1 subunit and antibody production to its ligand-binding domain].we produced beta1 gene which is about 2400 bp by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) from bovine trachea, reclaimed and purified, then cloned the amplified fragment to pgem-t easy vector, confirmed by sequencing. the immune-dominant epitope of beta1 gene was chosen by computer analysis and then syncretized ligand-binding domain from 346 bp to 843 bp of ecytoplasm with six histidine, expressed lbd protein massly in e. coli bl21 (de3), and identified by sds-page. the fusion pr ...200818724711
foot-and-mouth disease virus, but not bovine enterovirus, targets the host cell cytoskeleton via the nonstructural protein 3cpro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a member of the picornaviridae, is a pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals and causes a disease of major economic importance. picornavirus-infected cells show changes in cell morphology and rearrangement of cytoplasmic membranes, which are a consequence of virus replication. we show here, by confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, that the changes in morphology of fmdv-infected cells involve changes in the distribution of microtubule and intermediate ...200818753210
high potency vaccines induce protection against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus.in a series of three homologous and eight heterologous challenge experiments, it was shown that high potency vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype a can induce protection even against heterologous challenge infection with viruses that give low r-values with the vaccine strains. the challenge virus specific neutralizing antibody response on the day of challenge (21 days post vaccination) generally correlated with protection.200818313814
modelling foot-and-mouth disease: a comparison between the uk and denmark.whilst the uk 2001 fmd (foot-and-mouth disease) outbreak provides an extremely rich source of spatio-temporal epidemic data, it is not clear how the models and parameters from the uk can be translated to other scenarios. here we consider how the model framework used to capture the uk epidemic can be applied to a hypothetical fmd outbreak in denmark. whilst pigs played a relatively minor role in the uk epidemic (being the infected animal on just 18 farms), they dominate the danish livestock lands ...200818328581
chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses: evaluation of their efficacy as potential marker vaccines in cattle.previous work in pigs, has demonstrated that full protection against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines, in which the vp1 g-h loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. if proven to be effective in other economically important species such as cattle, such vaccine constructs could be trialed as potential marker vaccines. here, we determine if g-h loop chimera fmdv vaccines can: (i) protect c ...200818342409
pathogenic characteristics of the korean 2002 isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in pigs and cattle.experimental infection of susceptible cattle and pigs showed that the o/skr/as/2002 pig strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an infection that is highly virulent and contagious in pigs but very limited in cattle. pigs directly inoculated with, or exposed to swine infected with, strain o/skr/as/2002 showed typical clinical signs, including gross vesicular lesions in mouth and pedal sites. in addition, fmdv was isolated from, and fmdv genomic rna was detected in, blood, serum, nasa ...200818384806
serological survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in wildlife in eastern africa and estimation of test parameters of a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for buffalo.in this study we estimate the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in wildlife from eastern and central africa. sera were sourced from between 1994 and 2002 from a rinderpest surveillance program. our study compared a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cedi test) with a virus neutralization test. the study shows that there is only a low seroprevalence of fmdv in sampled nonbuffalo species. the seroprevalence in the cape buffalo was high for sat2, lower for ...200818385460
[gene cloning of ligand binding domain of porcine beta3 as fmdv receptor and preparation of its polyclonal antibody].to clone and express the ligand binding domain (lbd) cdna of porcine integrin beta3 as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) receptor and prepare its polyclonal antibody.200818394343
assessment of suitability of two serotype a candidate vaccine strains for inclusion in fmd vaccine in india.the recent type a foot and mouth disease virus field isolates recovered in india are shown to be antigenically quite divergent from the in-use vaccine strain (ind 17/82), warranting the selection of a suitable vaccine strain which can cover this diversity in antigenic spectrum. in earlier studies employing neutralization test with anti-146s rabbit sera raised against eight candidate vaccine strains, ind 81/00 and ind 40/00 belonging to genotype vii were found to offer the best antigenic coverage ...200818394827
foot-and-mouth disease virus concentrations in products of animal origin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals which can have devastating economic consequences. maintaining an fmd-free status is a priority for non-endemic countries, which restrict importation of animals and animal products from countries in which the disease is present or sporadic, thus presenting a considerable barrier to international trade. this review examines the concentration of fmd virus in animal tissues during the viraemic stage of disease and i ...200818397496
rate of foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission by carriers quantified from experimental data.upon infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a considerable number of animals become carriers of the virus. these carriers are considered to be a risk for new outbreaks, but the rate at which these animals can transmit the infection has not been quantified. an analysis was carried out using data from previously published experiments in order to quantify the transmission rate parameter beta of fmdv infection from carriers to susceptible animals. the parameter beta was estimated at 0.02 ...200818419650
quantitative risk assessment of foot-and-mouth disease introduction into spain via importation of live animals.spain has been a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-free country since 1986. however, the fmd epidemics that recently affected several european union (eu) member countries demonstrated that the continent is still at high risk for fmd virus (fmdv) introduction, and that the potential consequences of those epidemics are socially and financially devastating. this paper presents a quantitative assessment of the risk of fmdv introduction into spain. results suggest that provinces in north-eastern spain are ...200818430478
foot-and-mouth disease in north american bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni): susceptibility, intra- and interspecies transmission, clinical signs, and lesions.there is limited information about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north american bison (bison bison) or elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). in these two experimental infection studies, we compared the susceptibilities of bison and elk to fmd virus (fmdv), respectively, with that of cattle; determined whether intra- and interspecies transmission could occur in bison and cattle, and elk and cattle; determined suitability of conventional available laboratory tests to ...200818436660
serotype-independent detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious vesicular disease affecting cloven hoofed animals and is considered the most economically important disease worldwide. recent fmd outbreaks in europe and taiwan and the associated need for rapid diagnostic turnaround have identified limitations that exist in current diagnostic capabilities. to aid improved diagnosis, a serotype-independent fmdv antigen capture assay was developed using antibodies directed against a highly conserved c ...200818440078
epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in landhi dairy colony, pakistan, the world largest buffalo colony.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and causes huge economic losses. this work focus on the landhi dairy colony (ldc), located in the suburbs of karachi. ldc is the largest buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). each month from april 2006 to april 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage ...200818445264
use of continuous results to compare elisas for the detection of antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.six tests for detection of antibodies against the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were compared at an international workshop in brescia, italy in 2004 on the basis of dichotomous test results. however, as results from all of these assays were also available on a continuous scale, validation was extended by calculating and subsequently analysing the receiver-operator characteristic (roc) curves and likelihood ratios (lr) for each test method. for the purposes of the ...200818450336
a bayesian evaluation of six diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease for vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle.the sensitivity and specificity of six elisa tests for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) to discriminate between sero-converted (for non-structural fmd virus proteins) and non-sero-converted cattle were evaluated for vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle. since none of the tests could be considered as a proper reference test and for about half of the tested sera the true status (sero-converted or not for non-structural proteins, i.e. presence of antibodies) of the animals was unknown, a bayesian analysi ...200818455817
comparative study of experimental foot-and-mouth disease in cattle (bos indicus) and buffaloes (bubalis bubalus).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious diseases affecting wide range of host species with variable severity and decreased productivity. the present study was undertaken to compare the clinical and leucocytic changes in indigenous indian cattle and buffaloes experimentally infected with fmd virus (fmdv) asia 1. a mild type of disease was observed in the cattle, more so in buffaloes infected with fmdv. difference in terms of type, site and healing of lesion was observed between ...200818491212
development and characterization of a bovine serum evaluation panel as a standard for immunoassays based on detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease viral non-capsid proteins.the widespread perception of the effectiveness of applying tests based on the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral non-capsid proteins (ncps) to assess virus circulation irrespective of vaccination triggered the demand for international standards to evaluate the comparative performance of the upcoming assays against the oie index test developed at the pan american foot-and-mouth disease center, paho/who. to this end, a panel was developed composed of 34 cattle sera ...200818499275
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing in cattle using homologous and heterologous challenge strains: precision of the "protection against podal generalisation" test.the level of protection conferred by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines in primovaccinated animals primarily depends on the potency of the vaccine and the relatedness of the vaccine strain and circulating field isolate. the "gold standard" fmd vaccine potency test is the in vivo test performed in the target species. the objective of the study was to determine the precision of the in vivo "protection against podal generalisation" (ppg) fmd vaccine potency test in cattle using homologous (vacci ...200818499310
diagnostic specificity of a real-time rt-pcr in cattle for foot-and-mouth disease and swine for foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever based on non-invasive specimen collection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and classical swine fever virus (csfv) are highly contagious and can cause great economic losses when introduced into disease-free regions. accurate estimates of diagnostic specificity (sp) are important when considering the implementation of surveillance for these agents. the purpose of this study was to estimate diagnostic sp of a real-time reverse-transcriptase pcr assay developed for detection of fmdv in cattle and domestic swine and csfv in domestic swine ...200818499360
expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins in silkworm-baculovirus expression system and its utilization as a subunit vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock that causes severe economic loss in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. although the traditional inactivated vaccine has been proved effective, it may lead to a new outbreak of fmd because of either incomplete inactivation of fmdv or the escape of live virus from vaccine production workshop. thus, it is urgent to develop a novel fmdv vaccine that is safer, more effective and more economical than traditional vaccines.200818509464
partial sequence analysis of vp1 of indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1.nucleotide sequence of 3' end of vp1 (1d region) was determined using rt-pcr amplified dna of 31 foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia-1 field isolates originating from 11 different geographically distinct states of india during the period 1987-2000. these field strains exhibited an average of 7.5% divergence among them and were found to be divergent from the indian vaccine strains asia-1 wbn 117/85, ind 8/79, and ind 63/72, by an average 5.9, 14.8, and 7.4% divergence, respectively. phy ...200818512139
an mhc-restricted cd8+ t-cell response is induced in cattle by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection and also following vaccination with inactivated fmdv.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hooved animals that carries enormous economic consequences. cd8(+) cytotoxic t lymphocytes play an important role in protection and disease outcome in viral infections but, to date, the role of the cd8(+) t-cell immune response to fmdv remains unclear. this study aimed to investigate major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i-restricted cd8(+) t-cell responses to fmdv in vaccinated and in infected cattle. an in ...200818272757
genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from afghanistan in 2003-2005.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates collected from various geographic locations in afghanistan between 2003 and 2005 were genetically characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed utilizing nucleotide sequences of the complete vp1 coding region. three serotypes of fmdv (types a, o, and asia 1) were identified as causing clinical disease in afghanistan during this period. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type a viruses were most closely related to isolates collected in iran ...200818278548
orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protomer vaccine displayed on t4 bacteriophage surface: 100% protection from potency challenge in mice.an orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine has not previously been reported. by using a t4 bacteriophage nanoparticle surface gene-protein display system (t4-s-gpds), we created a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) entire capsid protein vaccine candidate. on the t4 phage surface soc site, a full length fmdv capsid precursor polyprotein (p1, 755 aa) and proteinase 3c (213 aa) derived from an infected pig of serotype o strain gd-10 (1999), were separately displayed on different t4 p ...200818289743
experimental studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1, responsible for the 2005 epidemic in china.this study was carried out to investigate the biological characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus strain asia-1 china/2005, which is responsible for the 2005 epidemic in china. the result showed that this strain is not host restricted, and could not only cause fmd in cattle and sheep but also in pigs by either inoculation or direct contact.200818155114
molecular and phylogenetic analyses of bovine rhinovirus type 2 shows it is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus.bovine rhinovirus 2 (brv2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family picornaviridae. a nearly full-length cdna of the brv2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence determined. brv2 possesses a putative leader proteinase, a small 2a protein and a poly(c) tract, which are characteristic of aphthoviruses. alignment of brv-2 and fmdv polyproteins showed that 41% of amino acids were identical within the p1 region. furthermo ...200818201745
diagnostic evaluation of multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr microsphere array assay for detection of foot-and-mouth and look-alike disease viruses.a high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from viruses that cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. this assay simultaneously screens for five rna and two dna viruses by using multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr (mrt-pcr) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. two of the 17 primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from prev ...200818216216
potential of antiviral therapy and prophylaxis for controlling rna viral infections of livestock.with intensification of trade, livestock are increasingly exposed to severe animal diseases caused by a range of rna viruses. recent prime examples include outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), peste des petits ruminants, rift valley fever and bluetongue. to minimise their impact, controlling the spread of virus is of utmost importance. good quality, reliable vaccines exist for some, although not all, of these diseases, but suffer from a set of drawbacks, not the least of which being the ti ...200818035428
cedivac-fmd can be used according to a marker vaccine principle.in this study, we investigated whether cedivac-fmd, an emergency vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), is suitable for use conjointly with a screening program intended to confirm freedom from disease in vaccinated herds based on evidence of virus replication in vaccinates. different sets of sera were tested using the ceditest fmdv-ns elisa for the detection of antibodies against non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus. during a vaccine safety study, serum samples were collected from ...200818035508
a highly sensitive and specific multiplex rt-pcr to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus in tissue and food samples.three sets of primers to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) using multiplex rt-pcr were designed based on several reference nucleotide sequences, and their reaction conditions were determined. by testing ten-fold serial dilutions of fmdv, the sensitivity of multiplex rt-pcr is 100 times higher than conventional rt-pcr. meanwhile, its specificity was confirmed compared with other related vesicular disease viruses. furthermore, 30 field samples from different animals were tested, and the r ...200817987350
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. in contrast, fmd in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. in order to investigate the pathogenesis of fmd in lambs, two groups, aged 10-14 days, were infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o ukg. one group of lambs (n=8) was inoculated with fmdv in the coronary band, while the other (n=4) was infec ...200817942248
assessment of the diagnostic potential of immuno-rca in 96-well elisa plates for foot-and-mouth disease virus.the need for fast and very early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection has yielded different types of diagnostic tools over the past decades: whereas very sensitive techniques such as virus isolation (vi) and more recently also real-time rt-pcr can provide evidence for the presence of low virus quantities, vi requires additional confirmation of the nature of the virus strain and both techniques (currently) lack the ability for direct serotyping. the latter usually depends on ...200817913251
molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine toll-like receptor 7 involved in recognition of single-stranded rna virus/ssrna.the interest in understanding interaction between the toll-like receptor and the viral infection has increased because of its importance in disease control. here we have cloned the porcine tlr7 (ptlr7) cdna encoding for 1050 amino acids. the ptlr7 exhibits 90, 87, 87, 86, 84 and 78% similarity to tlr7 from cattle, dog, horse, cat, human and mouse, respectively. rt-pcr data suggested that ptlr7 mrna was mostly synthesized in secondary lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph node and tonsil) and antigen-p ...200817889367
foot and mouth disease in the lao people's democratic republic: ii. seroprevalence estimates, using structured surveillance and surveys of abattoirs.an examination of the seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus was conducted in the lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr) from 1996 to 2005, using structured surveillance and abattoir-based studies. under structured surveillance, seropositivity ranged from 65.7% (vientiane capital, 1996) to 3% (houaphan, 2005) for cattle and buffalo; and from 2.8% (vientiane capital, 1998) to 0% in separate studies of pigs. in each study, species composition was significantly associated with ser ...200819284052
foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in south sudan: benefit-cost analysis and livelihoods impact.a benefit-cost analysis of vaccination for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was conducted in an area of south sudan, which due to chronic conflict, had been subject to large-scale humanitarian assistance for many years. the study used participatory epidemiology (pe) methods to estimate the prevalence and mortality of acute and chronic fmd in different age groups of cattle, and the reduction in milk off-take in cows affected by fmd. the benefit-cost of fmd vaccination was 11.5. losses due to the chro ...200818786073
dromedaries (camelus dromedarius) are of low susceptibility to inoculation with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type o strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the sheep developed typical fmd. the inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible signs of illness or vesicular lesions. however, one of them had a raised body temperature at 3 days post-inoculation (pi) and a viraemia from days 2 to 10; probang samples from this animal were negative for infect ...200818789453
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing: the influence of serotype, type of adjuvant, valency, fractionation method, and virus culture on the dose-response curve in cattle.the aim of this study was to determine a relationship between vaccine potency (amount of pd50 per dose) and fraction of clinically protected cattle following homologous challenge with infectious foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus, and to determine the effect of method of fractionation, serotype, type of adjuvant, valency and type of virus culture on the dose-response curve. data from 297 potency tests of fmd vaccines, comprising 4004 vaccinated cattle, performed at the fmd vaccine production fac ...200818822336
bovine viral diarrhea virus is a suitable viral vector for stable expression of heterologous gene when inserted in between n(pro) and c genes.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is a group of small enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive-oriented rna genome of approximately 12.3 kb. bvdv genome directs the production of a viral polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved to release the mature viral proteins. to explore the potential of using bvdv as viral vector for stable expression of heterologous genes, egfp2a was inserted in between n(pro) and c genes of a noncytopathic type-i bvdv strain sd1. egfp2a was designed with egfp ...200818824056
updating of the correlation between lpelisa titers and protection from virus challenge for the assessment of the potency of polyvalent aphtovirus vaccines in argentina.routine vaccination campaigns are carried out in argentina twice a year, involving more than 100 million doses of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine. although the challenge test in cattle has not been totally replaced for the assessment of fmd vaccine potency, argentine animal health authorities have used an indirect alternative method based on specific correlation studies of protection against podal generalization (ppg) tests performed in cattle with a validated liquid phase blocking elisa (l ...200818835312
specificity of non-structural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in a target population in new zealand.to determine the diagnostic specificities of two commercial screening elisa, the bommeli/idexx chekit fmd 3abc indirect elisa (elisa-1) and the ceditest fmdv ns blocking elisa (elisa-2), for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle, sheep and pigs in new zealand, and to compare them with other published studies. to consider the implications for fmd surveillance of using two elisa in series, a consideration arising from the absence of a gold standard virus neutralisation test (vnt) in new zealand.200818836503
foot-and-mouth disease virus persists in the light zone of germinal centres.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious viruses of animals and is recognised as the most important constraint to international trade in animals and animal products. two fundamental problems remain to be understood before more effective control measures can be put in place. these problems are the fmdv "carrier state" and the short duration of immunity after vaccination which contrasts with prolonged immunity after natural infection. here we show by laser capture microdis ...200818941503
molecular characterization of sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in limpopo province, south africa.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. the virus is a single-stranded rna virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. in southern africa the south african territories (sat) 1-3 serotypes of fmd virus are maintained by large numbers of african buffaloes (syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. during february 2001, an ...200819294983
diagnosis of foot-and mouth disease by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction under field conditions in brazil.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important and highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) are the gold standard tests for diagnosis of fmd. as these methods are time consuming, assays based on viral nucleic acid amplification have been developed.200819117507
[screening and stability of madin-darby bovine kidney cell strain co-expressing the capsid precursor protein p1-2a gene and the protease 3c gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus].to screen the madin-darby bovine kidney [co1] cell strains for stable expression of capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv [co2]).200819149169
analysis of the leader proteinase (l(pro)) region of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus with due emphasis on phylogeny and evolution of the emerging vp3(59)-deletion lineage from india.genotype inclusive grouping of indian type a isolates as observed in 1d region based phylogeny was distorted at complete l(pro) region, where the vp3(59)-deletion group lineages of genotype vii clustered away from both genotypes vii and vi, confirming its uniqueness and independent evolution of l(pro) and 1d region. akin to the 1d region, this deletion group is gradually diverging genetically even at l region forming more number of lineages and inter-lineage distance at l region is considerably ...200919167441
foot-and-mouth disease virus can induce a specific and rapid cd4+ t-cell-independent neutralizing and isotype class-switched antibody response in naïve cattle.the role of t-lymphocyte subsets in recovery from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in calves was investigated by administering subset-specific monoclonal antibodies. the depletion of circulating cd4(+) or wc1(+) gammadelta t cells was achieved for a period extending from before challenge to after resolution of viremia and peak clinical signs, whereas cd8(+) cell depletion was only partial. the depletion of cd4(+) cells was also confirmed by analysis of lymph node biopsy specimens 5 ...200919176618
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from south east asia 1998-2006: the lao perspective.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes sporadic disease outbreaks in the lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr) and appears to be endemic within a livestock population largely susceptible to infection. as lao pdr is a major thoroughfare for transboundary animal movement, regular fmd outbreaks occur causing economic hardship for farmers and their families. the dominant serotype causing outbreaks between 1998 and 2006 was type o. using phylogenetic analysis, type o isolated viruses were divided i ...200919181459
immune response in goats to two commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccines and the assessment of maternal immunity in their kids.in this investigation, the immune response of goats to two commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccines (fmdv) was compared. highest mean antibody titre was observed on days 60 and 21 in goats vaccinated with two doses of algel (group 1) and oil adjuvant (group 2) quadrivalent vaccines, respectively. there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in mean antibody titre between the two vaccine groups. however, the antibody titres for type o fell below the protective titres by day 180 and 270 for gr ...200919200298
identification of major histocompatibility complex restriction and anchor residues of foot-and-mouth disease virus-derived bovine t-cell epitopes.despite intensive research on the identification of t-cell epitopes in cattle after foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection during the last 20 years, knowledge of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) restriction and anchor residues of such epitopes is still sparse. therefore, as a first step, we tested lymphocytes from two experimentally fmdv serotype a24-vaccinated and -challenged cattle for recognition of fmdv-derived pentadecapeptides in proliferation assays. two epitopes were identif ...200919211750
influence of exposure intensity on the efficiency and speed of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by direct animal-to-animal contact, indirect contact facilitated by contaminated materials or by airborne spread. the rate of spread and the incubation period, as well as the severity of disease, depends on many variables including the dose received, the route of introduction, the virus strain, the animal species and the conditions under which the animals are kept. quantitative data related to these variables are needed if model predictions are t ...200919215941
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus: strategies and effectiveness.although present conventional foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines can prevent clinical disease, protection is short lived ( approximately 6 months), often requiring frequent revaccination for prophylactic control, and vaccination does not induce rapid protection against challenge or prevent the development of the carrier state. furthermore, it is clear that the clinical protection depends upon the length of immunization and the duration of exposure/challenge methods. this review summarizes the ...200919249976
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using glycoprotein and monoclonal antibody for detecting antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus serotype new jersey.in this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using glycoprotein and a monoclonal antibody (mab) was developed for the detection of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) serotype new jersey (nj). the glycoprotein to be used as a diagnostic antigen was extracted from partially purified vsv-nj, and a neutralizing mab specific to vsv-nj was incorporated to compete with antibodies in a blocking elisa using glycoprotein (gp elisa). the cutoff of the gp elisa was set at 40% inhi ...200919279165
investigations into the cause of foot-and-mouth disease virus seropositive small ruminants in cyprus during 2007.in 2007, serological evidence for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) infection was found as a result of differential diagnostic testing of cypriot sheep suspected to be infected with bluetongue or contagious ecthyma. seropositive sheep and goats were subsequently uncovered on ten geographically clustered flocks, while cattle and pigs in neighbouring herds were all seronegative. these antibodies were specific for serotype-o fmd virus, reacting with both structural and non-structural (ns) fmd viral prot ...200919744234
phenotypic and functional characterization of t-cells and in vitro replication of fmdv serotypes in bovine lymphocytes.peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) from unvaccinated and vaccinated bovine calves were employed to study the alteration of different t-cell subpopulations, functional competence and detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) at different hours post in vitro infection (hpi) with fmdv serotype either o or a or asia1. the alteration in t-lymphocyte subpopulations was analyzed by flow cytometry analysis using t-cell subpopulation specific monoclonal antibodies at various hpi. all the t ...200919751690
genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses, ethiopia, 1981-2007.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic to sub-saharan africa. to further understand its complex epidemiology, which involves multiple virus serotypes and host species, we characterized the viruses recovered from fmd outbreaks in ethiopia during 1981-2007. we detected 5 of the 7 fmdv serotypes (o, a, c, southern african territories [sat] 1, and sat 2). serotype o predominated, followed by serotype a; type c was not recognized after 1983. phylogenetic analysis of virus protein 1 sequences indicat ...200919788808
bola-dr peptide binding pockets are fundamental for foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design in cattle.this large study investigates the associations between bovine major histocompatibility complex drb3 alleles and their binding pockets with the immune response to a 40-mer peptide derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1. a crossbred (charolais and holstein) cattle population (n=197) was immunised with the fmdv peptide and specific igg1 and igg2 responses were measured. eighteen different drb3 alleles were detected in this population, with several exhibiting highly significant associa ...200919833250
the effect of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccination on virus transmission and the significance for the field.vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) might be one of the control measures used during an fmd epidemic depending on the local epidemiological situation, the status of the country, and the opinion of policy makers. a sound decision on vaccination can be made only if there is sufficient scientific knowledge on the effectiveness of vaccination in eliminating the virus from the population. an important question is whether a single vaccination applied as an emergency vaccine can contribute ...200920046605
optimization of immunohistochemical and fluorescent antibody techniques for localization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in animal tissues.immunohistochemical (ihc) and fluorescent antibody (fa) techniques were optimized for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) structural and nonstructural proteins in frozen and paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded (pfpe) tissues of bovine and porcine origin. immunohistochemical localization of fmdv was compared with 7 detection systems, 8 primary antibodies, and 11 epitope retrieval techniques. all serotypes tested (o, a, asia, c [cryosection]; o, a, asia [pfpe]) were localize ...200919901278
prevalence estimates of antibodies towards foot-and-mouth disease virus in small ruminants in uganda.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in uganda with control strategies focusing on vaccination of cattle, while small ruminants are largely ignored. in order for uganda to establish effective control strategies, it is crucial that the epidemiology of the disease is fully understood. this study summarizes results of serological investigations of sheep and goats for antibodies to fmdv from four districts in 2006 following an fmd outbreak in the region and from an attempted comprehensive random ...200919909475
[morphological observation of bovine kidney (mdbk) cells effected by foot-and-mouth disease virus l(pro)].in order to explore the morphological changes of bovine kidney (mdbk) cells induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) l protease, we induced the expression of fmdv l protease in bovine kidney cells (mdbk) artificially. all work is carried out on the basis of a stable mdbk cell line inducibly expresses the lab gene under the control of tetracycline. we use cell morphology, hoechst 33258 staining, ao-eb staining, and dna ladder abstraction to research the morphological changes of mdbk cells. ...200920222457
[rescue of bovine asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus from a full-length cdna clone].after sequencing the asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (as01 strain), we amplified the two fragments covering the whole genome by overlapping pcr and long pcr. the 5' fragment was 1.8 kb in length including 15cs, and the 3' fragment was 6.7 kb in length. the two fragments were cloned into the pbluescript sk vector to construct recombinant plasmid pbsas carrying the full-length cdna of fmdv as01 strain. the rna transcript was synthesized in vitro using t7 polymerase and transfected into ...200920222458
analytical epidemiology of genomic variation among pan asia strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus.genetic data from field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been used to trace the source of recent outbreaks of fmd, to design better vaccines and diagnostic tests for fmdv, and to make conclusions regarding the general variability in the fmdv genome. though epidemiologic data associated with fmdv isolates are available, these data have been used rarely to explore possible associations of epidemiologic factors with evolution or variation of the fmdv genome. in this study, facto ...200919341389
construction of a recombinant bhv-1 expressing the vp1 gene of foot and mouth disease virus and its immunogenicity in a rabbit model.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) are two important infectious diseases of cattle. using bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) as a gene delivery vector for development of live-viral vaccines has gained widespread interest. in this study, a recombinant bhv-1 was constructed by inserting the synthetic fmdv (o/china/99) vp1 gene in the the ge locus of bhv-1 genome under the control of immediately early gene promoter of human cytomegalovirus (phie cmv) and bovine ...200919343503
enhancement of the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice by oral administration of an extract made from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (ram).this study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of a water extract made from the rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (ram) on the immune responses in mice immunized with fmdv type o vaccine. thirty-five icr mice were randomly divided into five groups with seven animals in each group, and orally administered daily for 4 days at a dose equivalent to 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 g of dried ram, respectively. after that, the animals were subcutaneously immunized twice with fmd ...200919356611
identification of cellular genes affecting the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) produces one of the most infectious of all livestock diseases, causing extensive economic loss in areas of breakout. like other viral pathogens, fmdv recruits proteins encoded by host cell genes to accomplish the entry, replication, and release of infectious viral particles. to identify such host-encoded proteins, we employed an antisense rna strategy and a lentivirus-based library containing approximately 40,000 human expressed sequence tags (ests) to randoml ...200919369337
performance of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus during field outbreaks in the united kingdom in 2007.rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). the present report describes the practical steps undertaken to deploy a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-pcr) to process the samples received during the outbreaks of fmd in the united kingdom in 2007. two independent real-time rt-pcr assays targeting different regions (5'utr and 3d) of the fmd virus (fmdv) genome were used to confirm the presence of fmdv in clin ...200919407083
genome analysis and development of infectious cdna clone of a virulence-attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia 1 from china.the rna genome sequence of the rabbit passage-attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia 1, zb/cha/58(att), was determined to be 8165 nt in length excluding the poly(c) tract in the 5' utr and the poly(a) tail at the 3' end. zb/cha/58(att) was most similar to the vaccine strain asia 1/ynbs/58 in genome sequence and there were no deletions or insertions within the deduced polyprotein between zb/cha/58(att) and ynbs/58, but there were a total of 25 substitutions at the amino aci ...200919410387
fluorescence-based multiplex real-time rt-pcr arrays for the detection and serotype determination of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this study reports the development of distinct fluorescence-based multiplex rrt-pcr arrays, which are comprised of unique primer pairs that are statistically modeled from publicly available sequences, for overall foot-and-mouth disease virus and serotype-specific detection. performance of the multiplex pan fmdv (mpfmdv) array was compared to the 5' utr and two 3d(pol) assays, following tests on the miniopticon (biorad) and 7900ht sds (abi) platforms. the mpfmdv array and a recently developed alt ...200919427333
construction of an infectious cdna clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o 1 bfs 1860 and its use in the preparation of candidate vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in india. a stable,full-length cdna clone of fmdv type o 1 bfs 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage t7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pgem r- - 7zf(-). an 8.2 kb pcr product was amplified from the cdna clone and a full-length rna was generated from it by in vitro transcription.transfection of bhk-21 cells with the in vitro transcripts resulted in the production of infectious reco ...200919430118
a recombinant protein-based elisa for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.a recombinant protein-based elisa was evaluated for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1. the recombinant protein (rp13c) was derived from the p1 precursor and 3c protease genes that were cloned into a single expression vector and expressed in insect cells. this protein elicited a low titer of fmdv neutralizing antibodies in pigs. its utility as a diagnostic antigen was explored in a blocking elisa using monoclonal antibodies. the rp13c elisa yielded higher ...200919442854
bactrian camel (camelus bactrianus) integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta6 as fmdv receptors: molecular cloning, sequence analysis and comparison with other species.integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors that participate in a variety of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix protein interactions. many integrins recognize rgd sequences displayed on extracellular matrix proteins and the exposed loops of viral capsid proteins. four members of the alphav integrin family of cellular receptors, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro, and integrins are belie ...200919443046
genetic characterization of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a region in context of the reemergence of vp359-deletion lineage in india.the 3a region of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been implicated in host range and virulence. here we analyzed the 3a region of serotype a virus in view of the emergence of a variant group in india with an amino acid deletion at an antigenically critical position of capsid protein, vp3. the 3a region exhibited extreme variability with 38% of the amino acid positions showing substitutions and the c-terminal third (127-151) region was most flexible. genotype inclusive grouping of type a foot-and- ...200919460313
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