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paranucleospora theridion n. gen., n. sp. (microsporidia, enterocytozoonidae) with a life cycle in the salmon louse (lepeophtheirus salmonis, copepoda) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar).paranucleospora theridion n. gen, n. sp., infecting both atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and its copepod parasite lepeophtheirus salmonis is described. the microsporidian exhibits nuclei in diplokaryotic arrangement during all known life-cycle stages in salmon, but only in the merogonal stages and early sporogonal stage in salmon lice. all developmental stages of p. theridion are in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm or nucleoplasm. in salmon, two developmental cycles were observed, produ ...201020070452
diseases of farmed atlantic salmon salmo salar associated with infections by the microsporidian paranucleospora theridion.the microsporidian paranucleospora theridion was discovered in atlantic salmon salmo salar suffering from proliferative gill disease in a marine farm in western norway in 2008. the parasite develops in cells of the reticuloendothelial system, cells important for normal immune function. the aim of this study was to see if p. theridion could play a part in some of the diseases with unclear causes in salmon production in norway, i.e. proliferative gill disease (pgi), pancreas disease (pd), heart an ...201121553567
paranucleospora theridion (microsporidia) infection dynamics in farmed atlantic salmon salmo salar put to sea in spring and autumn.the microsporidian paranucleospora theridion (syn. desmozoon lepeophtheirii) is a parasite of atlantic salmon salmo salar and also a hyperparasite of the salmon louse lepeophtheirus salmonis. the parasite develops 2 types of spores in salmon, cytoplasmic spores in phagocytes and intranuclear spores in epidermal cells. the former type of development is assumed to be propagative (autoinfection), while the epidermal spores transfer the parasite to lice. development in lice is extensive, with the fo ...201223047190
gill pathology in scottish farmed atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., associated with the microsporidian desmozoon lepeophtherii freeman et sommerville, 2009.gill disorders have emerged in recent years as a significant problem in the production of marine-stage atlantic salmon salmo salar l. the multi-aetiological condition 'proliferative gill inflammation' (pgi) has been reported to cause heavy losses in western norway, yet reports of scottish cases of the disease have remained anecdotal. in the present study, histopathological material from a marine production site in the scottish highlands experiencing mortalities due to a seasonal gill disease wit ...201323444900
heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (hsmi) disease diagnosed on a british columbia salmon farm through a longitudinal farm study.heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (hsmi) is an emerging disease of marine-farmed atlantic salmon (salmo salar), first recognized in 1999 in norway, and later also reported in scotland and chile. we undertook a longitudinal study involving health evaluation over an entire marine production cycle on one salmon farm in british columbia (canada). in previous production cycles at this farm site and others in the vicinity, cardiac lesions not linked to a specific infectious agent or disease were ...201728225783
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