TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 in zebrafish provoking higher interferon-promoter activity through signalling enhancing of its shorter splicing variant.melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (mda5) is one of the three members in the retinoic acid-inducible gene i-like receptor (rlr) family, which are cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptors recognizing intracellular viruses. in the present study, mda5 and its spliced shorter forms, named as mda5a and mda5b, were identified in zebrafish. mda5a and mda5b can be up-regulated in cell lines following the infection of a negative ssrna virus, the spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv), and an intr ...024116956
fish viruses: buffers and methods for plaquing eight agents under normal atmosphere.a universal procedure was sought for plaque assay of eight fish viruses (bluegill myxovirus, channel catfish virus, eel virus, egtved virus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, lymphocystis virus, and the agent of spring viremia of carp (rhabdovirus carpio), in dish cultures of various fish cells. eagle minimal essential medium with sodium bicarbonate-co(2) buffer (earle's salt solution) was compared with minimal essential medium buffered principally wi ...19734349252
inhibition by streptovaricins of rauscher leukemia virus splenomegaly.streptovaricins (sv), ansa macrolide antibiotics, inhibited rauscher leukemia virus (rlv) splenomegaly by 25-50%. all streptovaricins tested were effective when administered orally either by diet ad lib or by intubation from infection to time of killing. when delivered by intubation, sv was measurable in plasma for up to 6 h. svc, at 300 mg/kg/day, reduced mean spleen weight of infected mice from 478 plus or minus 51 (se) mg to 300 plus or minus 55 (se) mg. rifampicin, at 250 mg/kg/day, had no s ...19744156850
fish rhabdovirus replication in non-piscine cell culture: new system for the study of rhabdovirus-cell interaction in which the virus and cell have different temperature optima.the replication of three rhabdoviruses associated with diseases of fish has been demonstrated in cells of continuously cultivated non-piscine cell lines. spring viremia of carp (svc) virus and the salmonid fish viruses, egtved and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, all replicated in mammalian wi-38 (human diploid cell strain) and bhk/21 cells and in cells of one or more reptilian cell lines at the temperatures commonly used to propagate these viruses in fish cells. the infections were cyto ...19744210338
structure-function relationships and mode of replication of animal rhabdoviruses.recently accumulated knowledge allows more precise comparison of the structural (and possibly evolutionary) relationships of several different animal rhabdoviruses: vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, kern canyon virus, and spring viremia of carp virus. each virus is composed primarily of a glycoprotein, an rna-associated nucleoprotein, and one or two membrane proteins. vesicular stomatitis virus group viruses contain lesser amounts of two additional distinct polypeptides, ns and l. the se ...1975165494
infectivity of fish rhabdoviruses for drosophila melanogaster.two fish rhabdoviruses, spring viraemia of carp virus (svc) and pike fry rhabdovirus (pfr), have been shown to multiply in drosophila melanogaster. the other two fish rhabdoviruses, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (vhs) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (ihn), did not multiply under the conditions used. only those viruses which multiplied (i. e. svc, pfr) conferred a co2 sensitivity on the infected drosophila. no hereditary transmission of the fish viruses was detected.1975811150
the co2 sensitivity induced by two rhabdoviruses, piry and chandipura, in drosophila melanogaster.piry and chandipura viruses induce co2 sensitivity after multiplication in d. melanogaster. flies infected with piry virus react to co2 like flies infected with sigma virus: after a post-infection delay the flies become sensitive; sister batches exposed later on remain persistently co2 sensitive. flies infected with chandipura virus react to co2 like flies infected with vsv: flies become sensitive, but sister batches exposed later on recover and fail to show any co2 sensitivity, although they re ...1975813550
physico-chemical and serological characterization of five rhabdoviruses infecting fish.viruses isolated from fish with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (vhs), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (ihn), spring viraemia of carp (svc), swim-bladder inflammation (sbi) and pike fry disease (pfd) have been grown to high titre in fathead minnow cells. while our preparations of the ihn, svc, sbi and pfd viruses showed typical rhabdovirus morphology with bullet-shaped particles and distinct surface projections, the vhs virus preparations had a less typical rhabdovirus morphology but were pleo ...19751170278
fish rhabdoviruses: comparative study of protein structure.proteins from four fish rhabdoviruses have been studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the viruses were: trout viral hemorrhagic septicemia (vhs), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihn), spring viremia virus of carp (svc), and the pike fry rhabdovirus (pfr). for the two salmonid viruses (vhs-ihn), gel electrophoresis indicated the proteins, with molecular weights estimated to be 190,000, 80,000, 38,000, 25,000, and 19,000, respectively. the electrophoretic p ...19751171263
effects of streptovaricins and their degradation products on infectivity of rauscher leukemia virus.the virucidal effects of streptovaricin (sv) a, svc, svd, streptoval (sval) c, sval fc, and streptovarone were evaluated by incubation of the drug with rauscher leukemia virus (rlv) at 37 degrees c for 60 minutes prior to dillution and addition to cells (in vitro assay) or before ip injection into animals (in vivo assay). the in vitro and in vivo assays were plaque formation and splenomegaly, respectively. a dose-related effect was observed with all six compounds with the in vitro assay. on an e ...197764616
[host-virus relationship during experimental spring viremia in carp].one-summer-old virus-free carps produce both circulating interferon and neutralizing antibodies when stored at +20 degrees c and injected intraperitonealy with 10(5), 10(6), 10(7) p. f. u. of spring viremia of carp virus per fish: kinetics and intensity of interferon production are maximum for the highest virus imput (fig.) and neutralizing antibodies are present in most of the fish 2 1/2 months post infection (table).197896984
spring viremia of carp virus rna and virion-associated transcriptase rna-dependent rna polymerase activity has been demonstrated for spring viremia of carp virus (svcv). the optimal temperature for in vitro synthesis of rna was 20 to 25 degrees c. the svcv enzyme activity was stimulated when the methyl donor s-adenosyl-l-methionine was included in the reaction mixture. s-adenosyl-l-methionine was not particularly effective in stimulating the virion rna polymerase activity of vesicular stomatitis virus or pike fry rhabdovirus. the 5' nucleotide of the svcv vira ...1978565417
[demonstration of a rhabdovirus-carpio infection in the carp during autumn]. 1978747627
identification of spring viraemia in carp (cyprinus carpio l) in great investigation into a mortality of carp revealed a virus which was identified serologically and morphologically as being identical to svc virus. svc is a serious disease of european carp farms and this is the first positive identification of this disease in great britain.1979433114
5'-terminal sequences of spring viremia of carp virus rna synthesized in vitro.sequence analyses have been undertaken on the 5' termini of the rna species synthesized in vitro at 22 degrees c by spring viremia of carp virion (svcv)-associated transcriptase by using virus grown in mammalian bhk-21 cells. svcv product rna was synthesized in the absence or presence of low (0.56 mum) or high (0.8 mm) concentrations of added s-adenosyl-l-methionine (sam). two major sequences obtained in the absence (or in low concentrations) of sam have been shown to be gpppap and gpppampap(c). ...197916789178
alternate capping mechanisms for transcription of spring viremia of carp virus: evidence for independent mrna initiation.two alternate mechanisms of mrna capping for spring viremia of carp virus have been observed. under normal reaction conditions, a ppg residue of the capping gtp is transferred to a pa moiety of the 5' termini of mrna transcripts. however, in reaction conditions where gppnhp is used instead of gtp, an alternate capping mechanism occurs whereby a pg residue of the capping gtp is transferred to a ppa moiety of the transcripts. the first mechanism is identical to that described previously for vesicu ...198016789187
[svcv infection of carp (author's transl)].this word was carried out to confirm several pathogenical points which had been previously outlined during svcv infection trials of carp performed in autumn at + 11 degrees c, when the temperature was naturally decreased. here, 50 g carp which had undergone the wintering, were infected in spring either via the water-route (2 h in 5 x 10(3) pfu/ml water) or intraperitoneally (5 x 10(3) pfu/fish) when the natural elevation of the water temperature had reached + 11 degrees c. then the fish appeared ...19807259029
stimulation of transcription by s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and virion-encapsidated methyl donor in spring viraemia of carp virus.s-adenosyl-l-methionine (sam), a methyl donor, and its analogue s-adenyl-l-homocysteine (sah), an inhibitor of methylation, stimulate the activity of spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv) virion transcriptase. the stimulation observed for svcv is analogous to that observed previously (furuichi, 1974, 1978) for a totally unrelated virus, cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (cpv). in the absence of exogenous sam, rna with 5'-methylated termini (presumptive gpppampap) was produced, indicating that svcv h ...19817276915
synthesis of capped and uncapped methylated oligonucleotides by the virion transcriptase of spring viremia of carp virus, a rhabdovirus.capped and uncapped methylated oligonucleotides, five and six nucleotides in length, were synthesized in vitro in spring viremia of carp virus transcription reaction mixtures containing atp + ctp, atp + ctp + gtp, or atp + ctp + utp, but not in any other combinations of two or three ribonucleoside triphosphates. the oligonucleotides that have been characterized are consistent with the structures: m7gpppampnpcpnpn, gpppampnpcpnpn, pppampnpcpnpn, and ppampnpcpnpn--i.e., similar to those of the ter ...19816946423
phosphoproteins of spring viremia of carp virus. 19817245617
[quantitative determination of spring viremia carp virus (svcv) antigens using immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase plaque technic]. 19836353812
[establishment of a fish-virus susceptible cell strain from the pituitary gland of carp (cyprinus carpio l.)].a new continuous cell strain (capi) was established from normal pituitary tissue of carp, cyprinus carpio l. cells of a fractionated dispersion (0.25% trypsin-pbs, 10 degrees c) of pituitaries formed monolayer (fibroblast- and epithelial-like-cells) at 25 degrees c using eagle's minimal essential medium (mem) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and non essential amino acids. the continuous cell strain, designated capi, was obtained by an enzymatical selection of epitheloid cells from the mono ...19836675352
comparison of the primary sequence of spring viremia of carp virus m protein with that of vesicular stomatitis virus.the nucleotide sequence of spring viremia of carp virus mrna coding for the matrix protein (m) has been determined from a complete dna copy cloned in the escherichia coli plasmid pbr322. the clone is 710 nucleotides long and, excluding the 3' homopolymeric end (representing the mrna polyadenylic acid sequence), encodes a protein of some 223 amino acids (25,600 da). the protein has more basic than acidic amino acids and no significant amino- or carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domains. the predicted ...19846324471
[immunoenzyme (elisa) diagnosis of spring viremia in carp].the enzymoimmunologic (elisa) method was used to diagnose spring viremia in carp. the specific antibodies to rhabdovirus carpio in the fish sera were detected by this method. reaction specificity was tested by the use of viral and control antigens, by examination of positive and negative sera and by serum-free control incubation. applying the elisa method, the antiviral antibodies can be detected after infection or vaccination: this method is therefore suitable for thorough studies and when choo ...19863094221
comparative biochemical and serological studies on two fish-pathogenic rhabdoviruses (vhs-v and svc-v). 19863705798
the influence of environmental temperature and infection route on the immune response of carp (cyprinus carpio) to spring viremia of carp virus (svcv).carp infected by water route and by injection of svcv developed neutralizing antibodies within 2-8 weeks at water temperatures between 10-20 degrees c. at 10 degrees c svcv persisted 12 weeks in the blood of carp although antibodies were present. immunized carp showed a solid protective immunity to svcv.19863765360
complete nucleotide sequence of the matrix protein mrna of vesicular stomatitis virus (new jersey serotype).the complete nucleotide sequence of the mrna of the matrix (m) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus [new jersey serotype, vsv(nj)] was derived from a cdna clone and mrna. the mrna is 758 nucleotides long (excluding polyadenylic acid) and encodes a protein of 229 amino acids. the predicted amino acid sequence was compared with that of the corresponding protein of indiana serotype [vsv(ind)] and a fish rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (svcv). an amino acid identity of 62% was found betwe ...19863006343
transformation of glial cells in mouse embryonic brain cells in vitro with simian virus 40.embryonic (e10) mouse cerebellum and spinal cord cells were cultured and infected with simian virus 40 (sv40). in all infected dishes, rapid proliferations (a dividing time less than 18 h) of non-neuronal cells were detected. three populations of those cells, sva, svb and svc, could be passaged more than 10 times. they had flat morphologies like young astrocytes and, indeed, showed immunoreactivities to glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfap), a marker for the astrocyte. however, they had an abil ...19873035439
comparison of primary rabbit kidney and mrc-5 cells and two stain procedures for herpes simplex virus detection by a shell vial centrifugation using a conventional tissue culture method as a standard, four shell vial centrifugation culture (svc) formats were compared for herpes simplex virus (hsv) detection in 300 clinical samples. both mrc-5 and primary rabbit kidney (prk) cells were used in the conventional and svc systems. in addition, both a direct monoclonal fluorescent antibody to hsv (mab-fa; syva corporation, palo alto, calif.) and an indirect hsv polyclonal antibody-horseradish peroxidase stain (poly-hrp; difco laboratories ...19882449455
effect of pesticides (atrazine and lindane) on the replication of spring viremia of carp virus in vitro.atrazine and lindane are widely employed as pesticides in agriculture, which by wash off, could contaminate the aquatic environment. in this study, they were tested in vitro on the replication of the virus of spring viremia of carp (svc) in epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line. they were dissolved first in dmso and then in medium at their solubility limit in water (28 and 10 mg/l). the results of the kinetic titers after 72 h showed no statistically significant difference between control and ...19882461139
[the dynamics of the immunologic indices of carp exposed to methylene blue].several immunological and haematological indices as well as infection of carp with ectoparasites of the dactylogyrus genus have been studied in fish that have been subjected to methylene blue treatment, to infection with rhabdovirus carpio and aeromonas hydrophila in different combinations. a dosage of 0.05 mg/l (exposure lasting for 3 days) over 20 days increases most of the immunological indices. a treatment of the carp with drug (dosage of 100 mg/l) for 4 hours has a stimulating effect on the ...19892792442
fish cell lines: establishment and characterization of three new cell lines from grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella).three new cell lines were established from tissues of the grass carp, ctenopharyngodon idella. derived from the fin, snout, and swim bladder of two apparently healthy diploid fry, these cell lines have been designated gcf, gcs-2, and gcsb, respectively. the cells grew at temperatures between 24 degrees and 36 degrees c with optimal growth at 32 degrees c and have been subcultured more than 50 times since their initiation in august 1986. two of the lines remained diploid or pseudodiploid after 38 ...19902108122
comparison of enzyme immunoassay, shell vial culture, and conventional cell culture for the rapid detection of herpes simplex virus.specimens submitted for the detection of herpes simplex virus (hsv) were inoculated into conventional cell-culture tubes and fresh mrc-5 shell vials. the shell vial centrifugation cultures (svcs) were examined at 16 hr postinoculation for hsv by using type-specific monoclonal antibodies (svc-fa); they were also analyzed for hsv antigen by using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (svc-elisa). mink lung (ml) and rhabdomyosarcoma (rd) cells were used in the cell-culture tubes. of 182 specimens, 35 (19%) ...19902166633
evaluation of direct immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay, centrifugation culture, and conventional culture for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus.four methods of detecting respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) from clinical specimens were evaluated. a total of 410 specimens consisting of nasopharyngeal washes, aspirates, and swabs were simultaneously tested for the presence of rsv by direct immunofluorescence assay (dfa), enzyme immunoassay (eia) (kallestad pathfinder), shell vial centrifugation culture (svc), and conventional culture. dfa identified 146 (83%) of the 175 positive cases, eia detected 153 (87%), svc detected 127 (73%), and conv ...19902254415
antigen-capture elisa for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus serotype antigen-capture elisa for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus serotype i (vhsv i) was developed. the assay employs two monoclonal antibodies (mab) directed against distinct epitopes of the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp). the antigen bound by the capture mab (a17) was detected by addition of a second mab (l7) conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, followed by addition of the enzyme substrate. the technique is highly sensitive, enabling detection of the virus at a protein concentration as low ...19902266147
comparative study of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates using conventional cell culture, shell viral centrifugation culture, immunofluorescence and biotin-avidin enzyme linked immunosorbent assays.133 nasopharyngeal aspirates (npa) were simultaneously tested for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) by conventional cell culture (ccc), shell vial centrifugation culture (svc), immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and biotin-avidin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (b-a elisa). these yielded positive results in 32(24%), 45(33.8%), 36(27%) and 40(30%) of specimens, respectively. specimens positive by ifa and b-a elisa were all also positive by svc. the sensitivity of ccc, ifa, and b-a e ...19911807259
a comparison of direct immunofluorescence, shell vial culture, and conventional cell culture for the rapid detection of influenza a and immunofluorescence (fa) and shell vial contrifugation cultures (svcs) were compared with conventional tube cultures for the rapid detection of influenza a and b by using a commercial antibody. of the 439 specimens tested, 82 were positive by conventional culture (cc). the direct smear prepared from pelleted cells or direct swab material exhibited positive fluorescence in only seven (8.5%) of these cases, whereas the svc was positive in 30 (37%). the svc method detected 12 additional posit ...19911873971
a rapid culture alternative to the shell-vial method for the detection of herpes simplex virus.the rapid test for detection of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in clinical specimens based on infection of cells in suspension (si test) was compared to the shell-vial culture (svc) method and conventional culture. mink lung cells were used throughout the study. detection of hsv was not significantly different whether using si or svc. the sensitivity of si in detecting hsv, when compared with conventional culture, was 93.0% using 0.1 ml inocula and 98.3% using 0.5 ml inocula. the time to obtain a fi ...19921335863
comparison of shell vial culture and the suspension-infection method for the rapid detection of herpes simplex vial culture (svc) and suspension-infection (si) (simultaneous seeding of culture cells and inoculation of sample) were compared for the detection of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in clinical specimens. conventional culture methods using mink lung cells or the vero cell subline c1008 were also compared with each other and with svc and si. additionally, svc and si were compared for quantitative determination of hsv infectivity. compared with conventional culture with mink lung cells, culture w ...19938381064
comparison of the polymerases (l genes) of spring viremia of carp virus and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus.we have determined the partial nucleotide sequences of the polymerase genes of the fish rhabdoviruses, spring viremia of carp virus (svcv) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv). at this point we have deduced the amino acid sequences and analysed the first 1,400 amino acids comprising two thirds of the polymerase genes of svcv and ihnv. we have compared sequence similarities of svcv and ihnv polymerases with other rhabdovirus and paramyxovirus polymerases. the svcv polymerase showed ...19958581012
detection of spring viremia of carp virus by hybridization with biotinylated dna probes. 19958581035
the glycoprotein genes and gene junctions of the fish rhabdoviruses spring viremia of carp virus and hirame rhabdovirus: analysis of relationships with other rhabdoviruses.the nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein genes and all of the internal gene junctions of the fish pathogenic rhabdoviruses spring viremia of carp virus (svcv) and hirame rhabdovirus (hirrv) have been determined from cdna clones generated from viral genomic rna. the svcv glycoprotein gene sequence is 1588 nucleotides (nt) long and encodes a 509 amino acid (aa) protein. the hirrv glycoprotein gene sequence comprises 1612 nt, coding for a 508 aa protein. in sequence comparisons of 15 rhabdoviru ...19968806175
evaluation of a direct immunofluorescence assay, dot-blot enzyme immunoassay, and shell vial culture in the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections caused by influenza a virus.we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of two commercial rapid methods for antigenic detection, a dot-blot enzyme immunoassay (eia-db) (directigen flua, becton-dickinson, usa) and a direct immunofluorescence assay (dif) (monofluokit influenza a, diagnostics pasteur, france), compared with the shell-vial culture in the mdck line, incubated 2 to 3 days and stained with the monoclonal antibody clone ia-52, the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract caused by influenza a virus (ia). in the study peri ...19968902411
[detection of the spring viremia of carp virus by hybridization with nonradioactive dna probes].in order to detect spring viraemia of carp virus, dna probes have been constructed using reverse transcription-pcr amplification technique and cdna cloning in plasmid and phage vectors. the sensitivity and specificity of viral rna detection was assessed using nonradioactive probes in infected fhm cell culture and in tissues from dead fish. viral rna was more frequently detected in the brain and gill than in the abdominal organs.19968927059
distribution and variation of nv genes in fish rhabdoviruses.the fish rhabdovirus infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) contains a non-virion (nv) gene between the glycoprotein (g) and polymerase (l) genes on its rna genome. the present study investigated three other fish rhabdovirus genomes and found that the nv gene of hirame rhabdovirus is closely related to the nv of ihnv, whereas the viral haemorrhagic septicemia nv gene showed evidence of significant divergence. most importantly, spring viraemia of carp virus, the only vesiculovirus-like f ...19979010293
rhabdovirus-induced apoptosis in a fish cell line is inhibited by a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase determine the mechanisms of cell death in rhabdovirus-infected cells, we studied the infection of the epithelial papilloma of carp cell line with spring viremia of carp virus. studies using electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed changes in cell morphology and dna fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. the virus-induced apoptosis was inhibited in cells treated with a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor.19979188644
comparison of culture and the antigenemia assay for detection of cytomegalovirus in blood specimens submitted to a reference laboratory.we compared the antigenemia assay (aa) with tandem shell vial cultures (svcs) and tube cultures (tcs) for detection of cytomegalovirus (cmv) in 343 blood specimens. for 249 specimens, the aa was performed in duplicate with two different commercially available monoclonal antibody reagents (biotest diagnostic corporation and argene biosoft). specimens considered true positives were positive in either culture system or both aas. only specimens which were negative in both cultures and positive in a ...19979196201
immunization with viral antigens: viral diseases of carp and catfish.the viral diseases of carp and catfish for which vaccines have been produced are spring viraemia of carp (svc), grass carp haemorrhage disease (gchd) and channel catfish virus disease (ccvd). field trials of a commercially produced injectable vaccine conducted over several years have shown that carp can be protected against svc. however the supporting data were predominantly qualitative rather than quantitative. large-scale field trials of an experimental oral attenuated vaccine against svc viru ...19979270851
evaluation of a direct immunofluorescence cytospin assay for the detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical samples.a comparison between a direct immunofluorescence assay (dfa) and the shell-vial culture (svc) was conducted to evaluate their efficacies according to the quality and origin of the sample and the type of herpes simplex (hsv) responsible for the infection. the svc detected all 58 hsv-infected samples, while the dfa detected only 49 (84.5%) positive samples. the dfa detected hsv type 1 in 22 of 89 samples (24.7%) and hsv type 2 in 27 of 96 samples (28.1%). compared with the svc, the dfa had a sensi ...19979447911
an increase in the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes inoculated on shell-vial culture increases the sensitivity of this assay in the detection of cytomegalovirus in the blood of immunocompromised patients.a prospective study was conducted comparing the sensitivity of the pp65 antigenemia assay (aga) to that of the shell-vial culture (svc) inoculated with increasing quantities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmnls) in the detection of cytomegalovirus (cmv) in peripheral blood. from the cellular suspension, three svcs were inoculated with 200,000, 400,000, and 800,000 pmnls, respectively. of the 201 patients studied, 67 (31.9%) had positive results in one of the two analytic tests (aga or svc). in ...19989635232
[detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) by reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction. diagnostic validation].viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) is a fish pathogen that attacks rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) farming. the only diagnostic method recognised by the european community for vhs is based on the detection of the viral agent in cell culture followed by an immunological identification of the pathogen. reverse transcription followed by a double amplification of the polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for the gene encoding the viral glycoprotein g is proposed here as an alternative meth ...199910081112
diagnosis of respiratory tract viruses in 24 h by immunofluorescent staining of shell vial cultures containing madin-darby canine kidney (mdck) cells.nine hundred and seventy-eight clinical specimens were examined taken from patients with respiratory tract viruses (rv)-like syndrome between november 1996 and july 1998. the study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of centrifuge-enhanced shell vial cultures (svc) containing madin-darby canine kidney (mdck) cells, combined with immunofluorescent (if) staining in 24 h. this technique rapidly detects and identifies respiratory tract viruses. the conventional tube culture system with mult ...199910488764
detection of spring viremia of carp virus isolates by hybridization with non-radioactive probes and amplification by polymerase chain reaction.for detection of spring viremia of carp virus (svcv) dna probes have been constructed using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) amplification technique and cdna cloning in plasmid and phage vectors. the specific primers for amplification of svcv m and g genes were chosen and synthesized. studies were carried out to establish the sensitivity and specificity of viral rna detection in infected cell culture and pathogenic material from fish by the use of non-radioactive prob ...199910509710
molecular characterization of the glycoproteins from two warm water rhabdoviruses: snakehead rhabdovirus (shrv) and rhabdovirus of penaeid shrimp (rps)/spring viremia of carp virus (svcv).we have determined the complete coding sequences for the glycoprotein (g) genes from two rhabdoviruses that infect warm water aquatic animals, the snakehead rhabdovirus (shrv) and rhabdovirus of penaeid shrimp (rps). surprisingly, the g nucleotide sequence from rps, a virus which has been isolated from diseased shrimp in hawaii on numerous occasions, was over 99% identical to the g nucleotide sequence from spring viremia of carp virus (svcv), a fish virus from europe and asia. this is the first ...199910518707
dna vaccines encoding viral glycoproteins induce nonspecific immunity and mx protein synthesis in fish.protective immunity by vaccination with plasmid dna encoding a viral glycoprotein (g) has long been assumed to result from the induction of a specific immune response. we report here that the initial protection may be due to the induction of alpha/beta interferon, with long-term protection due to a specific response to the encoded viral g. dna vaccines encoding the gs of three serologically unrelated fish rhabdoviruses were used to vaccinate rainbow trout against a lethal challenge with infectio ...200010888644
isolation and characterisation of rhabdovirus from wild common bream abramis brama, roach rutilus rutilus, farmed brown trout salmo trutta and rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss in northern ireland.rhabdovirus was isolated from wild common bream abramis brama during a disease outbreak with high mortality in northern ireland during may 1998. rhabdovirus was also isolated at the same time from healthy farmed rainbow oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout salmo trutta on the same stretch of river and 11 mo later from healthy wild bream and roach rutilus rutilus in the same river system. experimental intra-peritoneal infection of bream and mirror carp cyprinus carpio var specularis with 2 of thes ...200111843142
heterologous exchanges of the glycoprotein and the matrix protein in a novirhabdovirus.infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) are two salmonid rhabdoviruses replicating at low temperatures (14 to 20 degrees c). both viruses belong to the novirhabdovirus genus, but they are only distantly related and do not cross antigenically. by using a recently developed reverse-genetic system based on ihnv (s. biacchesi et al., j. virol. 74:11247-11253, 2000), we investigated the ability to exchange ihnv glycoprotein g with that of vhsv. thu ...200211861855
determination of the complete genomic sequence and analysis of the gene products of the virus of spring viremia of carp, a fish rhabdovirus.the complete genome of spring viremia of carp virus (svcv) was cloned and the sequence of 11019 nucleotides was determined. it contains five open reading frames (orf's) encoding for the nucleoprotein n; phosphoprotein p; matrix protein m; glycoprotein g; and the viral rna dependent rna polymerase l. genes are organised in the order typical for rhabdoviruses: 3'-n-p-m-g-l-5'. the short leader and trailer regions of svcv exhibit inverse complementarity and are similar to the respective 3' and 5' e ...200211900842
spring viremia of carp (svc).spring viremia of carp (svc) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp cyprinus carpio. the disease is widespread in european carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. designated a notifiable disease by the office international des epizooties, svc is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (svcv). affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment ...200212553453
influence of methisoprinol on the replication of rhabdoviruses isolated from carp (cyprinus carpio) and catfish (ictalurus melas): in vitro study.rhabdoviruses constitute one of the most pathogenic viruses isolated from rainbow trout and carp culture. several viruses were also isolated from other species of fish. these viruses are mostly associated with epizootics and heavy losses. spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv) and pike fry rhabdovirus (pfrv) have been the most extensively studied, due to their significant economic impact. significant progress has been made towards controlling the major bacterial fish diseases using vaccines, but t ...200312675468
nucleotide sequence analysis of the glycoprotein gene of putative spring viraemia of carp virus and pike fry rhabdovirus isolates reveals four genogroups.rt-pcr methods have been applied to the detection and sequencing of the glycoprotein gene of putative spring viraemia of carp viruses (svcv) and pike fry rhabdoviruses (pfrv), including isolates from tench, grass carp, roach, bream and false harlequin, sheatfish and orfe. phylogenetic analysis of a 550 nucleotide (nt) region of the glycoprotein gene identified 4 groups, i to iv. significantly, the majority of viruses previously identified as pfrv formed a distinct cluster (genogroup iv) which sh ...200312691191
optimized detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions.nasopharyngeal secretions (nps) from 121 (110 pediatric) patients with acute respiratory infections were examined for respiratory virus detection by: i) conventional virus isolation in cell cultures (cc) using hep-2, llc-mk2, and mdck cells; ii) rapid virus isolation using shell vial cultures (svc) of a mixture (mix) of mink lung epithelial cells (mv1lu) and human lung carcinoma (a549) cells in comparison to llc-mk2 and mdck cells; iii) direct fluorescent antibody (dfa) assay on nps cells. a poo ...200312737194
rhabdoviruses and apoptosis.viral-induced apoptosis is recognized as a common method utilized by viruses to overcome the host. recent evidence indicates that infection by rhabdoviruses such as vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), spring viremia of carp virus (svcv), and rabies virus results in apoptotic cell death. similar morphological changes and host cell proteins are induced in cells infected with these different viruses; however, the viral proteins responsible for these changes vary. in addition, the molecular mechanism( ...200312959754
identification of spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv) by combined rt-pcr and nested pcr.a combination of single-tube reverse transcription (rt)-pcr and nested pcr was used to identify spring viraemia of carp rhabdovirus (svcv) in infected cell cultures and fish tissues. two pairs of specific primers (external and internal) were selected from the glycoprotein gene sequence. a specific product of 470 bp was amplified from rna derived from 34 svcv isolates including the reference strain (fijan), using rt-pcr with the external primers. the subsequent pcr using the internal primers yiel ...200313677509
comparison between indirect immunofluorescence assay and shell vial culture for detection of mumps virus from clinical samples.we report a prospective comparison of the efficacies of an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and shell vial culture (svc) of throat swab and urine samples from patients with mumps. throat swab samples were used for the ifa; the urine samples and throat swabs were inoculated into vials of vero cells. we studied 62 patients by using 62 throat swabs and 50 urine samples (50 patients with both samples). sixty (96.7%) throat samples were positive in the svc, and 61 (98.3%) were positive in the ...200314605158
susceptibility of zebrafish (danio rerio) to a model pathogen, spring viremia of carp improve our understanding of the genetic basis of fish disease, we developed a pathogen model, using zebrafish (danio rerio) and spring virema of carp virus (svcv). replicate groups of 10 fish were acclimated to 20 or 24 degrees c, then were exposed to svcv concentrations of 10(3) to 10(5) plaque-forming units per milliliter (pfu/ml) of water and observed daily. in a second trial, fish were acclimated to 15 degrees c, and replicate groups of 10 fish were exposed to svcv at a concentration of ...200314655994
establishment and characterization of two new cell lines derived from flounder, paralichthys olivaceus (temminck & schlegel).two new cell cultures from flounder, paralichthys olivaceus (temminck & schlegel), flounder fin (ffn) cells from fin tissue and flounder spleen (fsp) cells from spleen tissue, were established and characterized. the cells multiplied well in eagle's minimum essential medium, supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, and have been subcultured more than 100 times, becoming continuous cell lines. modal diploid chromosome number of ffn and fsp cells was 64 and 62, respectively. polymerase chain reac ...200314710758
isolation of a rhabdovirus during outbreaks of disease in cyprinid fish species at fishery sites in england.a virus was isolated during disease outbreaks in bream abramis brama, tench tinca tinca, roach rutilis rutilis and crucian carp carassius carassius populations at 6 fishery sites in england in 1999. mortalities at the sites were primarily among recently introduced fish and the predominant fish species affected was bream. the bream stocked at 5 of the 6 english fishery sites were found to have originated from the river bann, northern ireland. most fish presented few consistent external signs of d ...200314735920
viral susceptibility of newly established cell lines from the hawaiian monk seal monachus schauinslandi.ten of 11 cell lines, recently established from the snout (ms-sn), periorbital soft tissue (ms-ey), liver (ms-lv), kidney (ms-kd), lung (ms-lg), spleen (ms-sp), heart (ms-ht), thyroid (ms-ty), brain (ms-br) and urinary bladder (ms-ub) of a juvenile hawaiian monk seal monachus schauinslandi, were evaluated in vitro for their susceptibility to 5 mammalian viruses: herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), reovirus type 3 (reo-3), poliovirus type 1 (polio-1) and vaccini ...200314960030
emerging vesiculo-type virus infections of freshwater fishes in europe.rhabdoviruses were isolated from perch perca fluviatilis and largemouth bass micropterus salmoides exhibiting clinical signs of disease. preliminary studies indicated that these viruses could be neutralised by antisera to perch rhabdovirus (dorson et al. 1984) and may be similar to those previously isolated from grayling thymallus thymallus and pike-perch stizostedion stizostedion. the relationship between these viruses and the previously characterised fish rhabdoviruses, pike fry rhabdovirus (p ...200314960032
establishment, characterization and viral susceptibility of 3 new cell lines from snakehead, channa striatus (blooch).three cell lines were established from muscle (shms), heart (shht) and swim bladder (shsb) of snakehead (channa striatus). the cells grew initially at 25 degrees c in l15 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and have been subcultured 13-18 times since their initiation on june 25, 2002. growth of the snakehead cells was serum-dependent and plating efficiencies ranged from 22-29%. these snakehead cells grew well in rpmi 1640 and l-15 media, which are commonly used for cultivation of ani ...200315801161
evaluation of the elvis plate method for the detection and typing of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens.this study was conducted to assess the reliability of a commercial enzyme-linked viral inducible system (elvis) (diagnostic hybrids, inc., athens, oh) for rapid detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (hsv). results using elvis were compared to those of shell vial culture (svc) and hsv detection with monoclonal antibodies and an immunoperoxidase stain plus typing with microtrak direct fluorescent antibodies (trinity biotech plc, wicklow, ireland). specimens yielding discrepant hsv results w ...200415246506
isolation and characterization of a rhabdovirus from starry flounder (platichthys stellatus) collected from the northern portion of puget sound, washington, usa.the initial characterization of a rhabdovirus isolated from a single, asymptomatic starry flounder (platichthys stellatus) collected during a viral survey of marine fishes from the northern portion of puget sound, washington, usa, is reported. virions were bullet-shaped and approximately 100 nm long and 50 nm wide, contained a lipid envelope, remained stable for at least 14 days at temperatures ranging from -80 to 5 degrees c and grew optimally at 15 degrees c in cultures of epithelioma papulosu ...200414769907
complete nucleotide sequence of the hirame rhabdovirus, a pathogen of marine fish.reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) derived clones were constructed for the hirame rhabdovirus (hirrv) ca-9703 strain from korea, and the dna was sequenced. the 3'-end of genomic rna was cloned by poly(a)-tailing of the genomic rna before reverse transcription, and the 5'-end of the genome was cloned by poly(g)- or poly(c)-tailing of the first strand, followed by pcr. the remainder of the genomic dna was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers ...200515567027
fish rhabdoviruses: molecular epidemiology and evolution.rhabdoviruses may cause serious diseases in wild and farmed fish. within the rhabdoviridae six genera have been established: ephemerovirus, cytorhabdovirus, nucleorhabdovirus, lyssavirus, vesiculovirus, and novirhabdovirus. viruses that infect fish are official or tentative members of the genera vesiculovirus and novirhabdovirus, or are listed as unassigned rhabdoviruses. in this report, we summarize and discuss published and our own unpublished data on the molecular epidemiology and phylogeogra ...200515981469
[khurdun virus, a presumably new rna-containing virus associated with coots (fulica atra), isolated in the volga river delta].the prototype strain leiv-ast 01-5 of the unclassified enveloped rna-containing khurdun virus, less than 220 nm in size, which is widely distributed among coots (fulica atra) in the volga river delta, was deposited on november 4, 2004, at the state virus collection (svc # 992). the virus was isolated annually (2001-2004) with a frequency of 2.3-8.5% (mean 6.3%) when examining 348 coots caught in the lower and middle zones of the volga river delta. virological examinations used mixed pools of the ...200516104519
assessment of commercial test kits for identification of spring viraemia of carp virus.two test kits for the identification of spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv), one an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum, and the other an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) using a mouse monoclonal antibody, were assessed for specificity using a range of virus isolates. the test viruses were selected from 4 recently described genogroups of piscine rhabdoviruses: genogroup i (svcv), genogroup ii (grass carp rhabdovirus), genogroup iii (pike fry rh ...200516385804
shell vial culture assay for the rapid diagnosis of japanese encephalitis, west nile and dengue-2 viral encephalitis.encephalitis caused by flaviviruses, japanese encephalitis virus (jev) and west nile virus (wnv) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in many endemic countries. dengue-2 (den-2) virus is a recent addition to the list of encephalitogenic viruses, after its central nervous system (cns) invasion capability has been established. there is a wide array of laboratory tools that have helped us not only in the diagnosis of these conditions but also in understanding their pathogenesis an ...200616398932
establishment and characterization of two cell lines from bluefin trevally caranx melampygus.bluefin trevally caranx melampygus cuvier is a popular game fish and highly valued sea food with potential importance for aquaculture. to help establish this marine animal as an important aquacultural species in hawaii and the pacific and develop in vitro cell culture systems for long-term management and control of potential viral diseases 2 cell lines were established from body muscle (bluefin trevally muscles, btms) and fins (bluefin trevally fins, btf). primary culture of these cells was cond ...200616532601
dna vaccination can protect cyprinus carpio against spring viraemia of carp virus.several dna constructs containing the spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv) glycoprotein (g) gene were investigated for their ability to induce protection against svcv following injection into myofibres. the constructs were pooled into four groups and co-injected with a plasmid encoding murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. group 1 contained one full-length and two truncated g constructs under the control of the cytomegalovirus (cmv) promoter. group 2 contained full-length cons ...200616650915
in vitro effects of recombinant zebrafish ifn on spring viremia of carp virus and infectious hematopoietic necrosis order to evaluate the effects of fish recombinant interferon (rifn) on fish pathogenic rhabdoviruses, the zebrafish (danio rerio) ifn (dreifn) allele b gene was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. in addition, the effects of recombinant dreifn (rdreifn) on spring viremia of carp virus (svcv), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv), and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) were surveyed in fish and chicken cells. the mature peptide of dreifn allele b gene encodes 163 amino acids. res ...200616704302
an unusual koi herpesvirus associated with a mortality event of common carp cyprinus carpio in new york state, usa.koi herpesvirus (khv), a highly contagious and lethal virus that affects both koi (cyprinus carpio koi) and common carp (cyprinus carpio), was isolated in 1998 from two outbreaks of koi suffering mass mortality in new york state, usa, and in israel. the disease had been described as early as 1996 in europe. in july 2004, this virus was found associated with a mass mortality event in wild common carp in the chadakoin river, new york, usa (42 degrees 07' n, 79 degrees w). affected fish typically s ...200617092898
comparison of mumps-igm elisas in acute scotland there has been an outbreak of mumps with over 4000 confirmed cases in the last 2 years. as laboratory diagnosis is usually requested on patients with symptoms, a prompt diagnosis early in the illness is required.200717142100
isolation and characterization of scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus.a rhabdovirus associated with a lethal hemorrhagic disease in cultured turbot scophthalmus maximus linnaeus was isolated. the virus induced typical cytopathogenic effects (cpe) in 9 of 15 fish cell lines examined and was then propagated and isolated from infected carp leucocyte cells (clc). electron microscopy observations revealed that the negatively stained virions had a typical bullet-shaped morphology with one rounded end and one flat base end. the bullet-shaped morphology was more obvious a ...200717432038
characterization of complete genome sequence of the spring viremia of carp virus isolated from common carp (cyprinus carpio) in china.the complete genome of spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv) strain a-1 isolated from cultured common carp (cyprinus carpio) in china was sequenced and characterized. reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) derived clones were constructed and the dna was sequenced. it showed that the entire genome of svcv a-1 consists of 11,100 nucleotide base pairs, the predicted size of the viral rna of rhabdoviruses. however, the additional insertions in bp 4633-4676 and bp 4684-4724 of svcv a ...200717447109
genotyping spring viraemia of carp virus and other piscine vesiculo-like viruses using reverse hybridisation.a simple nylon membrane-based dna macroarray was developed to genotype spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv) and related viruses. twenty-six viruses were genotyped using the array, and the results were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of a 426 bp partial glycoprotein gene sequence. the array was not only capable of discriminating between the 4 main genogroups of cyprinid vesiculo-type viruses described previously, but also accurately sub-type the svc viruses assigned to genogroup i. the assay o ...200717760389
phylogenetic analysis of spring virema of carp virus reveals distinct subgroups with common origins for recent isolates in north america and the uk.genetic relationships between 35 spring viremia of carp virus (svcv) genogroup ia isolates were determined based on the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (p) gene and glycoprotein (g) genes. phylogenetic analysis based on p gene sequences revealed 2 distinct subgroups within svcv genogroup ia, designated svcv iai and iaii, and suggests at least 2 independent introductions of the virus into the usa in 2002. combined p- and g-sequence data support the emergence of svcv in illinois, usa, a ...200717803105
first detection and confirmation of spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp, cyprinus carpio l., from hamilton harbour, lake ontario, june 2006, 150 wild common carp were sampled from hamilton harbour, lake ontario, canada. tissue pools consisting of kidney, spleen and encephalon were screened for viruses as a condition facilitating the export of live carp to france. cytopathic effect (cpe), indicative of a viral infection, became evident after 8 days of incubation at 15 degrees c. eighteen of 30 tissue pools (five fish per pool) eventually demonstrated viral cpe. the viral pathogen was initially cultured and isolated on th ...200717958610
comparison of multiple genes of spring viremia of carp viruses isolated in the united states.five spring viremia of carp viruses (svcv), rhabdovirus carpio, were isolated in the united states (us) between 2002 and 2004. single tube reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was used to generate overlapping cdna fragments from the us isolates of svcv. multiple pairs of specific primers were designed to amplify a portion of the phosphoprotein gene, the matrix gene, and the glycoprotein gene of svcv genogroup id (corresponding to nucleotides 2174-4942 of genbank accession nc_ ...200717048110
genomic sequence of mandarin fish rhabdovirus with an unusual small non-transcriptional orf.the complete genome of mandarin fish siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (scrv) was cloned and sequenced. it comprises 11,545 nucleotides and contains five genes encoding the nucleoprotein n, the phosphoprotein p, the matrix protein m, the glycoprotein g, and the rna-dependent rna polymerase protein l. at the 3' and 5' termini of scrv genome, leader and trailer sequences show inverse complementarity. the n, p, m and g proteins share the highest sequence identities (ranging from 14.8 to 41.5%) with the ...200818068257
simultaneous detection of three fish rhabdoviruses using multiplex real-time quantitative rt-pcr assay.spring viremia of carp virus (svcv), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) are three important fish rhabdoviruses, causing serious office international des epizooties (oie) classified diseases in wild and farmed fish. here, a new multiplex real-time quantitative rt-pcr (mqrt-pcr) assay was developed for simultaneous detection, identification and quantification of these three rhabdoviruses. the sets of primers and probes were targeted to cons ...200818299154
detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) in koi carp, cyprinus carpio l.spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. several diagnostic tests are available for detection of svcv. however, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. in this study, a diagnostic tool for svcv detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) has been developed. based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (g) gene of svcv ...200818353016
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to spring viraemia of carp virus.five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against spring viraemia of carp (svcv0504, isolated from common carp in china) were produced from mice immunized with purified virus preparations. the virion of svcv contains five structural proteins, representing the nucleoprotein (n), phosphoprotein (p), matrix protein (m), glycoprotein (g) and rna-dependent rna polymerase (l). western blotting analysis revealed that three mabs (1h5, 1e10, and 1h7) recognized specifically to a single protein of 47kda (n), the ...200818378003
development of a sensitive and quantitative assay for spring viremia of carp virus based on real-time rt-pcr.a one-step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using a taqman probe to quantitatively detect spring viremia of carp virus (svcv) is described. in this assay, a pair of primers amplifying an 81-bp dna fragment and a taqman probe was designed targeting the conserved region at the svcv glycoprotein (g) gene. to avoid the disadvantages arising from plasmids, an extension adding a t7 phage polymerase promoter to the 5' end of the antisense primer was carried out to obta ...200818602422
development and evaluation of a one-step loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of spring viraemia of carp virus.spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv) is the causative agent of svc disease. the main aim of our study was to develop a one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay for rapid, sensitive and effective detection of svcv.200818631262
detecting positively selected codons in the glycoprotein of spring viraemia of carp virus (svcv) isolates from the usa and china. 200818801064
evolution of the inflammatory response in vertebrates: fish tnf-alpha is a powerful activator of endothelial cells but hardly activates phagocytes.tnf-alpha is conserved in all vertebrate classes and has been identified in all taxonomic groups of teleost fish. however, its biological activities and its role in infection are largely unknown. using two complementary fish models, gilthead seabream and zebrafish, we report here that the main proinflammatory effects of fish tnf-alpha are mediated through the activation of endothelial cells. thus, tnf-alpha promotes the expression of e-selectin and different cc and cxc chemokines in endothelial ...200818802111
dna vaccine protects ornamental koi (cyprinus carpio koi) against north american spring viremia of carp virus.the emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (svcv) in the united states constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in north america. a dna vaccine with an svcv glycoprotein (g) gene from a north american isolate was constructed. in order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. we have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the psgnc dna vacc ...200818812203
symptomatic acute hepatitis c in egypt: diagnosis, spontaneous viral clearance, and delayed treatment with 12 weeks of pegylated interferon alfa-2a.the aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of spontaneous viral clearance (svc) after symptomatic acute hepatitis c and to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of pegylated interferon alfa-2a in patients who did not clear the virus spontaneously.200819115010
ptpn22 c1858t polymorphism and the outcome of hepatitis c virus infection.the outcome of chronic hepatitis c virus infection varies, depending on viral and host factors. those mechanisms involved in the control of the innate and adaptive response could have an influence on the outcome of infection. the ptpn22 gene encodes an intracellular lymphoid-specific phosphatase (lyp) with a lymphocyte activating downregulatory effect. a single-nucleotide polymorphism (snp) c1858t located on this gene has been associated with autoimmune diseases and bacterial infections. the aim ...200819115939
Displaying items 1 - 100 of 189