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the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor ire1α protects cells from apoptosis induced by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus.the unfolded-protein response (upr) is a signal transduction cascade triggered by perturbation of the homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (er). upr resolves er stress by activating a cascade of cellular responses, including the induction of molecular chaperones, translational attenuation, er-associated degradation, and other mechanisms. under prolonged and irremediable er stress, however, the upr can also trigger apoptosis. here, we report that in cells infected with the avian coronavirus i ...201425142592
immunoglobulin a as an early humoral responder after mucosal avian coronavirus vaccination.infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) is a highly contagious coronavirus prevalent in all countries with an extensive poultry industry and continues to cause economic losses. ibv strains of the ark serotype are highly prevalent in the southeastern united states despite extensive vaccination. one explanation for this observation is the high genetic variability of ibv. in addition, ibv ark-type vaccines may induce suboptimal mucosal immune responses, contributing to the prevalence and persistence of t ...201425055633
coronavirus nsp6 restricts autophagosome expansion.autophagy is a cellular response to starvation that generates autophagosomes to carry long-lived proteins and cellular organelles to lysosomes for degradation. activation of autophagy by viruses can provide an innate defense against infection, and for (+) strand rna viruses autophagosomes can facilitate assembly of replicase proteins. we demonstrated that nonstructural protein (nsp) 6 of the avian coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), generates autophagosomes from the er. a statistical ...201424991833
differences in the tissue tropism to chicken oviduct epithelial cells between avian coronavirus ibv strains qx and b1648 are not related to the sialic acid binding properties of their spike proteins.the avian coronavirus (avcov) infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) is a major poultry pathogen. a characteristic feature of ibv is the occurrence of many different strains belonging to different serotypes, which makes a complete control of the disease by vaccinations a challenging task. reasons for differences in the tissue tropism and pathogenicity between ibv strains, e.g. a predilection for the kidneys or the oviduct are still an open question. strains of the qx genotype have been major pathogen ...201424928425
an avian coronavirus in quail with respiratory and reproductive signs.an avian coronavirus was detected in pools of lungs, tracheas, female reproductive tracts, kidneys, and enteric contents from quail (coturnix coturnix japonica) and laying hen flocks, with and without infectious bronchitis (ib)-like signs, cohoused in farms located in two states of southeastern brazil during 2009-2010. although avian metapneumovirus subtype b was found in two layers samples, newcastle disease virus was not found in quail or in hens. based on dna sequences for the 3'-untranslated ...201324689189
novel avian coronavirus and fulminating disease in guinea fowl, france.for decades, french guinea fowl have been affected by fulminating enteritis of unclear origin. by using metagenomics, we identified a novel avian gammacoronavirus associated with this disease that is distantly related to turkey coronaviruses. fatal respiratory diseases in humans have recently been caused by coronaviruses of animal origin.201424377831
how the double spherules of infectious bronchitis virus impact our understanding of rna virus replicative organelles.powered by advances in electron tomography, recent studies have extended our understanding of how viruses construct "replication factories" inside infected cells. their function, however, remains an area of speculation with important implications for human health. it is clear from these studies that whatever their purpose, organelle structure is dynamic (m. ulasli, m. h. verheije, c. a. de haan, and f. reggiori, cell. microbiol. 12:844-861, 2010) and intricate (k. knoops, m. kikkert, s. h. worm, ...201324345746
mapping of the receptor-binding domain and amino acids critical for attachment in the spike protein of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus.the infection of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) is initiated by the binding of the spike glycoprotein s to sialic acids on the chicken host cell. in this study we identified the receptor-binding domain (rbd) of the spike of the prototype ibv strain m41. by analyzing the ability of recombinantly expressed chimeric and truncated spike proteins to bind to chicken tissues, we demonstrate that the n-terminal 253 amino acids of the spike are both required and sufficient for bi ...201424314633
molecular characterization of major structural protein genes of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus isolates in southern china.to gain comprehensive genetic information of circulating avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) isolates in china, analysis of the phylogenetic tree, entropy of the amino acid sequences, and the positive selection as well as computational recombinations of s1, m and n genes of 23 ibv isolates was conducted in the present study. the phylogenetic trees based on the s1, m and n genes exhibited considerably different topology and the ck/ch/lsc/99i-type isolates were the predominant ibvs ...201324304696
discovery of a novel bottlenose dolphin coronavirus reveals a distinct species of marine mammal coronavirus in gammacoronavirus.while gammacoronaviruses mainly comprise infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) and its closely related bird coronaviruses (covs), the only mammalian gammacoronavirus was discovered from a white beluga whale (beluga whale cov [bwcov] sw1) in 2008. in this study, we discovered a novel gammacoronavirus from fecal samples from three indo-pacific bottlenose dolphins (tursiops aduncus), which we named bottlenose dolphin cov (bdcov) hku22. all the three bdcov hku22-positive samples were collected on the sa ...201424227844
assembly and immunogenicity of coronavirus-like particles carrying infectious bronchitis virus m and s proteins.infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) as an avian coronavirus is still posing a persistent and imminent threat to the poultry industry worldwide. here we report that transfection of sf9 cells with a single recombinant baculovirus encoding m and s proteins resulted in the assembly of ibv vlps; this is the first report that s protein plus m protein alone were able to be assembled into vlps for coronaviruses. we further showed that the generated ibv vlps could induce humoral immune responses in a level ...201324099870
the evolution of codon usage in structural and non-structural viral genes: the case of avian coronavirus and its natural host gallus gallus.to assess the codon evolution in virus-host systems, avian coronavirus and its natural host gallus gallus were used as a model. codon usage (cu) was measured for the viral spike (s), nucleocapsid (n), nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) and papain-like protease (pl(pro)) genes from a diverse set of a. coronavirus lineages and for g. gallus genes (lung surfactant protein a, intestinal cholecystokinin, oviduct ovomucin alpha subunit, kidney vitamin d receptor and the ubiquitary beta-actin) for differen ...201324091362
contributions of the s2 spike ectodomain to attachment and host range of infectious bronchitis virus.the spike protein is the major viral attachment protein of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) and ultimately determines viral tropism. the s1 subunit of the spike is assumed to be required for virus attachment. however, we have previously shown that this domain of the embryo- and cell culture adapted beaudette strain, in contrast to that of the virulent m41 strain, is not sufficient for binding to chicken trachea (wickramasinghe et al., 2011). in the present study, we demons ...201324041648
identification and survey of a novel avian coronavirus in ducks.the rapid discovery of novel viruses using next generation sequencing (ngs) technologies including dna-seq and rna-seq, has greatly expanded our understanding of viral diversity in recent years. the timely identification of novel viruses using ngs technologies is also important for us to control emerging infectious diseases caused by novel viruses. in this study, we identified a novel duck coronavirus (cov), distinct with chicken infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), using rna-seq. the novel duck-s ...201324023656
cell-mediated immune responses in the head-associated lymphoid tissues induced to a live attenuated avian coronavirus vaccine.humoral immunity is important for controlling viral diseases of poultry, but recent studies have indicated that cytotoxic t cells also play an important role in the immune response to infectious bronchitis virus (ibv). to better understand the cell mediated immune responses to ibv in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments chickens were ocularly vaccinated with ibv. this induced a lymphocyte expansion in head-associated lymphoid tissues (halt) and to a lesser extent in the spleen, followed ...201323948147
The sialic acid binding activity of the S protein facilitates infection by porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) has a sialic acid binding activity that is believed to be important for enteropathogenicity, but that has so far appeared to be dispensable for infection of cultured cells. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of sialic acid binding for the infection of cultured cells under unfavorable conditions, and comparison of TGEV strains and mutants, as well as the avian coronavirus IBV concerning their dependence on the sialic acid binding activit ...201121910859
full genome analysis of australian infectious bronchitis viruses suggests frequent recombination events between vaccine strains and multiple phylogenetically distant avian coronaviruses of unknown origin.australian strains of infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) have been evolving independently for many years, with control achieved by vaccination with local attenuated strains. previous studies have documented the emergence of recombinants over the last 20 years, with the most recent one, ck/aus/n1/08, detected in 2008. these recombinants did not appear to be controlled by the vaccines currently in use. in this study we sequenced the complete genomes of three emergent australian strains of ibv (ibv/ ...201627938680
identification of an infectious bronchitis coronavirus strain exhibiting a classical genotype but altered antigenicity, pathogenicity, and innate immunity profile.avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) poses economic threat to the poultry industry worldwide. pathogenic ibv 3575/08 was isolated from broilers vaccinated with the attenuated viral vaccine derived from a taiwan strain 2575/98. in this study, extensive investigations were conducted on the genome sequences, antigenicity, pathogenicity, and host immune responses of several ibv strains in specific-pathogen-free chickens. sequence analyses revealed that 3575/08 and 2575/98 shared high ...201627876864
simultaneous detection of five major serotypes of avian coronavirus by a multiplex microsphere-based assay.avian coronavirus (commonly known as infectious bronchitis virus [ibv]) is of major economic importance to commercial chicken producers worldwide. due to the existence of multiple serotypes and variants of the virus that do not cross-protect, it is important to diagnose circulating serotypes and choose the right vaccine type for successful protection. in an effort to improve conventional diagnostic tests, a microsphere-based assay was developed and evaluated for simultaneous detection of the mos ...201323847226
infectious bronchitis virus as a vector for the expression of heterologous genes.the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) is the causative agent of the respiratory disease infectious bronchitis of domestic fowl, and is controlled by routine vaccination. to explore the potential use of ibv as a vaccine vector a reverse genetics system was utilised to generate infectious recombinant ibvs (ribvs) expressing the reporter genes enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) or humanised renilla luciferase (hrluc). infectious ribvs were obtained following the replacement ...201323840781
demonstration of ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in pheasants (phasianus colchicus) with pneumonia and airsacculitis.outbreaks of respiratory disease were investigated in reared pheasants (phasianus colchicus) aged approximately 18 to 32 weeks, released into the semi-wild on four shooting estates in southern england. the clinical signs in the affected birds included swelling of the face and eyes, loss of condition, gasping respirations and coughing. the gross pathology findings included sinusitis, airsacculitis, pleural oedema and lung lesions. the histopathological findings in the affected lungs were characte ...201323581445
association of the chicken mhc b haplotypes with resistance to avian coronavirus.clinical respiratory illness was compared in five homozygous chicken lines, originating from homozygous b2, b8, b12 and b19, and heterozygous b2/b12 birds after infection with either of two strains of the infectious bronchitis virus (ibv). all chickens used in these studies originated from white leghorn and ancona linages. ibv gray strain infection of mhc homozygous b12 and b19 haplotype chicks resulted in severe respiratory disease compared to chicks with b2/b2 and b5/b5 haplotypes. demonstrati ...201323178407
relationship between different enteric viral infections and the occurrence of diarrhea in broiler flocks in jordan.the aim of this study is to determine if enteric viruses are the cause of diarrhea in broiler flocks in jordan. intestinal content samples were collected from 101 broiler flocks from several regions of jordan to detect the presence of astrovirus, coronavirus, reovirus, and rotavirus, by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). forty-six of these flocks were clinically healthy with no enteric disease, and the other 55 flocks were clinically suffering from diarrhea. the samp ...201627190109
recommendations for a standardized avian coronavirus (avcov) nomenclature: outcome from discussions within the framework of the european union cost action fa1207: "towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for vaccination, diagnosis and surveillance".viruses within the coronaviridae family show variations within their genome sequences, especially within the major structural protein, the spike (s) glycoprotein gene. therefore, many different antigenic forms, serotypes, or variant strains of avian coronaviruses (avcov) exist worldwide. only a few of them, the so called protectotypes, cross protect against different serotypes. new serotypes arise by recombination or spontaneous mutations. from time to time, antigenic virus variants appear which ...201627309279
urbanization and the dynamics of rna viruses in mallards (anas platyrhynchos).urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and affects the epidemiology of infectious diseases. however, the effect of urbanization on natural host-pathogen systems remains poorly understood. urban ducks occupy an interesting niche in that they directly interact with both humans and wild migratory birds, and either directly or indirectly with food production birds. here we have collected samples from mallards (anas platyrhynchos) residing in a pond in central uppsala, sweden, from january 2013 to j ...201728323070
acquisition of cell-cell fusion activity by amino acid substitutions in spike protein determines the infectivity of a coronavirus in cultured cells.coronavirus host and cell specificities are determined by specific interactions between the viral spike (s) protein and host cell receptor(s). avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis (ibv) has been adapted to embryonated chicken eggs, primary chicken kidney (ck) cells, monkey kidney cell line vero, and other human and animal cells. here we report that acquisition of the cell-cell fusion activity by amino acid mutations in the s protein determines the infectivity of ibv in cultured cells. express ...200919572016
trafficking motifs in the sars-coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus nucleocapsid (n) protein is involved in virus replication and modulation of cell processes. in this latter respect control may in part be achieved through the sub-cellular localisation of the protein. n protein predominately localises in the cytoplasm (the site of virus replication and assembly) but also in the nucleus/nucleolus. using a combination of live-cell and confocal microscopy coupled to mutagenesis we identified a cryptic nucleolar loca ...200717524366
the relationship of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus with avian and other coronaviruses.in february 2003, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) emerged in humans in guangdong province, china, and caused an epidemic that had severe impact on public health, travel, and economic trade. coronaviruses are worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and extremely difficult to control because they have extensive genetic diversity, a short generation time, and a high mutation rate. they can cause respiratory, enteric, and in some cases hepatic and neurological diseas ...200617039827
subcellular localization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.the coronavirus nucleocapsid (n) protein is a viral rna-binding protein with multiple functions in terms of virus replication and modulating cell signalling pathways. n protein is composed of three distinct regions containing rna-binding motif(s), and appropriate signals for modulating cell signalling. the subcellular localization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) n protein was studied. in infected cells, sars-cov n protein localized exclusively to the cytoplasm. in con ...200516298975
protecting human and ecological health under viral threats in asia.severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) outbroke in 2003, and the avian influenza a (h5n1) also outbroke in 2003 and continued to 2004. these pandemic viral diseases originated in south east asia. many human and animal lives were lost. economic damages due to the pandemics were also very large. the question arises of why did the pandemics originate from south east asian areas. human influenza a consists of many sub-types of coronaviruses including the sars virus and the avian influenza (h5n1) t ...200516007933
oligomerization of a membrane protein correlates with its retention in the golgi complex.the first membrane-spanning domain (m1) of the m glycoprotein of avian coronavirus (formerly called e1) is sufficient to retain this protein in the cis-golgi. when the membrane-spanning domain of a protein which is efficiently delivered to the plasma membrane (vsv g protein) is replaced with m1, the resulting chimera (gm1) is retained in the golgi (swift, a. m., and c. e. machamer. 1991. j. cell biol. 115:19-30). when assayed in sucrose gradients, we observed that gm1 formed a large oligomer, an ...19938397214
protective effect of an inactivated avian coronavirus vaccine administered by aerosol. 19734716970
Avian coronavirus in wild aquatic birds.We detected a high prevalence (12.5%) of novel avian coronaviruses in aquatic wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses of these coronaviruses suggest that there is a diversity of gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses circulating in birds. Gammacoronaviruses were found predominantly in Anseriformes birds, whereas deltacoronaviruses could be detected in Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Anseriformes birds in this study. We observed that there are frequent interspecies transmissions of gammacoronavir ...201121957308
detection of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus type qx infection in switzerland.infectious bronchitis, a disease of chickens caused by avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), leads to severe economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. various attempts to control the virus based on vaccination strategies are performed. however, due to the emergence of novel genotypes, an effective control of the virus is hindered. in 1996, a novel viral genotype named ibv-qx was reported for the first time in qingdao, shandong province, china. the first appearance of an ...201223051829
complete genome sequences of two chinese virulent avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus variants.avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) is variable, which causes many serotypes. here we reported the complete genome sequences of two virulent ibv variants from china, gx-yl5 and gx-yl9, belonging to different serotypes. differences between gx-yl5 and gx-yl9 were found mainly in stem-loop structure i in the predicted rna secondary structure of open reading frame (orf) 1b and the s protein gene fusion region, which will help us understand the molecular evolutionary mechanism of ibv ...201222966194
avian coronavirus spike glycoprotein ectodomain shows a low codon adaptation to gallus gallus with virus-exclusive codons in strategic amino acids positions.this is a study on the avian coronavirus ibv and chicken host-relationship from the codon usage point of view based on fifty-nine non-redundant ibv s1 sequences (nt 1-507) from strains detected worldwide and chicken tissue-specific protein genes sequences from ibv-replicating sites. the effective number of codons (enc) values ranged from 36 to 47.8, indicating a high-to-moderate codon usage bias. the highest ibv codon adaptation index (cai) value was 0.7, indicating a distant virus versus host s ...201222903606
molecular evolution and emergence of avian gammacoronaviruses.coronaviruses, which are single stranded, positive sense rna viruses, are responsible for a wide variety of existing and emerging diseases in humans and other animals. the gammacoronaviruses primarily infect avian hosts. within this genus of coronaviruses, the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) causes a highly infectious upper-respiratory tract disease in commercial poultry. ibv shows rapid evolution in chickens, frequently producing new antigenic types, which adds to the multip ...201222609285
analysis of antigenicity and pathogenicity reveals major differences among qx-like infectious bronchitis viruses and other serotypes.avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) causes considerable damage to the poultry industry worldwide and the proportion of qx-like genotype isolates have increased over time. here, to better understand the antigenicity and pathogenicity of this genotype, we conducted sequence analyses, cross neutralization tests, and also examined the pathogenicity of two strains, sd and sz. sequence analyses revealed that sd and sz isolates belong to the qx-like ibv genotype and share high homology ...201728619139
a reverse genetics system for avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus based on targeted rna recombination.avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) is a respiratory pathogen of chickens that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. major advances in the study of the molecular biology of ibv have resulted from the development of reverse genetics systems for the highly attenuated, cell culture-adapted, ibv strain beaudette. however, most ibv strains, amongst them virulent field isolates, can only be propagated in embryonated chicken eggs, and not in continuous cell li ...201728606144
reverse genetics system for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus.we have developed a reverse genetics system for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) in which a full-length cdna corresponding to the ibv genome is inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a t7 promoter sequence. vaccinia virus as a vector for the full-length ibv cdna has the advantage that modifications can be introduced into the ibv cdna using homologous recombination, a method frequently used to insert and delete sequences from the vaccinia virus genome. ...201728508215
complete genome of avian coronavirus vaccine strains ma5 and br-i.avian coronavirus (avcov) is a ubiquitous multiple-serotype pathogen of poultry, and its control is mainly based on the use of vaccines. we report here the previously unknown full genomes of the ma5 (27,652 nucleotides [nt]) and br-i (27,618 nt) avcov vaccine strains of the gi-1 (massachusetts) and gi-11 (brazil) types.201728596385
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