body distribution of hannemania sp. (acari: leeuwenhoekiidae) in rhinella spinulosa, pleurodema bufonina, and pleurodema thaul from chile.hannemania larvae are parasites of amphibians in north and south america. in chile, only one species of hannemania has been reported from batrachyla taeniata (banded wood frog). the objective of the study was to determine the abundance and body distribution of hannemania among three amphibians from antuco (biobío region, chile): pleurodema thaul (13 adults; chile four-eyed frog), pleurodema bufonina (5 adults; large four-eyed frog), and rhinella spinulosa (15 adults and 16 juveniles; warty toad) ...201627468033
skin secretion peptides: the molecular facet of the deimatic behavior of the four-eyed frog, physalaemus nattereri (anura, leptodactylidae).amphibians can produce a large amount of bioactive peptides over the skin. in order to map the precise tissue localization of these compounds and evaluate their functions, mass spectrometry imaging (msi) and gene expression studies were used to investigate a possible correlation between molecules involved in the antimicrobial defense mechanisms and anti-predatory behavior by physalaemus nattereri.201526443407
geography, temperature, and water: interaction effects in a small native amphibian.amphibian locomotor capacity is strongly linked to temperature and hydration. however, organisms in nature experience covariation of multiple environmental factors, and thus to better understand the effects of thermal and hydric conditions on physiological performance, it is critical not only to experimentally disentangle them but also to incorporate potential interactive effects due to geographic variation. to this end, we selected two populations of the small amphibian pleurodema thaul inhabit ...202032762608
the identity of the chilean amphibians collected by the united states exploring expedition.between mid-may and early june of 1839, members of the united states exploring expedition collected diverse anurans in the environs of valparaíso, chile, later described by girard in 1853. of this set of species, metaeus timidus, described there as a new genus and species, attracts attention because is a name that practically disappeared from the herpetological literature. its identification, along with that of the other chilean taxa collected by the usee (cystignathus nebulosus girard, 1853, pl ...201931716446
natural selection on plasticity of thermal traits in a highly seasonal environment.for ectothermic species with broad geographical distributions, latitudinal/altitudinal variation in environmental temperatures (averages and extremes) is expected to shape the evolution of physiological tolerances and the acclimation capacity (i.e., degree of phenotypic plasticity) of natural populations. this can create geographical gradients of selection in which environments with greater thermal variability (e.g., seasonality) tend to favor individuals that maximize performance across a broad ...201830459844
intraspecific geographic variation in thermal limits and acclimatory capacity in a wide distributed endemic frog.intraspecific variation in physiological traits and the standard metabolic rate (smr) is common in widely distributed ectotherms since populations at contrasting latitudes experiences different thermal conditions. the climatic variability hypothesis (cvh) states that populations at higher latitudes presents higher acclimation capacity than those at lower latitudes, given the wider range of climatic variability they experience. the endemic four-eyed frog, pleurodema thaul is widely distributed in ...201729037391
geographic variation in acoustic communication in anurans and its neuroethological implications.geographic variation of traits may represent the first step for evolutionary divergence potentially leading to speciation. signals are behavioral traits of particular interest for the study of variation at a geographic scale. the anuran acoustic communication system represents an excellent model for studies of this kind, because their vocalizations play a main role in reproduction and the extant variation in this system may determine the evolution of this group. this review is committed to studi ...201525446892
sensitivity of histology for the detection of the amphibian chytrid fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.histology is often underappreciated for the detection of the amphibian pathogenic fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the cause of the potentially lethal skin disease chytridiomycosis. we evaluated the sensitivity of histology to detect chytrids in 20 wild specimens of 2 frog species from uruguay that were clinically normal, but confirmed by pcr to be infected by b. dendrobatidis. we detected maturing and sporulated sporangia in 15 of 20 (75%) frogs, which is more sensitive than previously re ...201930661466
development and characterization of microsatellite markers for brazilian four-eyed frogs (genus pleurodema) endemic to the caatinga biome.we used pyrosequencing to develop microsatellite markers for the brazilian four-eyed frog pleurodema diplolister and tested the microsatellite markers for cross-amplification in its sister pleurodema alium, which are both endemic species of the caatinga biome in northeastern brazil. we used multiplex sets to amplify and genotype 30 individuals of p. diplolister from three different populations and 10 individuals of p. alium from a single population. we successfully amplified 24 loci for p. diplo ...201424668634
phylogeographic model selection leads to insight into the evolutionary history of four-eyed frogs.phylogeographic research investigates biodiversity at the interface between populations and species, in a temporal and geographic context. phylogeography has benefited from analytical approaches that allow empiricists to estimate parameters of interest from the genetic data (e.g., θ = 4neμ, population divergence, gene flow), and the widespread availability of genomic data allow such parameters to be estimated with greater precision. however, the actual inferences made by phylogeographers remain ...201627432969
long-term monitoring of tropical alpine habitat change, andean anurans, and chytrid fungus in the cordillera vilcanota, peru: results from a decade of study.the cordillera vilcanota in southern peru is the second largest glacierized range in the tropics and home to one of the largest high-alpine lakes, sibinacocha (4,860 m). here, telmatobius marmoratus (marbled water frog), rhinella spinulosa (andean toad), and pleurodema marmoratum (marbled four-eyed frog) have expanded their range vertically within the past century to inhabit newly formed ponds created by ongoing deglaciation. these anuran populations, geographically among the highest (5,200-5,40 ...201728261462
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