laboratory transmission experiments with west nile and sindbis viruses and culex (culex) theileri theobald. 19665972507
a survey of the mosquito and culicoides faunas at two localities in the karoo region of south africa with some observations of bionomics.the mosquito and culicoides faunas were surveyed at bethulie and luckhoff in the arid karoo region, south orange free state, to determine which species occurred, their relative prevalence and the effects of rainfall. the feeding preferences of these insects were also investigated by means of baited catches. twenty-three mosquito species and 16 culicoides species were collected. the commonest mosquito species, with their feeding preferences, if known, were as follows: culex (culex) univittatus th ...19807454229
establishment and characterization of a cell line from the mosquito culex (culex) theileri (diptera: culicidae) and its susceptibility to infection with arboviruses.the mosquito culex (culex) theileri theobald is probably the major vector of rift valley fever (rvf) virus during epizootics on the inland plateau of southern africa. a cell line was established from the tissues of this mosquito species to facilitate laboratory studies on rvf and other arboviruses. after temperature pretreatment, egg rafts from a laboratory colony were disinfected, mechanically disrupted, and grown in preconditioned eagles minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal cal ...19902280394
quantitative experiments on the vector capability of culex (culex) theileri theobald with west nile and sindbis viruses. 19725080426
the ecology of west nile virus in south africa and the occurrence of outbreaks in humans.this paper reviews studies done on west nile virus (wnv) in south africa, mainly between 1962 and 1980 on the temperate inland plateau (highveld and karoo). the virus is maintained in an enzootic transmission cycle between feral birds and the ornithophilic mosquito culex univittatus. about 30 avian species have been shown to be involved without mortality. humans, and other mammals, although they may have antibodies, are considered blind-alleys in the transmission cycle except perhaps some dogs. ...200111797772
culex theileri and sindbis virus; salivary glands infection in relation to transmission. 19852852707
phylogenetic relationships of southern african west nile virus isolates.phylogenetic relationships were examined for 29 southern african west nile virus (formal name west nile virus [wnv]) isolates from various sources in four countries from 1958 to 2001. in addition, sequence data were retrieved from genbank for another 23 wnv isolates and kunjin and japanese encephalitis viruses. all isolates belonged to two lineages. lineage 1 isolates were from central and north africa, europe, israel, and north america; lineage 2 isolates were from central and southern africa a ...200212141968
disentangling vector-borne transmission networks: a universal dna barcoding method to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals.emerging infectious diseases represent a challenge for global economies and public health. about one fourth of the last pandemics have been originated by the spread of vector-borne pathogens. in this sense, the advent of modern molecular techniques has enhanced our capabilities to understand vector-host interactions and disease ecology. however, host identification protocols have poorly profited of international dna barcoding initiatives and/or have focused exclusively on a limited array of vect ...200919768113
first report on entomological field activities for the surveillance of west nile disease in italy.west nile virus (wnv) is neuropathogenic for birds, horses and humans and is maintained in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly the culex genus; horses and humans are considered to be incidental hosts. a surveillance plan was implemented in italy in 1998, following a limited outbreak of wnv equine encephalomyelitis and a wnv outbreak in france very close to the italian border. this plan to assess the risks of the virus being introduced again included entomological surveillan ...200820405446
distribution of 'promoter' sandflies associated with incidence of classic kaposi's sarcoma.the patchy geographical distributions of classic kaposi's sarcoma (ks) and human herpesvirus type 8 (hhv-8), better known as kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) remain unexplained. it has been proposed that certain species of bloodsucking insects ('promoter arthropods') promote the reactivation of hhv-8/kshv and facilitate both hhv-8/kshv transmission and ks development. this hypothesis was tested by sampling the presence and density of human-biting diptera with cdc light traps in two ...200919712152
emergence of genotype i of japanese encephalitis virus as the dominant genotype in asia.japanese encephalitis virus (jev), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis worldwide. previous phylogenetic studies based on the envelope protein indicated that there are four genotypes, and surveillance data suggest that genotype i is gradually replacing genotype iii as the dominant strain. here we report an evolutionary analysis based on 98 full-length genome sequences of jev, including 67 new samples isolated from humans, pigs, mosquitoes, midges. ...201121697481
insect-specific flaviviruses: a systematic review of their discovery, host range, mode of transmission, superinfection exclusion potential and genomic organization.there has been a dramatic increase in the number of insect-specific flaviviruses (isfs) discovered in the last decade. historically, these viruses have generated limited interest due to their inability to infect vertebrate cells. this viewpoint has changed in recent years because some isfs have been shown to enhance or suppress the replication of medically important flaviviruses in co-infected mosquito cells. additionally, comparative studies between isfs and medically important flaviviruses can ...201525866904
novel flaviviruses detected in different species of mosquitoes in spain.abstract we report the characterization of three novel flaviviruses isolated in spain. marisma mosquito virus, a novel mosquito borne virus, was isolated from ochlerotatus caspius mosquitoes; spanish ochlerotatus flavivirus and spanish culex flavivirus, two novel insect flaviviruses, were isolated from oc. caspius and culex pipiens, respectively. during this investigation, we designed a sensitive rt-nested polymerase chain reaction method that amplifies a 1019bp fragment of the flavivirus ns5 ...201122022811
mosquito (diptera: culicidae) fauna of qom province, iran.there is very little information about the mosquito fauna of qom province, central iran. by now only three species; anopheles claviger, an. multicolor, and an. superpictus have been reported in the province. to study mosquito fauna and providing a primary checklist, an investigation was carried out on a collection of mosquitoes in this province.201223293779
host-feeding pattern of culex theileri (diptera: culicidae), potential vector of dirofilaria immitis in the canary islands, identify the host range of potential vectors of dirofilaria immitis leidy, the causal agent of canine dirofilariasis, we studied the bloodmeal origin of mosquitoes trapped on two of the canary islands, gran canaria and tenerife, where this disease is considered hyperendemic. on gran canaria, mosquitoes were captured using centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) traps (outdoors) and resting in a bathroom (indoors). only cdc traps were used to capture mosquitoes in tenerife. the specie ...201223270171
shuni virus as cause of neurologic disease in determine which agents cause neurologic disease in horses, we conducted reverse transcription pcr on isolates from of a horse with encephalitis and 111 other horses with acute disease. shuni virus was found in 7 horses, 5 of which had neurologic signs. testing for lesser known viruses should be considered for horses with unexplained illness.022305525
comparison of genotypes i and iii in japanese encephalitis virus reveals distinct differences in their genetic and host diversity.japanese encephalitis (je) is an arthropod-borne disease associated with the majority of viral encephalitis cases in the asia-pacific region. the causative agent, japanese encephalitis virus (jev), has been phylogenetically divided into five genotypes. recent surveillance data indicate that genotype i (gi) is gradually replacing genotype iii (giii) as the dominant genotype. to investigate the mechanism behind the genotype shift and the potential consequences in terms of vaccine efficacy, human c ...201425056890
ecuador paraiso escondido virus, a new flavivirus isolated from new world sand flies in ecuador, is the first representative of a novel clade in the genus flavivirus.a new flavivirus, ecuador paraiso escondido virus (epev), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the new world. this represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the new world. epev exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. phylogenetic analysis o ...201526355096
european surveillance for west nile virus in mosquito populations.a wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in europe or through risk of introduction. prominent among these is west nile virus (wnv), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. endemic outbreaks of west nile fever have been reported in italy, greece, france, romania, hungary, russia and spain, with further spread expected. most outbreaks in western europe have been due ...201324157510
wolbachia biocontrol strategies for arboviral diseases and the potential influence of resident wolbachia strains in mosquitoes.arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes are a major cause of human disease worldwide. the absence of vaccines and effective vector control strategies has resulted in the need for novel mosquito control strategies. the endosymbiotic bacterium wolbachia has been proposed to form the basis for an effective mosquito biocontrol strategy. resident strains of wolbachia inhibit viral replication in drosophila fruit flies and induce a reproductive phenotype known as cytoplasmic incompatibility that allows ...201626925368
insect-specific virus discovery: significance for the arbovirus community.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses that are considered insect-specific. over the past ten years there has been a dramatic increase in the literature describing novel insect-specific virus detection in mosquitoes, which has p ...201526378568
mosquito cell lines: history, isolation, availability and application to assess the threat of arboviral transmission in the united kingdom.mosquitoes are highly effective vectors for transmission of human and animal pathogens. understanding the relationship between pathogen and vector is vital in developing strategies to predict and prevent transmission. cell lines derived from appropriate mosquito hosts provide a relatively simple tool for investigating the interaction between the host and viruses transmitted by mosquitoes. this review provides a brief overview of the development of mosquito cell lines, methods of isolation, their ...201425141888
species composition and wnv screening of mosquitoes from lagoons in a wetland area of the algarve, portugal.the aim of this study was to evaluate mosquito abundance, species diversity, larval and adult population dynamics in seven lagoons integrated in the wetland coastal system of the algarve, portugal, in the summer of 2007, as well as the screening of these for west nile virus (wnv). wnv has been isolated from mosquitoes in this region, in the summer of 2004, next to the putative area of infection of two linked human wn cases. adult mosquitoes were collected with cdc traps baited with co(2), and po ...201122347862
insights into the evolutionary history of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) based on whole-genome sequences comprising the five genotypes.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is the etiological agent of japanese encephalitis (je), one of the most serious viral encephalitis worldwide. five genotypes have been classified based on phylogenetic analysis of the viral envelope gene or the complete genome. previous studies based on four genotypes have reported that in evolutionary terms, genotype 1 jev is the most recent lineage. however, until now, no systematic phylogenetic analysis was reported based on whole genomic sequence of all five ...201525884184
a new insect-specific flavivirus from northern australia suppresses replication of west nile virus and murray valley encephalitis virus in co-infected mosquito cells.recent reports of a novel group of flaviviruses that replicate only in mosquitoes and appear to spread through insect populations via vertical transmission have emerged from around the globe. to date, there is no information on the presence or prevalence of these insect-specific flaviviruses (isfs) in australian mosquito species. to assess whether such viruses occur locally, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and flavivirus universal primers that are specific to the ...201323460804
rift valley fever virus(bunyaviridae: phlebovirus): an update on pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, vectors, diagnostics and prevention.rift valley fever(rvf) virus is an arbovirus in the bunyaviridae family that, from phylogenetic analysis, appears to have first emerged in the mid-19th century and was only identified at the beginning of the 1930's in the rift valley region of kenya. despite being an arbovirus with a relatively simple but temporally and geographically stable genome, this zoonotic virus has already demonstrated a real capacity for emerging in new territories, as exemplified by the outbreaks in egypt (1977), weste ...201021188836
circulation of a meaban-like virus in yellow-legged gulls and seabird ticks in the western mediterranean recent years, a number of zoonotic flaviviruses have emerged worldwide, and wild birds serve as their major reservoirs. epidemiological surveys of bird populations at various geographical scales can clarify key aspects of the eco-epidemiology of these viruses. in this study, we aimed at exploring the presence of flaviviruses in the western mediterranean by sampling breeding populations of the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis), a widely distributed, anthropophilic, and abundant seabird sp ...201424625959
larval habitat characteristics of the genus anopheles (diptera: culicidae) and a checklist of mosquitoes in guilan province, northern iran.ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. there is scattered published information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus anopheles (diptera: culicidae) in iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern iran.201122808409
Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority def ...201122152822
viral interference and persistence in mosquito-borne flaviviruses.mosquito-borne flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans, and the detection of two or more flaviviruses cocirculating in the same geographic area has often been reported. however, the epidemiological impact remains to be determined. mosquito-borne flaviviruses are primarily transmitted through aedes and culex mosquitoes; these viruses establish a life-long or persistent infection without apparent pathological effects. this establishment requires a balance between virus replication and the ...201526583158
prevalence of canine heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central portugal.the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from figueira da foz, located in the central region of portugal. in the period between november 2009 and january 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the mo ...201424534524
vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in europe.presently, 45% of the total human population of europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (vbh) causing diseases. a plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. although canine dirofilarioses by dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of vbh spreading into non-endemic areas, another e ...201323324440
fauna and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes in neka county, northern iran.ecological studies on mosquitoes are very important in vector control programs. there are a few studies about the ecology of mosquitoes in northern iran. this study was carried out to detect fauna and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes.201526623437
feeding behaviour of potential vectors of west nile virus in senegal.west nile virus (wnv) is a widespread pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds with occasional spill-over into dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. migratory birds are believed to play an important role in its dissemination from and to the palaearctic area, as well as its local dispersion between wintering sites. the djoudj park, located in senegal, is a major wintering site for birds migrating from europe during the study period (sept. 2008- jan. 2009). in this ...201121651763
mosquito surveys and west nile virus screening in two different areas of southern portugal, 2004-2007.longitudinal mosquito surveys were carried out in southern portugal from 2004 to 2007, in a wetland area (comporta, district of setúbal) and around the perimeter of a dam irrigation plant that created the largest artificial lake in europe, 250 km(2) (alqueva, districts of evora and beja). our aim was to study the diversity, abundance, and seasonal dynamics of mosquitoes, comparing these two different areas, to screen mosquitoes for west nile virus (wnv), an arboviral agent already detected in po ...201020854020
role of culex and anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in sudan outbreak, 2007.rift valley fever (rvf) is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family bunyaviridae. rvf virus (rvfv) is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the culex, anopheles and aedes genera.201020222979
effect of blood meal digestion and dna extraction protocol on the success of blood meal source determination in the malaria vector anopheles identification is an essential step in studies on the transmission dynamics of vector-borne disease. nowadays, molecular tools allow the identification of vertebrate hosts to the species level. however, the proportion of successful identifications is variable and may be affected by the quality of the samples and the laboratory protocols. here, the effect of two of these factors, namely the digestion status of mosquito blood meal and the dna extraction procedure, on the success of host ident ...201323517864
distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes.a study of the distribution and ecology of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in ardebil province of northwestern iran, with special reference to the known dirofilariasis focus in meshkinshahr county, was carried out in july-august 2005 and april-october 2006. in total, 17,533 adult mosquitoes and 3090 third- and fourth-instar larvae were collected on 14 occasions and identified using morphological characters and dna sequence data. twenty species belonging to seven genera were found: anopheles clav ...200919493192
biting activity of mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) in the turkey-armenia border area, ararat valley, turkey.during nine consecutive nights in july 2007 (from 18:15-05:45 h), mosquitoes landing-biting on humans were collected outdoors and indoors at the turkey-armenia border. a total of 1005 females were collected consisting of nine species. the dominant species was aedes dorsalis (meigen) (47.5% of total catch), followed by anopheles hyrcanus (pallas) (22.9%), culex theileri (theobald) (9.3%),ae. vexans (meigen) (6.6%), ae. caspius (pallas) (4.9%),anopheles maculipennis s.l. (meigen) (3.1%), culex ter ...201020180304
mosquito host choices on livestock amplifiers of rift valley fever virus in kenya.animal hosts may vary in their attraction and acceptability as components of the host location process for assessing preference, and biting rates of vectors and risk of exposure to pathogens. however, these parameters remain poorly understood for mosquito vectors of the rift valley fever (rvf), an arboviral disease, and for a community of mosquitoes.201627036889
recent outbreaks of rift valley fever in east africa and the middle east.rift valley fever (rvf) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. mosquitoes in the aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. however, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of rvf, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in east africa. the recent rvf outbreaks i ...201425340047
daily temperature profiles in and around western kenyan larval habitats of anopheles gambiae as related to egg mortality.anopheles gambiae eggs are more frequently found on soil around puddle habitats of the larvae, than on the water surface itself in western kenya. thus, eggs can experience temperatures more wide-ranging and lethal than those experienced by larvae or pupae confined within puddles.200617038186
screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors.partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. we wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases.201020689815
the mosquito fauna of the republic of cyprus: a revised list.the cyprus public health service has regularly conducted mosquito surveillance in the republic of cyprus over the past 10 years. twenty-three species belonging to 6 genera and 10 subgenera have been recorded to date, including species documented from earlier surveys. as a result of this program, new mosquito species for cyprus have been recorded, including anopheles marteri, culex theileri, cx. impudicus, culiseta subochrea, and uranotaenia unguiculata. importantly, mosquito species previously c ...200919653503
initial and residual activity of vectobac 12 as, vectobac wdg, and vectolex wdg for control of mosquitoes in ararat valley, turkey.two formulations, vectobac 12 as and vectobac wdg, of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (bti) and one formulation, vectolex wdg, of bacillus sphaericus were tested against anopheles maculipennis, culex pipiens, culex theileri, aedes caspius, and aedes dorsalis larvae in drainage canals, a flooded plain, and a drainage well in the igdir plain of arafat valley, turkey. vectobac 12 as applied at 0.5 and 1 liter/ha to a drainage canal provided complete control of cx. theileri and 80% to 98% control ...200919432078
exploratory space-time analyses of rift valley fever in south africa in 2008-2011.rift valley fever (rvf) is a zoonotic arbovirosis for which the primary hosts are domestic livestock (cattle, sheep and goats). rvf was first described in south africa in 1950-1951. mechanisms for short and long distance transmission have been hypothesised, but there is little supporting evidence. here we describe rvf occurrence and spatial distribution in south africa in 2008-11, and investigate the presence of a contagious process in order to generate hypotheses on the different mechanisms of ...201222953020
potential mosquito vectors of arboviruses in portugal: species, distribution, abundance and west nile infection.circulation of west nile virus in portugal was demonstrated by serological surveys, and the virus was isolated in 1969 from anopheles maculipennis s.l. a survey of the whole country was carried out (2001-2004) to assess the abundance of mosquito species and to screen them for arbovirus infection. a total of 770 collections yielded 32460 mosquitoes of 15 species. the regions with the highest abundance of mosquitoes were the coastal and estuarine districts of santarém, setúbal and faro. culex pipi ...200818455742
japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and swine in yunnan province, china 2009-2010.the residential regions of yunnan province, canton of jing hong, in china were surveyed for japanese encephalitis virus (jev) infection in mosquito and swine vectors to determine the frequency of jev-carrying zoonotic vectors in 2009-2010. a total of 21,500 mosquitoes were collected and divided by species, and brain tissue was collected from 108 stillborn piglets. the infection rates for the different jev species were 13.2% for culex tritaeniorhynchus, 2.7% for anopheles sinensis, 0.7% for armig ...201223199264
novel insect-specific flavivirus isolated from northern europe.mosquitoes collected in finland were screened for flaviviral rna leading to the discovery and isolation of a novel flavivirus designated hanko virus (hankv). virus characterization, including phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence, confirmed hankv as a member of the "insect-specific" flavivirus (isf) group. hankv is the first member of this group isolated from northern europe, and therefore the first northern european isf for which the complete coding sequence has been determined. ...201222999256
culicinae (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes in chabahar county, sistan and baluchistan province, southeastern iran.mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in iran. the objective of this study was to determine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs.200922808369
genetic characterization of an insect-specific flavivirus isolated from culex theileri mosquitoes collected in southern portugal.we describe the full genetic characterization of an insect-specific flavivirus (isf) from culex theileri (theobald) mosquitoes collected in portugal. this represents the first isolation and full characterization of an isf from portuguese mosquitoes. the virus, designated ctfv, for culex theileri flavivirus, was isolated in the c6/36 stegomyia albopicta (=aedes albopictus) cell line, and failed to replicate in vertebrate (vero) cells in common with other isfs. the ctfv genome encodes a single pol ...201222579596
mosquito surveillance and the first record of the invasive mosquito species aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) in southern iran.epidemics of mosquito-borne viral infections such as dengue, chikungunya, west nile and rift valley fevers in neighbouring countries and risk of introduction of exotic vectors into iran have placed this country at a significant risk for these mosquito-borne diseases.027928533
discovery of novel viruses in mosquitoes from the zambezi valley of mozambique.mosquitoes carry a wide variety of viruses that can cause vector-borne infectious diseases and affect both human and veterinary public health. although mozambique can be considered a hot spot for emerging infectious diseases due to factors such as a rich vector population and a close vector/human/wildlife interface, the viral flora in mosquitoes have not previously been investigated. in this study, viral metagenomics was employed to analyze the viral communities in culex and mansonia mosquitoes ...201627682810
landscape effects on the presence, abundance and diversity of mosquitoes in mediterranean wetlands.environment determines the distribution of mosquito-borne diseases in that it influences the vector-host-pathogen transmission cycle, including vector distribution, abundance and diversity. in this study, we analyse the relationship between environmental variables estimated by remote sensing and the spatial distribution (presence, abundance and diversity) of seven mosquito species vectors of west nile and other pathogens (usutu, avian malaria and dirofilariasis) in the doñana natural park, spain ...201526086804
possible autochthonous malaria from marseille to minneapolis.we report 2 cases of plasmodium falciparum malaria in southern france in a french woman and an american man of togolese origin who reported no recent travel to malaria-endemic countries. both infections occurred after a stay near marseille, which raises the possibility of autochthonous transmission. entomologic and genotypic investigations are described.200717953101
human and animal dirofilariasis: the emergence of a zoonotic mosaic.dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (dirofilaria immitis and d. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. at the same time, both d. immitis and d. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hos ...022763636
the fauna and ecology of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in western iran.the aim of this study was to obtain new data which would be valuable to develop programs for future planning of mosquito controls in in western iran.201426114143
mosquito fauna (diptera: culicidae) of hamedan county, western iran.this study aimed to identify and determine the larval and adult mosquitoes (culicidae) fauna in hamedan county, western iran.201426114135
first molecular identification of mosquito vectors of dirofilaria immitis in continental portugal.canine dirofilariasis due to dirofilaria immitis is known to be endemic in continental portugal. however, information about the transmitting mosquito species is still scarce, with only culex theileri identified to date, albeit with l1-2, through dissection. this study was carried out to investigate the potential vectors of dirofilaria spp. in continental portugal.201525886610
attractive toxic sugar baits: control of mosquitoes with the low-risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on nontarget organisms in morocco.we evaluated the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (atsb) in the laboratory and field with the low-risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. preliminary laboratory assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female culex quinquefasciatus say and aedes aegypti linnaeus. field studies demonstrated >70% reduction of mosquito populations at 3 wk post-atsb application. nontarget feeding of seven insect ...024331613
natural infection of culex theileri (diptera: culicidae) with dirofilaria immitis (nematoda: filarioidea) on madeira island, portugal.field and laboratory studies were performed to verify whether culex theileri theobald functions as a natural vector of dirofilaria immitis (leidy) on madeira island, portugal. co2-baited light traps (evs traps) were use to sample mosquitoes monthly basis between february 2002 and february 2003 in the area of quebradas (funchal). three mosquito species were captured, including 58 culex pipiens l., 790 cx. theileri, and three culiseta longiareolata (macquart). only c. theileri tested positive for ...200616506454
serological and molecular detection of dirofilaria species in stray dogs and investigation of wolbachia dna by pcr in turkey.dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are the most common species of filarial nematodes described in the dogs. a single-step multiplex pcr was applied to detect and differentiate simultaneously and unequivocally d. immitis and d. repens on dna extracted from canine peripheral blood and besides to detect the seroprevalance of d. immitis by elisa in elazig province, turkey. a pcr detection of the wolbachia, which plays an important role in d. immitis biology and contributes to the inflammator ...201628032096
bioinformatic characterization of mosquito viromes within the eastern united states and puerto rico: discovery of novel viruses.mosquitoes are efficient, militarily relevant vectors of infectious disease pathogens, including many rna viruses. the vast majority of all viruses are thought to be undiscovered. accordingly, recent studies have shown that viruses discovered in insects are very divergent from known pathogens and that many of them lack appropriate reference sequences in the public databases. given that the majority of viruses are likely still undiscovered, environ mental sampling stands to provide much needed re ...201627346944
biodiversity of aquatic insects of zayandeh roud river and its branches, isfahan province, iran.aquatic insects are the major groups of arthropods that spend some parts of their life cycle in the water. these insects play an important role for transmission of some human and animal diseases. there is few information about the aquatic insects fauna of iran.201426114133
feeding patterns of potential west nile virus vectors in south-west spain.mosquito feeding behaviour determines the degree of vector-host contact and may have a serious impact on the risk of west nile virus (wnv) epidemics. feeding behaviour also interacts with other biotic and abiotic factors that affect virus amplification and transmission.201222745781
climatic effects on mosquito abundance in mediterranean wetlands.the impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. one of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission.201425030527
assessing the susceptibility status of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in a dirofilariasis focus, northwestern iran.mosquitoes are considered as the vectors of dirofilariasis and some vector borne disease in iran. the objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility level of the vectors to various insecticides recommended by who for any control measures in an endemic area in northwestern iran.201426114140
detection of west nile virus and insect-specific flavivirus rna in culex mosquitoes, central macedonia, greece.west nile virus (wnv) emerged in central macedonia, northern greece, in 2010. the aim of the study was to test culex mosquitoes for genetic detection of wnv and other flaviviruses, and to check whether the detection of wnv in mosquitoes was correlated with the occurrence of human wnv cases.201425033823
effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance.anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. however, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. we collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed b ...201627373794
first evidence of west nile virus lineage 2 circulation in august 2014, a west nile virus (wnv) strain belonging to lineage 2 was detected in the brain tissues of a 9 year old mare euthanised after showing severe clinical signs in bursa region, turkey. phylogenetic analyses of 290 bp of ns3 coding region clustered the turkish strain together with the 2010-2012 greek isolates. either igg and igm or igg only wnv antibodies were detected in 2 and 11 horses, respectively, which were in the outbreak surrounding. no wnv rna was detected in pools of 50 indi ...201727033534
influence of bloodmeal source on reproductive output of the potential west nile vector, culex theileri (diptera: culicidae).culex theileri theobald (diptera: culicidae) has a wide afrotropical, southern palaearctic, northern oriental, and european distribution. it is mainly considered as a mammophilic mosquito and also feeds on birds and serves as a vector for various zoonotic diseases including west nile virus. despite its broad distribution and evidence indicating that cx. theileri is a competent vector of human and domestic animal pathogens, basic biological and ecological features of this species have not been we ...201426309323
identification and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in culex theileri (diptera: culicidae).culex theileri theobald (diptera: culicidae) is one of the most common mosquito species in northeastern turkey and serves as a vector for various zoonotic diseases including west nile virus. although there have been some studies on the ecology of cx. theileri, very little genetic data has been made available. we successfully sequenced 11 gene fragments from cx. theileri specimens collected from the northeastern part of turkey. on average, we found a single nucleotide polymorphism every 45 bp. tr ...201222679865
ecological niche modelling of potential west nile virus vector mosquito species and their geographical association with equine epizootics in italy, west nile virus (wnv) equine outbreaks have occurred annually since 2008. characterizing wnv vector habitat requirements allows for the identification of areas at risk of viral amplification and transmission. maxent-based ecological niche models were developed using literature records of 13 potential wnv italian vector mosquito species to predict their habitat suitability range and to investigate possible geographical associations with wnv equine outbreak occurrence in italy from 2008 ...201424121802
host-feeding patterns of culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (diptera: culicidae) of west nile virus (flaviviridae) collected in portugal.the host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv). in portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including culex pipiens l., considered the primary vector of wnv to humans. the sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from june 2007 to november 2010 in 34 portuguese counties w ...201222679881
yeasts associated with culex pipiens and culex theileri mosquito larvae and the effect of selected yeast strains on the ontogeny of culex pipiens.the success of mosquitoes in nature has been linked to their microbiota and bacteria in particular. yet, knowledge on their symbioses with yeasts is lacking. to explore possible associations, culturable yeasts were isolated from wild larvae of culex pipiens and culex theileri. these yeasts were classified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analyses and identified by sequencing the d1/d2 region of the 26s rrna gene. representative strains of candida, cryptococcus, galactomyces, ...201626573833
ecology and habitat characterization of mosquitoes in saudi arabia.the kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa) contains many of the world's mosquito vectors of parasitic and arboviral diseases. however, few studies addressed their geographic distribution and larval habitat characteristics. we carried out a 14-months mosquito survey in three ksa regions: makkah and al-baha (western) and jezan (south-western). larvae were collected by dipping from various water habitats and adults by cdc light and bg sentinel traps. climatic conditions and physicochemical characteristics o ...201324189671
detection and molecular characterization of avian plasmodium from mosquitoes in central turkey.assessing vector-parasite relationship is important in understanding the emergence of vector-borne diseases and the evolution of parasite diversity. this study investigates avian plasmodium parasites in mosquitoes collected from kayseri province in central anatolian, turkey and determines the haemosporidian parasite lineages from these mosquito species. a total of 6153 female mosquitos from 6 species were collected from 46 sites during june-august of 2008 and 2009. each mosquito's head-thorax an ...201222455723
study of culex tritaeniorhynchus and species composition of mosquitoes in a rice field in greece.mosquito species composition and seasonal abundance were studied in a rice field in western greece over a three-year period (2009-2011). a total of 11,716 larvae and pupae of mosquitoes were recorded, representing seven species, namely aedes caspius (pallas), anopheles hyrcanus (pallas), anopheles sacharovi favre, culex theileri theobald, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, culex pipiens linnaeus, uranotaenia unguiculata edwards and belonging to four genera. cx. tritaeniorhynchus constituted the most ...201424613156
genomes of viral isolates derived from different mosquitos species.eleven viral isolates derived mostly in aedes cells from mosquito pools collected in southeast asia and the americas between 1966 and 2014 contained particles with electron microscopy morphology typical of reoviruses. metagenomics analysis yielded the near complete genomes of three novel reoviruses, big cypress orbivirus, ninarumi virus, and high island virus and a new tetravirus, sarawak virus. strains of previously characterized sathuvarachi, yunnan, banna and parry's lagoon viruses (reovirida ...201728855097
avian malaria infections in western european the complex life cycle of avian malaria parasites (plasmodium sp.), we still have a poor understanding on the vector-parasite relationships. this study described the community of potential avian malaria vectors in four portuguese reedbeds. we tested if their geographical distribution differed, and investigated on their plasmodium infections. the mosquitoes' feeding preferences were evaluated using co(2), mice, and birds as baits. the most abundant species were culex pipiens, culex theileri, a ...201222427023
description of two gynandromorphs of culex theileri from extremadura, spain.two gynandromorphs of culex theileri are described. the individuals were caught in the centers for disease control and prevention miniature light traps in the municipality of alcollarin, cáceres, spain, in 2011. one of the specimens presented polar gynandromorphism, whereas the other showed a combination of polar and transverse gynandromorphic features. details are given of the main characteristics of both mosquitoes, with particular emphasis that this gynandromorphic finding is only the second ...201323687858
altitudinal genetic and morphometric variation among populations of culex theileri theobald (diptera: culicidae) from northeastern turkey.enviromental conditions, including such important climatic variables as temperature and precipitation, change with altitude; thus, elevation plays a significant role in determining population and community structure in a variety of organisms. using single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) and geometric morphometrics, nine populations of culex theileri theobald occurring in different ecological subregions at altitudes between 808-2,130 m in northeastern turkey were compared. the wing size and shape ...201222548554
molecular detection of wolbachia pipientis in natural populations of mosquito vectors of dirofilaria immitis from continental portugal: first detection in culex theileri.wolbachia pipientis (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae) protects mosquitoes from infections with arboviruses and parasites. however, the effect of its co-infection on vector competence for dirofilaria immitis (spirurida: onchocercidae) in the wild has not been investigated. this study aimed to screen vectors of d. immitis for wpip, to characterize these, and to investigate a possible association between the occurrence of w. pipientis and that of the nematode. the presence of w. pipientis was assesse ...201627279553
larval habitats diversity and distribution of the mosquito (diptera: culicidae) species in the republic of moldova.a countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in moldova with the aim to evaluate the culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. in total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. twenty species belonging to the genera anopheles, aedes, culex, culiseta, and uranotaenia were collected. mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, w ...201526364191
co-circulation of west nile virus and distinct insect-specific flaviviruses in vector surveillance provides an efficient tool for monitoring the presence or spread of emerging or re-emerging vector-borne viruses. this study was undertaken to investigate the circulation of flaviviruses. mosquitoes were collected from 58 locations in 10 provinces across the aegean, thrace and mediterranean anatolian regions of turkey in 2014 and 2015. following morphological identification, mosquitoes were pooled and screened by nested and real-time pcr assays. detected viruses were f ...201728320443
isolation and genomic characterization of culex theileri flaviviruses in field-collected mosquitoes from turkey.vector surveillance for the arthropod-borne infections has resulted in the isolation of a growing number of novel viruses, including several flavivirus strains that exclusively replicate in insects. this report describes the isolation and genomic characterization of four insect-specific flaviviruses from mosquitoes, previously collected from various locations in turkey. c6/36 aedes albopictus and vero cell lines were inoculated with mosquito pools. on c6/36 cells, mild cytopathic effects, charac ...201627840255
detection of mosquito-only flaviviruses in europe.the genus flavivirus, family flaviviridae, includes a number of important arthropod-transmitted human pathogens such as dengue viruses, west nile virus, japanese encephalitis virus and yellow fever virus. in addition, the genus includes flaviviruses without a known vertebrate reservoir, which have been detected only in insects, particularly in mosquitoes, such as cell fusing agent virus, kamiti river virus, culex flavivirus, aedes flavivirus, quang binh virus, nakiwogo virus and calbertado virus ...201222377581
detection of quang binh virus from mosquitoes in china.flaviviruses present a wide range of genetic diversity and exhibit diverse host relationships. mosquito-borne flaviviruses have recently been isolated and characterized worldwide. yunnan province of china is one of the richest areas of species diversity and is the center of multi-species evolution in mainland asia, which supports the circulation of numerous arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). in a screening program of arboviruses, mosquitoes were collected during the mosquito activity season ...201424342141
molecular characterization of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in northwestern iran by using rdna-its2.several mosquito species are vectors of disease; however, to understand their role in disease transmission, accurate species identification is of particular importance. morphological identification is the main method used, but molecular techniques have emerged as a tool for the identification of closely related species. in this study, mosquitoes from the west azerbaijan province in northwestern iran were characterized on the basis of their rdna-its2 sequences. nine populations of 6 species of mo ...201626743141
the fauna and active season of mosquitoes in west of fars province, southwest of iran.culicidae are highly important for public health as they can be vectors of diseases and are responsible for a wide spectrum of infections. five collection sites were selected randomly with regards to existing facilities in firouzabad county. for collecting larvae and total catch for adult mosquitoes, sampling was carried out by dipping technique for collecting larvae and total catch for adult mosquitoes. a total of 689 adults and 1313 larvae of culicidae were collected, of which 3 genera and 6 s ...201730341942
the insecticidal and repellent activity of ginger (zingiber officinale) and eucalyptus (eucalyptus globulus) essential oils against culex theileri theobald, 1903 (diptera: culicidaeinsecticidal and repellent activity of essential oils of zingiber officinale and eucalyptus globulus against culex theileri theobald, 1903 as a wide-distributed species of mosquitoes in different parts of world with an important role in transmission of infectious organisms and agent were studied. essential oils were extracted from fresh parts of plants and different concentrations of 250 μl/ml, 500 μl/ml, 750 μl/ml and 1 (undiluted extract) were prepared for each of essential oils. insecticidal ...201930738419
using ecological niche modeling to predict the spatial distribution of anopheles maculipennis s.l. and culex theileri (diptera: culicidae) in central iran.mosquitoes are very important vectors of diseases to human. we aimed to establish the first spatial database on the mosquitoes of isfahan province, central iran, and to predict the geographical distribution of species with medical importance.201931803777
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