multiplex polymerase chain reaction method to detect cyclospora, cystoisospora, and microsporidia in stool samples.cyclospora, cystoisospora, and microsporidia are eukaryotic enteropathogens that are difficult to detect in stool samples because they require special stains and microscopy. we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) reaction with 4 primer sets to amplify cyclospora cayetanensis, cystoisospora belli, enterocytozoon bieneusi, and encephalitozoon intestinalis. detection of the amplicon is through specific probes coupled to luminex beads. sensitivity of the assay was evaluated using e ...201121982218
intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in gondar teaching hospital, northwest ethiopia.abstract:201122041102
[isospora belli infection in a patient with a renal transplant].isospora belli infection is frequent in immunosuppressed patients and can cause wasting diarrhea. we present the first isosporiosis case in a renal transplant recipient from turkey. the 25-year old male patient who had had a renal transplantation due to renal failure and had received immunosuppressive therapy presented at the hospital complaining of weakness, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea that had lasted for 15 days. isospora belli oocysts were detected in stool samples by direct microscopy, mod ...200617106849
[cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis in children suffering from diarrhoea in abidjan].a parasitological survey on intestinal coccidia, cryptosporidium sp and isospora belli, has been carried out in paediatric service of an teaching hospital in the district of abidjan (côte d'ivoire). 130 children under 5 years old suffering from diarrhoea have been enrolled. direct stools examination method, simplified ritchie technique and ziehl neelsen modified coloration were used for analysis. moreover, the aids serological status of the patients has been determined. the results show that cry ...200417304752
screening of auramine-stained smears of all fecal samples is a rapid and inexpensive way to increase the detection of coccidial infections.coccidia are important causes of diarrhea that is often indistinguishable from other forms of community-acquired diarrhea. however, the detection of oocysts is often only performed when explicitly requested, as part of the ova and parasite (o&p) examination. reappraisal and understanding of the accurate staining characteristics of auramine o (auo), which stains nucleic acids, may permit the inexpensive and reliable identification of coccidian oocysts at routine workup of all fecal samples.200817600749
[the etiological, clinical and prognosis of diarrhea occurs during aids in to hospital in bamako].its was a descriptive survey achieved in the service of the infectious and tropical illnesses of the teaching hospital of the "point g" from 31 december 2002 to 30 june 2004 was about the analysis of 76 files. its goal was to determine the clinical, etiological and prognostic aspects, of the diarrhea during the aids. the oral-pharyngeal candidiasis (50%), the deshydratation (60,5%), the fever (67,5%) and the thinning (77,6%) were associated to the diarrhoea frequently. cholera syndrome was (52.6 ...200719617111
enteric spore-forming opportunistic parasites in hiv / aids.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection causes progressive damage to both limbs of the immune system, which results in a plethora of opportunistic infections. among the various opportunistic infections, gastrointestinal infections are very common in hiv / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). opportunistic spore-forming protozoal parasites, namely, cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli, cyclospora cayetanensis, and microsporidia, play a major role in causing chronic diarrhea, accompan ...201123507985
[digestive parasitic diseases to hiv/aids infected patients of internal medicine and infectious diseases wards of the hôpital du point "g" bamako - mali].we conducted a prospective study in internal medicine and infectious diseases wards of the hospital of point " g " in bamako, mali from january to december 2002. overall 112 patients hiv positive, thirty-five patients (31,25%) had at least a digestive parasitic disease. we found that the most frequent parasite in stools sample were protozoa (82,85%). the second most frequent parasites were helminthes (20,33%). hiv/aids opportunistic parasites represented 40% of all parasites found. these include ...200719617113
[evaluation of parasitological laboratory results of a group of people older than 15 years of age in kutahya].this research has been based on microscopic examination of samples of stool specimens taken from 675 persons older than 15 years of age. the examinations were conducted in the parasitological laboratory of the dumlupinar university hospital. laboratory examinations of stools were done with native and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods. different intestinal parasites were found in 52 (7.7%) of the stool specimens. at least one parasite species was found in 3.11% of women and 4.59% of me ...200717471410
opportunistic parasitic infections in hiv/aids patients presenting with diarrhoea by the level of immunesuppression.enteric parasites are major cause of diarrhoea in hiv infected individuals. the present study was undertaken to detect enteric parasites in hiv infected patients with diarrhoea at different levels of immunity.200919700803
common variable immunodeficiency and isosporiasis: first report case.we report a severe case of diarrhea in a 62-year-old female hiv-negative patient from whom giardia lamblia and isospora belli were isolated. because unusual and opportunistic infections should be considered as criteria for further analysis of immunological status, laboratory investigations led to a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency (cvid). this is the first reported case of isosporiasis in a patient with cvid and illustrates the importance of being aware of a possible link, particula ...201223295886
a rare diarrheic parasite in a liver transplant patient: isospora belli.we describe the first case of isosporiasis in a liver transplant patient. watery diarrhea due to isospora belli was observed in a woman who had undergone liver transplantation 8 months prior. she was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. this parasite should be taken into consideration as an opportunistic infection in transplant patients who need increased hygienic awareness.200717580223
[isospora belli infection in hiv positive patients: report of two cases and literature review].isosporosis is an infection caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus isospora, coccidia affecting various different vertebrate species, including humans. it is an uncommon infection in our country and it is not a zoonosis. we present two cases of isospora belli infection in hiv positive patients from the valparaiso region. we discuss the clinical events caused by this agent, its epidemiology, cases published in the local and foreign literature, as well as its treatment and prevention measures.201020737124
polymorphisms in the 18s rdna gene of cystoisospora belli and clinical features of cystoisosporosis in hiv-infected patients.intraspecific variability among cystoisospora belli isolates and its clinical implications in human cystoisosporosis have not been established. in this study, the restriction fragment length polymorphisms in a 1.8-kb amplicon of the small subunit ribosomal dna (ssu rdna) of the parasite was investigated in 20 c. belli-positive stool samples obtained from 15 hiv-infected patients. diarrheic syndrome was observed in all patients with cystoisosporosis and the number of diarrheic episodes per patien ...201020967461
[prevalence of intestinal microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in hiv positive patients from maracaibo, venezuela].to detect the presence of microsporidia and other enteric parasites in patients with hivaids of the autonomous services university hospital of maracaibo (sahum), where there are no previous studies in this field.201424652209
heavy infestation of isospora belli causing severe watery diarrhea.a 35-year-old male, positive for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) antibodies, was found to have heavy infestation by isospora belli, leading to gastrointestinal opportunistic infection. stool sample of the patient presenting with diarrhea of 2 months duration showed numerous oocysts of i. belli. his blood cd4 count was 85/cmm. the patient was from a slum area with poor sanitation. he was put on antimicrobial agent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and was followed up. however, he died after 1 mont ...201021045430
intestinal parasites infections in hospitalized aids patients in kinshasa, democratic republic of determine the prevalence and the species spectrum of intestinal parasites (ip) involved in hospitalized aids patients, a prospective observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the four main hospitals in kinshasa, democratic republic of the congo. from november 2006 through september 2007, a single stool sample was collected from 175 hospitalized aids patients older than 15 years. parasites were detected by light microscopy, including ziehl-neelsen, fungi-fluor, modified trichr ...201021275238
seasonal profile and level of cd4+ lymphocytes in the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis and cystoisosporidiosis in hiv/aids patients in the triângulo mineiro region, brazil.patients with aids are particularly susceptible to infection with intestinal coccidia. in this study the prevalence of infections with cryptosporidium sp and cystoisospora belli were evaluated among hiv/aids patients in the triângulo mineiro region, brazil. between july 1993 and june 2003 faecal samples from 359 patients were collected and stained by a modified ziehl-neelsen method, resulting in 19.7% of positivity for coccidian (8.6% with cryptosporidium sp, 10.3% with cystoisospora belli and 0 ...200717992404
enteric parasitic infections in hiv/aids patients before and after the highly active antiretroviral therapy.enteroparasites are related to gastrointestinal alterations among patients with hiv/aids, some causing severe manifestations in the period before the institution of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart). the prevalence of enteroparasitoses in patients with hiv/aids seen at two hospitals in ceará , brazil, was compared in the pre-haart (group 1; n = 482) and haart (group 2; n = 100) eras. fecal parasitologic examinations (fpe) were performed using the direct, lutz, baermann-moraes and ...200818641847
molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients.diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. we undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or wi ...201627934806
neglected waterborne parasitic protozoa and their detection in water.outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. high quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as cyclospora cayetanensis, toxoplasma gondii, isospora belli, balan ...201627281375
opportunistic and other intestinal parasitic infections in aids patients, hiv seropositive healthy carriers and hiv seronegative individuals in southwest ethiopia.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens.200819374319
microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among european reference laboratories.the present study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of different european reference laboratories in diagnosing helminths and intestinal protozoa, using an ether-concentration method applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (saf)-preserved faecal samples. in total, 102 stool specimens were analysed during a cross-sectional parasitological survey in urban farming communities in côte d'ivoire. five saf-preserved faecal samples were prepared from each specimen and forwarded to the pa ...201019456836
development and ultrastructure of cystoisospora canis nemeséri, 1959 (syn, isospora canis) monozoic cysts in two noncanine cell lines.cystoisospora canis is a coccidial parasite of the intestinal tract that can cause severe disease in dogs. clinical signs include watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss. extraintestinal stages of cystoisospora spp. have been demonstrated in the mesenteric lymph nodes of paratenic hosts. information on the biology of extraintestinal stages of canine cystoisospora species is limited. the current study examined the development of c. canis in 2 noncanine cell lines and the ultrastructure ...200920049986
severe diarrhea due to isospora belli in a patient with thymoma.opportunistic isosporidial infection of the gastrointestinal tract is frequently encountered in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and is considered to be an aids-defining illness. chronic severe watery diarrhea due to isospora belli has also been reported in other immunodeficiency states. this report describes severe chronic debilitating diarrhea due to isosporiasis in a patient with mediastinal thymoma, a common tumor of the anterior mediastinum, originating from the epith ...200920422140
application of a qpcr assay with melting curve analysis for detection and differentiation of protozoan oocysts in human fecal samples from dominican republic.a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qpcr-mca) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in dominican republic. samples were subjected to qpcr using universal coccidia primers targeting 18s rdna to detect oocysts followed by mca to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. putative positive samples were also tested by conventional pcr and microscopy. cystoisospora belli (×3), cryptosporidium pa ...201324019437
molecular characterization of cystoisospora belli and unizoite tissue cyst in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.cystoisospora belli is a coccidian protozoan that can cause chronic diarrhoea, acalculous cholecystitis and cholangiopathy in aids patients. we applied molecular methods to identify cystoisospora at species level in aids patients presenting with and without the presence of unizoites in lamina propria. coprological and histological analyses were performed in stool and/or biopsy samples from 8 cystoisospora-infected patients. dna from the same samples was used to amplify 2 fragments of the ssu-rrn ...201120825690
[a retrospective evaluation of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in istanbul, turkey].the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites, in comparison to previous studies in istanbul and different geographic regions of turkey. between january 1999-december 2009, a total of 27664 stool samples from patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections who were admitted to istanbul university cerrahpasa medical school hospital were examined for intestinal parasites by using native lugol and formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique, in adition to t ...201020954117
intestinal parasitic infections in relation to cd4(+) t cell counts and diarrhea in hiv/aids patients with or without antiretroviral therapy in cameroon.intestinal parasitic infections (ipi) are a major public health concern in hiv/aids patients particularly in resource-limited settings of sub-saharan africa. studies investigating the relationship between intestinal parasitic infections and cd4(+) t cell counts and diarrhea in hiv/aids patients with or without antiretroviral therapy in the region are not readily available hence the need to perform this study.201626754404
a comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in accra, ghana.consuming raw vegetables offers essential nutrients that one may not get when such vegetables are usually cooked. however, eating them raw may pose a great risk for transmissions of pathogens. such risks may be influenced by the sources of the vegetables and washing techniques used. the aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and diversity of parasitic pathogens associated with vegetables sold at the two types of markets in ghana and compare effectiveness of various washing techniques.201425424391
enteric parasites in hiv-1/aids-infected patients from a northwestern são paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.we describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an aids reference service in northeastern são paulo, brazil.201122094707
parasitic contamination of raw vegetables and fruits collected from selected local markets in arba minch town, southern way that people get infected with intestinal parasites is through the consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruits. this study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from four local markets in arba minch town, southern ethiopia.201728264707
efficiency of diagnostic methods for correlation between prevalence of enteric protozoan parasites and hiv/aids status--an experience of a tertiary care hospital in east delhi.since the beginning of the aids pandemic, opportunistic infections have been recognized as common complications of hiv infection. enteric protozoan parasitic infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in hiv infected patients. the present study is, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of these parasites and study their association with immune status in hiv patients with emphasis on the correlation between various diagnostic techniques to give an accurate diagnosi ...201121966122
real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of isospora belli in stool samples.a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of the ribosomal rna gene was developed for the detection of isospora belli dna in fecal samples, including an internal control to detect inhibition during the amplification process. the assay was performed on species-specific dna controls (n = 27) and a range of positive (n = 21) and negative (n = 120) stool samples, and achieved 100% specificity and sensitivity. the simple fecal sample collecti ...200818424043
parasitic infections in hiv infected individuals: diagnostic & therapeutic challenges.after 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (ois) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with hiv-infected patients. due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are ois capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with hiv. of these, cryptosporidium parvum and isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan para ...201122310820
intestinal protozoans in adults with diarrhea.diarrhea is one of the most common presenting complaints in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.201324404554
intestinal parasitic infections in children presenting with diarrhoea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of nairobi, kenya.the distribution of and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections are poorly defined in high risk vulnerable populations such as urban slums in tropical sub-saharan africa.201323705776
the majority of cockroaches from the samutprakarn province of thailand are carriers of parasitic organisms.we undertook a study of the mechanical transmission of parasitic organisms in cockroaches in the samutprakarn province of thailand. in this study, 920 cockroaches were obtained from 18 open-air shopping markets in 5 districts and 1 subdistrict of this province. all cockroaches were captured during their feeding time in their natural habitat. direct wet smear and modified acid-fast bacilli staining were used to identify the parasites from the external surface or cuticle of the cockroaches. the re ...201127857676
prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to cd4 counts and anaemia among hiv-infected patients in benin city, edo state, nigeria.parasitic infections continue to take their toll on hiv positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and cd4 counts among hiv-infected patients in benin city, nigeria. using a serial sampling method, a total of 2000 hiv-infected patients were recruited on their first visit prior to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (haart) at the university of ...201124409641
prevalence of enteric protozoan oocysts with special reference to sarcocystis cruzi among fecal samples of diarrheic immunodeficient patients in iran.the genus sarcocystis is not usually considered as an important enteric pathogen in immune compromised patients. it might be expected that species for which humans are the final host (sarcocystis hominis and sarcocystis suihominis as well as possibly others) would be encountered increasingly often in immunodeficient persons. this study aimed to address how to detect and differentiate sarcocystis oocysts and/or sporocysts from enteric protozoans in the diarrheal samples of immunodeficient patient ...201627417091
infections by intestinal coccidia and giardia duodenalis.the coccidians cryptosporidium spp, cyclospora cayetanensis, and cystoisospora belli and the flagellate giardia duodenalis are pathogenic protozoa associated with gastrointestinal manifestations. diagnosis relies heavily on microscopy, and although ova-and-parasite examinations can detect giardia and cystoisospora, cryptosporidium and cyclospora often require specific diagnostic requests. approved non-microscopy methods are available for giardia and cryptosporidium, although negative results are ...201526004650
first detection of acalculous cholecystitis associated with sarcocystis infection in a patient with aids.acalculous cholecystitis and cholangitis are increasingly being recognized as complications of aids. the opportunistic parasites that have been most commonly associated with these disorders are cryptosporidium species, isospora belli, cyclospora cayetanensis and enterocytozoon bieneusi. the authors performed a parasitological survey on the gallbladder tissue sections of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to chronic acalculous cholecystitis at the shiraz university of medical sciences, iran. ...201424827104
evaluation of the easyscreen™ enteric parasite detection kit for the detection of blastocystis spp., cryptosporidium spp., dientamoeba fragilis, entamoeba complex, and giardia intestinalis from clinical stool samples.the aim of this study was to evaluate the easyscreen™ enteric parasite detection kit (genetic signatures, sydney, australia) for the detection and identification of 5 common enteric parasites: blastocystis spp., cryptosporidium spp., dientamoeba fragilis, entamoeba complex, and giardia intestinalis in human clinical samples. a total of 358 faecal samples were included in the study. when compared to real-time pcr and microscopy, the easyscreen™ enteric parasite detection kit exhibited 92-100% sen ...201424286625
cystoisospora and cyclospora.the present review focuses on recent epidemiological and diagnostic advances in cystoisosporiasis and cyclosporiasis.201323982239
[drug therapy of infectious diarrhea. part 2: chronic diarrhea].diarrheal diseases are among the most common diseases worldwide. in this review the current treatment recommendations for acute (part 1) and chronic (part 2) infectious diarrhea are summarized and typical enteropathogens are discussed. the second part of the article describes chronic diarrhea, its related pathogens and treatment. in contrast to acute diarrhea which is mainly caused by viral and typical bacterial pathogens, chronic diarrhea has mainly non-infectious origins. protozoal pathogens, ...201323917963
[clinical and epidemiological study of intestinal coccidioses in a rural population of a semiarid region from falcon state, venezuela].although intestinal coccidioses caused by cryptosporidium sp., cystoisospora belli and cyclospora cayetanensis are parasitic diseases of major clinical importance in public health, several clinical and epidemiological aspects of these diseases still remain unknown in falcon state, venezuela. a cross-sectional survey was conducted between june and october 2011, to investigate clinical and epidemiological data in 157 people (x +/- s.d. = 21.28 +/- 17 years-old) from sabaneta, falcón state, venezue ...201223248971
hiv/aids-associated opportunistic protozoal diarrhea.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection has altered both the epidemiology and outcome of enteric opportunistic parasitic infections. this study was done to determine the prevalence and species/genotypes of intestinal coccidian and microsporidial infections among hiv/aids patients with diarrhea and/or a history of diarrhea alternately with an asymptomatic interval, and their association with cd4 t cell count. this cross-sectional study was done from may 2010 to may 2011 in shiraz university ...201322873400
molecular diagnosis of cystoisosporiasis using extended-range pcr screening.the differential diagnosis of diarrhea in immunocompromised patients encompasses many intestinal parasites including the coccidian cystoisospora belli. gastrointestinal infection with c. belli leads to cystoisosporiasis with diarrhea and, depending on host immune status, can cause extraintestinal disease. c. belli is usually diagnosed by examination of stool or intestinal biopsy specimens; however, the organism may be undetected using these test methods. thus, more sensitive molecular tools for ...201121458380
prevalence of isosporiasis in relation to cd4 cell counts among hiv-infected patients with diarrhea in odisha, determine the prevalence of isospora belli and its correlation with cd4+ cell counts in hiv-positive patients with diarrhea in this region.201324223376
intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in alexandria, egypt.this cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in alexandria, egypt, in the period from december 2012 till november 2013. the study was conducted on 200 institutionalized and non-institutionalized mentally handicapped individuals. fresh stool samples were subjected to different stains including; trichrome for detecting intestinal protozoa, modified acid fast stain for intestinal coccidia and quick hot g ...201526878626
self-limited travelers' diarrhea by isospora belli in a patient with dengue infection.isospora belli diarrhea is usually associated with immunosuppression. this parasite has rarely been reported as a cause of travelers' diarrhea in immunocompetent patients. we present a clinical case of travelers' diarrhea due to i belli in a patient with transient lymphopenia secondary to dengue infection.201121539664
opportunistic parasites among immunosuppressed children in minia district, egypt.a total of 450 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of pediatric department, minia university hospital, minia district, egypt. two groups of patients were studied, including 200 immunosuppressed and 250 immunocompetent children. stool samples were subjected to wet saline and iodine mounts. a concentration technique (formol-ether sedimentation method) was carried out for stool samples diagnosed negative by wet saline and iodine mounts. samples were stained by 2 diffe ...201222451735
triple protozoal enteropathy of the small intestine in an immunocompromised male: a rare histopathology report.enteric protozoan parasites remain the most commonly encountered parasitic diseases in hiv infected patients. opportunistic protozoal infections that infect git most commonly and cause diarrhea in hiv-infected patients are cryptosporidium parvum, microsporidia and isospora belli. developing an infection with enteric protozoan parasites is dependent on absolute cd4+ cell counts, with lower counts associated with more severe, more atypical disease, and a greater risk of disseminated disease. we pr ...201324339463
isospora belli associated recurrent diarrhea in a child with aids.persistent diarrhea is a major manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) which might be more complicated in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infected children especially those from developing countries. there are numerous reports showing the emergence of intestinal opportunistic coccidian parasites, mostly cryptosporidium parvum and isospora belli in hiv-infected individuals. the prevalence of isosporiasis is probably underestimated in developing countries because routinely no ...201425320501
Opportunistic and other intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia.To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV/AIDS patients in Bahir Dar.201121914548
prevalence of intestinal parasites in hiv-positive/aids patients.the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among hiv-positive/aids patients. a control group comprising 30 apparently healthy hiv-negative individuals was included. of the 60 samples collected from the patients and examined, 34 (56.7%) presented with diarrhoea, while 26 (43.3%) had no reported cases of diarrhoea at the time of study. seventeen (50%) of the parasites detected in the 34 patients (those with history of diarrhoea) were diarrhoea-related causative agen ...200622589594
isospora belli superinfection in a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis--a diagnostic challenge.isospora belli infection, characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia, is often seen as an opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). it is also reported in patients with underlying lymphoproliferative disorders including lymphoma and leukemia. eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders (egid), including eosinophilic gastroenteritis (ege), is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal (gi) tract with various gi symptoms. w ...201122325178
[parasitic and bacterial etiologies of diarrhea among people living with hiv hospitalized in fann hospital (senegal)].diarrhea is the most common opportunistic infection in aids. we conducted at the fann national university hospital in dakar, a study of all patients living with hiv, hospitalized in the the clinical service of infectious diseases from 1 january 2003 to december 31, 2006, with diarrhea and having received an bacteriological and / or a parasitological examination of stools. the aim of this study was to identify the various pathogens isolated in the laboratory and responsible for those diarrhea. in ...201122766136
isospora belli in a patient with liver transplantation.isospora belli is an opportunistic protozoon which should be monitored in patients with gastrointestinal complaints such as abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhoea, in both immune-compromised and immune-competent patients. our case was a 35 year-old male patient who had received a liver transplant because of cirrhosis and hepatic fibrosis. a diarrhoeic stool sample of the patient was sent to the laboratory for microbiological and parasitological analyses. faecal occult blood was positive and bacter ...201223339948
clinical and microbiological profile of hiv/aids cases with diarrhea in north india.intestinal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with hiv/aids (plwha) especially in developing countries. the present study was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological spectrum in hiv/aids cases with diarrhea and to correlate the occurrence of such pathogens with stool characters, hiv seropositivity status, and cd4 counts. stools from 154 hiv seropositive subjects and 50 hiv negative controls were examined by direct microscopy, fecal culture ...201223326669
the magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to human immunodeficiency virus infection and immune status, at alert hospital, addis ababa, ethiopia.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like ethiopia. particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of hiv to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). the purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to hiv infection and immune status. the study was conducted in (1) hiv positive on antiretroviral therapy (art) and ...201424603288
risk factors associated with parasitic infection among municipality solid-waste workers in an egyptian community.solid-waste management is associated with several health hazards, particularly parasitic infection. the objective of the study was to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections (potentially pathogenic) among municipal waste collectors in alexandria, egypt. a cross-sectional survey was conducted in the main municipality company in alexandria. a total of 346 municipality solid-waste workers (mswws) was interviewed using an in-depth question ...201626606452
[chronic salmonella typhimurium diarrhea in an immunocompetent patient].chronic diarrhea caused by infection in immunocompetent patients is an infrequent condition in developed countries, although certain pathogens,generally parasites (giardia lamblia, isospora belli,cryptosporidium, cyclospora, strongyloides, ameba,trichuris and schistosoma) and some bacteria (aeromonas,plesiomonas, campylobacter, clostridium difficile, salmonella or mycobacterium tuberculosis)can cause persistent diarrhea.we present the case of a patient who showed salmonella typhimurium in his st ...201627125610
prevalence of intestinal parasites among hiv patients at the yaoundé central hospital, cameroon.intestinal parasites are more common in people with hiv, especially in tropical developing countries. this cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among people with hiv at the yaoundé central hospital accredited treatment centre.201425419274
the case control studies of hiv and intestinal parasitic infections rate in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients in woldia general hospital and health center in north wollo, amhara region, ethiopia.tuberculosis remains a major health problem worldwide in the era of hiv/aids. co-infection with intestinal parasites has been suggested to worsen the outcome of infection in addition to hiv infection. hence, adequate information on tb patients with hiv and intestinal parasites infection is being needed to tackle the problem, undertake the integrated prevention and control program. this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of hiv and intestinal parasitic infections in active pulmonary tubercu ...201726998497
hypogammaglobulinemia-associated gastrointestinal disease--a case series.hypogammaglobulinemia, a form of primary immunodeficiency, is an uncommon condition. gastrointestinal (gi) symptoms may be the only presentation. a series of 22 patients who presented with gi symptoms and were diagnosed with hypogammaglobulinemia is presented. chronic diarrhea was the presentation in majority (90.9 %) of patients. malabsorption was identified in 87.5 % of patients followed by weight loss (59.0 %), abdominal pain (27.2 %), and oral ulcers (4.5 %). the median duration of symptoms ...201425352181
prevalence and genetic characterization of cryptosporidium spp. and cystoisospora belli in hiv-infected patients.cryptosporidium spp. and cystoisospora belli are monoxenic protozoa that have been recognized as the causative agents of chronic diarrhea in immunocompromised individuals, especially hiv-infected subjects. the objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of these intestinal protozoa in hiv-positive patients in the triângulo mineiro region of brazil and to correlate the presence of these infections with clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data of the patients. oocysts were detected ...201323740020
prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in hiv-infected individuals and their relationship with immune status.intestinal parasitic infection is a common entity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). these infections may lead to fatal complications in the immuno suppressed individuals. the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in hiv sero-positive patients and their relationship with the immune status of individuals.201323867673
epidemiology, clinical, immune, and molecular profiles of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis among hiv/aids patients.the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites, with special emphasis on microsporidia and cryptosporidium, as well as their association with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) symptoms, risk factors, and other digestive parasites. we also wish to determine the molecular biology definitions of the species and genotypes of microsporidia and cryptosporidium in hiv patients.201222924007
enteric pathogens, immune status and therapeutic response in diarrhea in hiv/aids adult subjects from north india.intestinal infection causing diarrheal disease is a dominant contributor to high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. this intervention study aimed to assess the response of specific anti-microbial and anti-retroviral therapy (art) on enteropathogens identified in hiv/aids adult subjects from northern india. seventy five art naive (group 1) and seventy five art adherent (group 2) hiv/aids adult subjects with diarrhea were enrolled. stool samples from all subjects were examined for en ...201323968293
enteric pathogens in hiv infected and hiv uninfected individuals with diarrhea in pune.diarrhea in hiv infected individuals is a common complication seen in about 90% of patients in developing countries. the objective of this study was to identify enteric pathogens in hiv infected and hiv uninfected individuals in pune.201323918286
severe diarrhoea due to cystoisospora belli in renal transplant patient on immunosuppressive drugs.cystoisospora belli, formerly known as isospora belli, protozoal parasite endemic to many regions of the world including the caribbean, central and south america, africa, and south-east asia. it is frequently encountered in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and is considered to be an aids-defining illness. chronic severe watery diarrhoea due to c. belli has also been reported in other immunodeficiency states. c. belli infection in immunosuppressed patients has rarely been d ...201623867679
enteric pathogens in hiv-positive patients with diarrhoea and their correlation with cd4+ t-lymphocyte counts.opportunistic parasitic infections are among the most serious infections in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) positive patients and claim number of lives every year. the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and to elucidate the association between intestinal opportunistic parasitic infection and cd4 (cd4+ t lymphocyte) counts in hiv-positive patients.201223508727
[fever, diarrhoea and neurological syndrome in hiv-infected immigrants].fever, diarrhoea and neurological symptoms are relatively common in immigrants, as well as in hiv-infected patients. the main febrile diseases in hiv-positive immigrants from the tropics are tuberculosis, bacteremia due to salmonella spp. or streptococcus pneumoniae and community-acquired pneumonia or pneumonia due to pneumocystis jiroveci. the presence of diarrhoea should lead to suspicion of opportunistic infections caused by parasites and protozoa of the digestive tract such as cryptosporidiu ...200818590666
occurrence of enteric parasitic infections among hiv-infected individuals and its relation to cd4 t-cell counts with a special emphasis on coccidian parasites at a tertiary care centre in south india.diarrhoea is one of the major complications occurring in over 90% of hiv-infected individuals in developing countries. coccidian group of parasites, being opportunistic pathogens, have been implicated as the most common causative agents of diarrhoea among hiv-infected population.201728303816
cystoisosporiasis-related human acalculous cholecystitis: the need for increased awareness.cholecystitis is one of the common surgical indications affecting human beings in many countries. a variety of infectious agents can be associated with acute or chronic acalculous cholecystitis, especially in hiv/aids patients. in this investigation, the authors aim to describe two cases of histologically and molecularly documented cystoisosporiasis (syn. isosporiasis) as the cause of chronic acalculous cholecystitis in two immunodeficient patients. during microscopic examinations of more than 2 ...201628155976
prevalence of intestinal coccidial infections among different groups of immunocompromised patients.cryptosporidium and isospora are known as one of the main cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, all over the world. incidence of enteropathogens such as cryptosporidium spp. and isospora belli considerably has increased, since immunodeficiency virus (hiv) rapidly disseminated. in addition, cancer patients are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections. this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis in immunocompromised pa ...201728127338
parasitic infection of the gallbladder: cystoisospora belli infection as a cause of chronic abdominal pain and acalculous cholecystitis.herein we describe two cases of cystoisospora belli infection of the gallbladder in patients with chronic abdominal pain and review the published literature to date. c. belli is an intracellular protozoan parasite that typically infects the small bowel of immunocompromised hosts. little is known of the significance of c. belli infection of the gallbladder at this point as only four cases have been reported as yet, only one of which occurred in an immunocompetent patient. it is often treatable wi ...201627526491
chronic cystoisospora belli infection in an immunocompetent myanmar refugee - microscopy is not sensitive enough.cystoisosporiasis is an opportunistic infection seen more commonly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. although uncommon, cystoisospora infection can occur in immunocompetent individuals but tend to be benign and self-limiting. chronic infection however, has been described but diagnosis can often be challenging and requires a high clinical index of suspicion.201627209066
cystoisospora belli infection of the gallbladder in immunocompetent patients: a clinicopathologic review of 18 cases.cystoisospora belli, previously known as isospora belli, is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that is most often associated with gastrointestinal disease in immunocompromised patients. in this study, we detail the clinicopathologic features of 18 cases of cystoisospora infection affecting the gallbladder in immunocompetent individuals and compare them with a control group. each case was reviewed for cholecystitis (none, acute, chronic), epithelial disarray, presence of intraepithelial ...201627158759
severe diarrhea due to cystoisospora belli infection in an htlv-1 woman.cystoisospora belli, formerly isospora belli, as an opportunistic infection agent, is seen in immunocompromised patients like htlv-1. we describe here cystoisosporiasis in an htlv1 iranian female in mashhad, northwestern iran in 2012 who presented with a debilitating diarrheal illness and great weight loss. c. belli was detected in her stool by modified acid-fast staining and then by molecular detection. serologic testing was negative for hiv but she showed positivity for htlv-1 infection. treat ...201727095979
molecular identification of biliary isospora belli: a case report.this report describes the novel sampling of bile from the biliary endoscopic intervention for the molecular identification of parasite infection.a 63-year-old vietnamese man underwent travel health examination in our hospital. physical examination showed that his height was 159 cm and weight was 41 kg. he had a 15-year history of intermittent abdominal pain and frequent episodes of diarrhea. laboratory tests revealed raised eosinophil count (23%, normal range [nr] 0-5), absolute eosinophil count ...201626962840
first report of cystoisospora belli parasitemia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.cystoisospora belli in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) has been described as cause of chronic diarrhea and disseminated cystoisosporosis. diagnosis of intestinal cystoisosporosis can be achieved at the tissue level in the villus epithelium of the small bowel. disseminated cystoisosporosis is diagnosed by microscopy identification of unizoite tissue cysts in the lamina propria of the intestine. we report a case of disseminated cystoisosporosis in a human immunodeficien ...201626751889
pattern of co-infection by enteric pathogenic parasites among hiv sero-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital, mumbai, of the major medical concerns in people living with hiv/aids (plha) is management of diarrhea that can lead to severe morbidity and mortality. such clinical scenario warrants an analysis of intestinal parasites, which are important opportunistic pathogens in plha. owing to the scarcity of recent pattern of intestinal opportunistic infections from this region, the study was designed to determine the opportunistic parasites causing diarrhea in plha; and to find out whether there is any signifi ...201726392653
prevalence of intestinal opportunistic parasites infections in the university hospital of bobo-dioulasso, burkina faso.gastrointestinal parasites infections are widespread in africa and their prevalence infections vary from country to country. this study aimed at assessing the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites infection and other gastrointestinal parasites infection among patients attending the laboratory of parasitology and mycology of the university hospital souro sanou of bobo-dioulasso.201526217488
cystoisospora canis (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae): development of monozoic tissue cysts in human cells, demonstration of egress of zoites from tissue cysts, and demonstration of repeat monozoic tissue cyst formation by zoites.sporozoites of cystoisospora canis penetrated and developed to monozoic tissue cysts in 4 human, 1 monkey, 1 bovine and 2 canine cell lines. no asexual division was documented although multiple infection of a single cell was observed. examination of cultures using transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that they were monozoic tissue cysts and contained a single sporozoite. the appearance of monozoic tissue cysts in all cell lines was similar but the parasitophorous vacuole surrounding som ...201323953145
multiple parasitic infections in a cardiac transplant recipient.infectious complications represent an important cause of morbidity and death in patients with transplant. parasitic infections are less frequent than viral and bacterial agents, and are often overlooked. we describe the case of a 13-year-old adolescent, born in são tomé island, who was under immunosuppressive therapy after a cardiac transplant. the patient had an intermittent course of diarrhoea, abdominal pain and vomiting. she was admitted dehydrated, and strongyloides stercoralis, schistosoma ...201526109619
chronic cholecystitis with cystoisospora belli in an immunocompetent patient.a 47-year-old woman presented with a history of vague abdominal pain for several years, which worsened over the past 2 months, with pain more prominent in the right upper quadrant. she also had a history of peptic ulcer disease. the ultrasound scan of right upper quadrant revealed normal gallbladder and oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was unremarkable. a (99m)technetium labelled hepato iminodiacetic acid (hida) scan with cholecystokinin provocation demonstrated a decreased gallbladder ejection fract ...201526065551
prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among individuals living with hiv/aids at felegehiwot referral hospital, bahir dar, infection continues to pose a serious challenge to global health by predisposing patients to opportunistic infections. a cross-sectional study was conducted from december 2012 to february 2013 to assess the enteric protozoan infection status among individuals living with hiv/aids in felegehiwot referral hospital, bahir dar, northwest ethiopia.201525917962
isosporiasis in a tertiary care center of north india.cystoisospora (isospora) belli is a coccidian, protozoan parasite that resides in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. it is mainly reported from hiv-positive individuals. however, a few cases have been reported in other immunosuppressed individuals including renal transplant patients, and those with lymphoma and leukemia.201424943763
ultrastructural aspects of cystoisospora belli (syn. isospora belli) in continuous cell lines.cystoisospora belli is an opportunistic protozoan that causes human cystoisosporiasis, an infection characterized by diarrhea, steatorrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. the lack of animal models susceptible to c. belli, and the difficulty in obtaining clinical samples with fair amounts of oocysts have limited the research pertaining to the basic biology of this parasite. this study aimed to describe the ultrastructure of endogenous stages of c. belli in monkey rhesus kidney cells (mk2 ...201424771702
study of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.intestinal parasites predominantly coccidian parasites are a common cause for diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive patients.201324672179
first report of the hyper-igm syndrome registry of the latin american society for immunodeficiencies: novel mutations, unique infections, and outcomes.hyper-igm (higm) syndrome is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by normal or elevated serum igm levels associated with absent or decreased igg, iga and ige. here we summarize data from the higm syndrome registry of the latin american society for immunodeficiencies (lasid). of the 58 patients from 51 families reported to the registry with the clinical phenotype of higm syndrome, molecular defects were identified in 37 patients thus far. we retrospectively analyzed the clinical, immu ...201424402618
enteric parasitic infections in relation to diarrhoea in hiv infected individuals with cd4 t cell counts <1000 cells/μl in chennai, india.this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites in hiv patients in chennai and to correlate with cd4 counts and diarrhoeal status.201324298464
[isosporiasis in an elderly patient with chronic diseases: case report].isospora belli is a coccidian protozoon that can cause serious diarrhea especially in immunocompromised patients. the laboratory diagnosis depends primarily on the identification of oocysts in stool specimens by direct microscopic examination with iodine or special stains. this case is presented in order to draw attention to isosporiasis among the diarrheas that can be seen in elderly patients with several chronic diseases. a 81 year-old debilitated male, who had a history of hypertension, alzhe ...201324192629
[recurrent diarrhea due to cystoisopora belli in hiv/aids patients receiving haart].the cystoisospora belli, before denominated as isospora belli, is the etiologic agent of cystoisosoporiasis, an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients, characterized by chronic diarrhea and weight loss. the incidence of chronic diarrhea for this agent, in hiv patients, has decreased considerably. this thanks to the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart), which has improved the patient's immune response and decrease viral load. we present six cases of cystois ...201323949523
differences in the detection of cryptosporidium and isospora (cystoisospora) oocysts according to the fecal concentration or staining method used in a clinical laboratory.despite the availability of many parasitological methods for detection of cryptosporidium and isospora (cystoisospora) belli in fecal samples, there are uncertainties about the accuracy of these techniques in laboratory practice. in this study, 27 formalin-fixed positive stool samples for cryptosporidium and 15 for i. belli were analyzed by 2 concentration methods, sedimentation by centrifugation (sc) and formalin-ethyl acetate (fe), and by 3 tintorial techniques, modified ziehl-neelsen (zn), sa ...201323829170
isospora belli infection with chronic diarrhea in an alcoholic patient.chronic diarrhea with a 35 kg weight loss (75 kg to 40 kg) occurred during 2 years in an alcoholic patient was diagnosed with isospora belli infection in the republic of korea. the patient, a 70-year old korean male, had been a heavy drinker for more than 30 years. he was admitted to the seoul national university hospital because of long-standing diarrhea and severe weight loss. he had an increased white blood cell (wbc) count with high peripheral blood eosinophilia (36.8-39.9%) and lowered prot ...201323710089
an unusual complication in ulcerative colitis during treatment with azathioprine and infliximab: isospora belli as 'casus belli'.the treatment of ulcerative colitis is based on systemic corticosteroids, immunomodulators such as cyclosporine and azathioprine and tnf-α antagonists. patients undergoing such immunosuppressive treatment are more susceptible for infectious pathogens. here, we report the case of a patient with a 13-year history of ulcerative colitis, treated initially with systemic corticosteroids in combination with immunomodulators, and subsequently with infliximab. the patient presented with severe watery dia ...201323709557
the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation and the related profile of the cd4 (+) counts in hiv/aids people with diarrhoea in jaipur city.gastrointestinal tract (git) infections are among the most frequent infections in hiv/aids patients. the intestinal opportunistic parasitic infections in hiv-infected subjects present most commonly as diarrhoea. a study was conducted to determine the prevalence of enteric parasitic infections in hiv infected patients with diarrhoea, with different levels of immunity.201323634395
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