intestinal parasitic infections in thai hiv-infected patients with different immunity of the major health problems among hiv seropositive patients is superimposed infection due to the defect of immunity. furthermore, intestinal parasite infection, which is also one of the basic health problems in tropical region, is common in these patients. in this study, a cross sectional study to document the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in thai hiv-infected patients with different immune status was performed.200111394966
intestinal parasites in hiv-2 associated aids cases with chronic diarrhoea in guinea-bissau.previous studies from african countries where hiv-1 infection is prevalent have shown that infections with cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli and microsporidia are frequently associated with chronic diarrhoea in aids patients. the information about the occurrence of these parasites in hiv-2 associated aids cases with chronic diarrhoea is limited. we have performed a study of stool parasites in patients from guinea-bissau, the country with the highest prevalence of hiv-2 in the world. stool s ...200111495643
case report: nitazoxanide treatment failure in chronic isosporiasis.we report a 60-year-old immunocompetent patient with chronic biliary isosporiasis who failed to respond to orally administered cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and orally administered treatment with nitazoxanide, a 5-nitrothiazole benzamide compound. severe malabsorption was regarded as responsible for the subtherapeutic levels of nitazoxanide in plasma and bile, resulting in treatment failure. intravenously administered cotrimoxazole stopped the shedding of isospora belli oocysts in bile within 5 days ...200111508398
coccidiosis among malnourished children in mansoura, dakahlia governorate, egypt.stool samples of 36 malnourished and 36 healthy control children were examined for oocysts of cryptosporidium parvum, cyclospora cayetanensis, isospora belli and microsporidium. c. parvum infection (single and mixed) was detected in 13.9% and 5.6% in malnourished and control children respectively. c. cayetanensis oocysts were detected in 5.6% malnourished children and in 2.8% of control group. i. belli oocysts were detected only in malnourished children 2.8%. on the other hand, no microsporidium ...200111775113
ordinary and opportunistic enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in senegalese adults in relation to human immunodeficiency virus serostatus.a survey was conducted in dakar, senegal, to identify major types and prevalences of bacteria, parasites, fungi, and rotaviruses associated with diarrhea in relation to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) serostatus with the goal to provide guidance to physicians for case management.200111953215
parasitic diarrhoea in patients with aids.diarrhoea is a common clinical manifestation of hiv infection regardless of whether or not patients have aids. two newly recognized opportunistic coccidial protozoa are parasitic pathogens in aids patients. we attempted to determine the common parasites in indian patients with aids.200212044119
[comparison between the modified ziehl-neelsen and acid-fast-trichrome methods for fecal screening of cryptosporidium parvum and isospora belli].due to the importance of cryptosporidium parvum, cyclospora cayetanensis and isospora belli as opportunistic parasites, it is essential for laboratories to morphologically differentiate these coccidia. among the recommended methods for diagnosis of c. parvum and i. belli is the modified ziehl-neelsen stain (mzn) and recently a new technique, the acid-fast-trichrome (aft) was proposed. the purpose of this study was to compare the aft and mzn techniques regarding the detection of c. parvum and i. ...200212045812
uvitex 2b stain for the diagnosis of isospora belli infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.fluorescent stains with uvitex 2b or other fluorochromes are widely used today, especially for the diagnosis of microsporidian infections in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients. our objective was to ascertain whether the fluorescent stain with uvitex 2b is also able to detect isospora belli in stool samples and duodenal/bile juice of hiv-infected patients.199612049103
[the current status of infectious enteritis in japan--reports of the "research group for infectious enteric diseases, japan" in the last 5 years (1996-2000)].the patients or carriers with infectious enteritis admitted to the hospitals for infectious diseases in the last 5 years (1996-2000) were studied. the total number of cases admitted in each year were 969, 1,113, 981, 637 and 573 respectively. a total of 1,527 shigella spp. strains including 1,078 strains from overseas travelers' cases were isolated. the isolates of salmonella spp. excluding s. typhi and s. paratyphi a were 562 in number. a total of 61 vibrio cholerae o1 strains including 44 stra ...200212073571
[gastrointestinal symptoms in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids): a review of one hundred cases at "arzobispo loayza" hospital]in 1996, one hundred health histories of hiv serum positive patients were reviewed using the elisa and western blot techniques at the arzobispo loayza national hospital. such cases were defined according to case definition 1987 cdc/who. 70% of hiv serum positive patients showed gastrointestinal symptoms according to the first medical examination. 57% of the patients were younger than 30 years old, most of them were men (men/ women ratio: 2.7/1). 59% of the patients were heterosexual, 26% bisexua ...199712177715
prevalence of intestinal parasitic pathogens in hiv-seropositive individuals in northern assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-seropositive subjects, fecal samples were collected from 120 hiv-seropositive patients and were analyzed for various intestinal parasites. thirty-six patients (30%) were found to harbor an intestinal parasite. cryptosporidium parvum was the most common (10.8%), followed by giardia lamblia (8.3%). cyclospora cayetanensis and blastocystis hominis each were detected in 3.3% of the patients, while isosp ...200212195048
[encapsulated cord method(enterotest) compared with fecaltest on the diagnosis of criptosporium sp e isospora belli in hiv(+)patients with gastrointestinal symptoms]fecal samples and small intestinal content obtained by enterotest were submitted between december 1994 and january 1996, by hiv (+) patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.unconcentrated and concentrated fecal samples (by sheater, ritchie and spontaneous sedimentation) and intestinal content obtained by enterotest, all stained by modificated ziehl-nielsen method, were compared (multiatributive comparison) based on the following parameters: yield, each test cost, morphology and the number of para ...199812215737
hiv1 and the gut in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.the gut and its gut-associated lymphoid tissue serve as a preferential site for hiv1 entry, active viral replication, reservoir, and hiv-mediated cd4 cell apoptosis. the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart) has resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of opportunistic enteric pathogens as a consequence of immune recovery. nonetheless, patients with advanced hiv1 disease who were recently diagnosed or have poor response to haart can still suffer from opportuni ...200212228041
[prevalence of protozoans in children with acute diarrheal disease].a cross-sectional study was conducted in june-september 1991 in the oral rehydration unit of a children's hospital in santo domingo to determine the prevalence of enteric protozoa as a cause of diarrhea. the 100 randomly selected children were aged 3-35 months and had light to moderate dehydration and diarrhea of less than 15 days' duration. the relationship between the presence of protozoans and various risk factors was assessed following the model of a case control study, with children havin ...199112290552
comparison of autofluorescence and iodine staining for detection of isospora belli in evaluate the sensitivity of autofluorescence for detection of isospora oocysts, wet preparations of 192 stool samples from patients with chronic diarrhea were examined by fluorescence microscopy and by light microscopy after iodine staining used for routine screening for ova and parasites. silicon-chambered glass coverslips were used for fluorescence microscopy. isospora oocysts were detected in 46 iodine-stained concentrated stool samples; 91 samples were positive by autofluorescence. accord ...200212408672
isosporiasis in children.the clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data of patients with diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) antibody positive, immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals were studied especially to look for prevalence of intestinal coccidiosis. during a study period of one decade, isospora belli were identified in the stool samples of seven children with diarrhea. diarrhea persisted for a little longer period in hiv-seropositive children compared to sero-negatives but the clinical pictur ...200212428040
tropical malabsorption.tropical malabsorption remains an important clinical problem for both the indigenous population of tropical countries and for short-term visitors and longer-term residents from the industrialized world. in young children, persistent diarrhea and malabsorption can result in severe retardation of growth and development. the most common cause is an intestinal infection notably the small intestinal protozoa including giardia intestinalis, cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli, cyclospora cayetanens ...200212465593
the role of dogs in transmission of gastrointestinal parasites in a remote tea-growing community in northeastern india.the prevalence and risk factors associated with canine gastrointestinal parasitic zoonoses and the role of dogs in the mechanical transmission of human ascaris infection was examined in three tea estates in assam, india. nearly all (99%) dogs harbored one or more zoonotic species of gastrointestinal parasites, with hookworm infection being most common (94%). parasitic stages presumed to be host-specific for humans such as ascaris spp. (31%), trichuris trichiura (25%), and isospora belli (2%) wer ...200212479559
evaluation of five stains in diagnosing human intestinal coccidiosis.three hundreds cases over the year 1998 complaining of diarrhoea were examined. the stools were examined by the traditional diagnostic methods and confirmed to be free from intestinal parasites. cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli and cyclospora cayetanensis were detected by using different types of faecal stains namely modified ziehl-neelsen, kinyoun acid-fast, auramine-rhodamine, gomori's trichrome and giemsa. the number of positive cases were 87 c. parvum (29%), 5 cases l. belli (1.7%) and ...199912561927
a randomized, pilot trial comparing full versus escalating dose regimens for the desensitization of aids patients allergic to sulfonamides.sulfonamides are drugs extensively used in the management of aids patients. however, the use of sulfonamides is often associated with the development of allergic reactions, provoking the substitution of the drug (by another that may be less effective); alternatively attempts are made to desensitize the patient.200312585970
[gastrointestinal manifestations of aids in adults in mali].our main objective consists in evaluating the frequency of digestive signs and digestive opportunistic infections in aids patients with diarrhea. the prospective study occurred from january 1997 to july 1998 in bamako hospitals. the patients underwent a clinical examination, blood and stools tests, and sometimes upper digestive endoscopy. among 434 cases of aids, 426 patients (98%) had at least one digestive sign. the main digestive signs were diarrhea (80.1%), abdominal pains (62.2%), vomiting ...200212596372
role of coccidian parasites in causation of diarrhoea in hiv infected patients in chennai.diarrhoea is one of the major problems of hiv positive patients. a coproparasitological study was carried out to assess the role of coccidian parasites in the causation of diarrhoea in hiv infected patients in chennai.200212619445
aids-associated diarrhea and wasting in northeast brazil is associated with subtherapeutic plasma levels of antiretroviral medications and with both bovine and human subtypes of cryptosporidium parvum.advanced hiv infection is frequently complicated by diarrhea, disruption of bowel structure and function, and malnutrition. resulting malabsorption of or pharmacokinetic changes in antiretroviral agents might lead to subtherapeutic drug dosing and treatment failure in individual patients, and could require dose adjustment and/or dietary supplements during periods of diarrheal illness. we determined the plasma levels of antiretroviral medications in patients that had already been started on medic ...200312807688
[intestinal parasitosis: our series from 1992 to 1995].from 1992 to 1995 in our department 2236 researches of intestinal parasites (2194 on stool specimens, 34 on scotch tests, 8 on enterotests) were carried out on 1200 patients (703 hiv-ab negative and 497 hiv-ab positive). on the whole 387 samples (17.34%) of 203 subjects (16.92%) were found parasitized; 92 (13.08%) patients of them were hiv-ab negative and 111 (22.33%) were hiv-ab positive. we found more frequently blastocystis hominis and giardia intestinalis among hiv-ab negative subjects and c ...199612858028
sequence analysis of partial regions of the 5.8s rrna internal transcribed region 2 and 28s rrna of isospora belli. 200312866923
[extraintestinal finding of isospora belli unizoic cysts in a patient with aids: case report].this report describes the presence of isospora belli unizoic cysts in mesenteric lymph nodes and of gametocytes in the gallbladder epitelium of a 26 year-old brazilian male patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. this patient had received treatment for several times with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. it is discussed the significance of i. belli tissue cysts as possible foci of resistance of the parasite and their association with the infection relapse even post-treatment with anticocc ...200312908043
detection of cryptosporidium amongst diarrhoeic and asymptomatic children in jeddah, saudi arabia.between the march and may of 2000, stool specimens were collected from children aged <5 in six pre-school crèches and clinics in the jeddah area of saudi arabia. sixty-three (25%) of the children had diarrhoeal disease but the other 190 were asymptomatic. when the stool samples were stained and examined for the oocysts of cryptosporidium spp. and other enteric protozoa, 20 (32%) of the symptomatic children but only nine (4.7%) of the asymptomatic were found to be excreting cryptosporidium oocyst ...200312930614
cellular immunity and diarrhoeal disease amongst patients infected with the human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2 in zaria, nigeria.this study was carried out to determine the aetiological agents associated with diarrhoea in nigerians infected with the human immunodeficiency viruses, and to correlate the cellular immunity status with the causes of diarrhoea. the mean duration of diarrhoea was 20.7 weeks. giardia lamblia was the commonest pathogen and was isolated from the stools of 10 patients (25%). isospora belli was isolated in 3 of the patients (7.5%) but in none of the controls. other pathogens isolated include salmonel ...200312956003
[human intestinal coccidiosis caused by isospora belli]. 195813585037
isosporiasis in venezuelan adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus: clinical characterization.a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of isosporiasis and its clinical and laboratory pattern in venezuelan patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) (n = 397). at enrollment, they underwent a thorough clinical history and physical examination, and provided stool specimens for the identification of isospora belli and other parasites. isospora belli was identified in 56 subjects (14%) and diarrhea, either acute or chronic, was present in 98% of these c ...200313677379
[1st case of human coccidiosis due to isospora belli reported in belgium]. 196213930677
experimental human coccidial enteritis by isospora belli wenyon, 1923. a study based on the infection of 5 volunteers. 196213944889
a case of human infestation with isospora belli in egypt. 196313982276
steatorrhea in a man infected with coccidiosis (isospora belli). 196414234685
[1st case of human coccidiosis caused by isospora belli reported in belgium]. 196414277145
[contribution to the study of isospora belli infestations in children]. 196514322228
human infection with isospora belli; report of a case in florida. 195514387965
[discovery of isospora belli in duodenal juice]. 195914429128
[a case of human intestinal coccidiosis caused by isospora belli (wenyon, 1923)]. 196014437908
cryptosporidium parvum and isospora belli infections among patients with and without assess the importance of cryptosporidium parvum and isospora belli infections as a cause of diarrhoea among patients admitted to the medical wards in queen elizabeth central hospital (qech) in blantyre, malawi.200314601779
isospora belli infection in a patient with non-hodgkin's lymphoma.isospora belli infection is frequent in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in tropical areas. it has also been reported in other immunodepressive diseases, such as lymphoblastic leukemia, adult t-cell leukemia, and hodgkin's disease. to date, no case of non-hodgkin's lymphoma-related isosporiasis has been reported in a non-hiv-infected patient. we describe a case of non-hodgkin's lymphoma with chronic diarrhea due to i. belli. in europe, i. belli can cause severe chronic diarrhea i ...200314616755
[parasitoses and immunodepression].the immunodepression, related or not to aids, induces the emergence of opportunistic parasitosis and mycosis. our objective is to analyze these pathogenic agents, their clinical expression and gravity in immunocompromised individuals. our retrospective 9 years study reported parasitic and fungic infections complicating immunodepression. among 31 hiv infected patients, we diagnosed the following parasitosis: cryptosporidium (7 cases), isospora belli (2 cases) and enterocytozoon bieneusi (1 case). ...200014658228
isospora belli infection: observation of unicellular cysts in mesenteric lymphoid tissues of a brazilian patient with aids and animal inoculation.we describe the finding of unizoic cysts of isospora belli in lymphoid tissues of a brazilian patient with aids, and discuss the possibilities of their drug resistance, they being the cause of relapses, and of being an indication for the existence of intermediary or paratenic animal hosts.200314736218
needle necropsy in aids.the value of autopsy in understanding the natural course of any disease is beyond any argument. the reluctance of pathologists to perform autopsy in hiv infected cadavers is justified due to the risks involved to the prosector and the morgue attendants. a relative low risk needle necropsy protocol is proposed using fine needle aspiration cytology, tru-cut biopsies and microbiological examination. diagnosis could be offered in all the forty-four needle necropsies performed. disseminated tuberculo ...200315025288
foodborne and waterborne parasites.more than 72 species of protozoan and helminth parasites can reach humans by food and water, and most of these infections are zoonoses. some parasites show a cosmopolitan distribution, others a more restricted distribution due to their complex life cycles, which need the presence of one or more intermediate hosts. of this large number of pathogens, only toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted to humans by two different ways, i.e., by cysts present in infected meat and by oocysts contaminating food ...200315058817
point prevalence of cryptosporidium, cyclospora, and isospora infections in patients being evaluated for diarrhea.from march to september 2001, 315 specimens from "nonrepeat" patients that were submitted for ova and parasite examination were stained using the kinyoun modified acid-fast stain to detect the intestinal coccidians. four patients (1.3%) were infected with coccidians, 2 with cryptosporidium parvum and 2 with cyclospora cayetanensis. no infections with isospora belli were detected. in comparison, 15 patients (4.8%) had infections with one or more intestinal parasites detected by routine trichrome ...200415272527
[investigation of intestinal parasites in aids patients].in this study, enteric parasites were investigated in the stool samples of 38 aids patients (23 with chronic diarrhea and 15 without diarrhea) prospectively. at least three stool samples from each patient were investigated microscopically for ova or trophozoites. the samples were concentrated with formol-ether method and wet preparations stained with lugol were examined. in addition, the concentrated samples were stained with modified asid-fast (kinyoun's), rhodamine-auramine, modified trichrom ...200415293911
exflagellation of microgametocytes in plasmodium vivax malaria: a diagnostic present a clinical diagnostic conundrum of unidentified structures in a blood smear from a patient with plasmodium vivax malaria.200415316267
intestinal parasites, including cryptosporidium species, in iraqi patients with sickle-cell anaemia.stool samples were obtained from individuals admitted to three hospitals in basra during november 1997-may 1998. of 40 patients with sickle-cell anaemia, 25 (62.5%) had parasitic infections. in the apparently healthy comparison group, 26 of 175 individuals (14.8%) had intestinal parasitic infections, a statistically significant difference. the most common intestinal parasites isolated in the sickle-cell patients were blastocystis hominis (36%) and giardia lamblia (28%). the isolation rate of cry ...200215339123
[not available]. 194915399473
[not available]. 195015405241
endometrial coccidiosis.this report describes a case of granulomatous endometritis caused by coccidiosis in an immunologically uncompromised 63 year old patient. the glandular epithelium of the endometrium contained numerous intracytoplasmic cysts, corresponding to periodic acid schiff positive and methenamine silver negative sporoblasts. the endometrial glands revealed reactive phenomena, such as eosinophilic and squamous glandular metaplasia and intraluminal desquamation. non-necrotising epithelioid granulomata, lack ...200415452171
cyclospora cayetanensis, a food- and waterborne coccidian and waterborne coccidia including cryptosporidium parvum, cyclospora cayetanensis, sarcocystis hominis and sarcocystis suihominis, and isospora belli are cyst-forming apicomplexan protozoa that cause intracellular infections, predominantly in the epithelial cells of the intestine. they are transmitted by oocysts from person-to-person by the fecal-oral route or via contaminated water or food. the most common symptom of infection is diarrhea, however, asymptomatic infections occur. infection ...200415567580
survey for intestinal parasites in belize, central america.a stool survey was carried out in 5 villages in the toledo district of the central american country of belize. eighty-two percent of a total population of 672 participated. the stools were examined by the formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique. sixty-six percent of the population was found to have one or more intestinal parasites. the most common infection was hookworm (55%) followed by ascaris lumbricoides (30%), entamoeba coli (21%), trichuris trichiura (19%), giardia lamblia (12%), io ...200415689057
[infective etiology of diarrhea in adults with hiv infection in dakar: a case-control study on 594 patients].a survey was conducted in dakar, senegal from may 1997 to may 1999, to identify major types and prevalences of bacteria, parasites, fungi and rotaviruses associated with diarrhea in relation to human immunodeficiency virus serostatus with the aim to provide guidance to physicians for case management. etiologic agents were identified in a case-control study: cases were hiv-infected patients with diarrhea (hiv+ d+) and hiv seronegative patients with diarrhea (hiv- d+); controls were hiv-infected p ...200115773157
parasitic infections in hiv-infected patients who visited seoul national university hospital during the period 1995-2003.the prevalence of parasitic infections was investigated in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients (n = 105) who visited seoul national university hospital, seoul, korea, during the period from 1995 to 2003. fecal samples were collected from 67 patients for intestinal parasite examinations, and sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 60 patients for examination of pneumocystis carinii. both samples were obtained from 22 patients. thirty-three (31.4%) of the 105 were found to h ...200515793352
intestinal parasitic infections in hiv/aids patients: experience at a teaching hospital in central order to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) patients, 100 hiv/aids patients (group 1) and 85 clinically healthy individuals (group 2) were submitted to coproparasitological examination. intestinal parasites were detected in 27% of patients from group 1 and in 17.6% from group 2. in group 1 the most frequent parasites were strongyloides stercoralis (12%), with 2 cases of hyperinfection; isospo ...200515849055
[intestinal parasitosis during aids diarrhoea].the main goal of this work was to study the parasitic infections during aids diarrhoea. a longitudinal study was carried out from october 2000 to november 2001 in the hepato-gastro-enterology department of gabriel toure hospital and in the department of epidemiology and parasitic infections of faculty of medicine, pharmacy and odonto-stomatology of bamako (mali), concerning hiv positive patients suffering from diarrhoea. detecting microbes in stools has been done through direct microscopic exami ...200515915971
development of isospora belli in hct-8, hep-2, human fibroblast, bek and vero culture cells.the development of isospora belli, a human coccidian parasite, was studied in different cell lines. merozoites were observed in all kinds of cells, whereas sporogony was demonstrated only in hct-8. this implied that not only the human cell line can be infected, but also some animal cell lines. unizoites could be found in vero cells. the merozoites were transferred to a new culture cell for three passages and maintained for two weeks, but no oocyst production was observed in any culture cells dur ...200415916071
use of nitazoxanide as a new therapeutic option for persistent diarrhea: a pediatric perspective.despite advances in the management of diarrheal disorders, diarrhea is the second most frequent illness in the world. persistent diarrhea, common in community pediatrics, is often caused by organisms such as giardia lamblia, cryptosporidium parvum and, less frequently, cyclospora, isospora belli, and clostridium difficile. identifying the causative organism is often challenging, and diagnostic tests may be inaccurate and expensive and, thus, of limited benefit. consequently, carefully chosen emp ...200516004666
cryptosporidiosis in hiv-infected venezuelan adults is strongly associated with acute or chronic diarrhea.a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and its clinical and laboratory pattern in venezuelan hiv-infected patients (n = 397). at enrollment, they underwent thorough clinical history and physical examination and provided stool specimens for the identification of cryptosporidium sp. and other parasites. cryptosporidium sp. was identified in 59 subjects (15%). this infection was strongly associated with acute and chronic diarrhea, weight loss, cd4(+) ...200516014832
prevalence of intestinal parasites including microsporidia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in cameroon: a cross-sectional assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected adults in cameroon, a cross-sectional study was conducted. detection of parasites was performed in 181 stool samples from 154 hiv-infected patients with a mean cd4 cell count of 238 cells/mm(3). only 35 patients (22%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time of stool sampling, and 46 (29%) had diarrhea. opportunistic protozoa were found in 15 patients (9.7%), 8 of whom (53%) had d ...200616407362
[high prevalence of cyclospora cayetanensis among indigenous people in bolivar state, venezuela].the intestinal coccidioses caused by cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli, and cyclospora cayetanensis are parasitoses of major medical importance, but many epidemiological aspects of these infections are still unknown in bolívar state, venezuela. to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and especially of intestinal coccidiosis, an indigenous population in san antonio de morichal was evaluated from july 2003 to april 2004. stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were preser ...200616410862
mechanical transmission of pathogenic organisms: the role of cockroaches.cockroaches (diploptera punctata) are basically tropical insects and will do their best to find a home that is both warm and moist. their involvement in the transmission of tropical diseases is poorly investigated in africa.200516457381
important zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasites in asia.intestinal protozoa are increasingly being studied because of their association with acute and chronic diarrhoea in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent patients. various community outbreaks due to contamination of water or food with these protozoa have further highlighted their importance in public health. among these important pathogens are giardia duodenalis, entamoeba histolytica, cryptosporidium parvum, cyclospora cayetanensis, isospora belli, and microsporidia. except for the cyst- ...200416493397
[intestinal parasitosis in patients with hiv-aids].diarrhea, a common complication and one of the most important causes of malabsorption and malnutrition in aids patients. our objective was to determine the parasitic causes of diarrhea in patients with hiv-aids at the cayetano heredia national hospital (lima, peru).200616622484
cystoisospora belli: in vitro multiplication in mammalian cells.intracellular development of cystoisospora belli was demonstrated in 4 different mammalian cell lines. human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (hct-8), epithelial carcinoma of lung (a549), madin-darby bovine kidney (mdbk), and african green monkey kidney (vero) were exposed in vitro to c. belli sporozoites, which had been isolated from the feces of hiv-aids patients. parasites invaded all the cellular types between 4 and 12h after exposure and multiplication was demonstrated after 24 h. grater number of ...200616674944
cryptosporidium parvum and other instestinal parasites among diarrhoeal patients referred to ehnri in ethiopia.the occurrence of intestinal parasites in patients referred to the parasitology laboratory of the ethiopian health and nutrition research institute (ehnri), was recorded for four consecutive years, 1998-2001. based on the stool appearance i.e. watery, loose, muciod and bloody, 442 diarrhoeal samples were particularly selected to allow diagnosis of intestinal parasites with emphasis on coccidian intestinal parasites. wet saline mounts and formol ether concentration method with logul's iodine were ...200416895037
[isospora belli infection in a patient with a renal transplant].isospora belli infection is frequent in immunosuppressed patients and can cause wasting diarrhea. we present the first isosporiosis case in a renal transplant recipient from turkey. the 25-year old male patient who had had a renal transplantation due to renal failure and had received immunosuppressive therapy presented at the hospital complaining of weakness, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea that had lasted for 15 days. isospora belli oocysts were detected in stool samples by direct microscopy, mod ...200617106849
[intestinal parasitosis in french west indies: endemic evolution from 1991 to 2003 in the university hospital of pointe-a-pitre, guadeloupe].guadeloupe is one of the french west indies, where, until 1960, intestinal parasitic infections were endemic. in the microbiological laboratory of the university hospital of the island, we carried out a retrospective study of the 17,660 stool examinations received from 1991 to 2003. all the stool specimens were examined using at least a wet mount preparation and a concentration method (bailenger). specific techniques such as ziehl-neelsen modified acid fast stain, chromotrope staining procedure ...200617111973
[cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis in children suffering from diarrhoea in abidjan].a parasitological survey on intestinal coccidia, cryptosporidium sp and isospora belli, has been carried out in paediatric service of an teaching hospital in the district of abidjan (côte d'ivoire). 130 children under 5 years old suffering from diarrhoea have been enrolled. direct stools examination method, simplified ritchie technique and ziehl neelsen modified coloration were used for analysis. moreover, the aids serological status of the patients has been determined. the results show that cry ...200417304752
hiv-associated isospora belli infection: incidence and risk factors in the french hospital database on determine the incidence of isospora belli infection in hiv-infected patients in france, and to study risk factors.200717352769
waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have been reported. north american and european outbreaks accounted for 93% of all reports and nearly two-thirds of outbreaks occurred in north america. over 30% of all outbreaks were documented from europe, with the uk accounting for 24% of outbreaks, worldwide. giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium parvum account for the majority of outbreaks (132; 40.6% and 165; 50.8%, respectively), entamoeba histolytica and cyclospora c ...200717402277
[short communication: investigation of intestinal coccidia in patients with diarrhea].the intestinal protozoa have been increasingly identified in immunocompromised patients. in this study, stool samples of 554 patients [288 male, 266 female; 11 (2%) of them were immunocompromised] with diarrhea were examined between june 2004 and june 2005 in the parasitology laboratory of dokuz eylul university hospital, izmir, turkey, in order to investigate the prevalence of intestinal coccidia. after formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation procedure, the samples were examined by both native lug ...200717427562
[parasitic infection in immunocompromised patients].several parasites are responsible for life threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. they occur in patients with a profound immunodeficiency affecting the t-cell mediated immunity. in aids patients, opportunistic infections are highly prevalent in those with cd4 lymphocyte counts < 200/mm3. most of these parasites are intracellular protozoa. severe parasitic infections in immunocompromised hosts either results from the reactivation of a previously acquired infection, such as toxoplas ...200717432521
[evaluation of parasitological laboratory results of a group of people older than 15 years of age in kutahya].this research has been based on microscopic examination of samples of stool specimens taken from 675 persons older than 15 years of age. the examinations were conducted in the parasitological laboratory of the dumlupinar university hospital. laboratory examinations of stools were done with native and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods. different intestinal parasites were found in 52 (7.7%) of the stool specimens. at least one parasite species was found in 3.11% of women and 4.59% of me ...200717471410
enteric opportunistic parasites among hiv infected individuals: associated risk factors and immune on various etiologic agents causing diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (hiv-1) infected individuals are sparse in delhi, india. the present study was undertaken to identify various causative agents, the role of associated risk factors and immune status. a case-control study was conducted among 75 hiv-1 infected individuals, 50 with and 25 without diarrheal infection. fecal samples were screened for coccidian parasites, enteric protozoa, and helminthes by using various staining ...200717515636
a rare diarrheic parasite in a liver transplant patient: isospora belli.we describe the first case of isosporiasis in a liver transplant patient. watery diarrhea due to isospora belli was observed in a woman who had undergone liver transplantation 8 months prior. she was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. this parasite should be taken into consideration as an opportunistic infection in transplant patients who need increased hygienic awareness.200717580223
protozoal pollution of surface water sources in dakahlia governorate, egypt.water samples were collected different water sources and different districts of dakahlia g., from september 2005 to august 2006, were investigated for pathogenic protozoa. water specimens were examined by concentration technique followed by modified ziehl-neelsen (mzn) and truant auramine-rhodamine (ar) stains for giardia sp. cysts, cryptosporidium sp. oocysts, and other protozoa species. in the 1st survey, 94/480 (19.6%) water samples had protozoa. prevalence rates were in summer 38/120 (31.6%) ...200717580568
case report: isospora belli infection in a renal transplant recipent.isospora belli, an opportunistic protozoon, is one of the most commonly recognized causes of diarrhea in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). infection is acquired through fecal contaminated food or water, and generally diagnosed by examination of stool and/or duodenum biopsy specimens with acid-fast staining. here, we present an uncommon case, chronic diarrhea caused by i. belli infection in a patient who is a renal transplant recipient.200717594646
[evaluation of parasitology laboratory results of a group of people older than 15 years of age in kutahya].this research has been based on microscopic examination of stool specimens taken from 675 persons older than 15 years of age. the examinations were conducted in parasitology laboratory of the dumlupinar university hospital. laboratory examinations of stools were done with native and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods. different intestinal parasites were found in 52 (7.7%) of the stool specimens. at least one parasite species was found in 3.11% of women and 4.59% of men. the prevalence ...200717594654
screening of auramine-stained smears of all fecal samples is a rapid and inexpensive way to increase the detection of coccidial infections.coccidia are important causes of diarrhea that is often indistinguishable from other forms of community-acquired diarrhea. however, the detection of oocysts is often only performed when explicitly requested, as part of the ova and parasite (o&p) examination. reappraisal and understanding of the accurate staining characteristics of auramine o (auo), which stains nucleic acids, may permit the inexpensive and reliable identification of coccidian oocysts at routine workup of all fecal samples.200817600749
morphologic and molecular characterization of isospora belli oocysts from patients in investigate the extent of genetic heterogeneity in the genus isospora infecting patients in thailand, a total of 38 fecal samples containing isospora oocysts from human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients (n = 30), corticosteroid-treated patients (n = 3) and immunocompetent individuals (n = 5) were recruited for analysis. remarkable variation in the maximum width and length of oocysts both within and between isolates was observed. however, the average length-wid ...200717620639
intestinal parasitic infection in hiv infected patients with diarrhoea in determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in hiv patients with and without diarrhoea in chennai.200217657039
parasites in patients with malabsorption syndrome: a clinical study in children and adults.intestinal parasites not only cause diarrheal diseases but also significant malabsorption. literature on the role of parasites, such as intestinal coccidia and microsporidia in malabsorption syndrome is limited.200817763958
high proportion of isosporiasis among hiv-infected patients with diarrhea in southern india.we investigated 245 diarrheal stool specimens from hiv-positive subjects between january 2003 and december 2006 to determine the etiological role of coproparasites. parasitic etiology was observed in 91 (37.1%) cases. isospora belli (26.1%) was the most common parasite followed by entameba histolytica/dispar (3.3%), cryptosporidium spp. (2.9%), giardia intestinalis (1.6%), and strongyloides stercoralis (1.2%). interesting trends of significant increase in the number of cases of i. belli and decl ...200717984334
intestinal parasitic infection among children and neonatus admitted to ibn-sina hospital, sirt, libya.a total of 350 stool samples from 196 males and 154 female children and neonatus admitted in ibn-sina hospital, sirt, were examined from june 2001 to may 2002, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. intestinal parasitic infections were identified in 196 (56%) of children and neonates. no intestinal helminthic parasites were detected but 13 intestinal protozoan parasites were detected. the most prevalent protozoan was entamoeba histolytica /e. dispar (36.57%); blastocystis hominis ( ...200717985574
seasonal profile and level of cd4+ lymphocytes in the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis and cystoisosporidiosis in hiv/aids patients in the triângulo mineiro region, brazil.patients with aids are particularly susceptible to infection with intestinal coccidia. in this study the prevalence of infections with cryptosporidium sp and cystoisospora belli were evaluated among hiv/aids patients in the triângulo mineiro region, brazil. between july 1993 and june 2003 faecal samples from 359 patients were collected and stained by a modified ziehl-neelsen method, resulting in 19.7% of positivity for coccidian (8.6% with cryptosporidium sp, 10.3% with cystoisospora belli and 0 ...200717992404
isospora belli infection in a malnourished child.isospora belli, a coccidian parasite usually causes a self limiting illness of acute onset with fever, diarrhoea and colicky pain in a normal host. in immunocompromised patients human isosporiasis becomes chronic. we report a case of a malnourished 9 year old female child who presented with complaints of loose stools, nausea, vomiting and weight loss for the past three months. stool examination revealed immature oocysts of isospora belli. the patient was successfully treated with tmp-smx.200718338696
evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoassay for the detection of cryptosporidium antigen in fecal specimens of hiv/aids patients.cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite, causes severe diarrhea in immunodeficient hosts like hiv/aids patients, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. diagnosis of the cryptosporidium oocyst in the stool of these patients by conventional microscopy is labor intensive and time consuming. therefore, we planned to evaluate the usefulness of a stool elisa test in detecting cryptosporidial antigen. about 89 stool specimens obtained from hiv-seropositive patients with diarrhea were subj ...200818417886
real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of isospora belli in stool samples.a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of the ribosomal rna gene was developed for the detection of isospora belli dna in fecal samples, including an internal control to detect inhibition during the amplification process. the assay was performed on species-specific dna controls (n = 27) and a range of positive (n = 21) and negative (n = 120) stool samples, and achieved 100% specificity and sensitivity. the simple fecal sample collecti ...200818424043
chronic diarrhoea in hiv patients: prevalence of coccidian parasites.the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in hiv patients with or without diarrhoea and to see an association between diarrhoea and the coccidian parasites in our setting. stool samples from 113 hiv patients, 34 chronic diarrhoea and 79 without any history of diarrhoea were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy. one hundred and thirteen control samples from hiv negative patients complaining of prolonged diarrhoea were also collected an ...200818445958
the plastid-like organelle of apicomplexan parasites as drug target.apicomplexan parasites infectious to humans include plasmodium spp., babesia spp., toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium spp., isospora belli and cyclospora cayetanensis. with exception of cryptosporidium spp., these parasites possess a non-photosynthetic plastid-like organelle called apicoplast. the apicoplast possesses a small circular genome and harbours prokaryotic-type biochemical pathways. as the most important metabolic functions, the mevalonate independent 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate pat ...200818473835
isospora belli, strongyloides stercoralis & hookworm multiple-infection in a person with hiv infection & normal cd4+ t-lymphocyte count. 200818577798
enteric parasitic infections in hiv/aids patients before and after the highly active antiretroviral therapy.enteroparasites are related to gastrointestinal alterations among patients with hiv/aids, some causing severe manifestations in the period before the institution of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart). the prevalence of enteroparasitoses in patients with hiv/aids seen at two hospitals in ceará , brazil, was compared in the pre-haart (group 1; n = 482) and haart (group 2; n = 100) eras. fecal parasitologic examinations (fpe) were performed using the direct, lutz, baermann-moraes and ...200818641847
presence of enterocytozoon bieneusi associated with intestinal coccidia in patients with chronic diarrhea visiting an hiv center in haiti.this study investigated the presence of enterocytozoon bieneusi as a possible cause of chronic diarrhea in haitian patients attending the gheskio aids clinic in port-au-prince, haiti. coccidian oocysts were found by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in the stools of 58/74 patients with chronic diarrhea and included the following agents: 45 (60%) cryptosporidium spp., 27 (34%) cyclospora cayetanensis, and 11 (15%) isospora belli. four patients (5.5%) were co-infected with e. bieneusi and one (1.4%) ...200818840748
severe hypokalemia, paralysis, and aids-associated isospora belli diarrhea.background: hypokalemia of clinical significance, severe enough to cause paralysis and cardiac dysrhythmias, is an uncommon life-threatening medical disorder. hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hpp), where an abrupt intracellular shift of potassium has occurred, must be distinguished from hypokalemic non-periodic paralysis (non-hpp), where a total body potassium deficit exists. the challenge for emergency physicians is to swiftly and accurately differentiate disease etiology and institute prompt tr ...200818993015
opportunistic and other intestinal parasitic infections in aids patients, hiv seropositive healthy carriers and hiv seronegative individuals in southwest ethiopia.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens.200819374319
experimental infection of murine and human macrophages with cystoisospora belli.extraintestinal cystoisosporosis by cystoisospora belli has already been reported in hiv/aids patients, generally involving preferential invasion of mesenteric and trachaeobronchial lymph nodes, liver and spleen by unizoic cysts of this parasite, which may infect macrophages. to test this hypothesis, murine and human macrophages were exposed to sporozoites of c. belli and cultures were observed daily after contact with these cells. the parasites penetrated and multiplied by endodyogeny in both c ...200919427297
isospora cholangiopathy: case study with histologic characterization and molecular confirmation.isospora belli is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea worldwide and is endemic in the tropics. in the united states, it is an uncommon cause of traveler's diarrhea and a relatively rare opportunistic pathogen among the immunocompromised, particularly aids patients. isospora infects the small intestine, where both sexual and asexual replication occur, and oocysts are shed in the stool. isosporiasis of the gallbladder has also been described in aids patients. we report a case ...200919447468
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