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submicroscopic profile of isospora belli enteritis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.small bowel mucosal fragments from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive female patient with chronic diarrhea were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, and isospora belli enteritis was documented. the submicroscopic profile was characterized by a moderate abnormality of mucosal architecture with reduction in height of villi and hypertrophy of crypts. stages of both asexual (trophozoite, schizont and merozoite) and sexual (macrogametocyte) phases of the life cycle of the parasite w ...19947809997
gut parasites in hiv-seropositive zambian adults with diarrhoea.we undertook a nine month study to define the frequency of parasitic infections in adults with diarrhoea presenting at the medical filter clinic and the dermatovenereology clinic of the university teaching hospital in lusaka, zambia. a total of 287 patients with diarrhoea were enrolled in the study; 130 from the adult medicine filter clinic recruitment consulting room and 157 patients from the dermatovenereology clinic. of 130 patients from the adult filter clinic, 85 (65%) were hiv-seropositive ...19947835260
[digestive involvements in human immunodeficiency virus infection].dysphagia or odynophagia occurs in an estimated 21% of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. a causal agent can be identified in 60-90% of the cases and generally can be successfully eradicated. oesophageal candidosis, the predominant disorder, usually responds to nitrate derivatives and amphotericine b after a 10 to 15 day cure. ulcerations of the oesophagus is the second major cause of dysphagia in these patients and result from cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections or ...19957899394
cyclospora infection in adults infected with hiv. clinical manifestations, treatment, and prophylaxis.to determine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of cyclospora in haitians infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) who have diarrhea and to evaluate therapy and prophylaxis.19947944073
isospora belli infection associated with acalculous cholecystitis in a patient with aids. 19947944075
isospora belli reactive arthritis in a patient with aids. 19947979603
aids and the gut.there are increasing challenges for the practising gastroenterologist in treating aids-related gastrointestinal diseases. the differential diagnoses of dysphagia and odynophagia include cytomegalovirus (cmv) and herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection, non-specific aphthous ulceration and non-aids oesophageal diseases, especially reflux oesophagitis. chronic subacute abdominal pain with nausea, vomiting, early satiety and weight loss is suggestive of an obstructive lesion caused by lymphoma or kapo ...19948054532
new parasites on the block: emerging intestinal protozoa.several trends in clinical medicine have converged recently and placed intestinal protozoan infections in a position of increasing importance to health professionals. these trends include the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infections that cause the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and result in associated opportunistic infections. the increasing use of powerful chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agents to prevent rejection of transplanted tissues in human allograft r ...19948055239
hiv-1 and parasitic infections in rural tanzania.a sample of 300 sexually-active adults was selected at random from patients, from the rural area of malenga makali, tanzania, who were attending a dispensary because they had diarrhoea of at least 2 weeks' duration. the potential associations between the patient's health (in terms of the world health organization's clinical definition of aids), hiv-1 seroprevalence and malaria and other parasitic infections were then investigated. although, hiv-1 seroprevalence was 20.6% overall, the level of se ...19938122920
[incidence of enteropathogens in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection].to establish the incidence of diarrhea and its evolution over time, the causal microorganisms, recurrence and associated mortality in patients with aids or severe immunologic alterations (cd4 lymphocytes lower than 0.5 x 10(9)/l).19948159053
human isosporiasis in an aids patient--report of first case in malaysia.an aids patient with multiple opportunistic infections (candida, pneumocystis carinii and isospora belli) was identified at the university hospital, kuala lumpur. the patient presented with profuse diarrhoea associated with lethargy, anorexia and weight loss. routine stool examination showed isospora belli oocysts. the infection responded to treatment with trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole but relapse occurred 8 weeks later. this represents the first documented case of isosporiasis to occur in an a ...19938183153
transient isospora belli infection in a normal child. 19938244507
[drinking water and parasites].entamoeba histolytica, giardia lamblia, cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli, balantidium coli, and microsporidia spp. are cosmopolitan parasites. they often cause diarrheal diseases. the waterborn transmission of all these parasites is possible (41). surface water supplies used for drinking water are potential sources of contamination. giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium spp. have received great attention in industrialized countries during the last years because they are the etiological agent ...19938253478
[isospora belli infection in an aids patient]. 19938326922
prevalence of intestinal protozoans in french patients infected with hiv.to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoans in french hiv-infected patients, stool samples, duodenojejunal biopsies, and/or colorectal biopsies from 81 patients were studied for parasites, viruses, and bacteria. pathogens were found in 70.6% of aids patients with diarrhea or malabsorption. the respective prevalence of protozoa in aids patients with diarrhea was cryptosporidium sp.: 37.3%, blastocystis hominis: 13.7%, giardia intestinalis: 5.8%, isospora belli: 2%, enterocytozoon bieneusi: ...19938340892
[isospora belli infection in a patient with adult t cell leukemia].a 53-year-old man was hospitalized for the development of watery diarrhea associated with decreased appetite and progressive weight loss and was found to have leukocytosis. the white blood cell count was 14,600/microliters with 66 percent abnormal lymphocytes. serum anti-htlv-i was positive and monoclonal insertion of htlv-i provirus into the atypical cell genome was confirmed with the southern blotting hybridization technique. a diagnosis of atl was made. examination of fresh stool specimens re ...19938345663
the prevalence of giardia and other intestinal parasites in children, dogs and cats from aboriginal communities in the kimberley.to determine the prevalence of giardia duodenalis and other intestinal parasites in children, dogs and cats from aboriginal communities in the west kimberley region of western australia.19938450779
prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. and isospora belli among aids patients attending santos reference center for aids, são paulo, brazil.from march 1991 to february 1992, 276 stool samples from 131 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) (average, 2.1 samples per patient) and stool samples from 81 presumed immunocompetent individuals were studied for the prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. and isospora belli. the techniques employed were a modified formol-ether concentration, carbol (phenol) auramine staining, and a modified kinyoun acid-fast method. the prevalence of both coccidia among aids patients was 25.9% ...19938501608
opportunistic and non-opportunistic parasites in hiv-positive and negative patients with diarrhoea in tanzania.a survey on intestinal parasites in a rural area of tanzania revealed the presence of eight protozoa and seven helminths in 287 subjects (81.8%). the prevalence of entamoeba histolytica and ascaris lumbricoides was higher in hiv-negative than in hiv-positive patients (p < 0.01; p < 0.04) (25.1% and 12.5% for e. histolytica; 10.5% and 3.7% for a. lumbricoides). on the other hand, cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli and strongyloides stercoralis prevalence was higher in hiv-positive than in hiv ...19958525281
understanding intestinal spore-forming protozoa: cryptosporidia, microsporidia, isospora, and cyclospora.to summarize recent information about the "new" gastrointestinal protozoal pathogens (cryptosporidia, microsporidia, isospora, and cyclospora) and to help practicing clinicians integrate this information into their clinical databases by emphasizing the similarities among these organisms.19968554253
prevalence of enteric parasitic infection among hiv-infected attendees of an inner city aids clinic.one hundred individuals confirmed to be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), volunteered to participate in a pilot study comparing clinical status and enteric parasite burden with race, age, cd4 levels, risk factors and sexual practice. the prevalence of enteric parasites was 55 (55%) for giardia lamblia, 6 (6%) for cryptosporidium, 10 (10%) for isospora belli and 3 (3%) for entamoeba histolytica. there was no associations between demographic variables and the presence of parasi ...19958574144
intestinal protozoa.giardia is the best known cause of protozoal gastrointestinal disease in north america, producing significant but not life-threatening gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea. although diagnosis of giardiasis may be challenging, treatment is usually successful. entamoeba histolytica poses a rarer but far more difficult clinical challenge. dysentery caused by e. histolytica may be the most feared intestinal protozoal infection, although cryptosporidium parvum, balantidium coli, isospora belli, sar ...19968644565
cholecystectomy in patients with aids: clinicopathologic correlations in 107 cases.the etiologic and clinical features of cholecystisis in infection due to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) were studies retrospectively. the charts and histopathologic specimens of 136 hiv-infected patients who underwent cholecystectomy between february 1987 and may 1993 at a large tertiary care center were reviewed. opportunistic pathogens infecting the 107 patients with aids included microsporidia (eight cases-- enterocytozoon bieneusi in six and septata intestinalis in two); cytomegalovirus ...19958645829
[prevalence of cryptosporidium sp and isospora belli in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) in dakar (senegal].72 patients with aids, having diarrhoea and admitted in the unit of infectious diseases, fann hospital from 1989 to 1991 were investigated for cryptosporidium sp. and isospora belli isolation by the modified ziehl-neelsen technique, after stolls' concentration by ritchie technique. the prevalence were 13.9% for cryptosporidium sp, and 15.3% for i. belli. in two patients (2.8%), these 2 coccidiae were associated. cryptosporidium sp. and i. belli were the single parasites found respectively in 6 ( ...19948654165
isospora belli infection in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in india. 19968708333
opportunistic intestinal protozoa in chronic diarrhoeic immunosuppressed patients.chronic diarrhoea accompanied by weight loss is a common and often debilitating problem in immunocompromized patients, receiving chemotherapeutic agents. in these patients, the intestinal opportunistic parasites probably played a major role in causing this clinical manifestation. the present work, aims to search for these parasites. special stains for each parasite were used to differentiate it easily from the fecal elements, obviating the need for diagnostic invasive techniques especially used ...19968721235
the relevance of laboratory diagnosis of human cryptosporidiosis and other coccidia.human infection by cryptosporidium spp and other coccidia are due to opportunist non-host specific microorganisms. in hiv seropositive patients, the gastrointestinal symptoms accompanying such infections may be serious and prolonged and may include nausea, low-grade fever, abdominal cramps, anorexia and watery diarrhoea. we studied 188 stool samples from 111 patients (84 men and 27 women) with diarrhoea. a modified ziehl-nielsen technique for the detection of cryptosporidium spp and isospora bel ...19958729759
intracellular protozoan infection in small intestinal biopsies of patients with aids. light and electron microscopic evaluation.small intestinal biopsies of 21 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) with light microscopic findings diagnostic or suspicious for parasite infection were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (tem). tem allowed us to identify and specify the genus and species of involved parasites in 16 out of the 21 cases: 7 cryptosporidium parvum, 5 enterocytozoon bieneusi and 4 isospora belli. cryptosporidium was easily identified on light microscopy (lm), and only slightly influ ...19968739472
recently recognised microbial enteropathies and hiv infection.persistent diarrhoea and small bowel enteropathy are important features of hiv infection. at least 80% of cases of persistent diarrhoea in patients with hiv/aids can be attributed to a specific enteropathogen. the coccidian parasites cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli and cyclospora and the microsporidia account for at least 50% of cases of persistent diarrhoea in the industrialised and developing world with major contributions from mycobacterium avium complex and other bacteria and cytomegl ...19968818830
prevalence of intestinal parasites in adult patients with enteropathic aids in north-eastern tanzania.a six month study was conducted in north-eastern tanzania to determine the prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites among adult patients with enteropathic aids. a total of 352 patients were recruited of whom 158 (45%) had chronic diarrhoea. of the 352 patients, 123 (35%) had intestinal parasites. of the 123, 77 (62.6%) patients had chronic diarrhoea. the types of parasites detected were cryptosporidium, isospora belli, strongyloides stercoralis, schistosoma mansoni, trichuris, trichiura, as ...19968840602
[recent features of parasites detected from clinical specimens].it is generally considered that we have already been through with problems caused by various kinds of parasites which had once raged throughout the country. on the contrary to our common concept, we occasionally encounter some kinds of parasites in a laboratory as well as in clinical fields, which have become unfamiliar to us in these days. parasitic diseases are in the first place, proper and limited to certain local regions, but the present situation has been greatly changed. nowadays, specifi ...19968847822
parasitic diseases in immunocompromised hosts. cryptosporidiosis, isosporiasis, and strongyloidiasis.cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis are intestinal infections caused by the protozoan parasites cryptosporidium parvum and isospora belli, respectively. hiv infection and other immunodeficiency diseases predispose human subjects to severe and prolonged cryptosporidiosis. there is also evidence that hiv infection predisposes to chronic isosporiasis. strongyloidiasis is caused by a nematode worm, strongyloides stercoralis. administration of corticosteroids to patients with chronic low-grade s. ster ...19968863046
emerging diarrheal pathogens: cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli, cyclospora species, and microsporidia. 19968880880
prevalence of isospora belli in aids and immunocompetent patients in uganda. 19968949619
[parasitic infections in aids].the list of infections, threatening patients with impaired immunological system, especially infected with hiv, prolongs systematically. the review of literature data concerning species known up to now as aids defining parasitic infections (pneumocystis carinii, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium, isospora belli, microsporidium and cyclospora) is presented.19968967074
persistent diarrhea caused by isospora belli: therapeutic response to pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine.a 54-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive homosexual man developed overwhelming watery diarrhea and marked weight loss over a 3-week period. although entamoeba histolytica and other nonpathogenic enteric protozoa were observed along with isospora belli in this patient's stool specimens, they were promptly eradicated after metronidazole (flagyl) treatment. the presence of i. belli oocysts in various stages of development in the stool and clinical symptoms related to isospora infec ...19968985661
biology of isospora spp. from humans, nonhuman primates, and domestic animals.coccidial parasites of the genus isospora cause intestinal disease in several mammalian host species. these protozoal parasites have asexual and sexual stages within intestinal cells of their hosts and produce an environmentally resistant cyst stage, the oocyst. infections are acquired by the ingestion of infective (sporulated) oocysts in contaminated food or water. some species of mammalian isospora have evolved the ability to use paratenic (transport) hosts. in these cases, infections can be a ...19978993857
waterborne protozoan pathogens.protozoan parasites were the most frequently identified etiologic agents in waterborne disease outbreak from 1991 to 1994. the waterborne parasites giardia lamblia, naegleria fowleri, acanthamoeba spp., entamoeba histolytica, cryptosporidium parvum, cyclospora cayetanesis, isospora belli, and the microsporidia are reviewed. for each parasite, the review includes history, life cycle, incidence, symptoms, and therapy. clinical detection methods are compared, and emerging technologies are discussed ...19978993859
[diarrhea and aids: more complex diagnostic techniques; better therapeutic results].during 17 months, 73 hiv-positive patients with diarrhea lasting at least for 14 days, were studied prospectively. the patients had stool specimen examinations negative for enteric pathogens, or positive for one of them, but with no response to specific treatment. all patients were subcomitted to digestive endoscopy and biopsies were taken for microbiological and histological studies. the etiology of the diarrhea could be established in 48 patients (66%). in 45, the cause was an enteric infectio ...19969137663
nitazoxanide in the treatment of cryptosporidial diarrhea and other intestinal parasitic infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in tropical africa.eighteen patients hospitalized with intestinal parasitic infections associated with diarrhea and dehydration completed a study of nitazoxanide in the treatment of cryptosporidium parvum and other intestinal parasitic infections. seventeen of the 18 patients were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. twelve patients were diagnosed with clinical stage 4 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) according to the 1990 world health organization proposed clinical classification system and cryptos ...19979230795
examination of extraintestinal tissue cysts of isospora belli.relapse is common in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed humans infected with isospora belli and is believed to be associated with the presence of extraintestinal stages. in the present study, we examined this important stage in an aids patient using histological, immunohistological, histochemical, and ultrastructural methods to better understand the development and structure of this stage and to develop better means of detecting infections. antisera made in rabbits to isospora suis, toxoplasma ...19979267401
isospora belli in a patient with aids. 19979279738
reevaluating the molecular taxonomy: is human-associated cyclospora a mammalian eimeria species?human-associated cyclospora is a coccidian parasite that causes diarrheal disease. a reevaluation of the parasite's molecular taxonomy that takes into account newly published data for seven eimeria species shows that cyclospora belongs to the eimeria clade (eimeriidae family). the cyclospora branch on the phylogenetic tree is between the branches of the eight avian and two mammalian eimeria species that have been evaluated to date. furthermore, preliminary results indicate that cyclospora and is ...19979284387
intestinal parasitic infections in patients with malignancy.the frequency of intestinal parasitic infections was studied retrospectively in 1,029 cancer patients presenting with symptoms of diarrhoea. intestinal parasites were diagnosed by stool examination, using both the direct and concentration techniques and also the modified acid fast stain. parasitic infection was found in 16.5% of the cases. the majority of the patients with intestinal parasitosis had cancer of the haemopoietic system and were on anticancer chemotherapy. the most prevalent parasit ...19979360344
hep-2 cell-adherent escherichia coli and intestinal secretory immune response to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in outpatients with hiv-associated diarrhea.hep-2 cell-adherent escherichia coli and the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) itself have recently been incriminated as causes of chronic hiv-associated diarrhea. this study sought to determine the prevalence of these two agents among hiv-infected patients with diarrhea in an outpatient setting in the united states and to compare their prevalence to that of other commonly recognized enteropathogens known to be present in this population. hep-2 cell-adherent e. coli was found in 20 of 83 (24.1% ...19989455887
enteropathy in zambians with hiv related diarrhoea: regression modelling of potential determinants of mucosal damage.aids is characterised by small intestinal mucosal damage, but its aetiopathogenesis is poorly understood. enteric infections in africa differ from those in northern countries, where protozoan infections have been associated with severe enteropathy in aids patients.19979462215
[a clinical and biological study of parasitic and fungal diarrhea in immunosuppressed patients in an urban and suburban area of yaoundé].we studied 66 cases of intestinal mycosis and parasitosis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus with chronic diarrhea. all subjects were from the yaounde urban area and were followed between february and december 1996. they were recruited from 3 hospitals in the center of yaounde and were aged between 2 and 52 years. there was weight loss in 80.3% and severe dehydration in 72.3% of cases. feces consisted mostly of watery stools similar to those of cholera patients (50% of ca ...19979503491
nitazoxanide for the treatment of intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in mexico.a study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide as a single agent for the treatment of a broad spectrum of mixed parasitic infections, both protozoa and helminths, was conducted at a primary school in san pedro tolimán, querétaro, mexico. three faecal samples from 1824 adults and children were screened for the presence of oocysts, cysts, trophozoites, eggs or larvae of intestinal protozoa or helminths. two hundred and forty-six adults and children infected with at least one protozoan ...19979580117
cryptosporidium and other parasites in ethiopian aids patients with chronic diarrhoea.previous studies in other african countries have shown high prevalences of isospora belli and cryptosporidium parvum infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) patients with chronic diarrhoea. however, there is lack of information regarding these infectious agents in ethiopian aids patients. thus, this investigation has been aimed at determining the prevalence of cryptosporidium and other related gastrointestinal parasites in aids patients with diarrhoea in seven addis ababa hospita ...19989640833
[hiv infection and isosporiasis. presentation of a case].a hiv seropositive patient with chronic diarrheic syndrome, in which oocysts of isospora belli were detected in feces by the modified technique of ziehl-neelsen was studied. other coproparasitological techniques were applied and cultures were applied made with negative results. any other infectious origin was excluded from the picture. the patient was treated with 2 tablets of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprin 80 mg, sulphamethoxazole 400 mg) every 6 hours for ten days, with referral of the symptoms.19979685979
opportunistic protozoa in stool samples from hiv-infected patients.a retrospective study of stool samples of hiv-infected patients from january 1994 to december 1995 submitted to the department of tropical pathology was analyzed. there were twenty-two cases, all of which presented with chronic diarrhea. result showed that 50% were infected with protozoa. these include microsporidium (27.27%), cryptosporidium (9.09%), isospora belli (4.54%) and giardia intestinalis cysts (9.09%). other infections were candida sp, strongyloides stercoralis larva and opisthorchis ...19989740264
[intestinal parasitic infections and leishmaniasis in patients with hiv infection].intestinal parasite infections are very frequent in hiv patients with severe immunodeficiency (cd4 < 100/mm3) causing chronic diarrhea and malabsorption in the majority of cases. the most frequent microorganisms are microsporidia and cryptosporidium parvum while cyclospora cayetanensis and isospora belli are more prevalent in subtropical and tropical areas and rare in industrialized areas. the diagnosis can be obtained by stool examination (differences in size and form of cysts), although micros ...19989859620
preliminary identification of an intestinal coccidian parasite in man.an unidentified coccidian parasite was observed in saline faecal smears of five immunocompromised patients. very few of these organisms were observed in the oocystic stage. they were oval in shape with rounded edges and contained two sporulated sporocysts, 7.5-9.5 um in diameter with a nipple like projection. they are smaller than sporocysts of sarcocystis hominis and suihominis. for further identification, the modified ziehl-neelsen stain was used. the sporocysts showed variability in staining. ...19989914703
[a case of imported paratyphoid fever associated with giardia lamblia and isospora belli infection].we report a case of imported paratyphoid fever associated with giardia lamblia and isospora belli infection. the patient was a 23-year-old japanese female with complaints of high grade fever and diarrhea after 10 days traveling to nepal. salmonella paratyphi a was isolated from the blood and fecal cultures on admission and ciprofloxacin of 200 mg tid was administered for 14 days. fecal examination revealed cysts of g. lamblia at the same time and metronidazole of 250 mg tid for 7 days was effect ...19989916420
human intestinal infection due to coccidia in mozambique: two cases.a case of intestinal infection by cryptosporidium parvum and another of intestinal isospora belli infection, both in aids patients, are described. the two patients presented pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms and watery diarrhoea. modified ziehl-neelsen stain of stools gave a definitive diagnosis in both cases. they are the first reports of intestinal coccidia infections in aids patients described in mozambique.19999924958
fuchsin fluorescence and autofluorescence in cryptosporidium, isospora and cyclospora oocysts.cryptosporidium parvum and isospora belli oocysts stained with carbol-fuchsin, as in a modified ziehl neelsen technique, fluoresce bright red under green light (546nm). cryptosporidium oocysts tend to fluoresce more brightly the less intensely stained they appear under transmitted light; this is not the case with isospora. fuchsin-stained cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts fluoresce rather dimly, but those not taking the dye retain their typical autofluorescence. cryptosporidium and isospora oocyst ...19989925267
[isosporiasis (isospora belli)]. 199910201247
prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in brazil.to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and to investigate the possible associations of clinical status and laboratory findings with the different parasites found in stool samples.199910575149
emerging pathogens: isospora, cyclospora and microsporidia.isospora belli, cyclospora cayetanensis as well as several species of microsporidia are recognized as emerging protozoan pathogens of humans. all are obligate intracellular parasites, with isospora and the microsporidia being primarily associated with immunocompromised hosts. cyclospora is a cause of traveller's diarrhoea, and is responsible for water-borne and food-borne outbreaks of disease. drug treatment is available for these infections. improved diagnostic methods including the autofluores ...199810660937
intestinal protozoa in hiv-infected patients in apulia, south italy.protozoa are important enteric pathogens in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. in this study the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in 154 hiv-infected patients, with or without diarrhoea, in our region (apulia, south italy) was evaluated between december 1993 and february 1998. in the majority of patients cd4+ t cell count was below 200/microl. the overall prevalence of intestinal protozoa was 43/154 (27.92%). twenty-eight (43.08%) out of 65 patients with diarrhoea and 1 ...199910694157
intestinal and extraintestinal isospora belli infection in an aids patient. a second case report.a 30-year-old black female, from burkina faso, had aids in 1990. she died in march 1993 following a cachexia secondary to a chronic intestinal isosporiasis. the autopsy revealed a massive parasitic infection by i. belli of the small intestine mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and liver and spleen. the parasite stage observed in extra intestinal sites corresponded to unizoite tissue cysts. this is the first report of i. belli infection in liver and spleen.19947746744
effect of antiretroviral therapy on cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.to better understand whether potent antiretroviral therapies can modify the natural history of hiv-1-associated microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis, the response to antimicrobial treatment of these opportunistic infections was evaluated in patients with or without antiretroviral treatment. fifty patients with diarrhoea, all positive for cryptosporidium parvum or enterocytozoon bieneusi, were included in the study. retrospective data were collected concerning demographics, clinical and microbi ...200010795595
prevalence of intestinal pathogens in hiv patients with diarrhea: implications for treatment.patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) commonly experience diarrhea at some time during their illness. a variety of enteric pathogens are identified in 50-80% of these patients, depending on the intensity of the diagnostic work-up that is done. in addition to the common enteric pathogens, several unusual enteric pathogens are recognized to cause diarrhea especially in hiv patients. these include protozoan parasites such as cryptosporidia, isospora belli, cyclospora cayaten ...199910798040
cryptosporidium and isospora belli diarrhoea in immunocompromised hosts.cryptosporidium and isospora, two of the intestinal coccidian parasites known to be the causative agents of acute diarrhoea in animals, have now emerged as one of the main causes of prolonged life threatening diarrhoea in immunocompromised patients particularly so in patients with aids. between june 1996 and december 1997, a total of 75 immunocompromised patients presenting with diarrhoea were investigated both for cryptosporidium and isospora. the study group consisted of cancer and aids patien ...199910810553
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compared with ciprofloxacin for treatment and prophylaxis of isospora belli and cyclospora cayetanensis infection in hiv-infected patients. a randomized, controlled trial.in developing countries, isospora belli and cyclospora cayetanensis frequently cause chronic diarrhea in hiv-infected patients.200010836915
[a new trichromic safranin stain for the detection of cryptosporidium parvum, cyclospora cayetanensis, species of microsporidia and isospora belli in fecal material].cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli, cyclospora cayetanensis and microsporidia are frequent pathogens in the immunodeficient host, which may cause multiple infections. the above mentioned parasites are found in feces by the application of different specific tintorial techniques. the objective of this work was the development of a stain for the simultaneous detection of these parasites, reducing costs as well as the time taken to make the diagnosis. the safranin-trichrome stain is simple, chip ...199910932763
taxonomic position of the human intestinal protozoan parasite isospora belli as based on ribosomal rna sequences.the taxonomic positions of isospora belli and other members of the genus isospora are controversial. we determined the small-subunit ribosomal rna of i. belli and used this sequence in combination with other coccidian rna sequences for analysis of the taxonomic position of i. belli. the phylogenetic trees we obtained provide molecular evidence for three clades within a monophyletic group that represents the suborder eimeriina. the clade containing i. belli consists of tissue-cyst-forming coccidi ...200010952268
detection of isospora belli by polymerase chain reaction using primers based on small-subunit ribosomal rna sequences.the aim of the present study was to use small-subunit (ssu)-rrna sequences of isospora belli to design specific primer pairs and a hybridization probe for the detection of isospora belli in human samples by pcr and southern blot hybridization. pcr amplification with the primer pairs produced correct dna fragments with target dna from samples of isospora belli-infected patients and from cloned ssu-rrna of isospora belli. the nature of the pcr products was confirmed by southern blot hybridization. ...200011014628
identification of enteric pathogens in hiv-positive patients with diarrhoea in northern india.enteric pathogens associated with chronic diarrhoea in hiv-positive patients were studied. the study was conducted during january 1995-december 1998. stool specimens from all diarrhoea patients (n = 26) were examined microscopically for ova and parasites using wet preparations and stained smears. stool samples from diarrhoea patients were also cultured on appropriate media to isolate enteric bacterial pathogens. of the 59 patients, 26 (44%) had prolonged diarrhoea for more than 4 weeks. enteric ...200011014766
isospora belli infection and chronic electrolyte disturbance in a child with fetal alcohol syndrome.we report an 11-year-old boy with fetal alcohol syndrome and immunodeficiency, whose longstanding malnutrition, diarrhoea with steatorrhoea, symptomatic electrolyte loss and eosinophilia were attributed to renal tubular disease and recurrent worm infestation. the symptoms resolved with diagnosis and treatment of infection by the protozoan isospora belli, although immunodeficiency persisted.200011130350
infections by protozoa in immunocompromised hosts.protozoa are among the most important pathogens that can cause infection in immunocompromised patients. they infect particularly individuals with impaired cell immunity, such as those with hematologic neoplasias, those submitted to transplant of solid organs, those under high-dose corticosteroid therapy, and carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus. among the protozoa that most commonly cause disease in immunocompromised individuals are toxoplasma gondii, trypanosoma cruzi, cryptosporidium p ...200011142706
cyclospora infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.diarrhea is a common clinical manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. the important protozoan pathogens causing diarrhea include cryptosporidium, microsporidium, isospora belli and cyclospora besides giardia lamblia and entamoeba histolytica.200011273176
pictorial cme. isospora belli and cyclospora cayetanensis in a case of chronic diarrhoea in an immunocompromised host. 200011280226
myxobolus sp., another opportunistic parasite in immunosuppressed patients?during a study of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, a parasite belonging to the phylum myxozoa, recently described from human samples, was identified in one sample. when this parasite was stained by the modified ziehl-neelsen staining method, the features of the spores were identified: they were pyriform in shape, had thick walls, and had one suture and two polar capsules, with each one having four or five coils. the suture and two polar capsules ...200111326017
nocardiasis in patients with hiv infection.the frequency of nocardia infection in hiv-infected patients has increased during the past few years from 0.3% in 1985 to 1.8% in 1989. although it is not of great concern as an aids-associated infection, the nonspecific clinical presentation in these patients might be confused with other lung infections such as tuberculosis (tb). the mortality rate can be as high as 60%. the authors diagnosed three homosexual men with nocardiasis among 1060 hiv-infected patients (0.2%) in a tertiary care center ...199811362038
isosporosis and unizoite tissue cysts in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.isospora belli, a coccidian parasite in humans, has been described as causing chronic diarrhea and acalculous cholecystitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). diagnosis can be made at the tissue level in the epithelium of the small bowel and by fecal examination. disseminated extraintestinal forms are uncommon. we studied 118 adult patients with aids and chronic diarrhea using stool analysis and endoscopy with duodenal biopsy specimen collection. these samples were p ...200111381368
intestinal parasitic infections in thai hiv-infected patients with different immunity status.one of the major health problems among hiv seropositive patients is superimposed infection due to the defect of immunity. furthermore, intestinal parasite infection, which is also one of the basic health problems in tropical region, is common in these patients. in this study, a cross sectional study to document the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in thai hiv-infected patients with different immune status was performed.200111394966
intestinal parasites in hiv-2 associated aids cases with chronic diarrhoea in guinea-bissau.previous studies from african countries where hiv-1 infection is prevalent have shown that infections with cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli and microsporidia are frequently associated with chronic diarrhoea in aids patients. the information about the occurrence of these parasites in hiv-2 associated aids cases with chronic diarrhoea is limited. we have performed a study of stool parasites in patients from guinea-bissau, the country with the highest prevalence of hiv-2 in the world. stool s ...200111495643
case report: nitazoxanide treatment failure in chronic isosporiasis.we report a 60-year-old immunocompetent patient with chronic biliary isosporiasis who failed to respond to orally administered cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and orally administered treatment with nitazoxanide, a 5-nitrothiazole benzamide compound. severe malabsorption was regarded as responsible for the subtherapeutic levels of nitazoxanide in plasma and bile, resulting in treatment failure. intravenously administered cotrimoxazole stopped the shedding of isospora belli oocysts in bile within 5 days ...200111508398
coccidiosis among malnourished children in mansoura, dakahlia governorate, egypt.stool samples of 36 malnourished and 36 healthy control children were examined for oocysts of cryptosporidium parvum, cyclospora cayetanensis, isospora belli and microsporidium. c. parvum infection (single and mixed) was detected in 13.9% and 5.6% in malnourished and control children respectively. c. cayetanensis oocysts were detected in 5.6% malnourished children and in 2.8% of control group. i. belli oocysts were detected only in malnourished children 2.8%. on the other hand, no microsporidium ...200111775113
ordinary and opportunistic enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in senegalese adults in relation to human immunodeficiency virus serostatus.a survey was conducted in dakar, senegal, to identify major types and prevalences of bacteria, parasites, fungi, and rotaviruses associated with diarrhea in relation to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) serostatus with the goal to provide guidance to physicians for case management.200111953215
parasitic diarrhoea in patients with aids.diarrhoea is a common clinical manifestation of hiv infection regardless of whether or not patients have aids. two newly recognized opportunistic coccidial protozoa are parasitic pathogens in aids patients. we attempted to determine the common parasites in indian patients with aids.200212044119
[comparison of intestinal parasite infestation indexes among hiv positive and negative populations].this study was carried out on two groups of patients treated at the josé de san martín clinical hospital. one group was composed of 82 hiv-seropositive patients with no signs of diarrhea, and another one of 300 patients, not suspected of hiv infection, was considered as "control population". stool samples were collected from each patient and examined for intestinal parasites. these determinations were carried out at the department of clinical biochemistry, in the same hospital. three specimens w ...19947715428
uvitex 2b stain for the diagnosis of isospora belli infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.fluorescent stains with uvitex 2b or other fluorochromes are widely used today, especially for the diagnosis of microsporidian infections in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients. our objective was to ascertain whether the fluorescent stain with uvitex 2b is also able to detect isospora belli in stool samples and duodenal/bile juice of hiv-infected patients.199612049103
[the current status of infectious enteritis in japan--reports of the "research group for infectious enteric diseases, japan" in the last 5 years (1996-2000)].the patients or carriers with infectious enteritis admitted to the hospitals for infectious diseases in the last 5 years (1996-2000) were studied. the total number of cases admitted in each year were 969, 1,113, 981, 637 and 573 respectively. a total of 1,527 shigella spp. strains including 1,078 strains from overseas travelers' cases were isolated. the isolates of salmonella spp. excluding s. typhi and s. paratyphi a were 562 in number. a total of 61 vibrio cholerae o1 strains including 44 stra ...200212073571
[gastrointestinal symptoms in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids): a review of one hundred cases at "arzobispo loayza" hospital]in 1996, one hundred health histories of hiv serum positive patients were reviewed using the elisa and western blot techniques at the arzobispo loayza national hospital. such cases were defined according to case definition 1987 cdc/who. 70% of hiv serum positive patients showed gastrointestinal symptoms according to the first medical examination. 57% of the patients were younger than 30 years old, most of them were men (men/ women ratio: 2.7/1). 59% of the patients were heterosexual, 26% bisexua ...199712177715
prevalence of intestinal parasitic pathogens in hiv-seropositive individuals in northern india.to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-seropositive subjects, fecal samples were collected from 120 hiv-seropositive patients and were analyzed for various intestinal parasites. thirty-six patients (30%) were found to harbor an intestinal parasite. cryptosporidium parvum was the most common (10.8%), followed by giardia lamblia (8.3%). cyclospora cayetanensis and blastocystis hominis each were detected in 3.3% of the patients, while isosp ...200212195048
[encapsulated cord method(enterotest) compared with fecaltest on the diagnosis of criptosporium sp e isospora belli in hiv(+)patients with gastrointestinal symptoms]fecal samples and small intestinal content obtained by enterotest were submitted between december 1994 and january 1996, by hiv (+) patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.unconcentrated and concentrated fecal samples (by sheater, ritchie and spontaneous sedimentation) and intestinal content obtained by enterotest, all stained by modificated ziehl-nielsen method, were compared (multiatributive comparison) based on the following parameters: yield, each test cost, morphology and the number of para ...199812215737
hiv1 and the gut in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.the gut and its gut-associated lymphoid tissue serve as a preferential site for hiv1 entry, active viral replication, reservoir, and hiv-mediated cd4 cell apoptosis. the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart) has resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of opportunistic enteric pathogens as a consequence of immune recovery. nonetheless, patients with advanced hiv1 disease who were recently diagnosed or have poor response to haart can still suffer from opportuni ...200212228041
[prevalence of protozoans in children with acute diarrheal disease].a cross-sectional study was conducted in june-september 1991 in the oral rehydration unit of a children's hospital in santo domingo to determine the prevalence of enteric protozoa as a cause of diarrhea. the 100 randomly selected children were aged 3-35 months and had light to moderate dehydration and diarrhea of less than 15 days' duration. the relationship between the presence of protozoans and various risk factors was assessed following the model of a case control study, with children havin ...199112290552
comparison of autofluorescence and iodine staining for detection of isospora belli in feces.to evaluate the sensitivity of autofluorescence for detection of isospora oocysts, wet preparations of 192 stool samples from patients with chronic diarrhea were examined by fluorescence microscopy and by light microscopy after iodine staining used for routine screening for ova and parasites. silicon-chambered glass coverslips were used for fluorescence microscopy. isospora oocysts were detected in 46 iodine-stained concentrated stool samples; 91 samples were positive by autofluorescence. accord ...200212408672
isosporiasis in children.the clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data of patients with diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) antibody positive, immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals were studied especially to look for prevalence of intestinal coccidiosis. during a study period of one decade, isospora belli were identified in the stool samples of seven children with diarrhea. diarrhea persisted for a little longer period in hiv-seropositive children compared to sero-negatives but the clinical pictur ...200212428040
tropical malabsorption.tropical malabsorption remains an important clinical problem for both the indigenous population of tropical countries and for short-term visitors and longer-term residents from the industrialized world. in young children, persistent diarrhea and malabsorption can result in severe retardation of growth and development. the most common cause is an intestinal infection notably the small intestinal protozoa including giardia intestinalis, cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli, cyclospora cayetanens ...200212465593
the role of dogs in transmission of gastrointestinal parasites in a remote tea-growing community in northeastern india.the prevalence and risk factors associated with canine gastrointestinal parasitic zoonoses and the role of dogs in the mechanical transmission of human ascaris infection was examined in three tea estates in assam, india. nearly all (99%) dogs harbored one or more zoonotic species of gastrointestinal parasites, with hookworm infection being most common (94%). parasitic stages presumed to be host-specific for humans such as ascaris spp. (31%), trichuris trichiura (25%), and isospora belli (2%) wer ...200212479559
evaluation of five stains in diagnosing human intestinal coccidiosis.three hundreds cases over the year 1998 complaining of diarrhoea were examined. the stools were examined by the traditional diagnostic methods and confirmed to be free from intestinal parasites. cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli and cyclospora cayetanensis were detected by using different types of faecal stains namely modified ziehl-neelsen, kinyoun acid-fast, auramine-rhodamine, gomori's trichrome and giemsa. the number of positive cases were 87 c. parvum (29%), 5 cases l. belli (1.7%) and ...199912561927
a randomized, pilot trial comparing full versus escalating dose regimens for the desensitization of aids patients allergic to sulfonamides.sulfonamides are drugs extensively used in the management of aids patients. however, the use of sulfonamides is often associated with the development of allergic reactions, provoking the substitution of the drug (by another that may be less effective); alternatively attempts are made to desensitize the patient.200312585970
[gastrointestinal manifestations of aids in adults in mali].our main objective consists in evaluating the frequency of digestive signs and digestive opportunistic infections in aids patients with diarrhea. the prospective study occurred from january 1997 to july 1998 in bamako hospitals. the patients underwent a clinical examination, blood and stools tests, and sometimes upper digestive endoscopy. among 434 cases of aids, 426 patients (98%) had at least one digestive sign. the main digestive signs were diarrhea (80.1%), abdominal pains (62.2%), vomiting ...200212596372
role of coccidian parasites in causation of diarrhoea in hiv infected patients in chennai.diarrhoea is one of the major problems of hiv positive patients. a coproparasitological study was carried out to assess the role of coccidian parasites in the causation of diarrhoea in hiv infected patients in chennai.200212619445
aids-associated diarrhea and wasting in northeast brazil is associated with subtherapeutic plasma levels of antiretroviral medications and with both bovine and human subtypes of cryptosporidium parvum.advanced hiv infection is frequently complicated by diarrhea, disruption of bowel structure and function, and malnutrition. resulting malabsorption of or pharmacokinetic changes in antiretroviral agents might lead to subtherapeutic drug dosing and treatment failure in individual patients, and could require dose adjustment and/or dietary supplements during periods of diarrheal illness. we determined the plasma levels of antiretroviral medications in patients that had already been started on medic ...200312807688
[intestinal parasitosis: our series from 1992 to 1995].from 1992 to 1995 in our department 2236 researches of intestinal parasites (2194 on stool specimens, 34 on scotch tests, 8 on enterotests) were carried out on 1200 patients (703 hiv-ab negative and 497 hiv-ab positive). on the whole 387 samples (17.34%) of 203 subjects (16.92%) were found parasitized; 92 (13.08%) patients of them were hiv-ab negative and 111 (22.33%) were hiv-ab positive. we found more frequently blastocystis hominis and giardia intestinalis among hiv-ab negative subjects and c ...199612858028
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