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synthesis and antifungal activity of aromatic bis-gamma-lactones analogous to avenaciolide.avenaciolide is a bis-gamma-lactone isolated from aspergillus avenaceus and possesses antifungal activity. here, we describe the total syntheses and characterization by elemental analyses, and ir and nmr spectroscopy of three new bis-gamma-lactones analogous to avenaciolide, where the octyl group of the natural product was replaced by aromatic groups. the effects of the avenaciolide, the novel compounds, and their synthetic precursors on the mycelia development and conidia germination of colleto ...200718081084
purification and identification of cutinases from colletotrichum kahawae and colletotrichum gloeosporioides.colletotrichum kahawae is the causal agent of the coffee berry disease, infecting leaves and coffee berries at any stage of their development. colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal agent of brown blight, infecting ripe berries only. both fungi secrete the same pattern of carboxylesterases to the fermentation broth when cutin is used as carbon source. by using two different strategies composed of two precipitation steps (ammonium sulphate and acetic acid precipitation) and two chromatograp ...200717043825
antimicrobial activity of diospyros anisandra.leaves, root and stem bark of diospyros anisandra were screened against two strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis, one resistant and one susceptible to antibiotics, using the microplate alamar blue assay test. the lypophylic fractions of the root and bark showed significant inhibitory activity against both strains, with the hexane fraction of the bark showing the strongest activity (mic 6.25 microg/ml) against the resistant strain and a significant antimicrobial activity against staphylococcus a ...200717498888
molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of a chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus paecilomyces javanicus.paecilomyces javanicus is an entomopathogenic fungus of coleopteran and lepidopteran insects. here we report on cloning, characterization, and expression patterns of a chitinase from p. javanicus. a strong chitinase activity was detected in p. javanicus cultures added to chitin. the full-length cdna, designated pjchi-1, was cloned from mycelia by using both degenerate primer/reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) amplification and 5'-/3'-race extension. the 1.18-kb cdna gene co ...200717551789
inhibitive effect of fuyuziphine isolated from plant (pittapapra) (fumaria indica) on spore germination of some fungi.the alkaloid fuyuziphine was isolated from the whole plant of fumaria indica. it had inhibitive effect against spore germination of some plant pathogenic fungi (collectotrichum sp., c. gloeosporioides, c. falcatum, curvularia maculans, c. lunata, erysiphe cichoracearum, helminthosporium pennisetti, oidium erysiphoides, ustilago cynodontis, alternaria chieranthi, a. melongenae, a. brassicicola and a. solani). curvularia lunata, oidium erysiphoides, alternaria brassicicola and a. solani did not ge ...200724015088
antimicrobial activity and potential use of monoterpenes as tropical fruits preservatives.banana, papaya and pineapple are the most consumed tropical fruits in the world, being brazil one of the main producers. fungi colletotrichum musae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides and fusarium subglutinans f.sp. ananas cause severe post harvest diseases and losses in fruits quality. the aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of five monoterpenes to inhibit the mycelial growth and conidia germination of these three phytopathogens. the monoterpenes citral, citronellal, l-carvone, isopu ...200824031197
endophytic fungi from leaves of centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of centella asiatica (apiaceae) collected at mangoro (middle eastern region of madagascar, 200 km from antananarivo). forty- five different taxa were recovered. the overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. the most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency if 19.2%) followed by colletotrichum sp.1 (if 13.2%), guignardia sp. (if 8.5%), glomerella sp. (if 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (if 7.2%), the non-sporulating sp ...200817610142
stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide: an investigation of rac-thioridazine biotransformation by some endophytic fungi.the purpose of this study was to develop a method for the stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide (thd-2-so) and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide (thd-5-so) in culture medium and to study the biotransformation of rac-thioridazine (thd) by some endophytic fungi. the simultaneous resolution of thd-2-so and thd-5-so diastereoisomers was performed on a chiralpak as column using a mobile phase of hexane:ethanol:methanol (92:6:2, v/v/v)+0.5% diethylamine; uv detection was carried out at 262 nm. d ...200817614234
biological activities from extracts of endophytic fungi isolated from viguiera arenaria and tithonia diversifolia.a total of 39 endophytic fungi have been isolated from viguiera arenaria and tithonia diversifolia, both collected in são paulo state, brazil. the isolates were identified based on their ribosomal dna sequences. the ethyl acetate (etoac) extracts of all endophytic fungi were evaluated for their antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral activity. antimicrobial screening was conducted using an agar diffusion assay against three pathogenic microorganisms: staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli ...200818081849
synthesis of acyl thiourea derivatives of chitosan and their antimicrobial activities in vitro.three different acyl thiourea derivatives of chitosan (cs) were synthesized and their structures were characterized by ft-ir spectroscopy and elemental analysis. the antimicrobial behaviors of cs and its derivatives against four species of bacteria (escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, and sarcina) and four crop-threatening pathogenic fungi (alternaria solani, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) saec, and phyllisticta zingiber ...200818083151
isolation and identification of antifungal fatty acids from the basidiomycete gomphus floccosus.bioautography of extracts of the fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete gomphus floccosus (schw.) singer indicated the presence of fungitoxic compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction against the plant pathogens colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and colletotrichum acutatum. bioassay-guided fractionation of this fraction resulted in the isolation of the bioactive fatty acids (9 s,10 e,12 z)-9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (1), (9 e,11 z)-13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid ( ...200818557621
pcr-based detection and characterization of the fungal pathogens colletotrichum gloeosporioides and colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose in papaya (carica papaya l.) in the yucatan peninsula.colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the common causal agent of anthracnose in papaya (carica papaya l.) fruits, and infection by this fungal pathogen results in severe post-harvest losses. in the yucatán peninsula (mexico) a different colletotrichum species was isolated from papaya fruits with atypical anthracnose lesions. the dnas from a variety of colletotrichum isolates producing typical and atypical lesions, respectively, were amplified by pcr with c.gloeosporioides-specific primers. all isola ...200818670909
lysobacter capsici sp. nov., with antimicrobial activity, isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper, and emended description of the genus lysobacter.the taxonomic position of a novel bacterial strain, yc5194(t), with antimicrobial activity, isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper in jinju, south korea, was studied using a polyphasic approach. cells of the strain were gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobes. it grew at a temperature of 15-37 degrees c (optimum 28 degrees c). growth of the strain occurred between ph 5.5 and 8.5, with an optimum of ph 7.0-7.5. the strain inhibited mycelial growth of pythium ultimum, colletotrichum gloe ...200818218936
cell cycle and cell death are not necessary for appressorium formation and plant infection in the fungal plant pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides.in order to initiate plant infection, fungal spores must germinate and penetrate into the host plant. many fungal species differentiate specialized infection structures called appressoria on the host surface, which are essential for successful pathogenic development. in the model plant pathogen magnaporthe grisea completion of mitosis and autophagy cell death of the spore are necessary for appressoria-mediated plant infection; blocking of mitosis prevents appressoria formation, and prevention of ...200818275611
pseudocercospora cryptostegiae-madagascariensis sp. nov. on cryptostegia madagascariensis, an exotic vine involved in major biological invasions in northeast brazil.cryptostegia madagascariensis is a plant native from madagascar, belonging to the apocynaceae that is invading the native vegetation in northeast brazil and threatening the unique riverine formations dominated by the carnauba palm. individuals of c. madagascariensis cultivated in the campus of the universidade federal de viçosa, state of minas gerais, brazil, showing leaf spot symptoms of unknown etiology were observed. two fungal species were found associated to such leaf spots: colletotrichum ...200818421570
functional characterization of cgctr2, a putative vacuole copper transporter that is involved in germination and pathogenicity in colletotrichum gloeosporioides.copper is a cofactor and transition metal involved in redox reactions that are essential in all eukaryotes. here, we report that a vacuolar copper transporter that is highly expressed in resting spores is involved in germination and pathogenicity in the plant pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides. a screen of c. gloeosporioides transformants obtained by means of a promoterless green fluorescent protein (gfp) construct led to the identification of transformant n159 in which gfp signal was obser ...200818456860
colletoic acid, a novel 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor from colletotrichum gloeosporioides sank 21404.colletoic acid, a novel 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-hsd1) inhibitor, was found and isolated from the cultured broth of the producing fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides sank 21404. its structure was determined to be a novel acorene-type sesquiterpene by several spectroscopic methods. the absolute structure of colletoic acid was established using a modified mosher's method and single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis.200818503191
crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of recombinant glomerella cingulata cutinase.cutinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of water-soluble esters and long-chain triglycerides and belongs to the family of serine hydrolases. the enzyme is thought to represent an evolutionary link between the esterase and lipase families and has potential applications in a wide range of industrial hydrolytic processes, for which an understanding of the molecular basis of its substrate specificity is critical. glomerella cingulata cutinase has been cloned and the protein has been overexpressed in esche ...200818540061
endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungi of camellia japonica: seasonal and leaf age-dependent variations.seasonal and leaf age-dependent variations in the endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungal assemblages of camellia japonica were examined and compared. live leaves of c. japonica were collected in four seasons (may, aug, nov, feb), and fungi were isolated from healthy-looking leaves of 0, 1, 2 and 3 y old. the infection rate and total number of endophytic fungi increased may-feb, and species richness of endophytes increased as leaves aged. in contrast the infection rate of epiphytic fungi wa ...200818751546
use of solid phase microextraction (spme) for profiling the volatile metabolites produced by glomerella cingulata.the profile of volatile organic compounds (vocs) released from glomerella cingulata using solid phase microextraction (spme) with different fibers, polydimethylsiloxane (pdms), polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (pdms/dvb), carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (car/pdms) and divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (dvb/car/pdms), was investigated. c4-c6 aliphatic alcohols were the predominant fraction of vocs isolated by car/pdms fiber. sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented 20.3% of vocs isolate ...200818838830
antifungal activity of essential oil and its constituents from calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana florin leaf against plant pathogenic fungi.resistance to conventional fungicides causes the poor disease control of agriculture. natural products from plants have great potential as novel fungicide sources for controlling pathogenic fungi. in this study antipathogenic activity of the leaf essential oil and its constituents from calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana florin were evaluated in vitro against six plant pathogenic fungi. chemical analysis of leaf oil by gc/ms allowed identification of alpha-pinene (44.2%), limonene (21.6%), beta ...200818206367
development of new tools for studying gene function in fungi based on the gateway system.genomic information of many fungi has been released but large scale functional genomic studies are still limited by a lack of high-throughput methods. the low rates of homologous recombination and low rates of transformation are limiting steps in filamentous fungi, but the molecular tools are also lagging behind. in this paper we describe two new high-throughput functional genomic tools for filamentous fungi that are based on the gateway technology. one system is the gateway rnai vector for fung ...200818550398
multi-factor regulation of pectate lyase secretion by colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogenic on avocado fruits.tissue alkalinization during colletotrichum gloeosporioides attack enhances the expression of pelb, which encodes pectate lyase (pl), and pl secretion, which is considered essential for full virulence. we studied the regulation of pl secretion by manipulation of c. gloeosporioides pelb. pelb was down-regulated by knocking out pac1, which encodes the pacc transcription factor that regulates gene products with ph-sensitive activities. we functionally characterized a pacc gene homologue, pac1, from ...200818705870
antifungal potential of extracellular metabolites produced by streptomyces hygroscopicus against phytopathogenic fungi.indigenous actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soils were assessed for in vitro antagonism against colletotrichum gloeosporioides and sclerotium rolfsii. a potent antagonist against both plant pathogenic fungi, designated sra14, was selected and identified as streptomyces hygroscopicus. the strain sra14 highly produced extracellular chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase during the exponential and late exponential phases, respectively. culture filtrates collected from the exponential and stationar ...200818825279
catalysis by glomerella cingulata cutinase requires conformational cycling between the active and inactive states of its catalytic triad.cutinase belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters and triglycerides. structural studies on the enzyme from fusarium solani have revealed the presence of a classic catalytic triad that has been implicated in the enzyme's mechanism. we have solved the crystal structure of glomerella cingulata cutinase in the absence and in the presence of the inhibitors e600 (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and petfp (3-phenethylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one) to resolutions between ...200918983850
enantioselective analysis of propranolol and 4-hydroxypropranolol by ce with application to biotransformation studies employing endophytic fungi.a ce method is described for the enantioselective analysis of propranolol (prop) and 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-oh-prop) in liquid czapek medium with application in the study of the enantioselective biotransformation of prop by endophytic fungi. the electrophoretic conditions previously optimized were as follows: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 4% w/v carboxymethyl-beta-cd in 25 mmol/l triethylamine/phosphoric acid (h(3)po(4)) buffer at ph 9 as running electrolyte and 17 kv of voltage. uv detec ...200919876961
molecular and morphological markers for rapid distinction between 2 colletotrichum species.endophytic microorganisms reside asymptomatically within plants and are a source of new bioactive products for use in medicine, agriculture, and industry. colletotrichum (teleomorph glomerella) is a fungus widely cited in the literature as a producer of antimicrobial substances. identification at the species level, however, has been a problem in this type of study. several authors have reported the presence of endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant maytenus ilicifolia ("espinheira-santa") in ...200919898550
an oxidized ergosterol from pleurotus cystidiosus active against anthracnose causing colletotrichum gloeosporioides.this study was undertaken to study the antifungal activity of pleurotus cystidiosus against colletotrichum gloeosporioides. this was achieved by fractionating the mushroom, p. cystidiosus initially to acetone (a), dichloromethane (d), and hexane (h) and studying the antifungal activity using the standard poisoned food technique. all the test solutions used were in the concentration of 20,000 ppm. the percentage inhibition of extracts a, d, and h was 12, 7, and 0.4%, respectively. antifungal assa ...200918825508
syntheses, crystal structure, spectroscopic characterization and antifungal activity of new n-r-sulfonyldithiocarbimate metal complexes.five new compounds with the general formula of (bu(4)n)(2)[m(rso(2)ncs(2))(2)], where bu(4)n=tetrabutylammonium cation, (m=ni, r=4-fc(6)h(4)) (1), (m=zn, r=4-fc(6)h(4), 4-clc(6)h(4), 4-brc(6)h(4), 4-ic(6)h(4)), (2), (3), (4) and (5), respectively, were obtained by the reaction of the appropriate potassium n-r-sulfonyldithiocarbimate (rso(2)n=cs(2)k(2)) with nickel(ii) chloride hexahydrate or zinc(ii) acetate dihydrate in metanol:water 1:1. the elemental analyses and the ir data are consistent wi ...200919505726
the salicylic acid-induced protection of non-climacteric unripe pepper fruit against colletotrichum gloeosporioides is similar to the resistance of ripe fruit.the anthracnose fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides deleteriously affects unripe pepper fruit, but not ripe fruit. here, we show that the induction of local acquired resistance (lar) by salicylic acid (sa), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, or benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid s-methyl ester pretreatment protects unripe pepper fruit against the fungus, while jasmonic acid (ja) does not. the sa-mediated lar in the unripe fruit inhibited the fungal appressoria, resulting in protection ag ...200919701640
in vivo and in vitro investigations of fungal keratitis caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.to report a case of fungal keratitis caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which is a rare pathogen in humans.200920028265
secondary metabolite profile and phytotoxic activity of genetically distinct forms of colletotrichum gloeosporioides from yam (dioscorea spp.).highly virulent, slow-growing grey (sgg); moderately virulent, fast-growing salmon (fgs); and avirulent/weakly virulent, fast-growing grey (fgg) forms of colletotrichum gloeosporioides have been described from yam (dioscorea spp.), but little is known about their chemodiversity or the role of toxins in their pathogenesis. secondary metabolite profiles in high performance tlc (hptlc) showed that the pathogenic sgg and fgs forms have a chemotype (a or b) that is distinct from the non-pathogenic fg ...200918929651
mycofumigation with oxyporus latemarginatus ef069 for control of postharvest apple decay and rhizoctonia root rot on moth orchid.to characterize the volatile antifungal compound produced by oxyporus latemarginatus ef069 and to examine in vitro and in vivo fumigation activity of the fungus.200919120615
brazilian mycobiota of the aquatic weed sagittaria montevidensis.nine species of fungi on the aquatic weed sagittaria montevidensis (arrowhead) in southern and southeastern brazil were collected, identified, described and illustrated in a survey for possible biological control agents against this weed. seven of them are anamorphic fungi, alternaria alternata, botrytis cinerea, cercospora apii, cercospora sagittariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, plectosporium alismatis and pseudocercospora arthrospora, and two smut fungi, doassansiopsis deformans and naras ...200919537213
colletotrichum gloeosporioides growth-no-growth interface after selected microwave treatments.to study microwave heating for potential postharvest treatments against anthracnose disease, colletotrichum gloeosporioides growth-no-growth response after selected microwave treatments (2,450 mhz) was fitted by using a logistic regression model. evaluated variables were power level, exposure time, presence or absence of water in the medium during treatment, and incubation-observation time. depending on the setting, the applied power ranged from 77.2 to 435.6 w. for the experiments on dry medium ...200919681265
cgopt1, a putative oligopeptide transporter from colletotrichum gloeosporioides that is involved in responses to auxin and pathogenicity.the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene produces high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) in axenic cultures and during plant infection. we generated a suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for iaa-induced genes and identified a clone, which was highly expressed in iaa-containing medium.200919698103
molecular and biochemical characterization of iranian surfactin-producing bacillus subtilis isolates and evaluation of their biocontrol potential against aspergillus flavus and colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the characterization of surfactin-producing bacillus subtilis isolates collected from different ecological zones of iran is presented. characterization was performed using blood agar, pcr, drop-collapse, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) analyses, and the isolates' biocontrol effects against the aflatoxin-producing agent aspergillus flavus and the citrus antracnosis agent colletotrichum gloeosporioides were studied. in total, 290 b. subtilis isolates were isolated f ...200919396239
the distinctive population structure of colletotrichum species associated with olive anthracnose in the algarve region of portugal reflects a host-pathogen diversity hot spot.anthracnose (colletotrichum spp.) is an important disease of olive fruits. diversity and biogeographic relationships of the olive anthracnose pathogens in the algarve (portugal) were investigated, along with host association patterns and disease levels during 2004-2007, to test the hypothesis that this region is a host-pathogen diversity hot spot. diverse colletotrichum acutatum and colletotrichum gloeosporioides populations were identified based on rrna-internal transcribed spacer and partial b ...200919459972
global antifungal profile optimization of chlorophenyl derivatives against botrytis cinerea and colletotrichum gloeosporioides.twenty-two aromatic derivatives bearing a chlorine atom and a different chain in the para or meta position were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi botrytis cinerea and colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the results showed that maximum inhibition of the growth of these fungi was exhibited for enantiomers s and r of 1-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2-phenylethanol (3 and 4). furthermore, their antifungal activity showed a clear structure-activity relati ...200919489624
synthesis, characterization, absolute structural determination and antifungal activity of a new chlorinated aromatic avenaciolide analogue.avenaciolide, a natural product isolated from aspergillus avenaceus h. smith, possesses several interesting biological properties, such as antifungal and antibacterial activities and inhibition of glutamate transport in mitochondria. in a study aiming to discover new compounds with antifungal activity, a bis-gamma-lactone analogous to avenaciolide was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and infrared and nmr spectroscopy.200918785221
antagonism of bacillus spp. isolated from marine biofilms against terrestrial phytopathogenic fungi.we aimed at determining the antagonistic behavior of bacteria derived from marine biofilms against terrestrial phytopathogenic fungi. some bacteria closely related to bacillus mojavensis (three isolates) and bacillus firmus (one isolate) displayed antagonistic activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides atcc 42374, selected as first screen organism. the four isolates were further quantitatively tested against c. gloeosporioides, colletotrichum fragariae, and fusarium oxysporum on two culture ...200918931878
identification of the fungal pathogen that causes strawberry anthracnose in bangladesh and evaluation of in vitro fungicide activity.this study was conducted to identify the colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of strawberry in balgladesh and to evaluate in vitro activity of commercial fungicides it. based on morphological and cultural characteristics, all 22 isolates were identified as colletotrichum gloeosporioides. they developed white or glittery colonies with grey to dark grey reverse colony colors and they produced cylindrical conidia. the efficacy of five commercial fungicides, bavistin df, dithane m-45, ...200923983513
essential oil prepared from cymbopogon citrates exerted an antimicrobial activity against plant pathogenic and medical microorganisms.essential oils are mixtures of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. some essential oils have useful biological activities including antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antiplasmodial, and insect-repelling activities. in this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of essential oil prepared from the aromatic plant, cymbopogon citrates, against three important plant pathogenic and medical microorganisms, pectobacterium carotovorum, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and aspergillus nig ...200923983507
occurrence of anthracnose on highbush blueberry caused by colletotrichum species in korea.a total of 82 isolates of colletotrichum species were obtained from anthracnose symptoms of highbush blueberry trees grown in the gochang area of korea during a disease survey in 2008. out of the isolates, 75 were identified as colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the others as c. acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. twenty six of c. gloeosporioides isolates produced their teleomorph glomerella cingulata in pda culture. three isolates of each c. gloeosporioides and c ...200923983555
immunohistochemical investigation of the necrotrophic phase of the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the biocontrol of hemp sesbania (sesbania exaltata; papilionaceae).• premise of the study: fungal plant pathogens exert much of their effect on plant cells through alterations in the host cell walls. however, obtaining biochemical proof for this change is difficult because of the relatively small number of cells that are affected by the pathogen relative to the bulk of host tissue. in this study, we examined the differences in host wall composition between infected and uninfected areas of seedlings of the weed hemp sesbania (sesbania exaltata) that were treated ...201021616840
specific detection of benzimidazole resistance in colletotrichum gloeosporioides from fruit crops by pcr-rflp.anthracnose diseases, caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, are a worldwide problem and are especially important in taiwan owing to the severe economic damage they cause to tropical fruits that are grown for local consumption and export. benzimidazoles are systemic fungicides widely used for controlling these diseases in taiwan. thirty-one isolates of c. gloeosporioides from mango and strawberry grown in taiwan were examined for their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides. the responses of ...201019854306
production of biosurfactant lipopeptides iturin a, fengycin and surfactin a from bacillus subtilis cmb32 for control of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.a bacterial strain isolated from soil for its potential to control the anthracnose disease caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides was identified as a bacillus subtilis. bacillus subtilis cmb32 produced antifungal agents on m9 broth at 30degreesc. biosurfactant lipopeptides produced by bacillus subtilis cmb32 were precipitated by adjusting to ph 2 and extracting using chloroform/methanol, and then were purified using column chromatography and reverse-phase hplc. molecular masses of the lipopept ...201020134245
a cona-like lectin from dioclea guianensis benth. has antifungal activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides, unlike its homologues, conm and cona.this study reports on the antifungal activity of dgui, a cona-like lectin from dioclea guianensis seeds. dgui inhibited conidial germination but not mycelial growth of colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the lectins cona and conm from canavalia ensiformis and canavalia maritima, respectively, share high levels of amino acid sequence similarity (>84%) with dgui and have the same specificity toward glucose/mannose but had no effect on the fungus. fluorescence microscopy showed that both dgui and conm ...201020201549
electroporation and agrobacterium-mediated spore transformation.genetic transformation is a key technology in modern fungal research. most commonly, protoplasts are transformed using the polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation protocols. because protoplasts are generated by treatment of mycelia with a crude enzyme preparation, the results tend to be inconsistent. furthermore, some species cannot be transformed by this method. electroporation (ep) and agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (amt) are two alternative methods. these methods allow ...201020238258
identification of endophytic bacterial strain mgp1 selected from papaya and its biocontrol effects on pathogens infecting harvested papaya fruit.traditional approaches to the control of diseases of papaya fruit rely on the use of synthetic chemicals, which can cause serious human health and environmental problems. endophytes might be used as an alternative to chemicals to effectively control diseases of harvested papaya fruit.201020355035
suppression of sos-inducing activity of chemical mutagens by metabolites from microbial transformation of (-)-isolongifolene.in this study, biotransformation of (-)-isolongifolene (1) by glomerella cingulata and suppressive effect on umuc gene expression by chemical mutagens 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide) and aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)) of the sos response in salmonella typhimurium ta1535/psk1002 were investigated. initially, 1 was carried out the microbial transformation by g. cingulata. the result found that 1 was converted into (-)-isolongifolen-9-one (2), (-)-(2s)-13-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9- ...201020108941
additions to the mycobiota of the invasive weed miconia calvescens (melastomataceae).miconia calvescens (melastomataceae) is a shrub or small tree native to the neotropics that has become one of the worst invaders of forest ecosystems, particularly in pacific islands such as hawaii and french polynesia. it has been a target for biological control for more than 10 y, both with arthropod and pathogen natural enemies. until now colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. miconiae was the only organism to be used in biological control against this weed. this fungus was introduced both in ...201020120231
diketopiperazines produced by endophytic fungi found in association with two asteraceae species.diketopiperazine (dkp) derivatives, named colletopiperazine, fusaperazine c and e as well as four known dkps were isolated from cultures of colletotrichum gloeosporioides, penicillium crustosum, both endophytic fungi isolated from viguiera robusta, and a fusarium spp., an endophyte of viguiera arenaria, respectively. their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data. conformational analysis of two known dkps showed that folded conformations were as energetically stable a ...201020541231
entry mode-dependent function of an indole glucosinolate pathway in arabidopsis for nonhost resistance against anthracnose pathogens.when faced with nonadapted fungal pathogens, arabidopsis thaliana mounts nonhost resistance responses, which typically result in the termination of early pathogenesis steps. we report that nonadapted anthracnose fungi engage two alternative entry modes during pathogenesis on leaves: turgor-mediated invasion beneath melanized appressoria, and a previously undiscovered hyphal tip-based entry (hte) that is independent of appressorium formation. the frequency of hte is positively regulated by carboh ...201020605856
extending the fungal host range of a partitivirus and a mycoreovirus from rosellinia necatrix by inoculation of protoplasts with virus particles.the potential host range of mycoviruses is poorly understood because of the lack of suitable inoculation methods. recently, successful transfection has been reported for somatically incompatible fungal isolates with purified virus particles of two mycoviruses, the partitivirus rnpv1-w8 (rnpv1) and the mycoreovirus rnmyrv3/w370 (myrv3), from the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix (class sordariomycetes, subclass xylariomycetidae). these studies examined and revealed the effect of the mycov ...201020701490
sexual recombination in colletotrichum lindemuthianum occurs on a fine scale.glomerella cingulata f. sp phaseoli is the sexual phase of the fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of common bean anthracnose. this fungus is of great concern, because it causes large economic losses in common bean crops. rapd markers of five populations of g. cingulata f. sp phaseoli from two brazilian states were analyzed to determine if this population possesses the sexual reproductive potential to generate the genetic variation that is observed in this phytopathogen. we id ...201020830667
ph regulation of ammonia secretion by colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its effect on appressorium formation and pathogenicity.host-tissue alkalinization via ammonia accumulation is key to colletotrichum spp. colonization. using macroarrays carrying c. gloeosporioides cdnas, we monitored gene expression during the alkalinization process. a set of genes involved in synthesis and catabolism of ammonia accumulation were identified. expression of nad(+)-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh2, encoding ammonia synthesis) and the ammonia exporter amet were induced at ph 4.0 to 4.5. conversely, ammonia uptake and transcript ac ...201020121452
microbial transformation of (-)-isolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus glomerella cingulata.the biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. the biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (-)-isolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. compound 1 was converted to (-)-(3r)-3-hydroxy-isolongifolol and (-)-(9r)-9-hydroxy-isolongifolol by g. cingulata.201020431240
pelb gene in isolates of colletotrichum gloeosporioides from several hosts.colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an important pathogen for a great number of economically important crops. during the necrotrophic phase of infection by colletotrichum spp, the degradative enzymes of plant cell walls, such as pectate lyase, clearly increase. a gene pelb that expresses a pectate lyase was identified in isolates of c. gloeosporioides in avocado pathogens. various molecular studies have identified a kind of specialization of c. gloeosporioides isolates with specific hosts; however ...201020449798
biotransformation of bergapten and xanthotoxin by glomerella cingulata.the biotransformation of bergapten (1) by the fungus glomerella cingulata gave the corresponding reduced acid, 6,7-furano-5-methoxy hydrocoumaric acid (2), a new compound. xanthotoxin (3) was also converted to the corresponding reduced acid cnidiol b (4) and demethylated metabolite xanthotoxol (5) by g. cingulata. the structure of the new compound 2 was elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry, extensive nmr techniques, including (1)h nmr and (13)c nmr, (1)h-(1)h correlation spectroscopy, ...201020527746
control of colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) sacc. in yellow passion fruit using cymbopogon citratus essential oil.the use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. on the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. the aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils fro ...201024031465
metallocene catalyzed synthesis of fungistatic vicinal aminoalcohols under solvent free conditions.group 4 and 5 metallocenes, cp(2)ticl(2), cp(2)zrcl(2) and cp(2)vcl(2), have been evaluated as catalyst in the solvent free, room temperature, preparation of vicinal aminoalcohols. the regioselectivity of the reaction and the fungistatic activity of the prepared compounds against botrytis cinerea and colletotrichum gloeosporioides are discussed.201020864345
colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. associated with theobroma cacao and other plants in panama: multilocus phylogenies distinguish host-associated pathogens from asymptomatic endophytes.colletotrichum interacts with numerous plant species overtly as symptomatic pathogens and cryptically as asymptomatic endophytes. it is not known whether these contrasting ecological modes are optional strategies expressed by individual colletotrichum species or whether a species' ecology is explicitly pathogenic or endophytic. we explored this question by inferring relationships among 77 c. gloeosporioides s.l. strains isolated from asymptomatic leaves and from anthracnose lesions on leaves and ...201020943565
the fungicidal terpenoids and essential oil from litsea cubeba in tibet.a new c₉ monoterpenoid acid (litseacubebic acid, 1) and a known monoterpene lactone (6r)-3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-2-octen-6-olide (2), along with three known compounds--vanillic acid (3), trans-3,4,5-trimethoxylcinnamyl alcohol (4), and oxonantenine (5)--were isolated with bioassay-guided purification from the fruit extract of litsea cubeba collected in tibet. the structure of 1 was elucidated by ms, ¹h-nmr, ¹³c-nmr, cosy, hsqc, hmbc, noe spectral data as 2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2e,4e-hepta-2,4-die ...201020944522
colonization of cashew plants by lasiodiplodia theobromae: microscopical features.lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus causing gummosis, a threatening disease for cashew plants in brazil. in an attempt to investigate the ultrastructural features of the pathogen colonization and its response to immunofluorescence labeling, light, confocal and electron microscope studies were conducted on different severity scale patterns of diseased plants. lasiodiplodia-antisera was checked for cross reactivity against common cashew plants fungi. optical microscopy analysis re ...201021194959
bioactive xanthones from the roots of hypericum perforatum (common st john's wort).extracts of hypericum perforatum l. (common st john's wort; hypericaceae) are sold as phytopharmaceuticals and herbal supplements to treat mild to moderate depression and as food additives. extensively cultivated in europe, plants can be infected by anthracnose (colletotrichum gloeosporioides), a virulent fungal pathogen that causes tissue necrosis and dramatically decreases crop value. such infections triggered the production of new secondary metabolites, specifically xanthones, in cell culture ...201021218475
biotransformation of isoimperatorin and imperatorin by glomerella cingulata and beta-secretase inhibitory activity.biotransformation studies conducted on the furanocoumarins isoimperatorin (1) and imperatorin (3) have revealed that 1 was metabolized by glomerella cingulata to give the corresponding reduced acid, 6,7-furano-5-prenyloxy hydrocoumaric acid (2), and 3 was transformed by g. cingulata to give the dealkylated metabolite, xanthotoxol (4) in high yields (83% and 81%), respectively. the structures of the new compound 2 have been established on the basis of spectral data. the metabolites 2 and 4 were t ...201019939683
identification of a passiflora alata curtis dimeric peptide showing identity with 2s albumins.antifungal proteins and peptides, essential compounds for plant defense, have been isolated from several tissues of various plants. these proteins could be used as a natural alternative to control phytopathogenic fungi. in this report a heterodimeric antifungal protein named pa-afp1, showing higher identity with the 2s albumin family, was purified by using 70-100% ammonium sulfate saturation and further purification steps such as anionic exchange q-sepharose chromatography associated with hplc r ...201020955745
enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens in transgenic populus tomentosa carr. by overexpression of an nsltp-like antimicrobial protein gene from motherwort (leonurus japonicus).the antimicrobial protein gene ljamp2 is a plant non-specific lipid transfer protein from motherwort (leonurus japonicus). in this study, it was introduced into chinese white poplar (populus tomentosa carr.) via agrobacterium-mediated transformation with neomycin phosphotransferase ii gene conferring kanamycin resistance as selectable marker. a total of 16 poplar lines were obtained, and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis established the stable integration of transgenes in the plant genome ...201021084346
[characterization of a bacterial biocontrol strain 1404 and its efficacy in controlling postharvest citrus anthracnose].anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) sacc. is a main disease in citrus production. to develop an effective biocontrol measure against citrus postharvest anthracnose, we screened antagonistic microbes and obtained a bacterial strain 1404 from the rhizospheric soil of chili plants in nanning city, guangxi, china. the objectives of the present study were to: (1) identify and characterize the antagonistic bacterium; and (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the antagonistic strain ...201021090261
polygalacturonase inhibiting protein: isolation, developmental regulation and pathogen related expression in panax ginseng c.a. meyer.polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (pgips) are the major defense proteins which play an important role in resistance to infection of pathogens. a putative novel gene encoding pgip was isolated from panax ginseng c.a. meyer, which shows 70.3 and 68.4% homology with chick pea and arabidopsis pgips. the race pcr was preformed to isolate the full-length pgip cdna from panax ginseng. sequence analysis revealed that the cdna of pgpgip is of 1,275 bp in length and that it's containing orf encodes fo ...201019946753
biological control of anthracnose (colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in yam by streptomyces sp.mjm5763.to find a suitable biocontrol agent for yam anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.201121714834
microbial transformation of isopimpinellin by glomerella cingulata.microbial transformation studies conducted on isopimpinellin (1) by the fungus glomerella cingulata have revealed that 1 was metabolized to give the corresponding reduced acid, 5,8-dimethoxy-6,7-furano-hydrocoumaric acid (2). the structure of metabolite 2 was elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (hr-ms), extensive nmr techniques, including (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, (1)h-(1)h correlation spectroscopy (cosy), heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (hmqc) and heteonuclear multiple bond cohe ...201122027023
structural analysis of fungal cerebrosides.of the ceramide monohexosides (cmhs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical ...201122164155
a novel antifungal protein from seeds of sesbania virgata (cav.) pers. (leguminosae-faboideae).a novel antifungal protein with a molecular mass around 50 kda was purified from seeds of sesbania virgata (cav.) pers. using ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by gel filtration on a sephadex g-75 superfine (sigma) column and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography on a c8 column. the protein, designated fp1-a, with a novel n-terminal sequence amvhspgg(s)fs(p), showed growth inhibitory activity of filamentous fungi aspergillus niger, cladosporium cladosporioides, colletotrichu ...201121881792
Application of the Apn2/MAT locus to improve the systematics of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex: An example from coffee (Coffea spp.) hosts.To improve phylogenetic resolution of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex we developed and tested the performance of a new set of primers for the Apn2/MAT locus with a case study of 22 isolates. These were isolated mainly from coffee plants and represent six divergent and well characterized species within the C. gloeosporioides complex. Following previous studies on this locus, we have generated sequence data from an expanded region (>4600 bp), revealing increased phylogenetic inf ...201122086913
arabidopsis enhanced disease resistance 1 is required for pathogen-induced expression of plant defensins in nonhost resistance and acts through interference of myc2-mediated repressor function.arabidopsis thaliana exhibits durable resistance, called nonhost resistance, against non-adapted fungal pathogens that typically terminates pathogen entry. the pen2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism pathway is involved in preventing entry of a range of non-adapted fungi. here, we report that enhanced disease resistance 1 (edr1) functions in pre-invasive nonhost resistance. plants lacking edr1 exhibit impaired entry resistance to the non-adapted hemibiotrophic colletotrichum gloeosporioid ...201121605210
novel bioactive metabolites producing endophytic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides against multidrug-resistant staphylococcus aureus.the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus calls for inventive research and development strategies. inhibition of this bacterial pathogenesis may be a promising therapeutic approach. the screening of antimicrobial compounds from endophytes is a promising way to meet the increasing threat of drug-resistant strains of human and plant pathogens. in the present study, a novel endophytic fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, was isolated from the medicinal plant vi ...201121219448
generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ests) for marker development in yam (dioscorea alata l.).anthracnose (colletotrichum gloeosporioides) is a major limiting factor in the production of yam (dioscorea spp.) worldwide. availability of high quality sequence information is necessary for designing molecular markers associated with resistance. however, very limited sequence information pertaining to yam is available at public genome databases. therefore, this collaborative project was developed for genetic improvement and germplasm characterization of yams using molecular markers. the curren ...201121303556
osmotin purified from the latex of calotropis procera: biochemical characterization, biological activity and role in plant defense.a protein, similar to osmotin- and thaumatin-like proteins, was purified from calotropis procera (ait.) r.br latex. the isolation procedure required two cation exchange chromatography steps on 50mm na-acetate buffer (ph 5.0) cm-sepharose fast flow and 25 mm na-phosphate buffer (ph 6.0) resource-s, respectively. the protein purity was confirmed by an unique n-terminal sequence [atftirnncpytiwaaavpgggrrlnsggtwtinvapgta]. the osmotin (cposm) appeared as a single band (20,100 da) in sodium dodecyl s ...201121334906
pathogenicity for onion and genetic diversity of isolates of the pathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides (phyllachoraceae) from the state of pernambuco, brazil.onion anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the main diseases of onions in the state of pernambuco. we examined the pathogenicity of 15 c. gloeosporioides strains and analyzed their genetic variability using rapds and internal transcribed spacers (its) of the rdna region. ten of the strains were obtained from substrates and hosts other than onion, including chayote (sechium edule), guava (psidium guajava), pomegranate (punica granatum), water from the capibaribe river, ...201121365546
microbial metabolism of a-mangostin isolated from garcinia mangostana l.a-mangostin (1), a prenylated xanthone isolated from the fruit hull of garcinia mangostana l., was individually metabolized by two fungi, colletotrichum gloeosporioides (eyl131) and neosartorya spathulata (eyr042), repectively. incubation of 1 with c. gloeosporioides (eyl131) gave four metabolites which were identified as mangostin 3-sulfate (2), mangostanin 6-sulfate (3), 17,18-dihydroxymangostanin 6-sulfate (4)and isomangostanin 3-sulfate (5). compound 2 was also formed by incubation with n. s ...201121377704
identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease. 201121457542
regulation of pathogenic spore germination by cgrac1 in the fungal plant pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides.colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a facultative plant pathogen: it can live as a saprophyte on dead organic matter or as a pathogen on a host plant. different patterns of conidial germination have been recognized under saprophytic and pathogenic conditions, which also determine later development. here we describe the role of cgrac1 in regulating pathogenic germination. the hallmark of pathogenic germination is unilateral formation of a single germ tube following the first cell division. however, ...201121460190
species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences.the estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or on the assignment of operational taxonomic units (otus). consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. the main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influence biodiversity estimates ...201121557783
Heterologous overexpression of Glomerella cingulata FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris.ABSTRACT:201122151971
identification and biocontrol efficacy of streptomyces miharaensis producing filipin iii against fusarium wilt.a number of bacterial strains were isolated from the internal tissue of trapa japonica. of these, strain kpe62302h, which had a 16s rdna sequence identical to that of streptomyces miharaensis showed antifungal activity against several plant pathogens. treatment of seeds with strain kpe62302h induced a significant reduction in the incidence of fusarium wilt in tomato plants compared with untreated controls. an antifungal substance (fp-1) was purified from the culture extract of strain kpe62302h u ...201122460913
antifungal activity and isomerization of octadecyl p-coumarates from ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa.bioassay monitored hplc assisted isolation and purification of the chief antifungal fraction of the leaves of ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (convulvulaceae) were achieved using colletotrichum gloeosporioides and cladosporium cucumerinum as test organisms. the activity of the purified fraction was further confirmed by the dose dependent inhibition of the spore germination of alternaria alternata and a. porri. the active fraction was identified as a mixture of (e)-octadecyl p-coumarate and (z)-o ...201122312731
antifungal activity in ethanolic extracts of carica papaya l. cv. maradol leaves and seeds.bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. an ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from carica papaya l. cv. maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. the effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identif ...201122282629
diversity and antimicrobial activities of the fungal endophyte community associated with the traditional brazilian medicinal plant solanum cernuum vell. (solanaceae).the diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with the brazilian medicinal plant solanum cernuum vell. were studied during summer and winter seasons. a total of 246 fungal isolates were obtained, including 225 filamentous fungi and 21 yeasts. they were identified by morphological, physiological, and molecular methods. fifty-five different taxa represented by the phyla ascomycota (33 taxa), basidiomycota (21 taxa), and zygomycota (one taxon) were identified. the most a ...201122182199
cloning and characterization of a pectin lyase gene from colletotrichum lindemuthianum and comparative phylogenetic/structural analyses with genes from phytopathogenic and saprophytic/opportunistic microorganisms.abstract: background: microorganisms produce cell-wall-degrading enzymes as part of their strategies for plant invasion/nutrition. among these, pectin lyases (pnls) catalyze the depolymerization of esterified pectin by a beta-elimination mechanism. pnls are grouped together with pectate lyases (pl) in family 1 of the polysaccharide lyases, as they share a conserved structure in a parallel beta-helix. the best-characterized fungal pectin lyases are obtained from saprophytic/opportunistic fungi i ...201122151976
isolation and characterization of trichoderma spp. for antagonistic activity against root rot and foliar pathogens.trichoderma, soil-borne filamentous fungi, are capable of parasitising several plant pathogenic fungi. twelve isolates of trichoderma spp. isolated from different locations of south andaman were characterized for their cultural, morphological and antagonistic activity against soil borne and foliar borne pathogens. the sequencing of these isolates showed seven different species. the isolates revealed differential reaction patterns against the test pathogens viz., sclerotium rolfsii, colletotrichu ...201123729873
production of prodigiosin and chitinases by tropical serratia marcescens strains with potential to control plant pathogens.the potential of three serratia marcescens strains (cffsur-b2, cffsur-b3 and cffsur-b4) isolated from tropical regions in mexico to inhibit the mycelial growth and conidial germination of colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causal agent of fruit anthracnose, was evaluated. the ability of these strains to produce prodigiosin and chitinases when cultivated in oil seed-based media (peanut, sesame, soybean and castor bean) and in luria-bertani medium was determined. all of the strains exhibited similar ...201122806790
high-efficiency transformation and selective tolerance against biotic and abiotic stress in mulberry, morus indica cv. k2, by constitutive and inducible expression of tobacco osmotin.osmotin and osmotin-like proteins are stress proteins belonging to the plant pr-5 group of proteins induced in several plant species in response to various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. we report here the overexpression of tobacco osmotin in transgenic mulberry plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (camv 35s) as well as a stress-inducible rd29a promoter. southern analysis of the transgenic plants revealed the stable integration of the introduced genes in the transformants. ...201120549349
bioactive metabolites from phoma species, an endophytic fungus from the chinese medicinal plant arisaema erubescens.through bioassay-guided fractionation, the etoac extract of a culture broth of the endophytic fungus phoma species zjwcf006 in arisaema erubescens afforded a new α-tetralone derivative, (3s)-3,6,7-trihydroxy-α-tetralone (1), together with cercosporamide (2), β-sitosterol (3), and trichodermin (4). the structures of compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. compounds 1, 2, and 3 were obtained from phoma species for the first time. additionally, the compounds were subjecte ...201121814808
clinical characteristics of keratitis due to colletotrichum gloeosporioides.abstract purpose: to determine the characteristics of the keratitis due to colletotrichum gloeosporioides. methods: the medical records of 3 cases of fungal keratitis caused by c. gloeosporioides were reviewed to determine the clinical characteristics. the minimal inhibitory concentrations of different antifungal drugs for all 3 isolates were determined. all 3 isolates were grown on sabouraud dextrose agar at 25°c, 35°c, and 37°c to determine the temperature-sensitive growth. results: all 3 pati ...201121770739
genetic differentiation of colletotrichum gloeosporioides and c. truncatum associated with anthracnose disease of papaya (carica papaya l.) and bell pepper (capsium annuum l.) based on its pcr-rflp fingerprinting.members of the genus colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. two species, colletotrichum gloeosporioides and c. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (carica papaya l.) and bell pepper (capsicum annuum l.) in trinidad. the its1-5.8s-its2 region of 48 colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the its pcr products were analyzed by pcr-rflp analysis ...201121720933
antifungal activity of sakurasosaponin from the root extract of jacquinia flammea.the methanolic crude extract from the roots of jacquinia flammea showed moderate antifungal activity against dermatophytes and very strong antifungal activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the bioassay-guided purification of the extract, using a combination of vacuum-liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, allowed the identification of sakurasosaponin as the main metabolite responsible for the antifungal activity.201121740284
effect of jasmonates on ethylene biosynthesis and aroma volatile emission in japanese apricot infected by a pathogen (colletotrichum gloeosporioides).the effects of the application of the jasmonic acid derivative n-propyl dihydrojasmonate (pdj) on ethylene biosynthesis, volatile compounds, and endogenous jasmonic acid (ja) and methyl jasmonate (meja) were examined in japanese apricot (prunus mume sieb.) infected by a pathogen (colletotrichum gloeosporioides). the fruit were dipped into 0.4 mm pdj solution before inoculation with the pathogen and stored at 25 °c for 6 days. the inoculation induced an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxyli ...201121599017
Reduction of quinones and phenoxy radicals by extracellular glucose dehydrogenase from Glomerella cingulata suggests a role in plant pathogenicity.The plant-pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata (anamorph Colletotrichum gloeosporoides) secretes high levels of an FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) when grown on tomato juice-supplemented media. To elucidate its molecular and catalytic properties, GDH was produced in submerged culture. The highest volumetric activity was obtained in shaking flasks after 6 days of cultivation (3400 U l?¹, 4.2?% of total extracellular protein). GDH is a monomeric protein with an isoelectric point of 5.6 ...201121903757
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