ph modulation of zopfiellin antifungal activity to colletotrichum and botrytis.zopfiellin, a novel cyclooctanoid natural product isolated from zopfiella curvata no. 37-3, was evaluated in a 96-well microtiter assay for fungicidal activity against botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and fusarium oxysporum. zopfiellin exhibited ph-dependent activity, with the most mycelial growth inhibition demonstrated at ph 5.0. mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies indicated that zopfiellin un ...200212428951
expression of a glycogen synthase protein kinase homolog from colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. malvae during infection of malva pusilla.the potential role of a gsk3 protein kinase homolog, cggsk, was examined from colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. malvae, a fungal pathogen of malva pusilla. a peak in cggsk expression relative to a constitutively expressed fungal actin gene occurred during host penetration and was followed by much lower expression levels during subsequent biotrophic and necrotrophic growth in host tissue. the peak level of cggsk expression observed during penetration was 21-fold greater than that during necrot ...200212556131
purification and characterization of an endochitinase produced by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides was analyzed for chitinase activity, the best production occurring at the fourth day. a 43 kda endochitinase with specific activity of 413 u microg(-1) protein was purified corresponding to a 75% yield. the optima of temperature and ph for the enzyme were 50 degrees c and ph 7.0, respectively. the enzyme showed a high stability at 50 degrees c and ph 7.0. values of ph from 5.0 up to 7.0 gave, at least, 50% of maximum activity, suggesting ...200312757945
external ph and nitrogen source affect secretion of pectate lyase by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.accumulation of ammonia and associated tissue alkalinization predispose fruit to attack by colletotrichum gloeosporioides: as the external ph increases from 4.0 to 6.0, pectate lyase (pl) and other extracellular proteins are secreted and accumulate. at ph 4.0 neither pelb (encoding pl) transcription nor pl secretion were detected; however, they were detected as the ph increased. nitrogen assimilation also was required for pl secretion at ph 6.0. both inorganic and organic nitrogen sources enhanc ...200312788724
activity of quinones on colletotrichum species.the antifungal activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones, 1,2-naphthoquinones, 1,4-benzoquinones, and anthraquinones from our natural products collection was tested by direct bioautography to identify natural products with potential use in agricultural fungal pathogen control. quinones demonstrated good to moderate antifungal activity against colletotrichum spp. colletotrichum fragariae was the most sensitive species to quinone-based chemistry, colletotrichum gloeosporioides had intermediate sensitivity, ...200312797750
three pathogen-inducible genes encoding lipid transfer protein from pepper are differentially activated by pathogens, abiotic, and environmental stresses.the three cdna clones, caltpi, caltpii, and caltpiii, corresponding to pepper lipid transfer protein (ltp) genes were isolated from a pepper (capsicum annuum) cdna library from hypersensitive response (hr) lesions of leaves infected with xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. the caltp genes are well conserved in their coding region with 57-72% identity at the amino acid level, but display 72-83% identity at the nucleotide sequence level. the transcripts of the three caltp genes differentially ...200312803619
isolation of defense-related genes differentially expressed in the resistance interaction between pepper fruits and the anthracnose fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides.unripe mature green fruits of pepper (capsicum annuum) are susceptible to colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas ripe red fruits are not. we established this pepper-c. gloeosporioides interaction as a model system to study the fungal resistance that develops during ripening of nonclimacteric fruit. histochemical examination of transverse sections suggested that fungal invasion 24 h after inoculation (hai) and colonization 48 hai are critical events that differentiate between resistant and susce ...200312872991
comparison of cross inoculation potential of south african avocado and mango isolates of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.three hundred and eighteen colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from stem-end rot and anthracnose infected avocados as well as from stem-end rot/anthracnose and soft brown rot on mango, were compared using fruit inoculations. isolates could be categorised according to lesion size and both avocado and mango isolates produced larger lesions when inoculated on their own hosts. cross-inoculation potential of these isolates was also compared on strawberries, peppers, guavas, papayas and citrus. al ...200312906387
quantitative structure-fungitoxicity relationships of some monohydric alcohols.the fungitoxicity data of some monohydric alcohols on the mycelial growth inhibition of colletotrichum gloeosporioides were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (qsar) studies. the very large variation in the median effective concentrations ranging from >24000 mg/l [pec(50) (mol/l) = 0.11] in the case of methanol to <100 mg/l [pec(50) (mol/l) = 3.27] in the case of citronellol was found to depend mainly on changes in calculated partition coefficients (clogp) of the compounds ...200312926880
the development of tyrosinase and cytochrome oxidase activity in mutants of glomerella cingulata. 195313058410
the nutrition of colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz. 196213984843
targeted gene disruption of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in colletotrichum gloeosporioides reveals evidence that glycerol is a significant transferred nutrient from host plant to fungal pathogen.unidirectional transfer of nutrients from plant host to pathogen represents a most revealing aspect of the parasitic lifestyle of plant pathogens. whereas much effort has been focused on sugars and amino acids, the identification of other significant metabolites is equally important for comprehensive characterization of metabolic interactions between plants and biotrophic fungal pathogens. employing a strategy of targeted gene disruption, we generated a mutant strain (gpdhdelta) defective in gly ...200414563847
calcium restores prepenetration morphogenesis abolished by polyamines in colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting red pepper.colletotrichum gloeosporioides forms a specialized infection structure, an appressorium, to infect its host, red pepper. polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) as well as s-adenosyl methionine inhibitor, methylglyoxal-bis-guanyl hydrazone (mgbg), impaired conidial germination and appressorium formation of c. gloeosporioides. curtailment of cell differentiation by polyamines and mgbg was more evident in conidial germination than in appressorium development. exogenous addition of calciu ...200314592714
fungicidal potential of methoxylated flavones from citrus for in vitro control of colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causal agent of anthracnose disease in tropical fruits.four polymethoxylated flavones (3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, 5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone) were isolated and characterized from cold-pressed orange oil. their antifungal activities were evaluated against colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz) penz & sacc, a major plant pathogen of fruits that causes significant damage to crops in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. methoxylated flavones were effective in in ...200314620052
purification and characterization of an antifungal chitinase in jelly fig (ficus awkeotsang) achenes.a method was developed to purify a 30-kda protein from jelly fig (ficus awkeotsang) pericarp, including preparation of jelly curd from achenes, extraction of proteins from the curd, and isolation of the 30-kda protein by anion-exchanger and gel filtration. chitinase activity was detected in the purified 30-kda protein by activity staining in both non-denaturing gel electrophoresis and sds-page. isoelectrofocusing showed that the isoelectric point of the 30-kda protein was lower than ph 3.5. the ...200314634152
camp regulation of "pathogenic" and "saprophytic" fungal spore germination.we report on the elucidation of two separate pathways of spore germination in a plant pathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. conidia of the fungus can germinate either from one side or from both sides, depending on external conditions. in shake culture that includes an extract made up from fresh peas, the unicellular conidium divides and one of the two cells develops a germ tube. on a solid surface this germ tube differentiates an appressorium. in rich medium witho ...200414761792
two plant alkaloids isolated from corydalis longipes as potential antifungal agents.the alkaloids n-methylhydrasteine hydroxylactam and 1-methoxyberberine chloride were isolated from corydalis longipes. both alkaloids showed high efficacy individually (in concentration of 50-150 ppm) and also in a 1:1 mixture against spore germination of some fungi, viz. alternaria alternata, a. brassicae, curvularia maculans, curvularia sp., colletotrichum gloeosporioides, colletotrichum sp., helminthosporium speciferum, h. pennisetti, helminthosporium sp., and ustilago cynodontis. the antifun ...200314976716
identification of a novel pathogen-induced gene encoding a leucine-rich repeat protein expressed in phloem cells of capsicum annuum.the calrr1 gene, expressed in pepper leaves following infection by xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, encodes a secreted leucine-rich repeat (lrr) with five tandem repeats of a 24-amino-acid lrr motif. northern blot analyses revealed that calrr1 is not constitutively expressed in pepper plants, but is strongly induced upon the infection by x. campestris pv. vesicatoria, phytophthora capsici, colletotrichum coccodes and colletotrichum gloeosporioides on leaves. calrr1 was not systemically in ...200414984927
in planta production of indole-3-acetic acid by colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene.the plant pathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene utilizes external tryptophan to produce indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) through the intermediate indole-3-acetamide (iam). we studied the effects of tryptophan, iaa, and iam on iaa biosynthesis in fungal axenic cultures and on in planta iaa production by the fungus. iaa biosynthesis was strictly dependent on external tryptophan and was enhanced by tryptophan and iam. the fungus produced iam and iaa in planta during the bio ...200415006816
glucosylceramides in colletotrichum gloeosporioides are involved in the differentiation of conidia into mycelial cells.glucosylceramides (glccer) were extracted from the plant pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides and purified by several chromatographic steps. by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, glccer from c. gloeosporioides were identified as n-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl-1-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine and n-2'-hydroxyoctadecenoyl-1-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine. monoclonal antibodies against these structures were produced and ...200415013765
microbial transformation of isosteviol and inhibitory effects on epstein-barr virus activation of the transformation products.microbial transformation of isosteviol (2), a beyerane-type diterpenoid obtained from stevioside (1) by acid hydrolysis, yielded 7beta-hydroxyisosteviol (3), 11beta-hydroxyisosteviol (5), and 12beta-hydroxyisosteviol (6) by the fungus aspergillus niger, 17-hydroxyisosteviol (7) by the fungus glomerella cingulata, and 3 and 7-oxoisosteviol (4) by the fungus mortierella elongate. the five metabolites, 3-7, along with 1 and 2 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on epstein-barr virus early a ...200415043419
production and dispersal of colletotrichum gloeosporioides spores on stylosanthes scabra under elevated co2.this paper reports the effect of twice-ambient (700 ppm) atmospheric co(2) concentration on infection, disease development, spore production and dispersal of the anthracnose pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides in susceptible (fitzroy) and partially resistant (seca) cultivars of the tropical pasture legume stylosanthes scabra under controlled environment and field conditions. reduction in plant height due to anthracnose was partially compensated for by growth enhancement at elevated co(2) in ...200015092933
inactivation of colletotrichum gloeosporioides spores by high hydrostatic pressure combined with citral or lemongrass essential oil.anthracnose, caused by the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is the main post-harvest disease of the papaya. inactivation of the spores of c. gloeosporioides in saline solution by the use of high hydrostatic pressure, citral oil and lemongrass oil, alone and in combination, was studied. c. gloeosporioides spores were efficiently inhibited after a pressure treatment of 350 mpa for 30 min. when c. gloeosporioides was treated with 0.75 mg ml(-1) of citral or lemongrass oil, the pressure needed ...200415240075
qtl mapping of anthracnose ( colletotrichum spp.) resistance in a cross between capsicum annuum and c. chinense.anthracnose fruit rot is an economically important disease that affects pepper production in indonesia. strong resistance to two causal pathogens, colletotrichum gloeosporioides and c. capsici, was found in an accession of capsicum chinense. the inheritance of this resistance was studied in an f(2) population derived from a cross of this accession with an indonesian hot pepper variety ( capsicum annuum) using a quantitative trait locus (qtl) mapping approach. in laboratory tests where ripe fruit ...200415309301
purification and characterization of a lipopeptide produced by bacillus thuringiensis isolate an antagonist for use in the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi including colletotrichum gloeosporioides, then to purify and characterize the biocontrol agent produced by the antagonist.200415479409
antifungal properties of pristimerin and celastrol isolated from celastrus hypoleucus.pristimerin and celastrol isolated from the roots of celastrus hypoleucus (oliv) warb f argutior loes exhibited inhibitory effects against diverse phytopathogenic fungi. pristimerin and celastrol were found to inhibit the mycelial growth of rhizoctonia solani kuhn and glomerella cingulata (stonem) spauld & schrenk in vitro by 83.6 and 62.6%, respectively, at 10 microg ml(-1). pristimerin showed good preventive effect (96.7% at 100 microg ml(-1)) and curative effect (66.5% at 100 microg ml(-1)) a ...200515593077
antimicrobial and insecticidal protein isolated from seeds of clitoria ternatea, a tropical forage legume.the tropical forage legume clitoria ternatea (l.) has important agronomic traits such as adaptation to a wide range of soil conditions and resistance to drought. it is resistant to a number of pathogens and pests. these important traits gave us reasons to look more closely at the plant. a highly basic small protein was purified from seeds of c. ternatea to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration with centricon-3 membrane tubes and preparative granulated-bed isoelectric focusing (ief). a single prot ...200415694280
biotransformation of alpha-bulnesene using a plant pathogenic fungus, glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst.the biotransformation of a sesquiterpene having a guaiane skeleton, namely (+)-alpha-bulnesene was investigated using the plant pathogenic fungus, glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. (+)-alpha-bulnesene was oxidized at the double bond of the isopropenyl group and hydroxylated at the allylic methyl group to (4s,5s,7r)-1(10)-guaien-11,13,15-triol.200515715253
transcript profiles of blumeria graminis development during infection reveal a cluster of genes that are potential virulence determinants.high-density cdna microarrays (2,027 unigenes) were used to analyze transcript profiles of the plant-pathogenic fungus blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei throughout its asexual life cycle and development of infection. rna was obtained from four stages preceding penetration and four stages after penetration of the host cells. the microarray data was validated by comparing the expression of a plasma membrane h+-atpase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase with the data obtained from a quantitative polymer ...200515720081
screening of yucatecan plant extracts to control colletotrichum gloeosporioides and isolation of a new pimarene from acacia pennatula.screening of seven yucatecan plant extracts to look for fungicidal activity for the control of colletotrichum gloeosporioides was carried out. bioassay-directed purification of the root extract of one of the most active plants, acacia pennatula, resulted in the isolation of the new compound 15,16-dihydroxypimar-8(14)-en-3-one (1), which in the in vitro bioassay "agar dilution" was shown to have growth, sporulation, and germination inhibition activity. nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic tec ...200515796574
cloning and immunolocalization of an antifungal chitinase in jelly fig (ficus awkeotsang) achenes.a 30-kda protein extracted from the pericarpial portion of jelly fig (ficus awkeotsang makino) achenes has been identified as a thermostable chitinase based on its enzymatic activity. a cdna fragment encoding the precursor protein (including a cleavable signal sequence) of this chitinase was obtained by pcr cloning, and subsequently confirmed by immunological recognition of its overexpressed protein in escherichia coli. homology modeling predicted that this thermostable chitinase in jelly fig ac ...200515845406
molecular and phenotypic analyses reveal association of diverse colletotrichum acutatum groups and a low level of c. gloeosporioides with olive anthracnose.anthracnose (colletotrichum spp.) is an important disease causing major yield losses and poor oil quality in olives. the objectives were to determine the diversity and distribution pattern of colletotrichum spp. populations prevalent in olives and their relatedness to anthracnose pathogens in other hosts, assess their pathogenic variability and host preference, and develop diagnostic tools. a total of 128 colletotrichum spp. isolates representing all olive-growing areas in portugal and a few iso ...200515932994
effect of different carbon sources on endochitinase production by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the present work analyzes the production of endochitinase by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a phytopathogenic fungus, using six different carbon sources and two ph values. for quantitative assay of endochitinase activity in solution, the synthetic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d-n,n',n"-triacetylchitotrioside was used. the major productions were obtained at ph 7.0 and 9.0, when colloidal chitin and glucose were used, whereas xylose and lactose were not good carbon sources. when testing di ...200515971091
a putative early response of antifungal bacillus lentimorbus wj5 against the plant pathogenic fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, analyzed by a dna microarray.the global rna transcription profiles of bacillus lentimorbus wj5 under an in vitro co-culture with colletotrichum gloeosporioides were analyzed in order to study the antagonistic bacteria-fungi interactions. using a filter membrane system, b. lentimorbus wj5 was exposed to the spores of c. gloeosporioides at the late exponential stage. the transcription profiles of the b. lentimorbus wj5, both with and without a challenge from c. gloeosporioides, were analyzed using custom dna chips containing ...200515995651
effect of the lactoperoxidase system against three major causal agents of disease in mangoes.the antibacterial activity of the lactoperoxidase system (lps) on the growth of xanthomonas campestris, the causal agent of bacterial black spot in mangoes, botryodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of stem-end rot disease in mangoes, and colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of anthracnose disease in mangoes, was determined during culture at 30 degrees c and at several ph values (4.5, 5.5, and 6.5). when the results of using the lps were compared with those from control cultures wi ...200516013395
a colletotrichum gloeosporioides-induced esterase gene of nonclimacteric pepper (capsicum annuum) fruit during ripening plays a role in resistance against fungal infection.ripe fruits of pepper (capsicum annuum) are resistant to the anthracnose fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas unripe-mature fruits are susceptible. a pepper esterase gene (pepest) that is highly expressed during an incompatible interaction between the ripe fruit of pepper and c. gloeosporioides was previously cloned. deduced amino acid sequence of pepest cdna showed homology to both esterases and lipases, and contained -hgggf- and -gxsxg- motifs and a catalytic triad. inhibition of pe ...200516021337
colletotrichum gloeosporioides can overgrow colletotrichum kahawae on green coffee berries first inoculated with c. kahawae.colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a weak pathogen of coffee that infects ripe berries at dark red stage causing necrotic lesions, but only penetrates up to the second superficial layers of the pericarp at the rose and pink stages. c. kahawae, the causal agent of coffee berry disease (cbd) and responsible for 70-80% of crop loss, infects berries at any stage of development. when green berries are first inoculated with c. kahawae and then at 2, 72 or 96 h later with c. gloeosporioides, the necroti ...200516049733
antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents.the antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/l. however, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration.200516106389
pilot-scale production and liquid formulation of rhodotorula minuta, a potential biocontrol agent of mango develop a pilot-plant fermentation process for the production of the yeast rhodotorula minuta, to be used as a biocontrol agent of mango anthracnose, using a low-cost culture medium. to develop a stable liquid formulation that preserve high viability of the yeast stored at 4 degrees c.200516108795
[cloning of -tubulin gene and their correlation with conferred carbendazim resistance of colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz in mango].the total dna isolated from mbc-resistant and mbc-sensitive isolates of colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz (c.g.m) of mango were used as templates in pcr amplification using consensus oligo nucleotide primers designed according to the known sequence data of beta-tubulin-encoding gene (tub 1 and tub2) of colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene (c. g. a). only the primers designed according to c. g. a tub2 amplified specific fragments. these amplified fragments were cloned and sequence ...200416110970
microbial synthesis of chitinase in solid cultures and its potential as a biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides.antifungal activity of chitinase can be effectively utilized in biologic pest control strategies. because solid-state cultivation has been termed a cost-effective means for fungal growth and metabolite production, chitinase production by trichoderma harzianum was studied using wheat bran-based solid medium containing 1% colloidal chitin. chitinase synthesis was found to be growth associated because maximum enzyme (5.4 u/g of dry substrate) and biomass production occurred at 72 h. substrate moist ...200516186619
isolation and identification of antifungal and antialgal alkaloids from haplophyllum sieversii.bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexane/ethyl acetate/water (h/etoac/h2o) crude extract of the aerial parts of haplophyllum sieversii was performed because of preliminary screening data that indicated the presence of growth inhibitory components against colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and colletotrichum acutatum. fractionation was directed using bioautographical methods resulting in the isolation of the bioactive alkaloids flindersine, anhydroevoxine, haplamine, and ...200516190626
a second pectin lyase gene (pel2) from aspergillus oryzae kbn616: its sequence analysis and overexpression, and characterization of the gene products.a second pectin lyase gene, designated pel2, was isolated from a shoyu koji mold aspergillus oryzae kbn616 and characterized. the structural gene comprised 1306 bp with three introns. the orf encoded 375 amino acids with a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. the deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to those of a. oryzae pel1, aspergillus niger pectin lyases and glomerella cingulata pn1a. the pel2 gene was overexpressed under the control of the promoter of the a. oryzae tef1 gene for ...200116233008
cgdn24: a gene involved in hyphal development in the fungal phytopathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides.a cdna corresponding to a transcript induced in culture by n starvation, was identified in colletotrichum gloeosporioides by a differential hybridisation strategy. the cdna comprised 905 bp and predicted a 215 aa protein; the gene encoding the cdna was termed cgdn24. no function for cgdn24 could be predicted by database homology searches using the cdna sequence and no homologues were found in the sequenced fungal genomes. transcripts of cgdn24 were detected in infected leaves of stylosanthes gui ...200516255144
[genetic diversity analysis of chinese stylo anthracnose pathogens using random amplified polymorphic dna].genetic diversity of 43 colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from stylo in china were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) with eight arbitrary 10-base oligonucleotide primers compared with 276 isolates from other countries including two of colletotrichum cutaturn based on a wide survey and disease sample collection. the results showed a good dna polymorphism between isolates. the amplified fragments were between 0.3-2.8 kb. chinese isolates were grouped in clusters ii, iii ...200316279206
colletotrichum acutatum is the main cause of colletotrichum leaf disease of rubber in sri lanka.colletotrichum gloeosporoides has been described as the causal agent of colletotrichum leaf disease of rubber in sri lanka and other parts of the world since 1905. a study carried out on vegetative and reproductive characteristics of 52 isolates from colletotrichum leaf disease lesions on hevea brasiliensis in sri lanka revealed that only 18 isolates belong to colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the remaining 34 isolates represented c. aculatum indicating that c. acutatum is the main cause of collet ...199716284808
growth at different temperatures and on fungicide amended media: two characteristics to distinguish colletotrichum species pathogenic to rubber.slower growth at temperatures ranging from 15 to 32.5 degrees c and high tolerance of three fungicides, benomyl, carbendazim and thio-phanate methyl, were shown to be reliable characteristics in distinguishing rubber isolates of colletotrichum acutatum from colletotrichum gloeosporioides in addition to the characteristics reported previously.199816284845
fungal pathogens of euphorbia heterophylla and e. hirta in brazil and their potential as weed biocontrol agents.a two-year survey of the fungi associated with two important congeneric pantropical weeds, euphorbia heterophylla and e. hirta, was conducted in part of their native range in southern brazil. sampling was concentrated mainly in rio de janeiro state and ten species were identified as pathogens of these weeds. two taxa, botrytis ricini and uromyces euphorbiae, were common to both weed hosts. alternaria euphorbiicola, bipolaris euphorbiae, melampsora sp., oidium sp. and sphaceloma poinsettiae were ...199816284862
induction of phenolic compounds in hypericum perforatum l. cells by colletotrichum gloeosporioides elicitation.changes in phenolic metabolism after elicitation with colletotrichum gloeosporioides (cg) has been studied in hypericum perforatum l. (hp) cell suspension cultures. soluble phenolics were analysed by hplc-dad and hplc-dad-ms/ms. hp cultures elicited with the cg elicitor showed a significant increase in xanthone accumulation. xanthone accumulation increased twelve fold when the cells were primed with methyl-jasmonate (mej) or salicylic acid (sa), before elicitation. hp cultures exposed only to me ...200616324728
[accumulation of carotenoid in colletotrichum gloeosporioides induced by blue light].blue light induced carotenoid accumulation in filamentous fungus- colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the pigment particles were observed in the fungal mycelium by microscope after blue light irradiation. the pigmentation was not found in the fungal mycelium either cultured under dark condition or cultured in red light. the accumulation of the carotenoid was regulated by blue light intensity. when c. gloeosporioides was incubated in blue light of 6.5micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) under 28degreesc, caroten ...200516342780
microplate assay for colletotrichum spore production.a simple microplate method was devised to assay spore production by colletotrichum gloeosporioides by growing the fungus on 1 ml of solid media in the wells of tissue culture plates. growth and sporulation on microplates were compared at days 4 and 8 with growth and sporulation in 100-ml liquid batch cultures that involved 11 common media. spore production per unit volume of medium was the same for solid and liquid forms of the media. qualitative assessment of mycelial growth measured on micropl ...198716347310
microcycle conidiation and spore-carrying capacity of colletotrichum gloeosporioides on solid media.the effect of spore inoculum density, medium concentration, and temperature on slime-spot formation, spore yield, and mycelium production by colletotrichum gloeosporioides on agar media were studied with a simple microplate assay. a steady-state spore yield (spore-carrying capacity) independent of inoculum density was reached only on media that supported good fungal growth and sporulation. the spore-carrying capacity was reached earlier, the denser the inoculum. on standard mycological media a h ...198716347433
sources of variability in the measurement of fungal spore yields.variability in the production of fungal spores and in the measurement of spore yields was investigated in four species of fungi: colletotrichum gloeosporioides, colletotrichum coccodes, colletotrichum phomoides, and acremonium strictum. when the fungi were grown on solid medium in microplates and spore yields were measured by counting the subsamples with a hemacytometer, the variability among hemacytometer squares was always the largest source of variation, accounting for 51 to 91% of the total ...198816347653
colonization of a submersed aquatic plant, eurasian water milfoil (myriophyllum spicatum), by fungi under controlled conditions.a laboratory assay to assess colonization of a submersed aquatic plant, eurasian water milfoil (myriophyllum spicatum), by fungi was developed and used to evaluate the colonization potential of colletotrichum gloeosporioides, acremonium curvulum, cladosporium herbarum, aureobasidium pullulans, a paecilomyces sp., and an unidentified sterile, septate fungus. stem segments of plants were first immersed in suspensions of fungal propagules for 24 h and then washed to remove all but the tightly attac ...198916348013
spore yield and microcycle conidiation of colletotrichum gloeosporioides in liquid culture.the effect of v8 juice concentration (5 to 40%, vol/vol), spore inoculum density (10 and 10 spores per ml), and liquid batch or fed-batch culture condition on mycelium and spore production by colletotrichum gloeosporioides was evaluated. the amount of mycelium produced, the time required for initiation of sporulation following attainment of maximum mycelium, and the time for attainment of maximum spore concentration increased with increasing v8 juice concentration in batch culture. cultures cont ...199016348245
over-expression of a cacao class i chitinase gene in theobroma cacao l. enhances resistance against the pathogen, colletotrichum gloeosporioides.theobroma cacao l. plants over-expressing a cacao class i chitinase gene (tcchi1) under the control of a modified camv-35s promoter were obtained by agrobacterium-mediated transformation of somatic embryo cotyledons. southern blot analysis confirmed insertion of the transgene in eight independent lines. high levels of tcchi1 transgene expression in the transgenic lines were confirmed by northern blot analysis. chitinase activity levels were measured using an in vitro fluorometric assay. the tran ...200616362326
purification and properties of a beta-1,3-glucanase from chaetomium sp. that is involved in mycoparasitism.a beta-1,3-glucanase was detected, using laminarin as substrate, in the culture broth of chaetomium sp. major activity was associated with a 70 kda protein band visualized on a polyacrylamide gel. beta-1,3-glucanase was purified by a one-step, native gel purification procedure. optimal activity was observed at ph 6.0 and 30 degrees c (over 30 min). it could degrade cell walls of plant pathogens including rhizoctonia solani, gibberella zeae, fusarium sp., colletotrichum gloeosporioides and phoma ...200616369697
biotransformation of daidzein ditiglate by microorganisms.biotransformation of the daidzein ditiglate (2) by fungi, aspergillus niger and glomerella cingulata was investigated. compound 2 was transformed to daidzein (1) by a. niger and g. cingulata. this suggested that compound 2 was converted to compound 1 by hydrolysis at both of the c-7 and c-4' positions.200616401565
effect of ammonia production by colletotrichum gloeosporioides on pelb activation, pectate lyase secretion, and fruit pathogenicity.the accumulation of ammonia and associated tissue alkalinization predispose avocado fruit to attack by colletotrichum gloeosporioides. secretion of ammonia by c. gloeosporioides in the presence of kno3 was induced by decreasing the ph from 7.0 to 4.0. when the fungus was grown at ph 4.0 or 6.0 in the absence of a nitrogen source, ammonia did not accumulate, and neither pelb (encoding pectate lyase) transcription nor pectate lyase secretion was detected. under these nitrogen starvation conditions ...200616461646
antifungal activity of thiophenes from echinops ritro.extracts from 30 plants of the greek flora were evaluated for their antifungal activity using direct bioautography assays with three colletotrichum species. among the bioactive extracts, the dichloromethane extract of the radix of echinops ritro (asteraceae) was the most potent. bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of eight thiophenes. antifungal activities of isolated compounds together with a previously isolated thiophene from echinops transiliensis were first eva ...200616506815
gene expression analysis during conidial germ tube and appressorium development in colletotrichum trifolii.preinfection development in colletotrichum spp. exhibits three morphologies (conidia, germ tubes, and appressoria) and is directed by a complex interplay of environmental signals. germ tube morphogenesis for colletotrichum trifolii and the related fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene was shown to be partially dependent on a balance between self-germination inhibitors and environmental nutrients or cutin. the degree of responsiveness to these environmental signals was strikin ...199716535630
dehydro-alpha-lapachone isolated from catalpa ovata stems: activity against plant pathogenic fungi.the methanol extract of stems of catalpa ovata g don exhibits potent in vivo antifungal activity against magnaporthe grisea (hebert) barr (rice blast) on rice plants, botrytis cinerea pers ex fr (tomato grey mould) and phytophthora infestans (mont) de bary (tomato late blight) on tomato plants, puccinia recondita rob ex desm (wheat leaf rust) on wheat plants and blumeria graminis (dc) speer f. sp. hordei marchal (barley powdery mildew) on barley plants. an antifungal substance was isolated and i ...200616550502
characterization of volatile constituents of haplopappus greenei and studies on the antifungal activity against phytopathogens.essential oil of haplopappus greenei a. gray was obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts, which were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. major components were identified as carvacrol (8.7%), beta-pinene (7.6%), trans-pinocarveol (6.2%), and caryophyllene oxide (5.8%), respectively. in total, 104 components representing 84.9% of the investigated essential oil were characterized. furthermore, the essential oil was evaluated for antimalarial, ...200616608244
chemical composition and antifungal activity of salvia macrochlamys and salvia recognita essential oils.essential oils of salvia macrochlamys and salvia recognita were obtained by hydrodistillation of dried aerial parts and characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. one hundred and twenty identified constituents representing 97.7% in s. macrochlamys and 96.4% in s. recognita were characterized, and 1,8-cineole, borneol, and camphor were identified as major components of the essential oils. the oils were evaluated for their antimalarial, antimicrobial, and antifun ...200616939314
synthesis and free radical scavenging activity of a novel metabolite from the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides.a novel metabolite (-)-1 was isolated as its peracetylated derivative, (-)-2-(3',4'-diacetoxyphenyl)-3,4-diacetoxytetrahydrofuran (2), from a strain of the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides cect 20122. the synthesis of (-)-1 was carried out by ring-closing metathesis of diene 6 and stereoselective dihydroxylation of a dihydrofuran derivative 7 as key steps. the tetraol (-)-1 showed free radical scavenging activity comparable to that of bht, caffeic acid or protocatechuic acid ...200616950623
bcl-2 proteins link programmed cell death with growth and morphogenetic adaptations in the fungal plant pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides.proteins belonging to the bcl-2 family regulate apoptosis in mammals by controlling mitochondria efflux of cytochrome c and other apoptosis-related proteins. homologues of human bcl-2 proteins are found in different metazoan organisms where they play a similar role, while they seem to be absent in plants and fungi. nonetheless, bcl-2 protein members can induce or prevent yeast cell death, suggesting that enough functional conservation exists between apoptotic machineries of mammals and fungi. he ...200716950636
the antifungal activity of widdrol and its biotransformation by colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) penz. & sacc. and botrytis cinerea pers.: fr.widdrol (1) was tested against the necrotrophic plant pathogens botrytis cinerea and colletotrichum gloeosporioides. while 1 was found to be inactive against c. gloeosporioides, it showed a selective and effective control of b. cinerea, significantly inhibiting the mycelial growth of the fungus at concentrations of 100 ppm and above. in addition, the biotransformation of 1 by both fungi was studied. incubation with c. gloeosporioides and b. cinerea afforded four and one biotransformation product ...200617002416
[the preparation of an elicitor from a fungal endophyte to enhance artemisinin production in hairy root cultures of artemisia annua l].the different components of crude mycelium of the predominant endophytic colletotrichum gloeosporioides of artemisa annua have been extracted by the methods of acid hydrolysate. we compared the effect of the isolated components on artemisin biosynthesis in hairy root cultures. therefore, the oligosaccharide elicitor from c. gloeosporioides has been partially purified by column chromatography of sephadex g25. the isolated oligosaccharide b ii (elicitor, mw < 2500) has been revealed to promote the ...200617037210
purification and identification of cutinases from colletotrichum kahawae and colletotrichum gloeosporioides.colletotrichum kahawae is the causal agent of the coffee berry disease, infecting leaves and coffee berries at any stage of their development. colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal agent of brown blight, infecting ripe berries only. both fungi secrete the same pattern of carboxylesterases to the fermentation broth when cutin is used as carbon source. by using two different strategies composed of two precipitation steps (ammonium sulphate and acetic acid precipitation) and two chromatograp ...200717043825
dammarane triterpenoids from the roots of gentiana rigescens.six new minor dammarane triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of gentiana rigescens. these include one aglycone, gentirigenic acid (1), and five glycosides, gentirigeosides a-e (2-6). their structures were elucidated through detailed spectroscopic analyses, including 1d and 2d nmr techniques, and enzymatic hydrolysis. antifungal testing of these compounds showed that the glycosides gentirigeosides a (2), c (4), and e (6) had antifungal activity against the plant pathogen glomerella cingulat ...200717375953
extracellular alkaline proteinase of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the main proteinase of the filamentous fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnoses and serious problems for production and storage of agricultural products has molecular mass of 57 kd and was purified more than 200-fold to homogeneity with the yield of 5%. maximal activity of the proteinase is at ph 9.0-10.0, and the enzyme is stable at ph 6.0-11.5 (residual activity not less than 70%). the studied enzyme completely kept its activity to 55 degrees c, with a temperature optimum of ...200717447890
biotransformation of (+)-cycloisolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus glomerella cingulata.the biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. the biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (+)-cycloisolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. compound 1 gave one major metabolic product and a number of minor metabolic products. major product was dehydration at the c-8 position to (+)-dehydrocycloisolongifolene (2). the structure of t ...200717487618
antimicrobial activity of diospyros anisandra.leaves, root and stem bark of diospyros anisandra were screened against two strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis, one resistant and one susceptible to antibiotics, using the microplate alamar blue assay test. the lypophylic fractions of the root and bark showed significant inhibitory activity against both strains, with the hexane fraction of the bark showing the strongest activity (mic 6.25 microg/ml) against the resistant strain and a significant antimicrobial activity against staphylococcus a ...200717498888
molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of a chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus paecilomyces javanicus.paecilomyces javanicus is an entomopathogenic fungus of coleopteran and lepidopteran insects. here we report on cloning, characterization, and expression patterns of a chitinase from p. javanicus. a strong chitinase activity was detected in p. javanicus cultures added to chitin. the full-length cdna, designated pjchi-1, was cloned from mycelia by using both degenerate primer/reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) amplification and 5'-/3'-race extension. the 1.18-kb cdna gene co ...200717551789
endophytic fungi from leaves of centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of centella asiatica (apiaceae) collected at mangoro (middle eastern region of madagascar, 200 km from antananarivo). forty- five different taxa were recovered. the overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. the most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency if 19.2%) followed by colletotrichum sp.1 (if 13.2%), guignardia sp. (if 8.5%), glomerella sp. (if 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (if 7.2%), the non-sporulating sp ...200817610142
stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide: an investigation of rac-thioridazine biotransformation by some endophytic fungi.the purpose of this study was to develop a method for the stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide (thd-2-so) and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide (thd-5-so) in culture medium and to study the biotransformation of rac-thioridazine (thd) by some endophytic fungi. the simultaneous resolution of thd-2-so and thd-5-so diastereoisomers was performed on a chiralpak as column using a mobile phase of hexane:ethanol:methanol (92:6:2, v/v/v)+0.5% diethylamine; uv detection was carried out at 262 nm. d ...200817614234
fungal pathogens of miconia calvescens (melastomataceae) from brazil, with reference to classical biological control.a survey of fungal pathogens of miconia calvescens was carried out in brazil aimed at finding potential classical biocontrol agents for management of this invasive alien weed in hawaii. coccodiella miconiae, glomerella cingulata (= colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. miconiae) and the new species guignardia miconiae and korunomyces prostratus were found associated with foliar diseases and are described herein. two previously undescribed spore stages of coccodiella miconiae also were obtained a ...200717663128
gcstua, an apses transcription factor, is required for generation of appressorial turgor pressure and full pathogenicity of glomerella cingulata.glomerella cingulata, which infects a number of different hosts, gains entry to the plant tissue by means of an appressorium. turgor pressure generated within the appressorium forces a penetration peg through the plant cuticle. a visible lesion forms as the fungus continues to grow within the host. a g. cingulata homolog (gcstua) of the genes encoding asm1, phd1, sok2, efg1, and stua transcription factors in magnaporthe grisea and other fungi was cloned and shown to be required for infection of ...200717849713
endophytic fungi as models for the stereoselective biotransformation of thioridazine.the stereoselective kinetic biotransformation of thioridazine, a phenothiazine neuroleptic drug, by endophytic fungi was investigated. in general, the sulfur of lateral chain (position 2) or the sulfur of phenothiazinic ring (position 5) were oxidated yielding the major human metabolites thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide. the quantity of metabolites biosynthesized varied among the 12 endophytic fungi evaluated. however, mono-2-sulfoxidation occurred in higher ratio and freque ...200717876580
effect of hexanal vapor on the growth of postharvest pathogens and fruit decay.the effect of the natural volatile hexanal was studied as an antifungal agent on the major postharvest fungal pathogens botrytis cinerea, monilinia fructicola, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, alternaria alternata, and colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the antifungal effect of hexanal vapor was dependent on concentration and treatment duration, but sensitivity of the pathogens varied. all spores of b. cinerea and m. fructicola were killed after exposure to 900 microl/l for 12 h at 20 degrees c, and almos ...200717995777
identification of glomerella cingulata f. sp phaseoli recombinants by rapd markers.we examined the capacity of strains of glomerella cingulata f. sp phaseoli fungus (colletotrichum lindemuthianum sexual stage) to form recombinants, using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd). crosses of all possible combinations between strains 40, 42, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26 were made on petri dishes using m3 culture medium. the 42 x 21 cross produced the largest number of perithecia and five asci; the respective ascospores were isolated. rapd analysis was performed on the parents an ...200718050079
fumigant activity of essential oils and components of illicium verum and schizonepeta tenuifolia against botrytis cinerea and colletotrichum develop a natural fungicide against botrytis cinerea and colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a total of 25 essential oils were tested for their fumigant activity against post-harvest pathogens. the vaporous phases of oils were treated to each fungus on potato dextrose agar medium in half-plate separated petri plates at 10 microg per plate. the essential oil of illicium verum strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of both b. cinerea and c. gloeosporioides by over 90%. on the other hand, the essent ...200718062240
synthesis and antifungal activity of aromatic bis-gamma-lactones analogous to avenaciolide.avenaciolide is a bis-gamma-lactone isolated from aspergillus avenaceus and possesses antifungal activity. here, we describe the total syntheses and characterization by elemental analyses, and ir and nmr spectroscopy of three new bis-gamma-lactones analogous to avenaciolide, where the octyl group of the natural product was replaced by aromatic groups. the effects of the avenaciolide, the novel compounds, and their synthetic precursors on the mycelia development and conidia germination of colleto ...200718081084
biological activities from extracts of endophytic fungi isolated from viguiera arenaria and tithonia diversifolia.a total of 39 endophytic fungi have been isolated from viguiera arenaria and tithonia diversifolia, both collected in são paulo state, brazil. the isolates were identified based on their ribosomal dna sequences. the ethyl acetate (etoac) extracts of all endophytic fungi were evaluated for their antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral activity. antimicrobial screening was conducted using an agar diffusion assay against three pathogenic microorganisms: staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli ...200818081849
synthesis of acyl thiourea derivatives of chitosan and their antimicrobial activities in vitro.three different acyl thiourea derivatives of chitosan (cs) were synthesized and their structures were characterized by ft-ir spectroscopy and elemental analysis. the antimicrobial behaviors of cs and its derivatives against four species of bacteria (escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, and sarcina) and four crop-threatening pathogenic fungi (alternaria solani, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) saec, and phyllisticta zingiber ...200818083151
antifungal activity of essential oil and its constituents from calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana florin leaf against plant pathogenic fungi.resistance to conventional fungicides causes the poor disease control of agriculture. natural products from plants have great potential as novel fungicide sources for controlling pathogenic fungi. in this study antipathogenic activity of the leaf essential oil and its constituents from calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana florin were evaluated in vitro against six plant pathogenic fungi. chemical analysis of leaf oil by gc/ms allowed identification of alpha-pinene (44.2%), limonene (21.6%), beta ...200818206367
lysobacter capsici sp. nov., with antimicrobial activity, isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper, and emended description of the genus lysobacter.the taxonomic position of a novel bacterial strain, yc5194(t), with antimicrobial activity, isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper in jinju, south korea, was studied using a polyphasic approach. cells of the strain were gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobes. it grew at a temperature of 15-37 degrees c (optimum 28 degrees c). growth of the strain occurred between ph 5.5 and 8.5, with an optimum of ph 7.0-7.5. the strain inhibited mycelial growth of pythium ultimum, colletotrichum gloe ...200818218936
cell cycle and cell death are not necessary for appressorium formation and plant infection in the fungal plant pathogen colletotrichum order to initiate plant infection, fungal spores must germinate and penetrate into the host plant. many fungal species differentiate specialized infection structures called appressoria on the host surface, which are essential for successful pathogenic development. in the model plant pathogen magnaporthe grisea completion of mitosis and autophagy cell death of the spore are necessary for appressoria-mediated plant infection; blocking of mitosis prevents appressoria formation, and prevention of ...200818275611
pseudocercospora cryptostegiae-madagascariensis sp. nov. on cryptostegia madagascariensis, an exotic vine involved in major biological invasions in northeast brazil.cryptostegia madagascariensis is a plant native from madagascar, belonging to the apocynaceae that is invading the native vegetation in northeast brazil and threatening the unique riverine formations dominated by the carnauba palm. individuals of c. madagascariensis cultivated in the campus of the universidade federal de viçosa, state of minas gerais, brazil, showing leaf spot symptoms of unknown etiology were observed. two fungal species were found associated to such leaf spots: colletotrichum ...200818421570
functional characterization of cgctr2, a putative vacuole copper transporter that is involved in germination and pathogenicity in colletotrichum gloeosporioides.copper is a cofactor and transition metal involved in redox reactions that are essential in all eukaryotes. here, we report that a vacuolar copper transporter that is highly expressed in resting spores is involved in germination and pathogenicity in the plant pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides. a screen of c. gloeosporioides transformants obtained by means of a promoterless green fluorescent protein (gfp) construct led to the identification of transformant n159 in which gfp signal was obser ...200818456860
colletoic acid, a novel 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor from colletotrichum gloeosporioides sank 21404.colletoic acid, a novel 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-hsd1) inhibitor, was found and isolated from the cultured broth of the producing fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides sank 21404. its structure was determined to be a novel acorene-type sesquiterpene by several spectroscopic methods. the absolute structure of colletoic acid was established using a modified mosher's method and single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis.200818503191
crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of recombinant glomerella cingulata cutinase.cutinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of water-soluble esters and long-chain triglycerides and belongs to the family of serine hydrolases. the enzyme is thought to represent an evolutionary link between the esterase and lipase families and has potential applications in a wide range of industrial hydrolytic processes, for which an understanding of the molecular basis of its substrate specificity is critical. glomerella cingulata cutinase has been cloned and the protein has been overexpressed in esche ...200818540061
development of new tools for studying gene function in fungi based on the gateway system.genomic information of many fungi has been released but large scale functional genomic studies are still limited by a lack of high-throughput methods. the low rates of homologous recombination and low rates of transformation are limiting steps in filamentous fungi, but the molecular tools are also lagging behind. in this paper we describe two new high-throughput functional genomic tools for filamentous fungi that are based on the gateway technology. one system is the gateway rnai vector for fung ...200818550398
isolation and identification of antifungal fatty acids from the basidiomycete gomphus floccosus.bioautography of extracts of the fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete gomphus floccosus (schw.) singer indicated the presence of fungitoxic compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction against the plant pathogens colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and colletotrichum acutatum. bioassay-guided fractionation of this fraction resulted in the isolation of the bioactive fatty acids (9 s,10 e,12 z)-9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (1), (9 e,11 z)-13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid ( ...200818557621
pcr-based detection and characterization of the fungal pathogens colletotrichum gloeosporioides and colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose in papaya (carica papaya l.) in the yucatan peninsula.colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the common causal agent of anthracnose in papaya (carica papaya l.) fruits, and infection by this fungal pathogen results in severe post-harvest losses. in the yucatán peninsula (mexico) a different colletotrichum species was isolated from papaya fruits with atypical anthracnose lesions. the dnas from a variety of colletotrichum isolates producing typical and atypical lesions, respectively, were amplified by pcr with c.gloeosporioides-specific primers. all isola ...200818670909
multi-factor regulation of pectate lyase secretion by colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogenic on avocado fruits.tissue alkalinization during colletotrichum gloeosporioides attack enhances the expression of pelb, which encodes pectate lyase (pl), and pl secretion, which is considered essential for full virulence. we studied the regulation of pl secretion by manipulation of c. gloeosporioides pelb. pelb was down-regulated by knocking out pac1, which encodes the pacc transcription factor that regulates gene products with ph-sensitive activities. we functionally characterized a pacc gene homologue, pac1, from ...200818705870
endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungi of camellia japonica: seasonal and leaf age-dependent variations.seasonal and leaf age-dependent variations in the endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungal assemblages of camellia japonica were examined and compared. live leaves of c. japonica were collected in four seasons (may, aug, nov, feb), and fungi were isolated from healthy-looking leaves of 0, 1, 2 and 3 y old. the infection rate and total number of endophytic fungi increased may-feb, and species richness of endophytes increased as leaves aged. in contrast the infection rate of epiphytic fungi wa ...200818751546
synthesis, characterization, absolute structural determination and antifungal activity of a new chlorinated aromatic avenaciolide analogue.avenaciolide, a natural product isolated from aspergillus avenaceus h. smith, possesses several interesting biological properties, such as antifungal and antibacterial activities and inhibition of glutamate transport in mitochondria. in a study aiming to discover new compounds with antifungal activity, a bis-gamma-lactone analogous to avenaciolide was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and infrared and nmr spectroscopy.200918785221
antifungal potential of extracellular metabolites produced by streptomyces hygroscopicus against phytopathogenic fungi.indigenous actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soils were assessed for in vitro antagonism against colletotrichum gloeosporioides and sclerotium rolfsii. a potent antagonist against both plant pathogenic fungi, designated sra14, was selected and identified as streptomyces hygroscopicus. the strain sra14 highly produced extracellular chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase during the exponential and late exponential phases, respectively. culture filtrates collected from the exponential and stationar ...200818825279
an oxidized ergosterol from pleurotus cystidiosus active against anthracnose causing colletotrichum gloeosporioides.this study was undertaken to study the antifungal activity of pleurotus cystidiosus against colletotrichum gloeosporioides. this was achieved by fractionating the mushroom, p. cystidiosus initially to acetone (a), dichloromethane (d), and hexane (h) and studying the antifungal activity using the standard poisoned food technique. all the test solutions used were in the concentration of 20,000 ppm. the percentage inhibition of extracts a, d, and h was 12, 7, and 0.4%, respectively. antifungal assa ...200918825508
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