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leaf surface specializations of birds and arthropods in a panamanian forest.most species of panamanian lowland forest birds specialize on leaf undersurfaces when hunting foliage insects. the few species of leaf surface generalists and leaf upper surface specialists are omnivorous gleaners. we estimate that while over 90% of the avian understory insectivory is directed towards leaf undersurfaces, only 50% of canopy foliage insectivory is directed towards the undersides of leaves. in the low understory we found 70-80% of the arthropods on leaf undersides. the excess use o ...198028310635
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