evolutionary diversity in polystomatids infecting tetraploid and octoploid xenopus in east african highlands: biological and molecular evidence.species of protopolystoma are monogenean flukes that only infect allopolyploid hosts in the anuran genus xenopus. multivariate analyses of morphometric sclerite characters in the nominal species protopolystoma simplicis suggest that morphologically distinguishable populations occur in the tetraploid host, xenopus laevis victorianus, and in each of the octoploid hosts, x. vestitus and x. wittei. the species-level divergence of a lineage specific to x. laevis is supported by sequence variation in ...200717428353
mutual exclusion of congeneric monogenean species in a space-limited habitat.adults of the monogenean genus protopolystoma infecting xenopus species occur in an extremely space-limited habitat, the urinary bladder. xenopus wittei, from a population in rwanda naturally infected with protopolystoma fissilis and protopolystoma simplicis, were exposed to reinfection in captivity (for 1-3 months post-capture) and then monitored in the laboratory for up to 5 months in transmission-free conditions. the two parasites co-occurred in individual bladders less frequently than expect ...19989881381
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