salmonella in adélie penguins (pygoscelis adeliae) and south polar skuas (catharacta maccormicki) on ross island, antarctica. 19734583956
thelebolus microsporus mycelial mats in the trachea of wild brown skua (catharacta antarctica lonnbergi) and south polar skua (c. maccormicki) carcasses.sixteen brown skuas (catharacta antarctica lonnbergi) and seven south polar skuas (c. maccormicki) were found dead near boekella lake, hope bay, antarctica, in february 1997. postmortem examination revealed conspicuous caseous, deep yellow fungal/mycelial mats or cores in the trachea of nine of 19 carcasses that were examined. these mycelial cores, highly suggestive of aspergillomas, completely occluded the tracheal lumen in four of these nine carcasses. thelebolus microsporus, a psychrophilic a ...200212038146
outbreaks of avian cholera in hope bay, antarctica.during austral summers 1999-2000 and 2000-01, two outbreaks of avian cholera occurred in the hope bay area (63 degrees 24's, 56 degrees 59'w), located on the tip of the antarctic peninsula. eighty-six dead birds were found: five kelp gulls (larus dominicanus), 36 skuas (stercorarius sp.), and 45 adelie penguins (pygoscelis adeliae). the carcasses were studied using clinical, pathological, and microbiological criteria. water samples from ponds where birds were settled and samples from 90 healthy ...200616870848
chlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in migrating and resident seabirds from east and west antarctica.the unhatched eggs of the following seabirds were analyzed to quantify pcbs, hexachlorobenzene (hcb), +¦-, +¦-, +¦-, +¦-hexachlorocyclohexanes (hchs), o,p' and p,p' isomers of ddt, ddd and dde: resident ad+¿lie (pygoscelis ad+¿liae, adpe) and emperor (aptenodytes forsteri, empe) penguins, migrating snow petrel (pagodroma nivea, snpt) and south polar skua (catharacta maccormicki, spsk) from the ross sea (east antarctica); and migrating brown skua (catharacta antartica, brsk) and resident adpe fro ...201121704375
Full genome analysis of a novel adenovirus from the South Polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki) in Antarctica.Adenoviruses have been identified in humans and a wide range of vertebrate animals, but not previously from the polar region. Here, we report the entire 26,340-bp genome of a novel adenovirus, detected by PCR, in tissues of six of nine South Polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki), collected in Lake King Sejong, King George Island, Antarctica, from 2007 to 2009. The DNA polymerase, penton base, hexon and fiber genes of the South Polar skua adenovirus (SPSAdV) exhibited 68.3%, 75.4%, 74.9% and 48.0% ...201222078165
environmental contamination in antarctic ecosystems.although the remote continent of antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the southern ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-antarctic islands. over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transport ...200818765160
bioaccumulation, temporal trend, and geographical distribution of synthetic musks in the marine environment.bioaccumulation of synthetic musks in a marine food chain was investigated by analyzing marine organisms at various trophic levels, including lugworm, clam, crustacean, fish, marine mammal, and bird samples collected from tidal flat and shallow water areas of the ariake sea, japan. two of the polycyclic musks, hhcb and ahtn, were the dominant compounds found in most of the samples analyzed, whereas nitro musks were not detected in any of the organisms, suggesting greater usage of polycyclic musk ...200717438766
organochlorines in antarctic and arctic avian top predators: a comparison between the south polar skua and two species of northern hemisphere gulls.different organochlorine compounds (ocs) were measured in the blood of breeding south polar skuas (catharacta maccormicki) at svarthamaren, dronning maud land (antarctica) and compared to those in two species of northern hemisphere gulls: the arctic glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) and the subarctic great black-backed gull (larus marinus). the skuas had 8% and 29% of the sigmaoc levels (45 ng/g, wet weight) of glaucous gulls (591 ng/g) and great black-backed gulls (158 ng/g), respectively. poly ...200616683630
molecular dynamics analysis of a second phosphate site in the hemoglobins of the seabird, south polar skua. is there a site-site migratory mechanism along the central cavity?hemoglobin function is modulated by several non-heme ligands; among these effectors, organic phosphates generally bind to heterotropic sites with a one-to-one stoichiometry. the phosphate binding site of human hemoglobin is located at the interface between the two beta chains. an additional binding site for polyanions has been studied at the molecular level (tamburrini, m., a. riccio, m. romano, b. giardina, and g. di prisco. 2000. eur. j. biochem. 267:6089-6098) in the hemoglobins of the south ...200111566768
metal dynamics in an antarctic food chain.the concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium, selenium and mercury were determined in eggs, muscle, liver, kidney and stomach content of nestilings and adults of the antarctic petrel, thalassoica antarctica, and its predator, the south polar skua, chataracta maccormicki, from svarthamaren, dronning maud land, antarctica. the dominant food of the petrels is krill, euphausia superba. the results show relatively high levels of cadmium in krill, which is assumed to be the main reason for the high lev ...200111488240
a novel adenovirus in chinstrap penguins (pygoscelis antarctica) in antarctica.adenoviruses (family adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. in this study, we examined multiple tissues from chinstrap penguins (pygoscelis antarctica), collected in antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by pcr. analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (cspadv-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5% ...201424811321
exploitation of inland-breeding antarctic petrels by south polar skuas.during the austral summer of 1996/1997 we studied south polar skuas at svarthamaren, dronning maud land, antarctica, where the world's largest known colony of antarctic petrels is found. our censuses suggested approximately 250 full-grown skuas and 140,000 breeding pairs of petrels were present. during their breeding season, skuas did not visit the open sea at least 200 km from the site; they relied entirely on prey caught and scavenged from the petrel colony. because the site is so isolated, we ...199928307885
structural and functional analysis of the two haemoglobins of the antarctic seabird catharacta maccormicki characterization of an additional phosphate binding site by molecular modelling.the amino-acid sequence and the oxygen-binding properties of the two haemoglobins of the antarctic seabird south polar skua have been investigated. the two haemoglobins showed peculiar functional features, which were probably acquired to meet special needs in relation to the extreme environmental conditions. both haemoglobins showed a weak alkaline bohr effect which, during prolonged flight, may protect against sudden and uncontrolled stripping of oxygen in response to acidosis. we suggest that ...200010998071
survey of south polar skuas (catharacta maccormicki) for blood parasites in the vestfold hills region of antarctica.thin blood smears prepared from 125 south polar skuas (catharacta maccormicki) at breeding islands and feeding sites in the vestfold hills region of antarctica between december 1999 and january 2000 did not contain hematozoa. these findings confirm results of previous smaller studies, and provide baseline data for this species.200211838219
reproductive performance and organochlorine pollutants in an antarctic marine top predator: the south polar skua.despite low levels of organochlorine contaminants (ocs) in antarctic biota, some compounds may exceed the levels in equivalent arctic species, and previous studies have found biochemical evidence of pollutant exposure in south polar skuas (catharacta maccormicki), a common marine top predator in the region. in this study we examined relationships between fitness components (fecundity and adult return rate between breeding seasons) and concentrations of ocs in this species. in 65 nests, both male ...200717561256
levels and pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in eggs of antarctic seabirds: endemic versus migratory species.chinstrap and gentoo penguins are endemic species that live year round south of the antarctic convergence. south polar skua is a migratory seabird that can be observed in antarctica during the breeding season (i.e., austral summer). this study compares concentration and pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) in eggs of seabirds breeding at king george island, antarctic peninsula. pbdes in south polar skua eggs are approximately 20 times higher than in penguin eggs suggesting that skua ...200919027208
diverse and highly recombinant anelloviruses associated with weddell seals in antarctica.the viruses circulating among antarctic wildlife remain largely unknown. in an effort to identify viruses associated with weddell seals (leptonychotes weddellii) inhabiting the ross sea, vaginal and nasal swabs, and faecal samples were collected between november 2014 and february 2015. in addition, a weddell seal kidney and south polar skua (stercorarius maccormicki) faeces were opportunistically sampled. using high throughput sequencing, we identified and recovered 152 anellovirus genomes that ...201728744371
demographic responses to mercury exposure in two closely related antarctic top predators.although toxic chemicals constitute a major threat for wildlife, their effects have been mainly assessed at the individual level and under laboratory conditions. predicting population-level responses to pollutants in natural conditions is a major and ultimate task in ecological and ecotoxicological research. the present study aims to estimate the effect of mercury (hg) levels on future apparent survival rates and breeding performances. we used a long-term data set (-10 years) and recently develo ...201424933825
from antarctica to the subtropics: contrasted geographical concentrations of selenium, mercury, and persistent organic pollutants in skua chicks (catharacta spp.).seabirds integrate bioaccumulative contaminants via food intake and have revealed geographical trends of contamination in a variety of ecosystems. pre-fledging seabird chicks are particularly interesting as bioindicators of chemical contamination, because concentrations in their tissues reflect primarily dietary sources from the local environment. here we measured 14 trace elements and 18 persistent organic pollutants (pops) in blood of chicks of skuas that breed in four sites encompassing a lar ...201728570991
sex-specific arrival times on the breeding grounds: hybridizing migratory skuas provide empirical support for the role of sex migratory animals, protandry (earlier arrival of males on the breeding grounds) prevails over protogyny (females preceding males). in theory, sex differences in timing of arrival should be driven by the operational sex ratio, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations. however, empirical support for this hypothesis is, to date, lacking. to test this hypothesis, we analyzed arrival data from three populations of the long-distance migratory south polar skua (catharacta maccormicki). ...201627028080
complete mitochondrial genome of the south polar skua stercorarius maccormicki (charadriiformes, stercorariidae) in antarctica.the south polar skua, gull-like seabirds is the most fascinating antarctic seabirds that lay two eggs at sites free of snow and ice and predominantly hunt pelagic fish and penguins. blood samples of the south polar skua stercorarius maccormicki was collected during the summer activity near king sejong station in antarctica. the complete mitochondrial dna sequence of s. maccormicki was 16,669 bp, showing conserved genome structure and orientation found in other avian species. the control region o ...201625268998
relationship between legacy and emerging organic pollutants in antarctic seabirds and their foraging ecology as shown by δ(13)c and δ(15)n.foraging ecology and the marine regions exploited by antarctic seabirds outside of breeding strongly influence their exposure to persistent organic pollutants (pops). however, relationships between them are largely unknown, an important knowledge gap given that many species are capital breeders and pops may be deleterious to seabirds. this study investigates the relationship between antarctic seabird foraging ecology (measured by δ(13)c and δ(15)n) and pops accumulated in their eggs prior to bre ...201627453143
rates of oxygen consumption in four species of seabird at palmer station, antarctic peninsula.1. we determined standard metabolic rates (smr) of wild-caught adults of the adelie penguin, southern giant fulmar, blue-eyed shag, and south polar skua at palmer station, antarctica, during january and february 1981. oxygen consumption was measured volumetrically in a closed system at temperatures between 2 and 12 degrees c. 2. mean smr varied between 0.82 l o2/kg per hr for male fulmars and 1.30 l o2/kg per hr for unsexed adult skuas. values were 174-198% of those predicted by the lasiewski-da ...19836132736
some observations on adelie penguin (pygoscelis adeliae) mortality in east antarctica.the postmortem findings of an adult male adelie penguin found at magnetic island, east antarctica, demonstrating a premortem wound in addition to those consistent with an attack and scavenging by south polar skuas, are described. other causes of mortality are discussed.199618645851
chlorinated hydrocarbons in the tissues of south polar skuas (catharacta maccormicki) and adélie penguins (pygoscelis adeliea) from ross sea, antarctica.high rates of egg infertility and embryo death in a colony of south polar skuas breeding in the antarctic were similar to those in polluted north atlantic populations of the great skua. such loss could not be linked to factors such as organochlorine pollutants, as levels of dde and pcbs in the contents of skua eggs from the population were only a small fraction of those in polluted skua populations from the northern hemisphere. average eggshell thickness for skuas nesting on ross island has show ...199715093368
polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bear, penguin and south polar skua.concentrations of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), dibenzofurans (dfs) and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like pcbs) were measured in livers of polar bears from the alaskan arctic and in eggs of adelie penguin and south polar skua and weddell seal liver, fish and krill from antarctica. this is one of the first reports to document the concentrations of pcdds/dfs in polar bear livers from alaska, and in penguin and skua eggs from antarc ...200212152823
polychloronaphthalenes and other dioxin-like compounds in arctic and antarctic marine food we report accumulation patterns of polychlorinated naphthalenes (pcns), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (pcdfs), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), and pesticides (hcb, p,p'dde) in polar organisms (polar bear from alaskan arctic and krill, sharp-spined notothen, crocodile icefish, antarctic silverfish, adélie penguin, south polar skua, and weddell seal from the ross sea, antarctica). pcns, found in most of the samples, ranged from 1.5 pg/g in krill to ...200212214639
fluoride content in bones of adelie penguins and environmental media in antarctica.fluoride (f) distribution and its effects (fluorosis) were investigated in antarctica. droppings (l) excreta selected of aquatic birds, lake water, soil and moss (polytrichum alpinum) showed a high f concentration. although bones of adelie penguin (pygiscelis adeliae) and skua (catharacta maccormicki) showed exceptionally very high f concentration in the range of 832 to 7187 mg kg(-1), their radiographs did not show any evidence of skeletal fluorosis. the possible reason and geochemical aspects ...200314740990
occurrence of legacy and new persistent organic pollutants in avian tissues from king george island, antarctica.legacy and new persistent organic pollutants (pops), including polychlorinated naphthalenes (pcns), dechlorane plus (dps) and related compounds (dechloranes), hexabromocyclododecanes (hbcds), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), and organochlorine pesticides (ocps), were analyzed in avian tissue samples from king george island, antarctica. the avian species consisted of the gentoo penguin (pygoscelis papua), the adelie penguin (pygoscelis adeliae), the south polar skua (stercorarius maccormicki), a ...201526502059
prey density affects predator foraging strategy in an antarctic ecosystem.studying the effects of prey distribution on predator behavior is complex in systems where there are multiple prey species. the role of prey density in predator behavior is rarely studied in closed ecosystems of one predator species and one prey species, despite these being an ideal opportunity to test these hypotheses. in this study, we investigate the effect of prey density on the foraging behavior of a predatory species in an isolated antarctic ecosystem of effectively a single predatory spec ...202031993119
population response of an apex antarctic consumer to its prey and climate fluctuations.a fundamental endeavor in population ecology is to identify the drivers of population dynamics. a few empirical studies included the effect of prey abundance when investigating simultaneously the effects of density-dependence and climate factors on marine top-predator population dynamics. our aim was to unravel the mechanisms forcing population dynamics of an apex consumer seabird, the south polar skua, using long-term climatic and population time series of the consumer and its prey in terre adé ...201930116877
demographic, endocrine and behavioral responses to mirex in the south polar skua.population consequences of chronic exposure to multiple pollutants at low environmental doses remain speculative, because of the lack of appropriate long-term monitoring surveys. this study integrates proximate and ultimate aspects of persistent organic pollutants (pop) burden in free-living vertebrates, by coupling hormonal and behavioral endpoints, life-history traits, and population dynamics. blood samples (n=70) were collected in south polar skuas during two breeding periods, in 2003 and 200 ...201829525711
legacy persistent organic pollutants including pbdes in the trophic web of the ross sea (antarctica).the ecological features of the ross sea trophic web are peculiar and different from other polar food webs, with respect to the use of habitat and species interactions; due to its ecosystem integrity, it is the world's largest marine protected area, established in 2016. polar organisms are reported to bioaccumulate lipophilic contaminant, viz persistent organic pollutants (pops). legacy pops and flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pbdes) were studied in key species of the ross sea ( ...201728732330
occurrence, distribution, and bioaccumulation of new and legacy persistent organic pollutants in an ecosystem on king george island, maritime antarctica.the occurrence and bioaccumulation of new and legacy persistent organic pollutants (pops), organochlorine pesticides (ocps), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (pcns), hexabromocyclododecanes (hbcds), and dechlorane plus (dps) and their related compounds (dechloranes) in an ecosystem on king george island, antarctica are investigated. the new and legacy pops were widely detected in the animal samples collected from antarctica, which included limpet, antarctic cod, amp ...202033087285
protein deimination and extracellular vesicle profiles in antarctic seabirds.pelagic seabirds are amongst the most threatened of all avian groups. they face a range of immunological challenges which seem destined to increase due to environmental changes in their breeding and foraging habitats, affecting prey resources and exposure to pollution and pathogens. therefore, the identification of biomarkers for the assessment of their health status is of considerable importance. peptidylarginine deiminases (pads) post-translationally convert arginine into citrulline in target ...202031936359
proximate and ultimate roles of food amount in regulating egret sibling facultatively siblicidal bird species, the amount of food delivered by parent birds to their young ("food amount") has been assumed to be both an important proximate and ultimate cause of fatal aggression. the proximate "food amount hypothesis" (fah) contends that sibling aggression will vary inversely with the quantity of food delivered by the parents, presumably mediated by chick hunger. at the ultimate level, food shortages are expected to influence whether the combined effects of aggressi ...198729357167
persistent organic pollutants in two species of migratory birds from rothera point, adelaide island, antarctica.carcasses of south polar skuas (catharacta maccormicki) and kelp gulls (larus dominicanus) were opportunistically collected around of rothera research station (67°35'8″s and 68°7'59″w) during the 2016/2017 austral summer. samples of their tissues (muscle, liver and subcutaneous fat) were analysed for persistent organic pollutants (pops). organochlorine pesticides (ocps) showed the highest concentrations, notably for pp'-dde and hcb. the polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs)-profiles demonstrated a cl ...201830503416
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