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immunogenetic studies on wild pigs in japan.the variations of blood groups in the two subspecies of wild pigs in japan (sus scrofa leucomystax and s.s. riukiuanus) were investigated by serological techniques. s.s. leucomystax showed polymorphism in the a and f systems. s.s. riukiuanus showed a little polymorphism in the f system only. as a whole, there was a great similarity in erythrocyte antigen structures of both s.s. leucomystax and s.s. riukiuanus. in comparison with the erythrocyte antigen frequenties of wild pigs in the eurasian co ...197994977
[sex and age determination of the japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) by the lower teeth (author's transl)]. 1977559212
electrophoretic variants of serum transferrin in wild pig populations of japan.variants of serum transferrin in japanese wild pig, sus scrofa leucomystax, and ryukyu wild pig, s.s. riukiuanus, of japan were investigated by using starch gel electrophoresis. five phenotypes, tfb, bc, c, cx and x, were observed, of which two, tfcx and x, are new variants. comparison of gene frequency estimates which were calculated for each population showed remarkable geographic differences among several populations of these two subspecies.19883377276
bile acids of wild boar, sus scrofa leucomystax (temminck et schlegel). 19705529378
[on gnathostoma detected in sus scrofa leucomystax in japan]. 19666007434
serological evidence of coxiella burnetii infection in wild animals in japan.one hundred and thirty-four (26%) of 511 sera from 11 wild animal species in eight prefectures in japan had antibody titers to coxiella burnetii by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. high prevalences were observed in japanese black bears (ursus thibetanus) (78%), hokkaido deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) (69%), japanese hares (lepus brachyurus) (63%), japanese deer (cervus nippon centralis) (56%), and to some extent in japanese monkeys (macaca fuscata) (28%). a low prevalence (13%) was observe ...19938355353
geographic population structure and sequence divergence in the mitochondrial dna control region of the japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax), with reference to those of domestic pigs.mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control regions from 40 japanese wild boars were examined by direct sequencing after amplification by pcr. from the dna sequences obtained, we found eight haplotypes, whose differences arose via transitions. the geographical distribution of these different haplotypes indicated that wild boar populations inhabited limited areas and that there was some restricted gene flow between local populations. eight mtdna haplotypes from eastern and western domestic pigs and the ryu ...19968813051
gnathostomiasis in wild boars from japan.gnathostoma doloresi, a nematode parasite producing ulcerative and/or granulomatous lesions in the gastric wall of domestic pigs and wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) throughout southeastern asia, is an important zoonosis causing cutaneous larva migrans in humans. patients infected with g. doloresi have been found yearly in the vicinity of miyazaki prefecture, japan. adult nematodes were found in 31 of 32 wild boars captured at two different geographic locations in the prefecture, a location i ...19989476238
use of protein ag in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening for antibodies against parapoxvirus in wild animals in japan.using protein ag in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in japan: the japanese badger (meles meles anakuma), japanese black bear (ursus thibetanus japonicus), japanese deer (cervus nippon centralis), japanese monkey (macaca fuscata), japanese raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), japanese serow (capricornis crispus), japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax), masked palm civet (paguma larvata ...199910225841
genetic relationship and distribution of the japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) and ryukyu wild boar (sus scrofa riukiuanus) analysed by mitochondrial dna.mitochondrial genetic variations were used to investigate the relationships between two japanese wild boars, japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) and ryukyu wild boar (s.s. riukiuanus). nucleotide sequences of the control (27 haplotypes) and cytochrome b (cyt-b) regions (19 haplotypes) were determined from 59 japanese wild boars, 13 ryukyu wild boars and 22 other boars and pigs. from phylogenetic analyses, the mtdna of ryukyu wild boar has a distinct lineage from that of japanese wild boa ...199910564456
geographical variation of mandible size and shape in the japanese wild pig (sus scrofa leucomystax).the mandibles of the japanese wild pigs (sus scrofa leucomystax) from various geographical locations, which have been stored in the university of tokyo and national science museum, tokyo were examined. the mandibles from northern localities were larger in size than those from southern localities. the oita population was significantly smaller than the honshu populations. the mie population was smaller than the hyogo population in length from the angle of the mandible. in the multivariate analysis ...200010993177
molting of gnathostoma doloresi (nematoda: gnathostomatoidea) in the definitive host.premolt, molting, and postmolt worms of gnathostoma doloresi (nematoda: gnathostomatoidea) recovered from the stomach wall of naturally infected wild boars sus scrofa leucomystax in miyazaki, japan, were examined morphologically. the only molt observed was that from the advanced third-stage to the adult stage. it is strongly suggested that the gnathostomes molt only once in the definitive host.200111227880
onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp., a common parasite from wild boar in kyushu island, japan.we describe onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp. from the japanese wild boar, sus scrofa leucomystax, in oita, kyushu island, where all seven animals examined were found to be infected. this study began with efforts to identify the causative species in a recent case of zoonotic onchocerciasis. compared with onchocerca dewittei dewittei from sus scrofa jubatus in malaysia, which was reexamined here, our new subspecies has much greater space between the ridges on the females. in addition, its mi ...200111584751
phylogeography and population structure of the japanese wild boar sus scrofa leucomystax: mitochondrial dna variation.phylogeographic characteristics and population structure of japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) were investigated using mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequence data. sixteen japanese wild boar haplotypes detected from partial sequences of the mtdna control region (574-bp) from 180 japanese wild boar specimens from 10 local populations on honshu, shikoku, and kyushu islands and 41 haplotypes from other s. scrofa were analyzed using the neighbor-joining method. the japanese wild boars were more ...200314709812
prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii antibody in hunter-killed wild boars, sus scrofa leucomystax, on amakusa island, kumamoto prefecture, japan.the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii was surveyed in wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) and domiciled cats obtained in various areas of amakusa island, kumamoto prefecture, japan. the antibody titers against t. gondii were measured with a latex agglutination test. among specimens taken from 90 wild boars, 1 (1.1%) was positive and 3 (3.3%)were doubtfully positive. among the specimens from 50 cats, none were positive and 1 (3.3%) was doubtfully positive. these results suggest that the wild boars ...200415107568
zoonotic onchocerciasis caused by a parasite from wild boar in oita, japan. a comprehensive analysis of morphological characteristics of the worms for its diagnosis.histological examination of a nodule removed from the back of the hand of a 58-year-old woman from oita, kyushu, japan showed an onchocerca female sectioned through the posterior region of the worm (ovaries identifiable) and young (thin cuticle). six onchocerca species are enzootic in that area: o. gutturosa and o. lienalis in cattle, o. suzukii in serows (capricornis crispus), o. skrjabini and an onchocerca sp. in cervus nippon nippon, and o. dewittei japonica in wild boar (sus scrofa leucomyst ...200415490753
a serological survey of brucella spp. in free-ranging wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) in shikoku, japan.brucella, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, has been isolated recently from a variety of wild mammals. in this study, serum samples from 115 japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) killed by hunters in the 4 prefectures of shikoku, japan were tested for antibodies to brucella spp. by means of the tube agglutination test (tat) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using antigens extracted with n-lauroylsarcosine. in 9 of the 115 samples (7.8%) an ...200617085900
epidemiology, histopathology, and muscle distribution of trichinella t9 in feral raccoons (procyon lotor) and wildlife of japan.the prevalences of trichinella t9 in trapped raccoons (procyon lotor) and several other potential mammalian reservoirs in hokkaido, wakayama, and nagasaki prefectures were investigated. muscle samples were collected from 2003 to 2006 from 1,080 raccoons, 113 raccoon dogs including 2 species (nyctereutes procyonoides albus and n. p. viverrinus), 41 wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax), 14 martens (martes melampus), 10 badgers (meles meles), 5 siberian weasels (martes sibirica coreana), 7 mink (mus ...200717310398
lung worms of wild boars in the western region of tokyo, japan.prevalence of lung worms belonging to the genus metastrongylus was surveyed on 42 japanese wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) captured officially for wildlife damage control in the western parts of tokyo, japan from april 2000 to april 2001. the number of parasites was the highest in the caudal lung lobes. four species, m. elongatus (me), m. salmi (ms), m. asymmetricus (ma) and m. pudendotectus (mp), were identified. all the boars were infected with 2 or more species, and 64.3% of the boars had ...200717485932
visceral helminths of wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) in japan, with special reference to a new species of the genus morgascaridia inglis, 1958 (nematoda: schneidernematidae).twenty-nine japanese wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax), collected during the hunting seasons of 2005 and 2006 in the western part of the mainland of japan (honshu), were examined for their visceral helminths. eighteen helminth parasites were prevalent in them, including 17 nematoda species (metastrongylus elongatus, metastrongylus salmi, metastrongylus asymmetricus, metastrongylus pudendotechus, stephanurus dentatus, gnathostoma doloresi, physocephalus sexulata, ascarops strongylina, capillari ...200818328113
prevalence of hepatitis e virus (hev) infection in wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) and pigs in gunma prefecture, japan.the prevalence of hepatitis e virus (hev) infection in wild boars and pigs in gunma prefecture, japan, was serologically and genetically examined. the positive detection rates of anti-hev igg and hev rna in the wild boars were 4.5% (4/89) and 1.1% (1/89), whereas those in the pigs were 74.6% (126/169) and 1.8% (3/169), respectively. the positive rates of anti-hev igg and hev rna on the 17 pig farms in the present study ranged from 20% to 100%, respectively. one male wild boar approximately 5 yea ...200919194072
analysis of the full-length genome of a hepatitis e virus isolate obtained from a wild boar in japan that is classifiable into a novel genotype.while performing a nationwide survey of hepatitis e virus (hev) infection among 450 wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) that had been captured in japan between november 2005 and march 2010, we found 16 boars (3.6%) with ongoing hev infection: 11 had genotype 3 hev, four had genotype 4 hev and the remaining boar was infected with hev of an unrecognized genotype (designated wbjoy_06). the entire wbjoy_06 genome was sequenced and was found to comprise 7246 nt excluding the poly(a) tail. the wbjoy_0 ...201121228128
a nationwide survey of hepatitis e virus (hev) infection in wild boars in japan: identification of boar hev strains of genotypes 3 and 4 and unrecognized genotypes.to investigate the nationwide prevalence of hepatitis e virus (hev) infection and to characterize hev genomes among japanese wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax), 578 boars captured in 25 prefectures from 2003 to 2010 were studied. anti-hev igg was detected in 8.1%, and hev rna in 3.3% of boars. among the 19 boar hev isolates obtained from infected boars, 14 isolates (74%) were classified as genotype 3, 4 isolates (21%) as genotype 4, and the remaining isolate (wbjoy_06) was distantly related to ...201121475985
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) and wild sika deer (cervus nippon) in gunma prefecture, japan.the ingestion of undercooked meat from wild animals can be a source of toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and other animals. in this study, we determined the seroprevalence of t. gondii infection in 175 wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) and 107 wild sika deer (cervus nippon) hunted in 2004-2007 in gunma prefecture, japan, by using a commercial latex agglutination test (lat). antibodies (lat, 1:64 or higher) to t. gondii were found in 6.3% of wild boars and 1.9% of sika deer. this is the fir ...201121640197
pseudorabies virus infection in wild boars in japan.in japan, most pig populations are now free from pseudorabies virus (prv) due to the recent success of an extensive eradication program. however, prv infection persists in japanese wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax), representing another potential reservoir for the virus in japan. in this study, the seroprevalence of prv in wild boars captured in three different prefectures was ascertained. the virus-neutralization (vn) test showed that 6 of 173 (3%) were positive for vn antibody; glycoprotein ...201121757858
new zoonotic cases of onchocerca dewittei japonica (nematoda: onchocercidae) in honshu, japan.zoonotic infections with onchocerca species are uncommon, and to date only 25 clinical cases have been reported worldwide. in japan, five previous zoonotic infections were concentrated in oita, kyushu (the southern island), with one previous case in hiroshima in the western part of honshu (the main island). the causative agent in japan was identified as onchocerca dewittei japonica uni, bain & takaoka, 2001 from japanese wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax temminck, 1842). here we report two infe ...201525623081
influenza a virus infection in japanese wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax).serum samples were collected from 385 wild boars between 2010 and 2013 to examine the seroprevalence of influenza a virus (iav) in japan. antibodies against iav were identified using a commercial kit in 13 wild boars (3.4%). to identify the serotypes, positive sera were examined by virus-neutralization test using representative serotypes and strains. three wild boars in yamaguchi and four in tochigi showed the highest antibody titers against the pandemic h1n1 2009 virus and classical swine h1n1 ...201728321029
high prevalence of hepatitis e virus in wild boar (sus scrofa) in yamaguchi prefecture, japan.hepatitis e virus (hev) causes a food- and water-borne disease in humans, and japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) meat is one of the most important sources of infection in japan. we tested 113 serum samples from wild boar captured in shimonoseki city, yamaguchi prefecture, japan from 2010 to 2012. serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using virus-like particles as antigen and nested reverse-transcription pcr (rt-pcr). anti-hev igg antibodies were detected ...201424506423
molecular characterization of a novel hepatitis e virus (hev) strain obtained from a wild boar in japan that is highly divergent from the previously recognized hev strains.although a consensus classification system for hepatitis e virus (hev) genotypes is currently unavailable, hev variants (jboar135-shiz09 and wbjoy_06) from wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) have provisionally been classified into two novel genotypes (5 and 6). while performing a survey of hev infections among 566 wild boars that were captured in japan between january 2010 and august 2013, we found 24 boars (4.2%) with ongoing hev infections: 13 had genotype 3 hev, 10 had genotype 4 hev and the ...201424370869
high genomic similarity between european type hepatitis e virus subgenotype 3e strains isolated from an acute hepatitis patient and a wild boar in mie, japan.a 67-year-old male living in tsu city, mie prefecture, japan was referred to our hospital for further examination of acute liver injury and was diagnosed as having clinical hepatitis e virus (hev) infection in january 2010. the hev strain (he-ja11-1701) isolated from the patient belonged to genotype 3 and european-type subgenotype 3e. it was presumed that the patient had been infected from a wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) because he consumed meat/viscera from a wild boar that he had captured ...201423639180
onchocerca takaokai n. sp. (nematoda: filarioidea) in japanese wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax): description and molecular identification of intradermal females.human zoonotic onchocercosis is caused by onchocerca dewittei japonica, parasitic in wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) in japan. previously, microfilariae longer than those of onchocerca dewittei japonica were observed in skin snips from wild boars during the study of o. dewittei japonica. moreover, the third-stage larvae (l3) of these longer microfilariae were obtained from the blackfly simulium bidentatum after experimental injections. based on morphometric and molecular studies, similar l3 ...201526165205
detection of rickettsia tamurae dna in ticks and wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) skins in shimane prefecture, japan.we used 24 wild boars trapped from december 2009 to january 2010 and a further 65 from july 2010 to august 2010 in misato town, shimane prefecture, japan. we collected blood, spleens, skins and ticks from the wild boars, which were examined for rickettsial infections using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) primers for the genes rickettsial 17-kda antigen and citrate synthase (glta). we amplified rickettsia tamurae at-1 dna from the tick amblyomma testudinarium and from wild boar skins where ticks ...201323075922
evidence of natural transmission of group a rotavirus between domestic pigs and wild boars (sus scrofa) in japan.group a rotaviruses (rvas) are a major cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young animals worldwide. rvas have also been detected in several wild and zoo animals, indicating wide susceptibility of wild animals. however, the role of wild animals in the infection cycle of rvas is unclear. wild boars are indigenous in many countries in the world. japanese wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax) have been migrating close to human habitats in japan, indicating the possibility of natural tra ...201323958658
isolation and characterization of a novel rhabdovirus from a wild boar (sus scrofa) in japan.a novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (rdv), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. the virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (wbrv1). phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that wbrv1 is closely related to tupaia rhabdovirus (trv), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcino ...201526116524
ticks (acari: ixodidae) from medium-sized to large mammals in ehime prefecture, japan.ixodid ticks were collected from medium-sized to large mammals in ehime prefecture, shikoku, japan. ten species of ticks (amblyomma testudinarium, dermacentor taiwanensis, haemaphysalis flava, h. formosensis, h. hystricis, h. longicornis, h. megaspinosa, ixodes nipponensis, i. ovatus, and i. tanuki) were collected from a total of 29 mammals comprising 11 species. haemaphysalis hystricis, a possible vector of japanese spotted fever in ehime prefecture, was collected from canis lupus familiaris (d ...201323242932
involvement of two genetic lineages of sarcoptes scabiei mites in a local mange epizootic of wild mammals in japan.similar to wild mammals on the continents, mange caused by the mange mite, sarcoptes scabiei (acari: sarcoptidae) is spreading in wild mammals in most of japan. we collected crusted or alopetic skin from 120 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), three raccoons (procyon lotor), six japanese badgers (meles anakuma), one japanese marten (martes melampus), one stray dog (canis lupus familiaris), four wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax), and one japanese serow (capricornis crispus), mai ...201525397999
zoonotic infection with onchocerca dewittei japonica in an 11-year-old boy in kansai region, western honshu, japan.an 11-year-old boy living in otsu city, shiga prefecture, kansai region, western honshu, japan had zoonotic onchocercosis. the patient developed a painful swelling on the little finger of his left hand. the worm detected in the excised mass had external transverse ridges but did not have inner striae in the cuticle. on the basis of the parasite's histopathological characteristics, the causative agent was identified as a female onchocerca dewittei japonica (spirurida: onchocercidae). the species ...201728648713
multiple origins and admixture of recently expanding japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) populations in toyama prefecture of japan.japanese wild boar (sus scrofa leucomystax) populations have expanded drastically throughout the japanese archipelago in recent decades. to elucidate the dispersal patterns of japanese wild boar in toyama prefecture in central japan, we used a multi-locus microsatellite dna analysis to determine its population structure and the degree of admixture. the deviation from hardy-weinberg equilibrium was detected in either total or separate regional wild boar samples from toyama prefecture. this result ...201626853867
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