TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
[bovine viruses and methods for their detection]. 1975169627
[induction of cutaneous or subcutaneous fibroblastic tumors in the afghan pika (ochotona rufescens rufescens) by injection or bovine papilloma virus].newborn afghan pikas have been inoculated with bovine papilloma virus via the subcutaneous route. cutaneous or subcutaneous fibromas and fibrosarcomas were observed after a mean incubation period of nine months. the transmission of these tumors by homograft has been obtained. bovine papilloma virus antibodies have been demonstrated in most of the animals inoculated at birth. they have not been detected in animals bearing transplanted tumors.1975168982
persistent papillomatosis associated with immunodeficiency.a case report of a young bull with persistent papillomatosis associated with immunodeficiency is presented. humoral immune responses were normal but cell mediated immunity was deficient. the possible significance of the findings to pathogenesis and therapy of the disease is discussed.1975165037
precipitin response of cattle to commercial wart vaccine.fifty young bulls were given commercial wart vaccine upon their arrival at a bull stud establishment. the bulls were given 2 additional vaccinations 2 and 24 weeks later. the precipitin antibody response of these bulls to bovine papilloma virus was monitored. antibody levels increased significantly, particularly after the 3rd vaccination was given at 24 weeks, but decreased markedly within 20 weeks after the last vaccination was given. these results demonstrated that formalin-inactivated bovine ...1976178253
quantitation of bovine papilloma viral dna in viral-induced tumors.bovine papilloma virus (bpv) dna was labeled in vitro under conditions of repair synthesis and subsequently used as a "probe" in dna-dna reassociation studies to detect bpv-specific dna sequences in a viral-induced calf meningioma and hamster fibroma. in vitro labeled bpv dna had denaturation characteristics expected for duplex dna and denatured dna reassociated with apparent second-order kinetics. analysis of in vitro labeled bpv dna reassociation rates in the presence of excess tumor dna revea ...1976176447
bovine papilloma virus: presence of virus-specific dna sequences in naturally occurring equine tumors.four of five spontaneous benign equine connective tissue tumors of unknown etiology and a bovine papilloma virus (bpv)-induced equine tumor contained bpv-specific dna sequences as determined by dna-dna hybridization of dna from tumors with bpv dna labeled in vitro. analysis of the kinetics of reassociation indicated that 20-75% of the bpv genome was present in the various tumors. the number of partial bpv genome equivalents ranged from 60 to 500 copies per diploid quantity of cellular dna. therm ...1977191813
chromatin-like structures obtained after alkaline disruption of bovine and human papillomaviruses.four low-molecular-weight polypeptides migrating like h2a, h2b, h3, and h4 calf liver histones were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis of highly purified preparations of bovine papillomavirus (bpv) and human papillomavirus (hpv). complexes of these polypeptides and viral dna were isolated by agarose-gel filtration of the alkaline disruption products of both viruses. when observed under the electron microscope, these complexes appeared as circular structures compose ...1977191643
common membrane neoantigens on bovine papilloma virus-induced fibroma cells from cattle and horses.cultured cells from bovine papilloma virus (bpv)-induced fibroblastic tumors and normal dermis of cattle, horses, and hamsters were examined for cell membrane or internal neoantigens, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique. sera from cattle and horses bearing bpv-induced fibromas cross reacted with cell membranes of tumor, but not with normal dermal cells of both species. the reaction could be blocked with homologous, but not heterologous, serum of these 2 species. immunofluorescence wa ...1978213996
demonstration of two distinct classes of bovine papilloma virus. 1978213876
the occurrence of human wart-virus antibodies in dogs, pigs and cattle.using the immunodiffusion method, antibodies against human wart-virus were detected in dog, pig and cattle sera but not in horse and reindeer sera. antibodies were found in 25 percent (28/114) of the dog sera, the prevalence of antibodies being fairly similar to that in children of the same age. by electron microscopy the antibodies in dog sera were shown to attach to and precipitate the human wart-virus particles, and in immunodiffusion the precipitation lines of human and dog sera were shown t ...1978210743
experimental transmission of bovine papilloma virus (bpv) extracted from morphologically distinct teat and cutaneous lesions and the effects of inoculation of bpv transformed fetal bovine cells.bovine papilloma virus (bpv) was extracted from five cattle each affected with only one of five morphologically distinct lesion types. when inoculated into experimental calves either by scarification or intradermal injection, the bpv extracts produced lesions macroscopically and microscopically similar to those from which individual extracts were made. fetal bovine cells, transformed in vitro with bpv, failed to produce fibromas, fibropapillomas or papillomas when inoculated into experimental ca ...1979233276
conserved polynucleotide sequences among the genomes of papillomaviruses.the dnas of different members of the papillomavirus genus of papovaviruses were analyzed for nucleotide sequence homology. under standard hybridization conditions (tm - 28 degrees c), no homology was detectable among the genomes of human papillomavirus type 1 (hpv-1), bovine papillomavirus type 2 (bpv-2), or cottontail rabbit (shope) papillomavirus (crpv). however, under less stringent conditions (i.e., tm - 43 degrees c), stable hybrids were formed between radiolabeled dnas of crpv, bpv-1, or b ...1979232171
physical maps of bovine papillomavirus type 1 and type 2 genomes.physical maps of bovine papillomavirus type 1 and type 2 (bpv-1 and bpv-2) dna were constructed from analysis of the electrophoretic mobilities of restriction endonuclease cleavage fragments from dual digests. bpv-1 dna was sensitive to hind iii, hindiii, ecori, hpai, and bamhi, with all but hindii yielding single scissions. bpv-2 dna was resistant to ecori, and hindiii had one cleavage site whereas hpai, bamhi, and hindii yielded multiple fragments. of four bpv-1 isolates examined, dna from one ...1979228086
in vitro transformation by bovine papilloma virus.this paper reports the development of a quantal transformation assay for bovine papillome virus. support for its specificity to fibropapilloma derived bovine papilloma virus comes from (i) the absence of transformation associated changes following inoculations of normal bovine skin, bovine teat papilloma, bovine teat focal epithelial hyperplasia lesion and canine papilloma derived suspensions; (2) in vitro transformation occurs when cscl purified fibropapilloma-derived bpv is used; (3) in vitro ...1979225431
partial characterization of a new type of bovine papilloma viruses. 1979223295
a survey of bovine teat papillomatosis. 1979222039
seroepidemiologic studies of bovine papillomavirus infections.bovine and human sera were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against bovine papillomavirus types 1 and 2 (bpv 1 and 2) and human papillomavirus type 1 (hpv 1) in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. human sera did not react with bpv antigens, and bovine sera showed no evidence of antibodies against hpv 1. in contrast, 19% of all bovine sera tested reacted with bpv 1 and 2 antigens, and 35% of human sera revealed antibodies against hpv 1. no serologic evidence was obtained for heterologous infec ...1979220453
hybridization of bovine papilloma virus type 1 and type 2 dna to dna from virus-induced hamster tumors and naturally occurring equine tumors.dnas from bovine papilloma virus(bpv)-induced hamster tumors and from equine connective tissue tumors of unknown etiology were examined for bpv dna sequences by molecular hybridization. dna from two distinct classes of bpv (type 1 and type 2) was labeled in vitro and used as probes. analysis of dna-dna reassociation kinetics indicated that both virus types were capable of tumor induction in the hamster. dna isolated from 6 of 7 equine tumors accelerated the reassociation of the bpv dna probes. b ...1979218902
a new phenomenon (smog) associated with solid phase immune electron microscopy.solid phase immune electron microscopy (spiem) has been used to study the interaction of virus and antibody both quickly and with economy of reagents. unexpectedly, the present study shows that when virus-coated grids are floated on drops of specific antibody the virus particles migrate to form complexes. this has been termed specific migration on the grid (smog) and it is suggested that it can be used both to assess the properties of an antiserum and to make virus more readily detectable. the m ...19806262338
a quantitative in vitro focus assay for bovine papilloma virus. 19806247821
in vitro tumorigenic transformation by a defined sub-genomic fragment of bovine papilloma virus dna. 19806251381
equine connective tissue tumors contain unintegrated bovine papilloma virus dna.bovine papilloma virus (bpv) appears to be the etiological agent of common equine connective tissue tumors. we investigated the physical state of the viral dna within such tumors and found no indication for integration into the host genome. the bpv genomes were present as free circular episomes. two equine sarcoids were shown to contain multiple copies of free circular bpv type 1 (bpv-1) dna. when the tumors were digested with several single-cut restriction enzymes, there were only form iii bpv- ...19806252350
cloning of human papilloma virus genomic dnas and analysis of homologous polynucleotide sequences.the complete dna genomes of four distinct human papilloma viruses (human papilloma virus subtype 1a [hpv-1a], hpv-1b, hpv-2a, and hpv-4) were molecularly cloned in escherichia coli, using the certified plasmid vector pbr322. the restriction endonuclease patterns of the cloned hpv-1a and hpv-1b dnas were similar to those already published for uncloned dnas. physical maps were constructed for hpv-2a dna and hpv-4 dna, since these viral dnas had not been previously mapped. by using the cloned dnas, ...19806253665
bracken fern and papilloma virus in bovine alimentary cancer. 19806266569
isolation and characterization of the major capsid protein of bovine papilloma virus type 1.the major capsid protein of bovine papilloma virus type 1 (bpv-1) was isolated by gel filtration following disruption of purified virus particles with guanidine hydrochloride. the capsid protein, vp1, has a mol. wt. of about 53 500. amino acid composition studies of vp1 showed that it is a highly acidic protein containing almost twice the average number of acidic residues than basic residues. relatedness was observed between vp1 and the major capsid proteins of simian virus 40 (sv40) and polyoma ...19816267171
analysis of a restriction endonuclease map for bovine papillomavirus type 2 dna.a physical map was constructed for bovine papillomavirus type 2 dna by the use of restriction endonucleases. a comparison between the genomes of bovine papillomavirus types 1 and 2 in regard to location and number of cleavage sites of seven enzymes is also presented. this comparison revealed similarities between the two genomes.19816271276
extrachromosomal bovine papillomavirus type 1 dna in hamster fibromas and fibrosarcomas. 19816274094
identification of papillomaviruses in butchers' warts.we have studied the papillomaviruses found in the hand warts of 60 butchers, most of them from 2 distant slaughterhouses. warts differing in morphology and location were studied separately. the viruses were identified by molecular hybridization, restriction enzyme analysis and immunofluorescence. four known human papillomaviruses (hpv-1, hpv-2, hpv-3, hpv-4) were detected and one hitherto unknown papillomavirus was identified in 9 butchers. the dna of the latter virus did not anneal with any of ...19816257792
apparent lack of integration of bovine papillomavirus dna in virus-induced equine and bovine tumor cells and virus-transformed mouse cells. 19816258289
detection and characterization of viral genomes and search for tumoral antigens in two hamster cell lines derived from tumors induced by bovine papillomavirus type 1. 19816270023
unintegrated viral dna sequences in a hamster tumor induced by bovine papilloma virus.a fibrosarcoma was induced in a hamster by bovine papilloma virus type 2 (bpv2). the content of bpv2 dna sequences was measured by dna-dna and crna-dna hybridizations. the tumor contained approximately 300 bpv2 genome equivalents per cell. southern blot hybridization indicated that the viral dna was in free form, the entire genome most likely being present. in situ hybridization with bpv2 crna showed that multiple genome copies were present in each cell. neither virus particles nor virus coat an ...19816270360
molecular heterogeneity and lesion site specificity of cutaneous bovine papillomaviruses. 19816267786
mouse cells transformed by bovine papillomavirus contain only extrachromosomal viral dna sequences.the viral dna sequences in mouse c127 cells transformed by bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) virions, by full-length linear bpv-1 dna, or by a defined transforming subgenomic dna segment of bpv-1 were examined by reassociation kinetics and blot hybridization. in all cases, the transformed cells contained multiple copies of bpv-1 dna, present exclusively as supercoiled or nicked circular extrachromosomal molecules or as a slowly migrating complex of circular viral dna molecules. in the transfo ...19816265905
characterization of a papilloma virus from the european elk (eepv). 19816266142
bovine papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid: a novel eucaryotic cloning vector.a novel eucaryotic vector derived from the transforming region of bovine papilloma virus was established and demonstrated to be highly effective for introducing foreign genes into animal cells. the foreign deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) is replicated and actively transcribed as an episome, and the transcripts are translated into an authentic gene product. we have constructed a dna hybrid molecule, bpv69t-ri1, containing the transforming region of bovine papilloma virus dna and the rat preproinsulin ...19816100967
interferon induces morphologic reversion with elimination of extrachromosomal viral genomes in bovine papillomavirus-transformed mouse cells.the effect of mouse l-cell interferon on bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) transformation of murine cells was examined. mouse interferon reduced the level of bpv-1-induced transformation of mouse c127 cells by 95%. long-term treatment of established bpv-1-transformed mouse cell clones with mouse l-cell interferon led to a decrease in the average number of the plasmid viral genomes present in these cells to 1/3 to 1/8. although revertant lines could not be isolated from these lines in the abse ...19826185955
[detection and mapping of conserved nucleotidic sequences between the genomes of human papillomavirus 1 a and bovine papillomavirus 1 by electron microscope heteroduplex analysis (author's transl)].three regions of partial homology have been detected between the genomes of human papillomavirus 1 a (hpv-1 a) and bovine papillomavirus 1 (bpv-1) by electron microscope analysis of heteroduplex molecules. these regions contain about 25% of non-homologous bases and represent 13% of the genome length. they have been mapped on the viral dnas. this allowed a reciprocal orientation of the physical maps of the two genomes. two regions are located in the middle of the transforming fragment of bpv-1 dn ...19826286053
animal papillomaviruses. 19826289064
the primary structure and genetic organization of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 genome.the complete nucleotide sequence of the doubt-stranded circular dna of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) was determined. analysis of this sequence in conjunction with known transcriptional data for the virus provides a basis of determining the organization of the papillomavirus genome. all the major open reading frames are located on the same dna strand. the region transcribed in bpv-transformed cells contains open frames in all three translational frames whereas the region transcribed in pro ...19826289124
purification of bovine papilloma virus by gel filtration on sephacryl s-1000 superfine.bovine papilloma virus was purified from crude extracts of bovine warts by gel filtration in sephacryl s-1000 superfine. analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy shows that the virus preparation is as pure as that obtained by alternative techniques. the yield of virus particles is in the range 55-80%. the main advantage of using the gel filtration technique is that it is much less time-consuming than currently used centrifugation procedures.19826296176
a plasmid that replicates in both mouse and e. coli cells.cloned bovine papilloma virus (bpv) dna induces cellular transformation when introduced into mouse cells growing in culture; the transferred viral dna replicates as an extrachromosomal, closed circular element. bpv dna is therefore an inviting replicon to construct a "shuttle" vector that can replicate in both mammalian cells and e. coli. although bpv dna devoid of bacterial plasmid sequences has been successfully employed to reintroduce cloned genes into rodent cells, construction of a true shu ...19826296255
molecular cloning of bovine papillomavirus genomes and comparison of their sequence homologies by heteroduplex mapping.the genomic dnas of bovine papillomavirus (bpv) type 1, type 2 and type 4 were cloned in pat153. bpv1 and bpv2 genomes were cloned using the single hindiii sites of the vector and virus dnas, and bpv4 was cloned using the single bamhi sites. the orientation of the recombinant dnas was established by restriction enzyme digestion, hybridization and heteroduplex analysis. the results showed that: (i) bpv1 and bpv2 dnas are in register and are broadly homologous throughout most of their length when ...19826296276
transformation and replication in mouse cells of a bovine papillomavirus--pml2 plasmid vector that can be rescued in bacteria.the unique ability of bovine papillomavirus (bpv-1) dna to replicate as a stable, multicopy plasmid in transformed mouse cells has led to its utilization as a eukaryotic cloning vector. one limitation of the system has been the marked reduction in transformation efficiency when bpv-1 dna or the subgenomic transforming segment of bpv-1 dna (bpv69t) is covalently linked to pbr322 sequences. a dual host replicon consisting of bpv-1 dna and pml2d, a deletion variant of pbr322, was constructed and sh ...19826296820
gene transfer into mammalian cells: use of viral vectors to investigate regulatory signals for the expression of eukaryotic genes. 19826276090
activation of non-expressed bovine papilloma virus genomes by tumour promoters. 19826280062
bovine papilloma virus transcription: polyadenylated rna species and assessment of the direction of transcription.the bovine papilloma virus type 1 (bpv-1)-specific rna species were identified in virus-induced bovine warts, hamster tumors, and transformed hamster and mouse cells. in each case two major species were present (1.1 and 1.3 kilobases [kb]). also two species of 1.6 and 1.8 kb appearing in variable amounts were found. only in the keratinized periphery of the warts, where virus replication takes place, was it possible to reveal an additional 2-kb rna species. in this tissue, however, the 1.6-kb spe ...19826180175
virus-specific transcription in bovine papillomavirus-transformed mouse cells. 19826280384
infections by human papillomavirus (warts). 19826282150
clinical observations on bovine papillomatosis (warts). 19826282387
different papillomaviruses as the causes of oral warts.we have observed four patients with oral papillomas. two children had oral mucosal lesions characteristic of focal epithelial hyperplasia, a young man had common, wart-like lesions on his hard palate, and a male immunosuppressed renal allograft recipient had condyloma-like lesions on his gingivae. papillomavirus-like particles were seen by electron microscopy in lesions from both patients with focal epithelial hyperplasia. no structural antigens for human papillomavirus (hpv) 1, 2, 3, or 5 were ...19826284061
recombinant dna molecules comprising bovine papilloma virus type 1 dna linked to plasmid dna are maintained in a plasmidial state both in rodent fibroblasts and in bacterial cells.transformed cells obtained after transfecting fr3t3 rat fibroblasts with dna of bovine papilloma virus type 1 ( bpv1 ) maintained only free copies of the viral genome. transfection with bpv1 dna inserted in a bacterial plasmid (pbr322 or pml2 ) did not produce transformants at a detectable rate, unless the viral sequences had been first excised from the plasmid. in contrast, transfer of the same plasmids by polyethylene glycol-induced fusion of bacterial protoplasts with fr3t3 rat or c127 mouse ...19826329696
immunopathology of papillomavirus-induced tumors in different tissues. 19826314568
papillomatosis of the bovine teat (mammary papilla).a 4th of 667 cattle examined at a wisconsin abattoir had teat papillomas. excised teat papillomas were sorted by gross morphologic characteristics into 3 groups: (i) atypical filiform, (ii) atypical flat, and (iii) typical fibropapilloma. bovine papilloma virus capsid antigen was detected in thin-section slides of the 3 groups of teat papillomas by peroxidase-antiperoxidase assay. the bovine papilloma virus involved with the atypical papillomas could not be characterized by molecular hybridizati ...19826299141
a bovine papilloma virus vector with a dominant resistance marker replicates extrachromosomally in mouse and e. coli cells.we describe the construction of a bovine papilloma virus-based vector (pcgbpv9) which contains a dominant selectable marker and replicates autonomously in both mouse and escherichia coli cells. this vector contains the complete bovine papilloma virus genome, a cole1 replication origin and a dominant selectable marker conferring resistance to kanamycin in bacteria and g418 in eukaryotic cells. a high number of g418r colonies are obtained after transfer of pcgbpv9 into mouse c127 cells. these g418 ...198311892800
papillomaviruses with unusual restriction endonuclease profiles from bovine skin warts. 19836314968
the molecular biology of papillomavirus transformation. warner-lambert parke-davis award lecture. 19836316792
glucocorticoid regulation of transcription at an amplified, episomal promoter.the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (mmtv ltr) has been introduced into cultured murine cells, using the 69% transforming fragment of bovine papilloma virus type 1 (bpv). transformed cells contain up to 200 copies of the chimeric molecules per diploid genome. the restriction endonuclease map of the acquired recombinants, as well as the physical structure of the dna, indicates that the ltr-bpv molecules present in these cells occur exclusively as unintegrated, extrachromosomal epis ...19836318079
a stable bovine papillomavirus hybrid plasmid that expresses a dominant selective trait.we describe a bovine papillomavirus hybrid plasmid containing the neomycin resistance gene from tn5 inserted into a mammalian cell transcriptional unit. this plasmid is maintained as a stable extrachromosomal element (20 to 100 copies per diploid genome) in mouse cells selected either for the transformed phenotype or for resistance to the aminoglycoside g418. cells selected for g418 resistance initially display a flat, nontransformed phenotype before exhibiting the gross morphological characteri ...19836318082
the genomes of bovine papillomaviruses types 3 and 4 are colinear.the 7.2 kb genomic dna of bovine papillomavirus type 3 (bpv-3) was molecularly cloned using its unique ecori site, and the 7.3 kb genome of bpv-4 was cloned using its single bamhi site. the viral genomes were compared by liquid hybridization, southern blot hybridization and heteroduplex mapping. low stringency hybridization conditions revealed that the genomes are colinear but the sequences are extensively mismatched. the relative alignment of the restriction endonuclease maps of the two viral g ...19836319560
identification of two distinct regulatory regions adjacent to the human beta-interferon study the regulation of the human beta-interferon (beta-ifn) gene by poly(i)-poly(c), we analyzed the expression of deletion mutants of the cloned gene introduced into mouse cells on a new bovine papilloma virus (bpv) vector. in stable cell lines transformed by a bpv-ifn plasmid containing the beta-ifn structural gene with 210 bp of dna to the 5' side of its mrna cap site (denoted -210), human beta-ifn mrna is induced approximately 400-fold by poly(i)-poly(c), and reproducible levels of expre ...19836313211
host-specificities of papillomavirus, moloney murine sarcoma virus and simian virus 40 enhancer sequences.the bovine papillomavirus (bpv-1), moloney murine sarcoma virus (momusv) and simian virus 40(sv40) genomes have been shown to contain sequences termed 'enhancers' which activate the expression of linked genes. dna fragments containing these three enhancers have been inserted into recombinant plasmids upstream from the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) gene, and their effect on tk expression monitored. two types of assay have been used. firstly, the ability of recombinant plasmids to tra ...19836313355
transcriptional organization of bovine papillomavirus type 1.multiple bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1)-specific polyadenylated rna species in a bpv-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma were identified and mapped. all of the rna species were transcribed from the same dna strand of the bpv-1 genome. five rna species previously identified in bpv-1-transformed mouse cells were also present in the bovine fibropapilloma. these five species measured 1,050, 1,150, 1,700, 3,800, and 4,050 bases, mapped within the 69% transforming segment of the bpv-1 genome, and s ...19836137574
comparative studies of the expression of linked escherichia coli gpt gene and bpv-1 dnas in transfected cells.a series of hybrid plasmids, containing two selective markers that can be expressed in mammalian cells have been constructed. these plasmids are derived from the psv2gpt recombinant plasmid described by mulligan and berg (1980) and contain the entire bpv-1 dna, or the hindiii-bamhi large transforming fragment (t69) or the early transforming region of polyoma virus dna. dna transfers into fisher rat 3t3 cells were performed either by the calcium phosphate coprecipitation technique, or by protopla ...19836306916
bovine papilloma virus contains an activator of gene expression at the distal end of the early transcription unit.bovine papilloma virus (bpv) contains a cis-acting dna element which can enhance transcription of distal promoters. utilizing both direct and indirect transient transfection assays, we showed that a 59-base-pair dna sequence from the bpv genome could activate the simian virus 40 promoter from distances exceeding 2.5 kilobases and in an orientation-independent manner. in contrast to the promoter 5'-proximal localization of other known viral activators, this element was located immediately 3' to t ...19836308425
the transforming function of bovine papillomavirus dna.when bovine papillomavirus (bpv) or its 7.9-kilobase full viral dna genome induces focal transformation of mouse cells, the viral dna is maintained in the transformed cells as multiple episomal copies. this transforming capacity and maintenance of the episomal state previously has been localized to a 69% subgenomic fragment of the viral dna genome. we now have characterized further the bpv dna sequences that can encode the transforming function. we first created a series of bpv dna deletion muta ...19836310595
european elk papillomavirus: characterization of the genome, induction of tumors in animals, and transformation in vitro.the european elk papillomavirus (eepv) genome was cloned in the bamhi cleavage site of the pbr322 vector. the cloned genome was used for construction of a physical map, employing restriction endonucleases bamhi, bglii, hindiii, pvuii, saci, and xhoi. the sequence homology between the eepv and bovine papillomavirus type 1 genomes was elucidated by performing hybridizations in different concentrations of formamide. sequence homology could only be revealed under less stringent conditions, i.e., tm ...19836312094
expression of cloned growth hormone and metallothionein genes in heterologous cells. 19836314447
regulation of a metallothionein-growth hormone hybrid gene in bovine papilloma virus.we have constructed bovine papilloma virus recombinants carrying a hybrid gene in which human growth hormone structural sequences are fused to the promoter and presumptive control region of the mouse metallothionein-i gene. mouse cells transformed with the recombinants synthesize metallothionein-growth hormone hybrid mrna with the same 5' end as metallothionein mrna. hybrid mrna is inducible by cadmium but not by dexamethasone, whereas the chromosomal metallothionein genes in the same cells are ...19836300840
recovery of a hybrid vector, derived from bovine papilloma virus dna, pbr322 and the hsv tk gene, by bacterial transformation with extrachromosomal dna from transfected rodent cells.a bovine papilloma virus (bpv)-pbr322-derived recombinant plasmid carrying a 2-kb fragment of herpes simplex virus dna containing the thymidine kinase (tk) gene is capable of transforming tk- cells of mouse l and syrian hamster bhk21 lines to tk+. in transformed cells a small proportion of the plasmid dna is present as extrachromosomal elements while the remainder appears to be integrated into the genome. it was possible to recover plasmids indistinguishable from the input dna by transformation ...19836303907
expression and regulation of a human metallothionein gene carried on an autonomously replicating shuttle vector.a human metallothionein (mt) gene was inserted into a bovine papillomavirus (bpv) vector. the chimeric vector (pmtii-bpv) transforms rodent fibroblasts to a cadmium-resistant phenotype. the resistance is due to the high level of expression of human mt-ii in those cells. the vector is maintained in the cells as a free replicating plasmid, present at about 10--15 copies per cell. transcription of the episomal human mt-iia gene is initiated from its authentic start sites and is regulated by the lev ...19836306660
molecularly cloned bovine papillomavirus dna transforms mouse fibroblasts in vitro.nih 3t3 mouse fibroblasts were transformed in vitro by transfection with viral dna from bovine papillomavirus (bpv) types 4, 2 and 1. the viral dnas were molecularly cloned in pat153 to construct pbv4, a recombinant plasmid containing the whole genome of bpv4, pbv2 containing the entire genome of bpv2, and pbv1-d1 which contains the 69% transforming dna fragments of bpv1. the transformed cells lost contact inhibition, were anchorage-independent, required low serum and were tumourigenic in nude m ...19836298346
bovine papillomavirus type 2 from bovine cutaneous papillomas in australia. 19836307243
enhanced production of hepatitis b surface antigen in nih 3t3 mouse fibroblasts by using extrachromosomally replicating bovine papillomavirus vector.we have constructed a recombinant pbr322 plasmid composed of a subgenomic transforming fragment of bovine papillomavirus dna and the hepatitis b surface antigen gene from cloned hepatitis b virus dna and used it for transfection of nih 3t3 mouse fibroblasts. the transformed cells retain the plasmids in extrachromosomal form with a copy number of about 50 to 100 per cell. expression of the hepatitis b surface antigen gene linked to bovine papillomavirus dna is independent of its orientation relat ...19836308420
bovine papillomavirus type 1 genome in hamster sarcoma cells in vivo and in vitro: variation in the level of transcription.the physical state and expression of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) genome were analysed in two transplantable hamster sarcomas (ht1 and ht2) after a low number of transplantations, in two tumourigenic cell lines derived from the first transplant of ht2 sarcoma and another transplantable sarcoma (ht3) and in tumours obtained by grafting these cells. blot hybridization experiments indicated the presence of multiple free copies of the whole viral genome in ht1 and ht2 tumour transplants ...19836302215
comparative analysis of the human type 1a and bovine type 1 papillomavirus genomes.the dna sequences of the genomes of the bovine type 1 and human type 1a papillomaviruses were compared. the overall organization of both genomes is very similar. three areas of maximal homology were found in the l1 and e1/e2 genes, and at the beginning of l2. the conservation of homologous amino acid sequences encoded in the open reading frames argues that these segments represent real genes or exons. within these segments, however, only certain domains of the putative proteins are preferentiall ...19836302319
isolation of episomal bovine papillomavirus chromatin and identification of a dnase i-hypersensitive region.the investigation of papillomavirus chromatin has been hampered by the unavailability of a tissue culture system for vegetative growth of these viruses. we have used, therefore, bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts containing 200 to 250 episomal genome equivalents per cell as a source of viral chromatin. the selectively isolated chromatin was shown to be slightly larger (80s) than the mature simian virus 40 chromatin, which was cosedimented in a sucrose density gra ...19836302320
sequences of bovine papillomavirus type 1 dna--functional and evolutionary implications.a swedish isolate of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv1) was cloned and a 4807 base pairs long sequence was determined, covering the entire late region of the bpv1 genome and strategic parts of the early region. the sequence reveals two large uninterrupted reading frames, designated l1 and l2, which encode tentative polypeptides with molecular weights of 55.5 and 50.0 k. the promoter region for early transcription and the common 3'-end of early transcripts were identified in the sequence by perf ...19836304656
inducible expression of the human interferon beta 1 gene linked to a bovine papilloma virus dna vector and maintained extrachromosomally in mouse cells.a 1.6-kilobase dna segment of the genomic human interferon beta 1 (if-beta 1) gene was inserted into each of two possible orientations at the single hindiii site of a recombinant plasmid pbpv69t, consisting of the 69% transforming region of the bovine papilloma virus type 1 (bpv-1) and a modified sali-sali fragment of plasmid pbr322. after cleavage of the pbr322 sequences from this recombinant, bpv69t-if-beta 1 hybrid dnas were transfected onto c127 mouse cells by the standard calcium precipitat ...19836300659
chromosomal changes in bovine papillomavirus type 1-induced syrian hamster tumors.bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) induced fibrosarcomas in the syrian hamster were studied cytogenetically by g- and c-banding techniques. all tumor derived cells showed chromosome abnormalities that remained stable during serial tumor transplantations. cells without chromosome abnormalities found in two cultures were derived from the host animals on account of heterochromatin polymorphisms. in most tumors pseudodiploid cells prevailed, some cells were hypodiploid lacking one or two chromosom ...19846327012
identification of a second transforming region in bovine papillomavirus dna.bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) has been used as a model for studying papillomavirus genetics because bpv-1 virions or bpv-1 genomic viral dna efficiently induce morphologic transformation of certain cultured cells. previous studies of bpv-1-induced transformation have found that a cloned 5.4-kilobase (kb) fragment (69t) of the genome is transforming and that a 2.3-kb segment from the 3' end of this fragment is also transforming if activated by a retroviral regulatory element (the long term ...19846096867
viral diseases of the skin of the bovine teat and udder. 19846330956
in vitro transformation by bovine papillomavirus.we have studied tumorigenic transformation of mouse tissue culture cells by bovine papillomavirus (bpv) as a model of papillomavirus-induced cell proliferation. when bpv or its 7.9-kb full-length viral dna genome induces focal transformation of mouse calls, the viral dna is maintained in the transformed cells as multiple extrachromosomal copies. the transforming capacity was initially localized to a 69% subgenomic fragment of the viral dna genome. we have further characterized the bpv dna sequen ...19846330216
[generalized human parapoxvirus infection]. 19846330641
infectious skin diseases of cattle. 19846330955
use of gene transfer to study expression of steroid-responsive genes.the ability to introduce dna into eucaryotic cells has provided a means to analyse the expression of cloned genes. by manipulating the genes in vitro using recombinant dna techniques it is possible to identify regulatory dna sequences which are important for individual steps in gene expression. this review will summarize how these techniques have been applied to study steroid-responsive genes and what we have learned about steroid hormone action.19846325273
characterization of the bovine papilloma virus plasmid maintenance sequences.bovine papilloma virus (bpv-1) establishes itself as a multicopy nuclear plasmid in somatic mammalian cells in culture. we report here that two discontinuous regions within the viral genome can independently support extrachromosomal replication of the tn5 neomycinr gene in cells that provide viral factors in trans. the viral plasmid maintenance sequences (pms) act in cis and will integrate along with the marker gene in cell lines that do not provide bpv-1 gene products. pms-1 is localized within ...19846319020
high-level expression of a cloned hla heavy chain gene introduced into mouse cells on a bovine papillomavirus vector.a gene encoding the heavy chain of an hla human histocompatibility antigen was isolated from a library of human dna by recombination and selection in vivo. after insertion into a bovine papillomavirus (bpv) dna expression vector, the gene was introduced into cultured mouse cells. cells transformed with the hla-bpv plasmids did not appear to contain extrachromosomal viral dna, whereas bpv recombinants usually replicated as plasmids in transformed cell lines. large amounts of hla rna were produced ...19846321959
evidence that integration of virus dna may not be necessary for maintenance of cell transformation. 19846322234
an enhancer sequence from bovine papilloma virus dna consists of two essential regions.a comprehensive structural analysis of an enhancer sequence from bovine papilloma virus dna is presented based on the construction and functional analysis of 20 mutant derivatives. the results, obtained in cv-1 tissue culture cells, show that this enhancer is a small genetic element--only 40 bp in length--that contains two essential regions. the two regions exhibit homology to each other and to dna fragments from other viral genomes that also act as enhancers in the assay used. however, there is ...19846324133
plasmidial maintenance in rodent fibroblasts of a bpv1-pbr322 shuttle vector without immediately apparent oncogenic transformation of the recipient cells.a recombinant plasmid was constructed (pv69) which comprises a subgenomic fragment of bovine papilloma virus type 1 (bpv1) dna, part of plasmid pbr322 dna and a drug resistance gene expressed in both mammalian fibroblasts and escherichia coli. this gene (vv2) is a modified form of the bacterial neomycin resistance gene (neo) linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) promoter (plasmid pag60), to which the original bacterial neo promoter from transposon tn5 was added back, upstream ...19846325168
the transformed phenotype in culture and tumorigenicity of fischer rat fibroblast cells (fr3t3) transformed with bovine papilloma virus type 1.unlike cell lines transformed with polyomaviruses, transformants derived by focus formation or colony formation in agarose medium after transfer into rat fibroblast cells (fr3t3 line) of bovine papilloma type 1 (bpv1) dna were consistently observed to grow poorly in suspension and to remain highly serum dependent for growth in culture. these cells did not produce detectable amounts of plasminogen activator, and kept the flat morphology and organized cytoskeleton characteristic of the normal fibr ...19846330980
current concepts in the management of laryngeal papillomatosis.a wide variety of methods have been described for the treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis. this attests to the difficulties encountered in controlling this often refractory disease. recent trends have been directed toward immunotherapy and improved techniques of endoscopic excision. the various treatment modalities are reviewed to provide the reader with updated information and a perspective of the current management of this perplexing disease.19846200454
selective amplification in methotrexate-resistant mouse cells of an artificial dihydrofolate reductase transcription unit making use of cryptic splicing and polyadenylation sites.we have constructed a recombinant ( pmop ) which is based on the bacterial plasmid pml2 and contains bovine papilloma virus type 1 (bpv 1) sequences linked to an artificial mouse dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) transcription unit. this unit consists of the sv40 early gene promoter, a complete dhfr coding sequence and splice and polyadenylation sites from a rabbit beta-globin gene. intact pmop or a fragment thereof devoid of pml2 sequences will transform mouse cells to methotrexate resistance. the ...19846202514
synthesis and glycosylation of the common alpha subunit of human glycoprotein hormones in mouse cells.the synthesis and the post-translational modification of the alpha subunit of human glycoprotein hormones have been studied in a mouse cell. a full-length cdna coding for the human alpha subunit has been expressed in mouse c127 cells under the control of mouse metallothionein regulatory sequences, using a bovine papilloma virus vector. stable clones secreting the alpha subunit into the medium have been obtained. two intracellular forms of 22,000 da and 21,000 da have been detected. pulse-chase e ...19846208554
comparative analysis of human and bovine papillomaviruses.a method is presented for the analysis and comparison of nucleic acid and protein sequences utilizing all identity blocks (the term "identity block" refers to a set of consecutive matches between two sequences) above a prescribed length. moreover, such identity blocks are determined for various groupings of amino acids according to chemical, functional, charge, and hydrophobic classifications. alignment maps based on these classifications and containing all statistically significant identity blo ...19846100988
a common function for polyoma virus large-t and papillomavirus e1 proteins?nucleotide sequencing has revealed a common genetic organization for three papillomaviruses: bpv-1 (bovine papillomavirus type 1), hpv-1 (human papillomavirus type 1a) and hpv-6 (human papillomavirus type 6b). several open reading frames, corresponding to as yet uncharacterized proteins, were observed in these genomes in the region that is required for oncogenic transformation by bpv-1 and for plasmidial maintenance of its genome. the longest of these frames, e1, is also the most conserved betwe ...19846090931
the mouse mammary tumor virus model in studies of glucocorticoid regulation. 19846091192
origin of replication in episomal bovine papilloma virus type 1 dna isolated from transformed cells.the origin of replication of bovine papilloma virus type 1 (bpv-1) has been determined by isolating replicative intermediates (ri) of bpv-transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (hef-bpv). these ri were treated with single cut restriction enzymes to determine the start-position (origin) of the extending replication eyes using electron microscopic techniques. 'cairns'-type ri molecules were shown to contain one replication eye in monomeric as well as in dimeric molecules. the position of this eye ...19846092063
expression of minute virus of mice structural proteins in murine cell lines transformed by bovine papillomavirus-minute virus of mice plasmid chimera.recombinant plasmids containing the genomes of both bovine papillomavirus type i and minute virus of mice (mvm) were constructed and used to transform mouse c127 cells. transformed lines that express mvm gene products with high efficiency were isolated and characterized. these transformants synthesize large amounts of mvm structural polypeptides and spontaneously assemble them into empty virion particles that are released into the culture medium. these lines were, however, genetically unstable; ...19846092662
localization and analysis of bovine papillomavirus type 1 transforming functions.bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) or cloned bpv-1 dna can transform susceptible rodent cells, and the viral dna remains as a stable extrachromosomal plasmid in the transformed cells. the transforming region of the bpv-1 genome has previously been localized to a specific fragment comprising 69% of the genome, which also contains the elements sufficient for extrachromosomal plasmid maintenance. to define more precisely the viral dna sequences which are involved in cellular transformation, we ha ...19846092667
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