TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
amblyomma americanum tick calreticulin binds c1q but does not inhibit activation of the classical complement this study we characterized amblyomma americanum (aam) tick calreticulin (crt) homolog in tick feeding physiology. in nature, different tick species can be found feeding on the same animal host. this suggests that different tick species found feeding on the same host can modulate the same host anti-tick defense pathways to successfully feed. from this perspective it's plausible that different tick species can utilize universally conserved proteins such as crt to regulate and facilitate feedin ...025454607
theileriosis of sheep and goats in china.theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in west china. its main distribution includes qinghai, gansu, ningxia, inner mongolia, shaanxi and sichuan. the epidemic period is from late march to july with april-may being the peak months. this is the period of most intensive tick attack by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (77.2-99.24%) during the year. it has been proved that the nymphs and adults, which develop from larvae and nymphs engorged on infected sheep or goats can transmit the path ...19979512737
experiments on transmission of an unidentified theileria sp. to small ruminants with haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum.experiments on the transmission of an unidentified theileria sp. infective for small ruminants by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were carried out. three theileria-free batches of adult, larvae, and nymphs of laboratory reared h. qinghaiensis and hy. a. anatolicum ticks were infected by feeding them on sheep infected with theileria sp. the theileria sp. was originally isolated from adult ticks of h. qinghaiensis, by inoculation of blood stabilates or tick transmissi ...200212191896
haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks transmit at least two different theileria species: one is infective to yaks, one is infective to haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks from gannan area, where ovine theileriosis is prevalent but bovine theileriosis has not been reported, transmitted theileria parasites to yaks and sheep. blood from the infected yak contained theileria parasites that were infective to yaks, but not sheep. in contrast, blood from the infected sheep did not contain theileria parasites infective to yaks. these results suggested that the ticks from the gannan area were infected with two species of theileria one ...200212072211
transmission of an unidentified theileria species to small ruminants by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks collected in the field.the transmission of a recently identified theileria species pathogenic for sheep and goats in northern china is described. haemaphysalis qinghaiensis nymphs which had been collected from grass in epidemic areas were able to transmit this theileria species to sheep. the pathogen was also transmitted to sheep and goats by three batches of adult ticks collected from grass, ticks collected when moving about on sheep and ticks which were found partially engorged on sheep or goats.200212051602
transmission of babesia sp to sheep with field-collected haemaphysalis qinghaiensis.haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks collected in the gannan tibet autonomous region were infested onto a sheep from a babesia-free area. a strain of small babesia (1.8-2.1 microm in length) was isolated from the sheep. most of the babesia in erythrocytes were round, oval, single pyriform, double pyriform, budding or elongated in form. measurements were made of 100 single sides of the double-pyriform babesia and compared with those for b. motasi and b. ovis from holland, using student's t-test. the ...200212051601
observation on the schizont stage of an unidentified theileria sp. in experimentally infected sheep.the schizont stage of an unidentified theileria sp. infective for small ruminants was observed. intact sheep were infected with adult haemaphysalis qinghaiensis collected from fields where ovine theileriosis was prevalent. when the infested sheep developed theileriosis, tissue and organ smears were prepared. theileria schizonts were demonstrated in liver, spleen, lung, kidney, lymph node and peripheral blood. most of the schizonts were found outside the host cells, which was probably a smear art ...200312884011
phylogenetic analysis of theileria species transmitted by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis.the phylogenetic relationships between six isolates of theileria spp. infective to small ruminants, and two isolates of theileria spp. infective to yak, all transmitted by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, together with the theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli group and t. sinensis, were analyzed using the 18s ssrrna gene sequence. the target dna segment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the pcr product was used either for direct sequencing or was ligated to the pcr ii vector for sequ ...200414598167
[random amplified polymorphic dna analysis of the genomes among 7 species of ticks].to study genomic polymorphic dna and genetic distance of 7 species of ticks.200415587156
identification and characterization of merozoite antigens of a theileria species highly pathogenic for small ruminants in china.a new pathogenic theileria species transmitted by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis was identified in the northwestern part of china and was shown to be highly pathogenic for small ruminants. the present article aimed at identifying merozoite antigens that might be suitable for developing diagnostic methods and designing a potential vaccine. absence of other theilerial or babesial infections was confirmed by reverse line blot in all antigen samples used. extensive western blot analyses using serum from ...200617135547
ticks of small ruminants in china.the importance of ticks and tick-borne diseases of small ruminants in china is discussed. of the 109 species of ticks identified to date in china, 45 species infest small ruminants. five species have been proved to be involved, or possibly involved, in the transmission of tick-borne diseases. anaplasma ovis, babesia motasi, babesia ovis and two unidentified species of theileria, have been recorded in small ruminants in china. the diseases caused by these organisms are widespread in china, causin ...200717823826
molecular characterization of a myosin alkali light chain-like protein, a "concealed" antigen from the hard tick haemaphysalis qinghaiensis.there should be some differences between antibodies generated by feeding ticks on animals and those derived by immunizing animals with tick extracts. here, we found serum collected from sheep immunized with haemaphysalis qinghaiensis salivary gland extracts could detect two more protein bands with molecular weights of 22 and 37 kda (p22 and p37) on western blots of extracts of tick salivary glands than serum from tick infected animals. rabbit anti-h. qinghaiensis differential protein immune seru ...200717466457
cloning and characterization of a ribosomal protein l23a from haemaphysalis qinghaiensis eggs by immuno screening of a cdna expression library.a primary cdna library with a size of 1.34 x 10(6) pfu was constructed from haemaphysalis qinghaiensis eggs and was immunoscreened with rabbit anti-h. qinghaiensis serum. one clone (hq22, named following those clones obtained from adult haemaphysalis qinghaiensis cdna library which we constructed before) screened from the cdna library was selected randomly for sequencing. the entire sequence of the clone was subsequently obtained using rapid amplification of the cdna ends (race). a search of the ...200717406794
experimental transmission of theileria sp. (china 1) infective for small ruminants by haemaphysalis longicornis and haemaphysalis qinghaiensis.the experimental transmission of a recently identified new theileria (china 1) species pathogenic for sheep and goats in northern china is described. haemaphysalis qinghaiensis nymphs and adults developed from larvae and nymph engorged on sheep infected with theileria sp. (china 1) were able to respectively transmit the theileria sp. to splenectomized sheep. meanwhile, h. longicornis nymphs and adults developed from larvae and nymphs engorged on sheep infected with theileria sp. (china 1) were a ...200717370090
cloning and characterization of a cdna clone encoding troponin t from tick haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (acari: ixodidae).troponin t (tnt) is a key protein for ca(2+)-sensitive molecular switching of muscle contraction. the entire cdna sequence of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis troponin t gene (hqtnt) from the hard tick was cloned here. the cdna sequence of hqtnt possesses an orf of 1170 bp coding for a mature protein with 389 amino acid residues and a molecular mass of 46.5 kda. search of the cloned sequence in genbank revealed that hqtnt gene shared some homology with tnt genes of other organisms. by sequence compari ...200818722546
cloning and characterization of a cdna clone encoding calreticulin from haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (acari: ixodidae).the application of anti-tick vaccine has been shown to be the most promising alternative strategy compared to the current use of acaricides that suffer from a number of serious limitations. the success of this method is dependent upon identification and cloning of potential tick vaccine antigens. previously, we have cloned 21 positive clones (named from hq02 to hq22) by immunoscreening complimentary dna (cdna) libraries of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis; however, some of those clones did not contain ...200818087723
molecular cloning and expression of a larval immunogenic protein from the cattle tick boophilus annulatus.a full-length cdna of an immunogenic protein was cloned from a cdna library of the local egyptian cattle tick boophilus annulatus. antibodies raised against b. annulatus larval proteins were used to screen a cdna expression library. a 936bp cloned fragment was sequenced and showed an open reading frame of 516bp encoding a protein of 171 amino acids. comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with protein data bank revealed that the sequence is related to a sequence isolated from the hard tick ...200818054085
investigations into the natural infection rate of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis with piroplasma using a nested we describe the natural infection rate in china of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis with four piroplasma species, namely theileria uilenbergi, t. luwenshuni, t. sinensis and babesia motasi. specifically, a nested pcr was designed based on 18s ribosomal rna genes and its specificity and sensitivity were established. the result showed that 62 flat adult field h. qinghaiensis ticks (27 females and 35 males) out of 136 (55 females and 81 males) were infected by one or more parasites. all 62 (45.6%) w ...200818273685
experimental transmission of theileria uilenbergi infective for small ruminants by haemaphysalis longicornis and haemaphysalis qinghaiensis.the experimental transmission of a recently designated theileria uilenbergi pathogenic for sheep and goats in northern china is described. haemaphysalis qinghaiensis nymphs and adults developed from larvae and nymphs engorged on sheep infected with t. uilenbergi were able to respectively transmit the latter to sheep. however, when h. longicornis ticks picked up t. uilenbergi either at larval or nymphal, only the subsequent adult could transmit the parasites to sheep, the subsequent nymph could n ...200919198881
analysis of tarantula skeletal muscle protein sequences and identification of transcriptional isoforms.tarantula has been used as a model system for studying skeletal muscle structure and function, yet data on the genes expressed in tarantula muscle are lacking.200919298669
muscle differentiation in a colonial ascidian: organisation, gene expression and evolutionary considerations.ascidians are tunicates, the taxon recently proposed as sister group to the vertebrates. they possess a chordate-like swimming larva, which metamorphoses into a sessile adult. several ascidian species form colonies of clonal individuals by asexual reproduction. during their life cycle, ascidians present three muscle types: striated in larval tail, striated in the heart, and unstriated in the adult body-wall.200919737381
characterization of a concealed antigen hq05 from the hard tick haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and its effect as a vaccine against tick infestation in sheep.positive clone hq05 of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (named following those cdna clones cloned from the tick before) was obtained by differentially screening of a cdna library of the tick with rabbit anti-tick salivary gland serum and rabbit anti-tick saliva serum. hq05 contains an open reading frame (orf) of 540bp that codes for 179amino acid residues with a coding capacity of 20kda. sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses indicated that hq05 was a novel gene. expression analysis by reverse ...200919010370
subversion of complement by hematophagous parasites.the complement system is a crucial part of innate and adaptive immunity which exerts a significant evolutionary pressure on pathogens. it has selected for those pathogens, mainly microorganisms but also parasites, that have evolved countermeasures. the characterization of how pathogens evade complement attack is a rapidly developing field of current research. in recent years, multiple complement evasion strategies have been characterized. in this review, we focus on complement escape mechanisms ...200918762211
cloning and characterization of a ribosomal protein l24 from haemaphysalis longicornis eggs.a fragment of ribosomal protein l24 was obtained from the complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cdna) library of haemaphysalis longicornis eggs. the complete sequence of the clone was subsequently obtained using rapid amplification of the cdna ends (race). ribosomal protein l24 from h. longicornis had a high percentage similarity to this protein from different species. conserved domains were also identified in rpl24. real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis showed that this gene is expr ...201020676684
merozoite proteins from babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) as potential antigens for serodiagnosis by elisa.babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) is a babesia isolated from sheep infested with haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in china, and is closely related to b. motasi based on the 18s rrna gene sequence. in the present study, an elisa was developed with merozoite antigens of babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) (bqma) purified from in vitro culture. when the positive threshold was chosen as 30% of the antibodies rate, evaluated with 198 negative sera, the specificity was 95.5%. except for babesia sp. tianzhu, there was no cross- ...201020109252
babesia sp. bq1 (lintan): molecular evidence of experimental transmission to sheep by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and haemaphysalis longicornis.ovine babesiosis is an economically important disease induced by tick transmitted haemoparasites throughout the world. in china, several ovine babesia strains have been isolated from field-collected ticks or sheep blood during the last two decades but little is known about the vector ticks and transmission pattern. babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) is a babesia strain infective for sheep and goats, isolated from blood of sheep experimentally infested with haemaphysalis qinghaiensis collected in field. in ...201020026243
determination of erythrocyte susceptibility of chinese sheep (tan mutton breed) and french sheep (vendéen breed) to babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) by in vitro culture.the babesia species "bq1 (lintan)" is infective to sheep and goats. the species was isolated from haemaphysalis qinghaiensis collected in the gannan tibet autonomous region, china in april 2000. in this study, an in vitro culture system was developed for the propagation of babesia sp. bq1 (lintan). continuous cultivation and 5.0% parasitemia was obtained in vitro in rpmi 1640 medium with sheep red blood cells (rbc) (7.5%) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (fbs) (20%), amphotericin b (0.5 micr ...201020223592
biological control of engorged female haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (acari: ixodidae) ticks with different chinese isolates of beauveria isolates of the fungus beauveria bassiana (b.b) were assessed for their lethality against haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in china. fourteen days after exposure to the isolates b.bat1, b.bat5, and b.bat7 (at 10(8) conidia ml(-1)), the mortality rate had reached 100%. the results indicated that these three b. bassiana isolates were highly virulent against the engorged female h. qinghaiensis ticks. the present study suggests that b. bassiana has potential for biocontrol ...201121509447
detection and differentiation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in china.abstract:201121529349
identification and characterization of ixodes scapularis antigens that elicit tick immunity using yeast surface display.repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. in this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary antigens that react with tick-immune serum. we constructed an ixodes scapularis nymphal salivary gland yeast surface display library and screened the library with nymph-immune rabbit sera and identifie ...201121246036
Simultaneous detection of piroplasma infections in field Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks by reverse line blotting.Piroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites in the genera of Theileria and Babesia, in which numbers of agents are highly pathogenic for cattle, sheep and goats. We developed a reverse line blot (RLB) assay for detection and differentiation of four different parasites, in which 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence was amplified with a set of universal primers specific for all members in the genera of Theileria and Babesia; and the probes were designed on the basis of hypervariable ...201122143673
development of a cdna microarray for the measurement of gene expression in the sheep scab mite psoroptes ovis.sheep scab is caused by the ectoparasitic mite psoroptes ovis which initiates a profound cutaneous inflammatory response, leading to the development of the skin lesions which are characteristic of the disease. existing control strategies rely upon injectable endectocides and acaricidal dips but concerns over residues, eco-toxicity and the development of acaricide resistance limit the sustainability of this approach. in order to identify alternative means of disease control, a deeper understandin ...201222316180
phylogenetic analysis of ruminant theileria spp. from china based on 28s ribosomal rna gene.species identification using dna sequences is the basis for dna taxonomy. in this study, we sequenced the ribosomal large-subunit rna gene sequences (3,037-3,061 bp) in length of 13 chinese theileria stocks that were infective to cattle and sheep. the complete 28s rrna gene is relatively difficult to amplify and its conserved region is not important for phylogenetic study. therefore, we selected the d2-d3 region from the complete 28s rrna sequences for phylogenetic analysis. our analyses of 28s ...201324327775
a sero-epidemiological survey of chinese babesia motasi for small ruminants in china.babesia motasi bq1 (lintan) was first isolated from haemaphysalis qinghaiensis collected in gannan tibet autonomous region, gansu province in april 2000. in this study, a total of 3,204 serum samples from small ruminants in 22 provinces located in different districts of china were tested for antibodies against merozoite antigens from cultured b. motasi bq1 (lintan) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. this method can survey the prevalence of low-pathogenic chinese b. motasi. the results of this ...201323371500
the in vitro efficacy of deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin against engorged female haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks (acari: ixodidae).currently, the most efficient and widely used method for tick control is the application of acaricides, especially deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin, two pyrethroids with neurotoxic action. in this study, the in vitro efficacy of deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin was assessed on engorged female haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks. an in vitro bioassay (adult immersion test) was carried out to determine the lc (lethal concentration) 50 and lc90 of both compounds, calculated by probit analysis. t ...201323624035
the life cycle of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (acari: ixodidae) ticks under laboratory conditions.the developmental stages in the life cycle of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis were investigated under laboratory conditions. the larval, nymphal and adult ticks were fed on sheep at 25-27 °c, 50 % relative humidity (rh) and exposed to daylight. all free-living stages were maintained in an incubator (28 °c with 90 % rh and a 12-h photoperiod). the whole life cycle of h. qinghaiensis was completed in an average of 176 days (range 118-247 days). the average developmental periods were 34.44 days for egg ...201323111808
identification of tropomyosin and its immunological properties from larvae of cattle tick, boophilus annulatus.boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. the aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation.201323914237
assessment of exposure to piroplasms in sheep grazing in communal mountain pastures by using a multiplex dna bead-based suspension array.piroplasms are tick-borne hemoprotozoans with a major impact on extensive management systems. detection of sub-clinical low-level carriers, which can act as source of infection for vector ticks, is key to protect livestock trade and facilitate preventive control programs. the purpose of this study was to develop a method for the detection of ovine piroplasms and to use it in a field study aimed at investigating piroplasms infection in semi-extensive production systems in the basque country (nort ...201324499621
a 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome.multiple tick saliva proteins, the majority of which are unknown, confer tick resistance in repeatedly infested animals. the objective of this study was to identify the 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome. the 24-48 h tick-feeding phase is critical to tick parasitism as it precedes important events in tick biology, blood meal feeding and disease agent transmission. fed male, 24 and 96 h fed female phage display cdna expression libraries were biopanned using rabbit antibo ...201424962723
gene cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the protective antigen subolesin in dermacentor silvarum.subolesin (4d8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. to date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. in this study, we cloned the open reading frame (orf) of d. silvarum 4d8 cdna (ds4d8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residu ...201424623890
scanning electron microscopy of all parasitic stages of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis teng, 1980 (acari: ixodidae).haemaphysalis qinghaiensis teng (acta zootaxon sin 5:144-149, 1980) is an endemic species in china. this tick species was first described based on engorged or semi-engorged specimens, and the drawings and description in words of morphological characteristics were poor. therefore, the present study aims to redescribe morphological characteristics of all active stages of this tick species in detail by scanning electron microscopy. additionally, a comparison between h. qinghaiensis and other sympat ...201424687283
molecular characterization of an alanine-, proline-, glycine-, threonine-, and serine-rich protein of the hard tick haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and its effect as a vaccine against tick infestation in immunological tick control approach has been proved to be the most promising alternative strategy compared to the current usage of acaricides that suffers from a number of serious limitations. the success of this method is mainly dependent on the identification of tick antigen candidates. here, the complete sequence of a positive clone hq15 that we screened from a cdna library of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis was cloned by using rapid amplification of cdna ends. hq15 contains an open reading fra ...201424446555
susceptibility of the tick haemaphysalis qinghaiensis to isolates of the fungus metarhizium anisopliae in china.haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in china, causes severe economic losses. in this study, we investigated the pathogenicity of six isolates of the fungus metarhizium anisopliae to engorged female h. qinghaiensis using concentrations of 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) conidia ml(-1). the results indicated that m.aat08 and m.aat13 isolates were highly virulent against the ticks. metarhizium anisopliae has potential for biocontrol of h. qinghaiensis.201424677224
a pan-theileria fret-qpcr survey for theileria spp. in ruminants from nine provinces of china.theileria spp. are tick transmitted protozoa that can infect large and small ruminants causing disease and economic losses. diagnosis of infections is often challenging, as parasites can be difficult to detect and identify microscopically and serology is unreliable. while there are pcr assays which can identify certain theileria spp., there is no one pcr that has been designed to identify all recognized species that occur in ruminants and which will greatly simplify the laboratory diagnoses of i ...201425175751
detection of piroplasms infection in sheep, dogs and hedgehogs in central china.piroplasms are kinds of tick-borne parasitic apicomplexan protozoa, which are detrimental to humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. up until now, there has been a limited amount of reliable information available about the prevalence of piroplasms infections in wild animals in china. therefore, we have investigated the infections of babesia and theileria species in both domestic and wild animals in xinyang city, henan province, where tick-borne diseases have recent ...201424917932
molecular identification of theileria parasites of northwestern chinese cervidae.theileria and babesia protozoan parasites are transmitted mainly by tick vectors. these parasites cause heavy economic losses to the live-stock industry, as well as affecting the health of wild animals in parasite-endemic areas. identification of infectious agents in wild animals is not only crucial for species preservation, but also provides valuable information on parasite epidemiology. here, we conducted a molecular surveillance study in northwestern china to assess the prevalence of blood pa ...201424885179
a nematode calreticulin, rs-crt, is a key effector in reproduction and pathogenicity of radopholus similis.radopholus similis is a migratory plant-parasitic nematode that causes severe damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops. calreticulin (crt) is a ca2+-binding multifunctional protein that plays key roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many animal parasites and plant nematodes. therefore, crt is a promising target for controlling r. similis. in this study, we obtained the full-length sequence of the crt gene from r. similis (rs-crt), which is 1,527-bp ...201526061142
development of an immunochromatographic strip for the serodiagnosis of theileria infection in sheep.theileria uilenbergi and t. luwenshuni are tick-borne protozoan parasites, transmitted by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and h. longicornis, respectively. they are the main causative agents of theileriosis in small ruminants in china. the disease has resulted in severe economic losses and hindered the development of sheep and goat husbandry industry in the endemic regions.201526631226
serologic evidence for babesia bigemina infection in wild yak (bos mutus) in qinghai province, china.piroplasmosis, caused by tick-borne protozoan parasites of the genera theileria and babesia, is one of the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in china. we evaluated the prevalence of antibodies to babesia bigemina in wild yaks (bos mutus) from qinghai province, china. of 91 samples, 24% had detectable b. bigemina antibodies, and significant differences in prevalence were observed between those older than 5 yr and those younger than 5 yr. we collected 1,679 ticks belongi ...201526267460
ixodes scapularis and ixodes ricinus tick cell lines respond to infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus: transcriptomic and proteomic analysis.ixodid ticks are important vectors of a wide variety of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. although several studies have elucidated tick responses to bacteria, little is known about the tick response to viruses. to gain insight into the response of tick cells to flavivirus infection, the transcriptomes and proteomes of two ixodes spp cell lines infected with the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) were analysed.201526582129
identification of 24h ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the united states. this tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, b. miyamotoi, babesia microti, and powassan virus disease. except for the powassan virus disease, i. scapularis-vectored tbd agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. this study describes identification of 24h immunogenic i. scapularis tick saliva prote ...201525825233
novel spotted fever group rickettsiae in haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks from gansu, northwest china.rickettsia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and well known as transmitted by arthropods. these pathogens have a broad geographic distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from gansu, where borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and anaplasma phagocytophilum were previously reported in ticks and ruminants.201626968160
genetic diversity and molecular characterization of babesia motasi-like in small ruminants and ixodid ticks from china.ovine babesioses, an important tick-borne disease of sheep and goats in china, is caused by the reproduction of intraerythrocytic protozoa of the babesia genus. babesia motasi-like is a babesia parasite that infects small ruminant in china, and two sub-groups of b. motasi-like can be subdivided based on differences in the rhoptry-associated-protein-1 gene. this study aimed to characterize the distribution, epidemiology and genetics of b. motasi-like in animals and ticks. a molecular investigatio ...201626976477
seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern china.bovine theileriosis is a common disease transmitted by ticks, and can cause loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide. here, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) based on theileria luwenshuni surface protein (tlsp) was developed and used to carry out a seroepidemiological survey of bovine theileriosis in northern china.201627863521
molecular epidemiological surveillance to assess emergence and re-emergence of tick-borne infections in tick samples from china evaluated by nested investigation was performed to detect eight pathogens in ticks collected from grass tips or animals in the southern, central and northeast regions of china. dna samples extracted from ticks were collected from ten different locations in eight provinces of china and subjected to screening for tick-borne pathogens, including borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, ehrlichia spp., rickettsia spp., babesia/theileria spp., ehrlichia ruminantium, coxiella burnetii, and francisella tularensis, using nested ...201626943995
abnormal development of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (acari: ixodidae).a single haemaphysalis qinghaiensis specimen exhibiting abnormal morphology was collected from a tick laboratory colony. the tick had a heart-shaped body with partial twinning of the posterior region (with two anal orifices and two genital grooves). to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of teratological changes in h. qinghaiensis the abnormal morphological features are described herein.201628076284
primary characterization of a putative novel tbc1 domain family member 13 from haemaphysalis qinghaiensis.a putative novel tbc1 domain family member 13 (hqtbc1d13) from haemaphysalis qinghaiensis was cloned using rapid amplification of the cdna ends (race), the hqtbc1d13 cdna is 1702bp in length and encodes 396 amino acid residues with predicted molecular weight of 46.09kda. the tbc-domain containing protein has a catalytic 'arginine finger' analogous to those of ras and rho family gaps, which is critical determinants of gap activity. the amino acid sequences of tbc domain were evolutionarily highly ...201627198770
characterisation of tropomyosin and paramyosin as vaccine candidate molecules for the poultry red mite, dermanyssus gallinae.dermanyssus gallinae is the most economically important haematophagous ectoparasite in commercial egg laying flocks worldwide. it infests the hens during the night where it causes irritation leading to restlessness, pecking and in extreme cases anaemia and increased cannibalism. due to an increase in the occurrence of acaricide-resistant d. gallinae populations, new control strategies are required and vaccination may offer a sustainable alternative to acaricides. in this study, recombinant forms ...201627733192
laboratory evaluation of beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae in the control of haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in china.haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in china, is an ectoparasite that preferentially infests small ruminants and can transmit theileria sp. and babesia sp. in this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of individual and mixed infections of the fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae to h. qinghaiensis nymphs. the estimated lc50 for ticks immersed in solutions of b. bassiana, m. anisopliae and a mixture thereof were: 5.88056 × 10(4), 2.65 × 10(4), and 2.85 × 10(4) con ...201627071674
molecular survey and characterization of a novel anaplasma species closely related to anaplasma capra in ticks, northwestern china.anaplasma spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that infect a wide variety of wild and domestic animals. these pathogens exhibit a high degree of biological diversity, broad geographical distribution, and represent a serious threat to veterinary and public health worldwide.201627884197
expression analysis and biological characterization of babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) (babesia motasi-like) rhoptry-associated protein 1 and its potential use in serodiagnosis via china, ovine babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases of small ruminants. it has a significant economic impact, and several babesia motasi-like isolates have been recently shown to be responsible for ovine babesiosis in this country.201627245213
detection of theileria luwenshuni in sheep from great britain.theileria spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites of the phylum apicomplexa, order piroplasmida that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. in great britain, theileria spp. have been reported from livestock associated with transmission by the tick haemaphysalis punctata. however, these reports have not been associated with disease. this study has investigated the cause of a disease outbreak accompanied by mortality in a flock of sheep grazing reclaimed marshland in north kent.201627075661
molecular and functional characterization of bm05br antigen from rhipicephalus microplus.rhipicephalus microplus is a cattle-specific tick, causing considerable losses in the livestock industry. the identification of molecules responsible for modulation of host defenses during different parasite stages can help in the development of alternative methods, such as vaccination, to control tick infestations. hq05, a protein of unknown function identified in the tick haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, induced a significant protective immune response when used as a vaccine in sheep. in the presen ...201728043800
molecular prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from qinghai province, northwestern china.tick-borne rickettsioses is one of the oldest known vector-borne diseases and has been viewed as emerging or re-emerging disease in china. the causative agents have been increasingly recognized and exhibited a high degree of genetic diversity and widespread distribution. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from qinghai province, northwestern china. in total, 860 questing adult ticks representing six species were collected. the sfg rick ...201829107656
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