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emergence and evolution of h10 subtype influenza viruses in poultry in china.the cases of human infections with h10n8 viruses identified in late 2013 and early 2014 in jiangxi, china, have raised concerns over the origin, prevalence, and development of these viruses in this region. our long-term influenza surveillance of poultry and migratory birds in southern china in the past 12 years showed that h10 influenza viruses have been introduced from migratory to domestic ducks over several winter seasons at sentinel duck farms at poyang lake, where domestic ducks share their ...201525589662
erratum: characterization of the pathogenesis of h10n3, h10n7, and h10n8 subtype avian influenza viruses circulating in ducks. 201728332599
rapid detection of subtype h10n8 influenza virus by one-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods.we developed hemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific one-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for detecting the h10n8 virus. the detection limit of the assays was 10 copies of h10n8 virus, and the assays did not amplify nonspecific rna. the assays can detect h10n8 virus from chicken samples with high sensitivity and specificity, and they can serve as an effective tool for detecting and monitoring h10n8 virus in live poultry markets.201526378283
deep sequencing reveals the viral adaptation process of environment-derived h10n8 in mice.the h10n8 virus was isolated from the water of dongting lake, china. mice were infected while showing no obvious symptoms and replication was restricted to the lungs. when the wild-type virus was serially passaged in the lungs of mice, the resulting viruses became lethal and capable of replication in many other organs. this offered an applicable model for the exploration of viral genome gradual mutation during adaptation in mice. the different passage viruses from mice lung lavage were named p1, ...201626477933
hemagglutinin stalk- and neuraminidase-specific monoclonal antibodies protect against lethal h10n8 influenza virus infection in mice.between november 2013 and february 2014, china reported three human cases of h10n8 influenza virus infection in the jiangxi province, two of which were fatal. using hybridoma technology, we isolated a panel of h10- and n8-directed monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and further characterized the binding reactivity of these antibodies (via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to a range of purified virus and recombinant protein substrates. the h10-directed mabs displayed functional hemagglutination inhibi ...201526512088
pb2 subunit of avian influenza virus subtype h9n2: a pandemic risk factor.avian influenza viruses of subtype h9n2 that are found worldwide are occasionally transmitted to humans and pigs. furthermore, by co-circulating with other influenza subtypes, they can generate new viruses with the potential to also cause zoonotic infections, as observed in 1997 with h5n1 or more recently with h7n9 and h10n8 viruses. comparative analysis of the adaptive mutations in polymerases of different viruses indicates that their impact on the phylogenetically related h9n2 and h7n9 polymer ...201626560088
pb2-588 v promotes the mammalian adaptation of h10n8, h7n9 and h9n2 avian influenza viruses.human infections with avian influenza h7n9 or h10n8 viruses have been reported in china, raising concerns that they might cause human epidemics and pandemics. however, how these viruses adapt to mammalian hosts is unclear. here we show that besides the commonly recognized viral polymerase subunit pb2 residue 627 k, other residues including 87e, 292 v, 340 k, 588 v, 648 v, and 676 m in pb2 also play critical roles in mammalian adaptation of the h10n8 virus. the avian-origin h10n8, h7n9, and h9n2 ...201626782141
phylogenetic analysis and pathogenicity assessment of two strains of avian influenza virus subtype h9n2 isolated from migratory birds: high homology of internal genes with human h10n8 virus.two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (aivs), h7n9 and h10n8, have emerged in china, which further indicate that the h9n2 subtype of aivs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. h9n2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. in this study, two strains of the h9n2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in ...201626973600
influenza surveillance in birds in italian wetlands (1992-1998): is there a host restricted circulation of influenza viruses in sympatric ducks and coots?we report the results of a 6-year serological and virological monitoring performed in ducks and coots in italy, in order to assess the degree of influenza a virus circulation in these birds during wintering. a total of 1039 sera collected from 1992 to 1998 was screened by a double antibody sandwich blocking elisa (np-elisa): seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza a viruses was significantly higher in ducks compared to coots (52.2% vs. 7.1%, respectively). the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) ...200415036528
avian influenza virus in pregnancy.the unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as h5n1, h5n6, h7n1 and h10n8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. in 2013, another novel influenza a (h7n9) virus emerged in china, and 30% of those patients died. pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus verti ...201627187752
[genomic characteristics of 2 strains of influenza a(h9n2)virus isolated from human infection cases in anhui province].to understand genomic characteristics of 2 strains of influenza a(h9n2)virus isolated from human infection cases in anhui province in 2015.201627188368
coexistence of avian influenza virus h10 and h9 subtypes among chickens in live poultry markets during an outbreak of infection with a novel h10n8 virus in humans in nanchang, china.infection with the novel h10n8 virus in humans has raised concerns about its pandemic potential worldwide. we report the results of a cross-sectional study of avian influenza viruses (aivs) in live poultry markets (lpms) in nanchang, china, after the first human case of h10n8 virus infection was reported in the city. a total of 201 specimens tested positive for aivs among 618 samples collected from 24 lpms in nanchang from december 2013 to january 2014. we found that the lpms were heavily contam ...201525766608
a human-infecting h10n8 influenza virus retains a strong preference for avian-type receptors.recent avian-origin h10n8 influenza a viruses that have infected humans pose a potential pandemic threat. alterations in the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (ha), typically are required for influenza a viruses to cross the species barrier for adaptation to a new host, but whether h10n8 contains adaptations supporting human infection remains incompletely understood. we investigated whether h10n8 ha can bind human receptors. sialoside glycan microarray analysis showed that the h10 ha ret ...201525766296
prevalence and diversity of h9n2 avian influenza in chickens of northern vietnam, 2014.despite their classification as low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (lpaiv), a/h9n2 viruses cause significant losses in poultry in many countries throughout asia, the middle east and north africa. to date, poultry surveillance in vietnam has focused on detection of influenza h5 viruses, and there is limited understanding of influenza h9 epidemiology and transmission dynamics. we determined prevalence and diversity of influenza a viruses in chickens from live bird markets (lbm) of 7 norther ...201627340015
structure and receptor binding preferences of recombinant hemagglutinins from avian and human h6 and h10 influenza a virus subtypes.during 2013, three new avian influenza a virus subtypes, a(h7n9), a(h6n1), and a(h10n8), resulted in human infections. while the a(h7n9) virus resulted in a significant epidemic in china across 19 provinces and municipalities, both a(h6n1) and a(h10n8) viruses resulted in only a few human infections. this study focuses on the major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinins from both of these novel human viruses. the detailed structural and glycan microarray analyses presented here highlight the idea t ...201525673707
identification of potential virulence determinants associated h9n2 avian influenza virus pb2 e627k mutation by comparative proteomics.some highly pathogenic h5n1, h7n9, and h10n8 isolated from china carried six internal genes from h9n2 avian influenza viruses (aiv) and the key amino acids at 627 in pb2 of these viruses had mutated to k. to investigate the mechanism of increased pathogenicity for h9n2 aiv pb2 627k, we analyzed the difference in mouse lung proteins expression response to pb2 k627e. by itraq method, we found that the mutated k627e contributed to a set of differentially expressed lung proteins, including five upre ...201525641917
prevailing pa mutation k356r in avian influenza h9n2 virus increases mammalian replication and pathogenicity.adaptation of the viral polymerase complex comprising pb1, pb2, and pa is necessary for efficient influenza a virus replication in new host species. we found that pa mutation k356r (pa-k356r) has become predominant since 2014 in avian h9n2 viruses in china as with seasonal human h1n1 viruses. the same mutation is also found in most human isolates of emergent avian h7n9 and h10n8 viruses whose six internal gene segments are derived from the h9n2 virus. we further demonstrated the mammalian adapti ...201627384648
muscovy duck retinoic acid-induced gene i (mdrig-i) functions in innate immunity against h9n2 avian influenza viruses (aiv) infections.retinoic acid inducible gene i (rig-i) is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that senses pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps). muscovy duck (cairina moschata) is a large duck different from other species of ducks, and is more susceptible to some microbial pathogens. in this study, the muscovy duck rig-i gene (mdrig-i) was identified. quantitative rt-pcr showed that mdrig-i mrna was widely expressed in different tissues, especially in those with mucosa. rig-i null df-1 cells trans ...201525604129
genetic diversity of avian influenza a (h10n8) virus in live poultry markets and its association with human infections in china.following the first human infection with the influenza a (h10n8) virus in nanchang, china in december 2013, we identified two additional patients on january 19 and february 9, 2014. the epidemiologic, clinical, and virological data from the patients and the environmental specimen collected from 23 local live poultry markets (lpms) were analyzed. the three h10n8 cases had a history of poultry exposure and presented with high fever (>38°c), rapidly progressive pneumonia and lymphopenia. substantia ...201525591167
the ecology and adaptive evolution of influenza a interspecies transmission.since 2013, there have been several alarming influenza-related events; the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5 viruses into north america, the detection of h10n8 and h5n6 zoonotic infections, the ongoing h7n9 infections in china and the continued zoonosis of h5n1 viruses in parts of asia and the middle east. the risk of a new influenza pandemic increases with the repeated interspecies transmission events that facilitate reassortment between animal influenza strains; thus, it is of utm ...201727426214
[retrospective analysis of human avian influenza a (h10n8) virus infection in jiangxi province].to analyze and discuss the source and epidemic disposition of human infection with avian influenza a (h10n8) virus.201425567019
identification of the source of a (h10n8) virus causing human infection.a novel h10n8 influenza a virus has been detected in three humans in china since december 2013. although this virus was hypothesized to be a novel reassortant among influenza viruses from wild birds and domestic poultry, its evolutionary path leading to human infection is unknown. sporadic surveillance at the live poultry market (lpm) suspected to be the source of infection for the first h10n8 patient has shown a gradual increase in influenza virus prevalence culminating with a predominance of h ...201525550151
no evidence h10n8 avian influenza virus infections among poultry workers in guangdong province before 2013. 201525542462
phylogeography of avian influenza a h9n2 in china.during the past two decades, avian influenza a h9n2 viruses have spread geographically and ecologically in china. other than its current role in causing outbreaks in poultry and sporadic human infections by direct transmission, h9n2 virus could also serve as an progenitor for novel human avian influenza viruses including h5n1, h7n9 and h10n8. hence, h9n2 virus is becoming a notable threat to public health. however, despite multiple lineages and genotypes that were detected by previous studies, t ...201425511561
avian influenza a viruses: evolution and zoonotic infection.although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza a viruses has been reported. influenza a/h5n1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. in 2013, three (a/h7n9, a/h6n1, and a/h10n8) novel avian influenza viruses (aivs) breached the animal-huma ...201627486732
human infection with influenza virus a(h10n8) from live poultry markets, china, 2014.human infection with avian influenza virus a(h10n8) was initially reported in china in december 2013. we characterized h10n8 strains from a human patient and from poultry in live markets that infected persons had visited. results of genome sequencing and virus characterization suggest that the virus strains that infected humans originated from these markets.201425425075
h9n2 influenza virus in china: a cause of concern.the recent human infection with avian influenza virus revealed that h9n2 influenza virus is the gene donor for h7n9 and h10n8 viruses infecting humans. the crucial role of h9n2 viruses at the animal-human interface might be due to the wide host range, adaptation in both poultry and mammalian, and extensive gene reassortment. as the most prevalent subtype of influenza viruses in chickens in china, h9n2 also causes a great economic loss for the poultry industry, even under the long-term vaccinatio ...201525384439
antibodies against h10n8 avian influenza virus among animal workers in guangdong province before november 30, 2013, when the first human h10n8 case was recognized.considered an epicenter of pandemic influenza virus generation, southern china has recently seen an increasing number of human h7n9 infections. however, it is not the only threat. on 30 november 2013, a human h10n8 infection case was first described in china. the origin and genetic diversity of this novel virus is similar to that of h7n9 virus. as h10n8 avian influenza virus (aiv) was first identified from a duck in guangdong province during 2012 and there is also evidence of h10n8 infected dogs ...201425348464
identification of epitopes for neutralizing antibodies against h10n8 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin.objective to develop neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against h10n8 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin and to identify the binding sites. methods mabs against hemagglutinin of h10n8 avian influenza virus were developed by genetic engineering. neutralizing mabs were screened by microneutralization assay,and then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot to identity the binding sites.the homology modeling process was performed using discovery studio 3.5 software,while ...201627594152
clinical characteristics of human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza a(h10n8) virus.novel influenza a viruses of avian-origin may be the precursors of pandemic strains. this descriptive study aims to introduce a novel avian-origin influenza a (h10n8) virus which can infect humans and cause severe diseases.201425266520
surveillance for emerging respiratory viruses.several new viral respiratory tract infectious diseases with epidemic potential that threaten global health security have emerged in the past 15 years. in 2003, who issued a worldwide alert for an unknown emerging illness, later named severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars). the disease caused by a novel coronavirus (sars-cov) rapidly spread worldwide, causing more than 8000 cases and 800 deaths in more than 30 countries with a substantial economic impact. since then, we have witnessed the emer ...201425189347
mutations of novel influenza a(h10n8) virus in chicken eggs and mdck cells.the recent emergence of human infection with influenza a(h10n8) virus is an urgent public health concern. genomic analysis showed that the virus was conserved in chicken eggs but presented substantial adaptive mutations in mdck cells. our results provide additional evidence for the avian origin of this influenza virus.201425148105
characterization of the pathogenesis of h10n3, h10n7, and h10n8 subtype avian influenza viruses circulating in ducks.three h10 subtype avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic ducks in china, designated as sh602/h10n8, fj1761/h10n3 and sx3180/h10n7, with an intravenous pathogenicity index (ivpi) of 0.39, 1.60, and 1.27, respectively. these h10 viruses showed a complex pathology pattern in different species, although full genome characterizations of the viruses could not identify any molecular determinant underlying the observed phenotypes. our findings describe the pathobiology of the three h10 subt ...201627678170
genesis of the novel human-infecting influenza a(h10n8) virus and potential genetic diversity of the virus in poultry, china.human infection with a novel influenza a(h10n8) virus was first described in china in december 2013. however, the origin and genetic diversity of this virus is still poorly understood. we performed a phylogenetic analysis and coalescent analysis of two viruses from the first case of influenza a(h10n8) (a/jiangxi-donghu/346-1/2013 and a/jiangxi-donghu/346-2/2013 and a novel a(h10n8) virus (a/chicken/jiangxi/102/2013) isolated from a live poultry market that the patient had visited. the haemagglut ...201424993558
pb2-q591k mutation determines the pathogenicity of avian h9n2 influenza viruses for mammalian species.influenza a subtype h9n2 is widespread and prevalent in poultry. it has repeatedly transmitted zoonotically to cause mild influenza-like illness in humans and is regarded as a potential pandemic candidate. in additon, the six internal genes of h7n9 and h10n8 viruses which caused infection in human in china as well as some of the highly pathogenic h5n1 strains are origined from h9n2. previous studies have shown that the mammalian adaptation pb2-q591k contributes to the pathogenicity of h5n1 and h ...201727684944
the complexity of human infected aiv h5n6 isolated from china.novel avian influenza viruses (aivs) of h7n9, h10n8, and h5n6 are currently circulating in china's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting human and other mammals. human infected aiv h5n6 in china during 2014-2015 is believed to be a triple reassortant originated from h6n6 and two clades of h5 viruses. the current report suggests that its reassortment history is more complicated.201627782815
induction of protective immunity against influenza a/jiangxi-donghu/346/2013 (h10n8) in mice.human infections with a/jiangxi-donghu/346/2013 (h10n8) virus have raised concerns about its pandemic potential. in order to develop a vaccine against this virus, the immunogenicity of its haemagglutinin protein was evaluated in mice. using both whole-virion and recombinant subunit protein vaccines, we showed that two doses of either vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody responses. the protective efficacy of the vaccine-induced responses was assessed using a reverse-genetics-derived h10 reassor ...201727983474
the avian influenza h9n2 at avian-human interface: a possible risk for the future pandemics.the avian influenza subtype h9n2 is considered a low pathogenic virus which is endemic in domestic poultry of a majority of asian countries. many reports of seropositivity in occupationally poultry-exposed workers and a number of confirmed human infections with an h9n2 subtype of avian influenza have been documented up to now. recently, the human infections with both h7n9 and h10n8 viruses highlighted that h9n2 has a great potential for taking a part in the emergence of new human-infecting virus ...201628083072
clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a fatal case of avian influenza a h10n8 virus infection: a descriptive study.human infections with different avian influenza viruses--eg, h5n1, h9n2, and h7n9--have raised concerns about pandemic potential worldwide. we report the first human infection with a novel reassortant avian influenza a h10n8 virus.201424507376
h10n8 avian flu virus claims its first known human casualty. 201424501255
characterization of an h10n8 influenza virus isolated from dongting lake wetland.wild birds, especially those in wetlands and aquatic environments, are considered to be natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses. it is accepted that water is an important component in the transmission cycle of avian influenza virus. monitoring the water at aggregation and breeding sites of migratory waterfowl, mainly wetland, is very important for early detection of avian influenza virus. the epidemiology investigation of avian influenza virus was performed in dongting lake wetland which i ...201121272297
complete genome sequence of an h10n8 avian influenza virus isolated from a live bird market in southern china.an h10n8 avian influenza virus (aiv), designated a/duck/guangdong/e1/2012 (h10n8), was isolated from a duck in january 2012. this is first report that this subtype of aiv was isolated from a live bird market (lbm) in guangdong province in southern china. furthermore, the complete genome of this strain was analyzed. the availability of genome sequences is helpful to further investigations of epidemiology and molecular characteristics of aiv in southern china.201222733881
complete genome sequence of a novel reassortant avian influenza h1n2 virus isolated from a domestic sparrow in 2012.we report here the complete genome sequence of a novel h1n2 avian influenza virus strain, a/sparrow /guangxi/gxs-1/2012 (h1n2), isolated from a sparrow in the guangxi province of southern china in 2012. all of the 8 gene segments (hemagglutinin [ha], nucleoprotein [np], matrix [m], polymerase basic 2 [pb2], neuraminidase [na], polymerase acidic [pa], polymerase basic 1 [pb1], and nonstructural [ns] genes) of this natural recombinant virus are attributed to the eurasian lineage, and phylogenetic ...201323868121
emergence in china of human disease due to avian influenza a(h10n8)--cause for concern?in december 2013, china reported the first human case of avian influenza a(h10n8). a 73-year-old female with chronic diseases who had visited a live poultry market succumbed with community-acquired pneumonia. while human infections with avian influenza viruses are usually associated with subtypes prevalent in poultries, a(h10n8) isolates were mostly found in migratory birds and only recently in poultries. although not possible to predict whether this single intrusion by a(h10n8) is an accident o ...201424406432
reverse-transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of h10 subtype avian influenza viruses.the h10 subtype avian influenza viruses (h10n4, h10n5 and h10n7) have been reported to cause disease in mammals, and the first human case of h10n8 subtype avian influenza virus was reported in 2013. recently, h10 subtype avian influenza viruses (aivs) have been followed more closely, but routine diagnostic tests are tedious, less sensitive and time consuming, rapid molecular detection assays for h10 aivs are not available.201526377809
mono- and quadri-subtype virus-like particles (vlps) containing h10 subtype elicit protective immunity to h10 influenza in a ferret challenge model.avian-origin influenza represents a global public health concern. in 2013, the h10n8 virus caused documented human infections for the first time. currently, there is no approved vaccine against h10 influenza. recombinant virus-like particles (vlps) represent a promising vaccine approach. in this study, we evaluated h10 vlps containing hemagglutinin from h10n8 virus as an experimental vaccine in a ferret challenge model. in addition, we evaluated quadri-subtype vlps co-localizing h5, h7, h9 and h ...201627663671
preparation of quadri-subtype influenza virus-like particles using bovine immunodeficiency virus gag protein.influenza vlps comprised of hemagglutinin (ha), neuraminidase (na), and matrix (m1) proteins have been previously used for immunological and virological studies. here we demonstrated that influenza vlps can be made in sf9 cells by using the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag (bgag) protein in place of m1. we showed that bgag can be used to prepare vlps for several influenza subtypes including h1n1 and h10n8. furthermore, by using bgag, we prepared quadri-subtype vlps, which co-expressed within th ...201626529299
emerging influenza strains in the last two decades: a threat of a new pandemic?in the last 20 years, novel non-seasonal influenza viruses have emerged, most of which have originated from birds. despite their apparent inability to cause pandemics, with the exception of h1n1 swine influenza virus, these viruses still constitute a constant threat to public health. while general concern has decreased after the peak of the h5n1 virus, in recent years several novel reassorted influenza viruses (e.g., h7n9, h9n2, h10n8) have jumped the host-species barrier and are under surveilla ...201526344952
evolutionary dynamics and global diversity of influenza a virus.the increasing number of zoonotic infections caused by influenza a virus (iav) subtypes of avian origin (e.g., h5n1 and h7n9) in recent years underscores the need to better understand the factors driving iav evolution and diversity. to evaluate the current feasibility of global analyses to contribute to this aim, we evaluated information in the public domain to explore iav evolutionary dynamics, including nucleotide substitution rates and selection pressures, using 14 iav subtypes in 32 differen ...201526311890
challenges and strategies of laboratory diagnosis for newly emerging influenza viruses in taiwan: a decade after sars.since the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) in taiwan was identified in march 2003, viral respiratory infections, in particular the influenza virus, have become a national public health concern. taiwan would face a serious threat of public health problems if another sars epidemic overlapped with a flu outbreak. after sars, the taiwan centers for disease control accelerated and strengthened domestic research on influenza and expanded the exchange of information with internati ...201526290876
hemagglutinin receptor binding of a human isolate of influenza a(h10n8) virus.three cases of influenza a(h10n8) virus infection in humans have been reported; 2 of these infected persons died. characterization of the receptor binding pattern of h10 hemagglutinin from avian and human isolates showed that both interact weakly with human-like receptors and maintain strong affinity for avian-like receptors.201526079843
epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of avian influenza virus in china.novel reassortants of h7n9, h10n8, and h5n6 avian influenza viruses (aivs) are currently circulating in china's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. combined with the sometimes enzootic h5n1 and h9n2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse aivs pose significant risks to public health. here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of aivs in china, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel aivs, and identify warning ...201526063419
genesis of avian influenza h9n2 in bangladesh.avian influenza subtype h9n2 is endemic in many bird species in asia and the middle east and has contributed to the genesis of h5n1, h7n9 and h10n8, which are potential pandemic threats. h9n2 viruses that have spread to bangladesh have acquired multiple gene segments from highly pathogenic (hp) h7n3 viruses that are presumably in pakistan and currently cocirculate with hp h5n1. however, the source and geographic origin of these h9n2 viruses are not clear. we characterized the complete genetic se ...201426038507
human infection with an avian influenza a (h9n2) virus in the middle region of china.during the epidemic period of the novel h7n9 viruses, an influenza a (h9n2) virus was isolated from a 7-year-old boy with influenza-like illness in yongzhou city of hunan province in november 2013. to identify the possible source of infection, environmental specimens collected from local live poultry markets epidemiologically linked to the human case in yongzhou city were tested for influenza type a and its subtypes h5, h7, and h9 using real-time rt-pcr methods as well as virus isolation, and fo ...201525965534
beagle dogs have low susceptibility to bj94-like h9n2 avian influenza virus.in china, dogs are considered significant intermediate hosts of influenza viruses and have been reported to be infected with h9n2; additionally, a reassortant h9n2 virus has been isolated in dogs. currently, there are three different lineages of h9n2, including bj94-like, g1-like, and y439-like lineages; bj94-like h9n2 has been circulating in various types of poultry in southern china. additionally, a number of studies have reported that h9n2 evolves rapidly and is frequently reassorted with h5n ...201525675837
an h10n8 influenza virus vaccine strain and mouse challenge model based on the human isolate a/jiangxi-donghu/346/13.three human cases of h10n8 viruses were reported in china in late 2013 and early 2014, two of which were fatal. this was the first time the h10n8 subtype has been detected in humans and no vaccine candidates or antibody therapy has been developed for these viruses so far. we developed an h10n8 vaccine candidate virus based on a/jiangxi-donghu/346/13 that can also be used in a murine challenge model for vaccine and monoclonal antibody research. the vaccine virus is a 6:2 re-assortant virus expres ...201525604801
structural basis for preferential avian receptor binding by the human-infecting h10n8 avian influenza virus.since december 2013, at least three cases of human infections with h10n8 avian influenza virus have been reported in china, two of them being fatal. to investigate the epidemic potential of h10n8 viruses, we examined the receptor binding property of the first human isolate, a/jiangxi-donghu/346/2013 (jd-h10n8), and determined the structures of its haemagglutinin (ha) in complex with both avian and human receptor analogues. our results suggest that jd-h10n8 preferentially binds the avian receptor ...201525574798
enzootic genotype s of h9n2 avian influenza viruses donates internal genes to emerging zoonotic influenza viruses in china.avian influenza viruses of subtype h9n2 are widely prevalent in poultry in many asian countries, and the segmented nature of the viral genome results in multiple distinct genotypes via reassortment. in this study, genetic evolution of h9n2 viruses circulating in eastern china during 2007-2013 was analyzed. the results showed that the diversity of the gene constellations generated six distinct genotypes, in which a novel genotype (s) bearing the backbone of a/chicken/shanghai/f/98-like viruses by ...201425457363
investigation of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds due to novel avian-origin influenza a(h10n8) in nanchang city, china.multiple reassortment events within poultry and wild birds had resulted in the establishment of another novel avian influenza a(h10n8) virus, and finally resulted in human death in nanchang, china. however, there was a paucity of information on the prevalence of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds in nanchang area. we investigated avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds from live poultry markets, poultry countyards, delivery vehicles, and wild-bird habitats in nanchang. we an ...201525284683
zoonotic infections with avian influenza a viruses and vaccine preparedness: a game of "mix and match".various direct avian-to-human transmissions of influenza a virus subtypes upon exposure to infected poultry have been previously observed in the past decades. although some of these strains caused lethal infections, the lack of sustained person-to-person transmission has been the major factor that prevented these viruses from causing new pandemics. in 2013, three (a/h7n9, a/h6n1, and a/h10n8) novel avian influenza viruses (aivs) yet again breached the animal-human host species barrier in asia. n ...201425003087
receptor binding by h10 influenza viruses.h10n8 follows h7n9 and h5n1 as the latest in a line of avian influenza viruses that cause serious disease in humans and have become a threat to public health. since december 2013, three human cases of h10n8 infection have been reported, two of whom are known to have died. to gather evidence relating to the epidemic potential of h10 we have determined the structure of the haemagglutinin of a previously isolated avian h10 virus and we present here results relating especially to its receptor-bindin ...201424870229
first evidence of h10n8 avian influenza virus infections among feral dogs in live poultry markets in guangdong province, china. 201424812294
[a report of first fatal case of h10n8 avian influenza virus pneumonia in the world].to report the treatment process of the first case of human pneumonia resulted from h10n8 avian influenza virus infection in the world for providing the data for clinical diagnosis and treatment.201424524404
avian influenza a h10n8--a virus on the verge? 201424508318
high pathogenicity of influenza a (h10n8) virus in mice.three human cases of h10n8 virus infections were initially reported in china in late 2013 and early 2014, two of which were fatal. this was the first time the h10n8 subtype has been detected in humans, and the pathogenicity of this virus remains under characterized. we first assessed its pathogenicity by infecting balb/c mice with two h10n8 isolates, a/jiangxi-donghu/346-1/2013 and a/chicken/jiangxi/102/2013. the human isolate (h346-1) demonstrated stronger capability of replication and induced ...201526350451
knowledge, attitudes, and practices (kap) relating to avian influenza (h10n8) among farmers' markets workers in nanchang, china.three cases of avian influenza virus h10n8 were reported in nanchang, china, as of april 2014. to identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (kap) related to h10n8 among farmers' market workers, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 63 farmers' markets in nanchang. using the resulting data, characteristics of poultry and non-poultry workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practice were described. results suggest that interventions targeting high-risk workers should be developed and implemen ...201525993111
lack of exposure of h10n8 avian influenza virus among veterinarians in guangdong province, china.we conducted a retrospective seroepidemiological study for h10n8 avian influenza infection among 400 veterinarians sampled from february 2013 to august 2013 in guangdong province, china. none of the veterinarians had evidence of previous infection with the emergent h10n8 aiv. although there is no evidence of h10n8-infected veterinarian before the first human index case of h10n8 infection in southern china, a more rigorous and long-term surveillance remained essential for early warning of novel r ...201525980313
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