staphylococcus pseudintermedius sp. nov., a coagulase-positive species from animals.four staphylococcal isolates from clinical and necropsy specimens from a cat, a dog, a horse and a parrot (psittacus erithacus timneh) were found to constitute a distinct taxon. 16s rrna gene sequence analysis revealed that its closest phylogenetic relatives are staphylococcus intermedius and staphylococcus delphini. growth characteristics, biochemical features and dna-dna hybridizations demonstrated that the strains differ from these and other known species and that they represent a single, nov ...200516014483
first case of staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection in a human.we present the first clinical report of a staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection in a human. biochemically, s. pseudintermedius can be easily misidentified as s. aureus. therefore, the final microbiological identification requires the combination of phenotypic and genotypic tests.200617050817
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius in a veterinary teaching hospital.we surveyed methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococcus (mrcps) strains from 57 (26 inpatient and 31 outpatient) dogs and 20 veterinary staff in a veterinary teaching hospital. from the staff, three mrcps strains were isolated, and two were methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa). in contrast, 18 mrcps strains were detected in both inpatient (12 of 26 [46.2%]) and outpatient (6 of 31 [19.4%]) dogs. among them, only one strain was mrsa. using direct sequencing of soda and h ...200717267624
reclassification of phenotypically identified staphylococcus intermedius reclassify phenotypically identified staphylococcus intermedius strains, which might include true s. intermedius strains and novel species such as staphylococcus pseudintermedius and staphylococcus delphini, we analyzed molecular phylogenies and phenotypic characteristics of 117 s. intermedius group (sig) strains tentatively identified as being s. intermedius by the rapid id32 staph assay. from phylogenetic analyses of soda and hsp60 sequences, the sig strains were divided into three clusters ...200717596353
methicillin-resistant staphylococcal colonization in dogs entering a veterinary teaching hospital.nasal, axillary and rectal swabs were collected from 193 dogs admitted to the ontario veterinary college veterinary teaching hospital. enrichment culture was performed and coagulase positive staphylococci were identified via standard methods. methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated from 4/193 (2.1%) dogs, and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans were each isolated from 1/193 (0.5%) dogs. methic ...200817643874
population genetic structure of the staphylococcus intermedius group: insights into agr diversification and the emergence of methicillin-resistant strains.the population genetic structure of the animal pathogen staphylococcus intermedius is poorly understood. we carried out a multilocus sequence phylogenetic analysis of isolates from broad host and geographic origins to investigate inter- and intraspecies diversity. we found that isolates phenotypically identified as s. intermedius are differentiated into three closely related species, s. intermedius, staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and staphylococcus delphini. s. pseudintermedius, not s. interme ...200717905991
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus pseudintermedius detected in the bft-germvet monitoring programme 2004-2006 in germany.during recent years, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) strains from animals have become the focus of various studies. in the present study, coagulase-positive staphylococci obtained from pigs, dogs and cats suffering from acute infections, which had been collected in the bft-germvet monitoring programme in germany and phenotypically identified as oxacillin-resistant, were characterized.200818096559
characterization of new staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (sccmec) and topoisomerase genes in fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius.fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates harbor two new staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (sccmec) elements that belong to class a, allotype 3 (sccmec ii-iii), and to the new allotype 5 (sccmec vii). analysis of the complete nucleotide sequences of the topoisomerase loci gyrb/gyra and grlb/grla revealed mutations involved in fluoroquinolone resistance.200818305127
emergence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius in switzerland: three cases of urinary tract infections in cats.methicillin resistance has emerged in clinical isolates of staphylococcus pseudintermedius from cats in switzerland. three cats suffering from urinary tract infections were infected with methicillin-resistant s. pseudintermedius (mrsp). phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the resistance profile showed that the isolates displayed resistance to all beta-lactams and cephalosporins (blaz, meca), fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines [tet(k)], macrolides, lincosamides and streprogramins b [erm(b)] ...200818714937
staphylococcus pseudintermedius versus staphylococcus intermedius. 200918760884
a novel member of the thermolysin family, cloning and biochemical characterization of metalloprotease from staphylococcus pseudintermedius.thermolysins constitute a family of secreted bacterial metalloproteases expressed, among others, by several pathogens. strains of staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from diseased dogs and judged as protease-positive, by skim milk agar plate culture, were investigated for protease content. no proteolytic activity was detected when the bacteria were grown in regular liquid media. unexpectedly, supplementation of the medium with calcium ions resulted in expression of a metalloprotease and pro ...200818769737
in vitro activity of fusidic acid and mupirocin against coagulase-positive staphylococci from pets.methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) and multiresistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) have emerged as important pathogens in animal infections. associated therapeutic problems and the zoonotic potential of staphylococci have renewed interest in topical antibiotics for treatment and carrier decolonization. fusidic acid and mupirocin are used topically in humans and animals but resistant strains isolated from people are increasing. this study investigates the in vitro activi ...200818819974
tandem repeat sequence analysis of staphylococcal protein a (spa) gene in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius.a putative staphylococcal protein a (spa) gene was discovered in the genome of staphylococcus pseudintermedius and used for developing a species-specific spa typing protocol. thirty-one clinical methicillin-resistant s. pseudintermedius (mrsp) isolates from dogs and cats in four countries were characterized by spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (sccmec) typing. the results indicated the occurrence of two mrsp clones that acquired distinct s ...200918995972
molecular diagnostic identification of staphylococcus pseudintermedius.we report the first diagnostic test for the identification of staphylococcus pseudintermedius involving a simple pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. the method allows discrimination of s. pseudintermedius from the closely related members of the staphylococcus intermedius group and other important staphylococcal pathogens of humans and dogs.200919091817
prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from clinical samples of companion animals and this study the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) in clinical specimens of different animal species was defined by investigating a total of 16,103 clinical samples originating from veterinary facilities of five german federal states in 2007. of all samples examined, 72 were positive for mrsp, giving an overall prevalence of 0.45%. in clinical specimens originating from small animals the prevalence was 0.58% (n=67; dogs n=61 and cats n=6), while samples ...200919097710
evaluation of susceptibility test breakpoints used to predict meca-mediated resistance in staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs.clinical and laboratory standards institute interpretive breakpoints for in vitro susceptibility tests that predict meca-mediated oxacillin resistance in staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from animals have been changed twice in the past decade. moreover, there are no counterpart recommendations for human isolates of s. pseudintermedius. individual medical and veterinary laboratories variably use interpretive breakpoints identical to those recommended for use with staphylococcus aureus or ...200919139501
quorum sensing in veterinary pathogens: mechanisms, clinical importance and future perspectives.under certain circumstances the individuals of a bacterial population may find advantages in acting together and making "collective decisions". this phenomenon is better known as quorum sensing. when the concentration of signal molecules produced by the surrounding bacteria exceeds a certain threshold, the bacterial population acts as a single organism, collectively expressing virulence genes, biofilm forming genes, etc. several mechanisms of quorum sensing are discussed, each with its distinct ...200919185433
antimicrobial resistance in staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the norwegian dog population.the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in staphylococcus pseudintermedius from skin and ear infections in a representative sample of dogs unexposed to antimicrobial treatment before sampling was examined. the obtained isolates were further examined for genetic polymorphism and genetic background of resistance. a total of 59 isolates of s. pseudintermedius originating from 96 samples of 91 dogs in five different regions in norway were included in this study. susceptibility testing was perform ...200919216647
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus pseudintermedius in veterinary medicine.staphylococci are important opportunistic pathogens in most animal species. among the most relevant species are the coagulase positive species staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus pseudintermedius. methicillin resistance has emerged as an important problem in both of these organisms, with significant concerns about animal and public health. the relative importance of these staphylococci on different animal species varies, as do the concerns about zoonotic transmission, yet it is clear that b ...201019246166
staphylococcus pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from staphylococcus aureus.staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. this study aimed to determine if s. pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins resembling those from staphylococcus aureus and to characterise them. s. pseudintermedius strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. it adhered to the alpha-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hallmark of clumping fac ...200919372010
staphylococcal colonization of mucosal and lesional skin sites in atopic and healthy dogs.staphylococcal colonization was compared in healthy dogs and in dogs with atopic dermatitis. bacterial swabs were collected from the nasal mucosa, ear and perineum of 43 healthy and 24 atopic dogs and also from potentially infected skin lesions of the atopic dogs. coagulase positive staphylococcal isolates were identified to the species level. at the time of this study staphylococcus intermedius was considered a single species but has since been recognized as comprising at least three species wi ...200919392768
inducible clindamycin-resistance in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs and cats. 200919592178
identification of a predominant multilocus sequence type, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis cluster, and novel staphylococcal chromosomal cassette in clinical isolates of meca-containing, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius.methicillin resistance encoded by the meca gene is increasingly observed in staphylococcus pseudintermedius. little is known about the population genetics of veterinary staphylococci bearing methicillin resistance. the aim of this study was to determine the relatedness of resistant bacteria and to compare them with methicillin-susceptible isolates. multilocus sequence typing (mlst) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) fragment profiling were performed on methicillin-resistant s. pseudinte ...200919604657
staphylococcus pseudintermedius necrotizing fasciitis in a dog.staphylococcus pseudintermedius was implicated as the cause of rapidly progressive and fatal necrotizing fasciitis in a dog. the isolate was methicillin-susceptible and did not contain genes encoding the panton-valentine leukocidin. while streptococcus canis is typically considered to be the main cause of necrotizing fasciitis in dogs, staphylococci should also be considered.200919721787
evaluation of clinical laboratory standards institute interpretive criteria for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs.the clinical and laboratory standards institute published in 2008 new interpretive criteria for the identification of methicillin resistance in staphylococci isolated from animals. the sensitivity of the 2008 interpretive criteria for meca gene-positive staphylococcus pseudintermedius, compared with the previous criteria of 2004, was investigated. thirty clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant s. pseudintermedius from dogs were used. the presence of the meca gene was determined by polymerase ...200919737765
infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius masquerading as cefoxitin susceptible in a dog.a 2-year-old dog was evaluated because of complications that developed following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy. infection of the surgical site developed following removal of the failed implant.200919878005
identification of first exfoliative toxin in staphylococcus pseudintermedius.staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus hyicus, and staphylococcus chromogenes are known to cause skin infections in human or animals by producing exfoliative toxins (ets). staphylococcus pseudintermedius can also cause canine pyoderma, but no exfoliative toxins or similar toxins have been reported. pcr with degenerate primers targeted to the conserved regions in eta, etb, and etd from s. aureus and shetb from s. hyicus, and subsequent chromosome walking identified a novel gene, designated as exi ...200919891731
coagulase positive staphylococcal colonization of humans and their household pets.staphylococcus aureus colonization was identified in 67/242 (28%) humans, 19/132 (14%) dogs, and 7/161 (4.3%) cats in households in ontario, with methicillin-resistant s. aureus present in 8 (3.3%) humans, 2 (1.5%) dogs, and 0 cats. staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated from 8 (4.1%) humans, 61 (46%) dogs, and 11 (6.8%) cats, with methicillin-resistant s. pseudintermedius detected in 1 (0.4%) human, 6 (4.5%) dogs, and 2 (1.2%) cats. staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans was isola ...200919949556
low rate of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococcal colonization of veterinary personnel in hong kong.elevated rates of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) carriage have been reported in veterinary personnel, suggesting an occupational colonization risk. hong kong veterinary personnel (n = 150) were sampled for coagulase-positive staphylococci (cps) nasal colonization. risk factors for colonization were assessed by questionnaire. isolates were identified and antibiotic susceptibility determined. all cps isolates were investigated for meca carriage, sccmec type and pvl genes. two s ...201119968853
in vitro antimicrobial activity of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine and tris-edta.minimum bactericidal concentrations (mbcs) of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine 0.15% and tris-edta (otodine) were determined by broth microdilution for 150 isolates representing the most common pathogens associated with canine otitis. the microorganisms were classified into three groups according to their levels of susceptibility. the most susceptible group included staphylococcus pseudintermedius, malassezia pachydermatis, streptococcus canis and corynebacterium auriscanis, ...201020030799
occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in healthy dogs and cats presented to private veterinary hospitals in southern ontario: a preliminary study.the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal escherichia coli, salmonella spp., extended beta-lactamase producing e. coli (esbl-e. coli), methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa), and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) were determined for healthy dogs (n = 188) and cats (n = 39) from veterinary hospitals in southern ontario that had not had recent exposure to antimicrobials. the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in e. coli was as f ...200920046603
methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from healthy horses and horse personnel in italy.methicillin-resistant staphylococci (mrs) were isolated from nasal swabs of 56 of 159 (35.2%; 95% confidence interval [ci]: 27.9-43.2%) healthy horses. two nasal swabs were collected from each horse; 43 of 159 (27%; 95% ci: 20.5-34.8%) of the cohort were colonized by mrs strains in 1 nostril, while in the remaining 13 of 159 (8.2%; 95% ci: 4.6-13.9%), different or identical mrs strains were isolated in both nostrils. of the 29 humans in close contact with the horses tested, 4 (13.8%; 95% ci: 4.5 ...201020093688
proposed changes to clinical laboratory standards institute interpretive criteria for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs. 201020093710
catheter-related bacteremia caused by staphylococcus pseudintermedius refractory to antibiotic-lock therapy in a hemophilic child with dog exposure.we describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to staphylococcus pseudintermedius in a child with dog exposure. the organism was confirmed as s. pseudintermedius based on 16s rrna gene sequence analysis and positive pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the pta gene.201020164279
the staphylococcus intermedius group of bacterial pathogens: species re-classification, pathogenesis and the emergence of meticillin resistance.staphylococcus intermedius has been long regarded as the common cause of pyoderma in dogs and other animals. despite its clinical importance, our understanding of the population genetics and pathogenesis of s. intermedius is limited. this review summarizes recent studies which have explored the genetic diversity of s. intermedius isolates resulting in a re-classification of the species and the identification of staphylococcus pseudintermedius as the common canine pyoderma pathogen. also discusse ...200920178486
risk of colonization or gene transfer to owners of dogs with meticillin-resistant staphylococcus determine the zoonotic risk from meticillin-resistant staphylococcal species or transfer of resistance genes between dogs with pyoderma and their owners, 25 dog-owner pairs were studied. cultures were obtained from the dog's lesions and the owner's nasal cavity on the initial visit. staphylococcus isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by the kirby-bauer disk diffusion method. presence of the meca gene was determined by pcr. staphylococcal cassette chro ...200920178487
widespread rapid emergence of a distinct methicillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) genetic lineage in order to gain a deeper insight into the phylogenetic background and diversity of methicillin-resistant s. pseudintermedius (mrsp) of animal origin, genetic relationships and clonal distribution among 146 european mrsp were examined using different molecular and phenotypical typing approaches. mrsp strains were derived from clinical microbiological specimens (mainly of small animal origin) sent in for diagnostic purposes from various veterinary facilities between 2005 and 2008. pulsed-field ge ...201020181441
a veterinary perspective on methicillin-resistant familiarize the reader with the epidemiology, diagnosis, and infectious and zoonotic potential of methicillin-resistant staphylococci.201020230433
clonal spread of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius in europe and north america: an international multicentre study.the aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic resistance profiles of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) and to examine the clonal distribution in europe and north america.201020348087
coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa.this study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. a combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. a total of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in denmark and the us, respectively. coryneform bacteria were identified by part ...201020434850
heterogeneity of staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from atopic and healthy dogs.staphylococcus pseudintermedius is part of the normal canine flora but frequently causes pyoderma in canine atopic dermatitis (ad). this study aimed to determine whether particular s. pseudintermedius strains were associated with ad and/or pyoderma. ninety-six s. pseudintermedius isolates from the ear, nares, perineum and lesions of 21 atopic and 16 healthy dogs were lysed with proteinase k and digested with 40 u smai. restriction products were separated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (p ...201020456718
high prevalence of fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from canine pyoderma and otitis externa in veterinary teaching hospital.recently, a total of 74 staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates were collected from clinical cases of canine pyoderma and otitis externa in korea. in this study, we examined in vitro fluoroquinolone resistance among those isolates using a standard disk diffusion technique. the results demonstrated that approximately 18.9% to 27.0% of the isolates possessed bacterial resistance to both veterinary- and human-licensed fluoroquinolones except one isolate, including moxifloxacin (18.9% resistance), ...201020467256
in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of β-defensin 3 against staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from healthy and atopic canine skin.β-defensins (bds) are highly conserved antimicrobial peptides important in innate defence against bacteria. β-defensin 3 has a specific role in protecting the skin. this study quantified the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) of human (h)bd3 against staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from atopic and healthy dogs. single colony isolates (1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/ml log phase) were cultured with doubling dilutions of hbd3 in sodium phosphate buffer from 0.8 to 50 μg/ml at 37 °c for ...201020492622
prevalence of genes for enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and exfoliative toxin among clinical isolates of staphylococcus pseudintermedius from canine origin.a total of 74 staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains were isolated from the 99 clinical cases of canine pyoderma or chronic otitis in our veterinary teaching hospital during may 2006-february 2008. in this study, we examined the genetic distribution of staphylococcal pyogenic toxins such as staphylococcal enterotoxins a (sea), b (seb), c (sec), d (sed), e (see), and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst) as well as the previously characterized s. intermedius exfoliative toxin (siet) among those iso ...201020500497
molecular analysis of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius of feline origin from different european countries and north america. 201020534627
occurrence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius in an academic veterinary hospital.recently, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) have been increasingly isolated from veterinarians and companion animals. with a view to preventing the spread of mrsa and mrsp, we evaluated the occurrence and molecular characteristics of each in a veterinary college. mrsa and mrsp were isolated from nasal samples from veterinarians, staff members, and veterinary students affiliated with a veterinary hospital. using ste ...201020543040
human infection associated with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius st71. 201020601356
treatment of a lower urinary tract infection in a cat caused by a multi-drug methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius and enterococcus faecalis.staphylococci and enterococci are common causes of urinary tract infections in cats. however, both species are rarely implicated together as causes of lower urinary tract infections associated with urethral obstruction. this report describes the first case of a multi-drug methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius belonging to spa type t06 and enterococcus faecalis urinary infection in a cat with pre-existing and recurrent urethral obstruction. both species were isolated at >10(5)cfu/ ...201020609607
antimicrobial susceptibility and methicillin resistance in staphylococcus pseudintermedius and staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolated from dogs with pyoderma in understand species distribution, trends of antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of methicillin resistance in canine staphylococci in japan, 190 coagulase-positive staphylococci (cops) were isolated from dogs with pyoderma in 2 japanese veterinary referral hospitals. using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-pcr) method, two cops species were identified: 170 staphylococcus pseudintermedius (89.5%) and 20 s. schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates (10.5%). in these isolates, susceptibi ...201020703027
the first case of a staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection after joint prosthesis implantation in a dog.we have reported a bacterial infection in a dog with progressive dysplasia of the hips. orthopedic surgery was performed. seven weeks prior to the surgery, the patient was bitten by another dog. the postimplantation wound exuded for four days after the surgery. microbiological analysis performed by standard identification techniques showed the presence of staphylococcus intermedius, but an additional molecular analysis indicated s. pseudintermedius. this was followed by an evaluation of antibiot ...201020734760
further diversity of the staphylococcus intermedius group and heterogeneity in the mboi restriction site used for staphylococcus pseudintermedius species identification.species identification of 200 beta-hemolysin-producing canine staphylococcal isolates was performed using a recently described polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) method (based on mboi restriction of a pta gene fragment), supplemented with biochemical testing and sequencing of housekeeping genes. the pcr-rflp method misclassified a small fraction (approximately 1%) of the staphylococcus pseudintermedius population as a result of heterogeneity in the mboi ...201020807936
reclassification of the listeria-camp test strain atcc 49444 staphylococcus aureus as staphylococcus pseudintermedius.atcc 49444, originally designated as staphylococcus aureus, has been cited as a component strain in the camp test for identification of listeria monocytogenes. a polyphasic study, in which molecular data were combined with cytochemical properties and physiological characteristics, identified this isolate as staphylococcus pseudintermedius. the nucleotide sequences of the 16s rrna and soda genes from atcc 49444 were determined and found to be identical to those of other s. pseudintermedius strain ...201020819366
identification of a novel staphylococcus pseudintermedius exfoliative toxin gene and its prevalence in isolates from canines with pyoderma and healthy dogs.staphylococcal exfoliative toxins are involved in some cutaneous infections in mammals by targeting desmoglein 1 (dsg1), a desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecule. recently, an exfoliative toxin gene (exi) was identified in staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from canine pyoderma. the aim of this study was to identify novel exfoliative toxin genes in s. pseudintermedius. here, we describe a novel orf in the genome of s. pseudintermedius isolated from canine impetigo, whose deduced amino acid ...201020875053
in vitro antimicrobial resistance of staphylococci isolated from canine urinary tract infection.this study determined the diversity of species and antimicrobial resistance of staphylococci isolated from dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (uti). urine samples from 348 dogs with clinical signs of uti, according to clinical examination and urinalysis, were processed for isolation of staphylococcus. colonies in pure culture were identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. seventy isolates of staphylococci were obtained (20.1 ...201020885826
in vitro comparison of staphylococcus pseudintermedius susceptibility to common cephalosporins used in dogs.the in vitro activity of 10 cephalosporin antimicrobial agents against 75 isolates of methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus pseudintermedius derived from dogs was assessed. the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% of strains (mic90) values obtained were for cephalothin, cefovecin, and cefazolin (0.12 ug/ml), followed by ceftiofur and cefoxitin (0.25 ug/ml), cefpodoxime (0.5 ug/ml), and cefaclor and cefadroxil (1 ug/ml). the highest mic90 values were found for cephalexin and cefixime ...201020960413
isolation of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius from breeding dogs.the overuse of antimicrobials can select resistant bacteria strains; staphylococci have the ability to become resistant to all beta-lactam antimicrobials and are a significant concern in human medicine and a growing issue for veterinary medicine. because antimicrobials are sometimes incorrectly used in breeding kennels, the objective of the work was to assess the occurrence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci in breeding dogs. the research was carried out in 13 kennels that ...201020961604
prevalence of canine methicillin resistant staphylococcuspseudintermedius in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory in italy.the overall prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) was 2% (10/590) among 590 canine specimens submitted to an italian veterinary diagnostic laboratory during a two-month period, and 21% (10/48) among staphylococcus intermedius group (sig) isolates. all methicillin-resistant strains exhibited additional resistance to fluoroquinolones, gentamicin, lincosamides, tetracyclines, and potentiated sulfonamides, belonged predominantly to spa type t02 and harboured sccm ...201020971485
multidrug- and methicillin resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius as a cause of canine pyoderma: a case report.a case of a dog with a long-term inflammatory skin disorder due to infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) is described. after initial diagnostics of mrsp, follow-up swabs of the dog (nose, skin) were taken twice after four and seven weeks. mrsp was constantly isolated from the skin and once from the nose. since infected humans might be a source of reinfection, the owners of the dog were screened (nasal) three times during their pet's therapy. thereby, the mal ...201021038805
coagulase-positive staphylococcus pseudintermedius from animals causing human endocarditis.we report a case of infection with coagulase-positive staphylococcus pseudintermedius related to the implantation of a cardioverter-defribrillator device. this species is usually isolated from infected animals, and contact with a dog was the probable source of infection in this patient. this isolate produced a leukotoxin effective against human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.201021075051
retrospective study of necropsy-associated coagulase-positive staphylococci in horses.coagulase-positive staphylococci (cops) are potential causative agents of equine infections, but they are rarely responsible for the death of the animal. in the current study, staphylococci implicated in the death or euthanasia of horses were retrospectively studied in 3,457 necropsies performed over a decade (1995-2006). morbidity associated with cops was 1.7%, representing 60 isolates of cops, which were identified as staphylococcus aureus (59) and staphylococcus pseudintermedius (1). coagulas ...201021088182
characterization of a new sccmec element in staphylococcus cohnii.many sccmec elements of coagulase-negative staphylococci (cons) could not be typed using multiplex pcr. such a 'non-typable' sccmec was encountered in a staphylococcus cohnii isolate.201021103346
an igg-binding protein a homolog in staphylococcus hyicus.shotgun phage display was used to identify a homolog of the igg-binding protein staphylococcal protein a in staphylococcus hyicus type strain ccug 15602/atcc 11249. this bacterium is the causative agent of exudative epidermitis in pigs and can also cause mastitis in cattle. a protein with similar features as the originally identified protein a in staphylococcus aureus was described; an ysirk-type signal peptide, four igg-binding domains, a putative peptidoglycan-binding domain, and a cell wall a ...201021111546
escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens isolated from environmental sites in companion animal veterinary hospitals in southern infection control in veterinary medicine is emerging and the role of the environment in hospital-acquired infections (hai) in veterinary hospitals is largely unknown. this study was initiated to determine the recovery of escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens from the environments of 101 community veterinary hospitals. the proportion of hospitals with positive environmental swabs were: e. coli--92%, clostridium difficile--58%, methicillin-resistant staphyl ...201021119862
antibiotic resistance profiles of staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from canine patients in this study, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was examined among 74 staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains recently isolated from clinical cases of canine pyoderma and otitis externa at the veterinary teaching hospital at konkuk university, korea. bacterial resistance to the nine commonly used antibiotics was evaluated by a standard disk diffusion technique based on the guidelines of the clinical and laboratory standards institute. the results demonstrated that most s. pseudintermedius ...201021193835
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius among dogs admitted to a small animal hospital.the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) among dogs admitted to a small animal hospital during a 17-month period, to characterize these isolates and to initially screen for possible factors associated with mrsp carriage. swabs were taken from the nose/pharynx and the perineum as well as from wounds and skin infections (if present) of 814 dogs before entering the small animal hospital. a questionnaire for back ...201021247709
complete genome sequence of the veterinary pathogen staphylococcus pseudintermedius strain hku10-03, isolated in a case of canine pyoderma.staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a member of the coagulase-positive staphylococci and is the commonest cause of canine pyoderma. we report the first genome sequence of s. pseudintermedius, which shows the presence of numerous virulence factors akin to those of the related human pathogen staphylococcus aureus.201121278300
genetic relatedness of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) isolated from a dog and the dog the present study four methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) strains isolated from a dog (n=3) and the anterior nares of the dog owner (n=1) were investigated by conventional and molecular methods. the species identity of the four s. pseudintermedius strains was confirmed by conventional methods, by pcr mediated amplification of s. intermedius/s. pseudintermedius specific segments of thermonuclease encoding gene nuc and by restriction fragment length polymorphism analys ...201121353270
association between skin surface ph, temperature and staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dogs with immunomodulatory-responsive lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis.secondary bacterial infection is a frequent complication in lesional skin of dogs with immunomodulatory-responsive lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis (imr-lpp). however, the influence of skin ph and temperature in determining the composition of the cutaneous microflora at lesional sites has not been investigated. the association between imr-lpp and pedal skin temperature, ph and staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates was thus evaluated. temperature and ph were measured in 20 dogs with imr- ...201121395884
prevalence, sites of colonization, and antimicrobial resistance among staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from healthy dogs in saskatoon, dogs, staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a common colonizer and is associated with pyoderma, otitis externa, and urinary tract infections. in the current study, nasal, pharyngeal, and rectal swabs were taken from 175 healthy dogs and cultured for s. pseudintermedius. the organism was found in 153 dogs (87.4%), including individuals in which it exclusively colonized in the nares (n ôçè=ôçè 1), pharynx (n ôçè=ôçè 16), and rectum (n ôçè=ôçè 17). antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that ...201121398462
complete genome sequence of the canine pathogen staphylococcus pseudintermedius.we report the first whole-genome sequence for a clinical isolate of staphylococcus pseudintermedius (ed99), the major pathogen responsible for canine bacterial pyoderma. s. pseudintermedius contains numerous mobile genetic elements and encodes an array of putative virulence factors, including superantigenic, cytolytic, and exfoliative toxins and cell wall-associated surface proteins.201121398539
staphylococcus pseudintermedius exfoliative toxin exi selectively digests canine desmoglein 1 and causes subcorneal clefts in canine epidermis.staphylococcal exfoliative toxins are known to digest desmoglein (dsg) 1, a desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecule, thus causing intraepidermal splitting in human bullous impetigo, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and swine exudative epidermitis. recently, a novel exfoliative toxin gene (exi), whose sequence shares significant homology with previously identified exfoliative toxins, was isolated from staphylococcus pseudintermedius. little is known about the pathogenic involvement of this tox ...201121410798
serum pharmacokinetics of clindamycin hydrochloride in normal dogs when administered at two dosage regimens.the aim of this cross-over study was to compare clindamycin pharmacokinetics in the serum of clinically normal dogs when administered orally at two dosage regimens (5.5 mg/kg, twice daily, and 11 mg/kg, once daily), separated by a 1 week wash-out period. serum samples were obtained from six clinically normal laboratory beagles before, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after the first and fifth dose of clindamycin at 5.5 mg/kg, twice daily, and before, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h after the first and third dose at 11 ...201121418348
transmission of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius between infected dogs and cats and contact pets, humans and the environment in households and veterinary clinics.the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) in people, pets and the environment in households with a pet with a clinical mrsp-infection within the past year. personnel and the environment at veterinary clinics were also screened. nasal swabs (humans), nasal and perineal swabs (pets) and environmental wipes were examined using selective culturing. twenty households were enrolled; 10/20 index cases still had clinical ...201121420256
molecular basis of rifampicin resistance in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs.methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) often display resistance to almost all classes of antimicrobial agents used in veterinary medicine. in the present study, we investigated the emergence of rifampicin resistance in mrsp, the persistence of these isolates and identified the corresponding mutations in the rpob gene.201121436154
in vitro antimicrobial activity of nitrofurantoin against escherichia coli and staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs and cats.minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) of nitrofurantoin were determined by agar dilution in 269 canine and feline isolates of escherichia coli and staphylococcus pseudintermedius, two of the most common bacterial species associated with urinary tract infection (uti) in small animals. the mic90 for e. coli and s. pseudintermedius were 32 and 16μg/ml, respectively. all isolates, including multidrug-resistant strains of known genetic background, displayed mics below the drug concentrations report ...201121482044
the role of meca and blaz regulatory elements in meca expression by regional clones of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius.two major regional clones of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) have been identified in europe and north america. they are designated multilocus sequence types (st) 71 and 68 and contain staphylococcal chromosome cassette (sccmec) types ii-iii and v(t), respectively. one notable difference between the two clones is a deletion in the meci/mecr1 regulatory apparatus of st 68 sccmec v(t). this deletion in analogous methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) results ...201121514752
antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from various animals.this study characterized the antimicrobial susceptibility of 221 staphylococcus aureus isolated from various species, and 60 canine staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from 1986 through 2000 at the western college of veterinary medicine (wcvm). resistance of s. aureus was most common to penicillin (31%) and tetracycline (14%); resistance of s. pseudintermedius to penicillin was present in 8% and to tetracycline in 34% of isolates. resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was only seen am ...201121532820
urinary tract infection caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius in a dog.a young neutered male pug dog was presented for evaluation of acute onset pollakiuria and hematuria. culture and susceptibility testing of urine identified a methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius, which was susceptible to only tetracycline among commonly used antimicrobials. treatment with doxycycline led to bacteriological cure and resolution of clinical signs.201121532822
expression and activity of a novel cathelicidin from domestic cats.cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides found in many species including primates, mammals, marsupials, birds and even more primitive vertebrates, such as the hagfish. some animals encode multiple cathelicidins in their genome, whereas others have only one. this report identifies and characterizes feline cathelicidin (fecath) as the sole cathelicidin in domestic cats (felis catus). expression of fecath is predominantly found in the bone marrow, with lower levels of expression in t ...201121533281
evaluation of the bacterial microflora of the conjunctival sac of healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis.the aim of this case-control study was to evaluate and compare the bacterial microflora from the conjunctival sac of dogs with atopic dermatitis and healthy dogs. twenty-one atopic dogs without clinical and/or cytopathological signs of bacterial blepharoconjunctivitis and 21 breed-matched healthy dogs were enrolled. under topical anaesthesia, the inferior conjunctival sac of one eye was scraped twice. material was collected with a kimura spatula, spread over a slide and stained with a diff quick ...201121535255
genomic and surface proteomic analysis of the canine pathogen staphylococcus pseudintermedius reveals proteins which mediate adherence to the extracellular matrix.cell wall-associated (cwa) proteins made by gram-positive pathogens play a fundamental role in pathogenesis. staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major animal pathogen responsible for the canine skin disease bacterial pyoderma. here we describe the bioinformatic analysis of the family of 18 predicted cwa proteins encoded in the genome of s. pseudintermedius strain ed99 and determine their distribution among a phylogenetically diverse panel of s. pseudintermedius clinical isolates, and closely-re ...201121576333
bacterial contamination of commercial ear cleaners following routine home use.ear cleaning solutions are designed for repeated use, which raises the possibility for bacterial contamination leading to recurrent or persistent infectious otitis. the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bacterial contamination of commercial ear cleaners following routine home use in dogs and to describe the characteristics that are associated with contamination. used ear cleaner bottles and information regarding their use were obtained from canine owners visiting veterin ...201121645141
determination of enrofloxacin stability and in vitro efficacy against staphylococcus pseudintermedius and pseudomonas aeruginosa in four ear cleaner solutions over a 28 day period.chemical stability and in vitro bactericidal efficacy of 0.9% enrofloxacin-compounded solutions were evaluated following storage at room temperature for 28 days. chemical stability of enrofloxacin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) in five compounded solutions, including sterile water. bactericidal efficacy was determined by spiral plating serial 10-fold dilutions of bacteria and solutions followed by colony counts. tris-edta [trizedta(®) (te)], tris-edta and 0.15% c ...201121777310
comparative in vitro efficacy of antimicrobial shampoos: a pilot study.this study compared the antimicrobial efficacy of shampoos against meticillin-sensitive staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mssp), meticillin-resistant s. pseudintermedius (mrsp), antibiotic-sensitive pseudomonas aeruginosa (pa), multidrug-resistant p. aeruginosa (mdr-pa) and malassezia pachydermatis. three isolates were incubated for 10, 30 and 60 min with each shampoo diluted in phosphate-buffered saline. aliquots were then incubated for 16-18 h on sheep blood agar (bacteria) or for 3 days on sab ...201121777309
antimicrobial resistance of staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from healthy dogs and dogs affected with pyoderma in japan.staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains were isolated from healthy dogs and dogs with pyoderma in 2000-2002 and 2009. all the isolates from dogs with pyoderma in 1999-2000 and from healthy dogs in 2000-2002 and 2009 were susceptible to cefalexin and/or other cephalosporins and oxacillin. however, 7.1-12.5 and 11.4% of s. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma in 2009 were resistant to cephalosporins and oxacillin, respectively. all s. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma ...201121745248
carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius in small animal veterinarians: indirect evidence of zoonotic transmission.methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) is increasingly reported in small animals and cases of human infections have already been described despite its recent emergence in veterinary practice. we investigated the prevalence of mrsp and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) among small animal dermatologists attending a national veterinary conference in italy. nasal swabs were obtained from 128 veterinarians, seven of which harboured mrsp (nôçâ=ôçâ5; 3.9%) or mrsa ...201121824350
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius among cats admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. 201121703784
meticillin-resistant strains of staphylococcus pseudintermedius in companion animals. 201121742696
heterogeneity of methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains isolated from diseased dogs.thirty nine canine s. pseudintermedius strains were examined for antibiotic susceptibility and genetic polymorphisms. all strains were methicillin-sensitive s. pseudintermedius (mssp). resistance to penicillin was most prevalent (66.6%), followed by resistance to neomycin (56.4%), erythromycin (53.8%), clindamycin (48.7%), chloramphenicol (48.7%), and tetracycline (46.2%). pulsed-field electrophoresis (pfge) showed a high genetic polymorphism in the investigated strains.201121721415
detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius with commercially available selective media.commercially available selective media for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) were tested for the detection and isolation of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp).201222023239
longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius (mrsp) is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in europe, asia and north america. to date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of mrsp in dogs and their surrounding. in this longitudinal study mrsp colonization in dogs and the transmission of mrsp to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. sixteen dogs with a recent clinical mrsp infection were included ...201122132141
Bactericidal properties of pradofloxacin against veterinary pathogens.Pradofloxacin is a new veterinary 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone developed for use against bacterial infections in dogs and cats involving both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The minimal bactericidal concentrations have been determined against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus canis, Proteus spp., Fusobacterium spp., Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella species. A subset of these species was selected, ...201122209121
Antibiotic treatments of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection in a dog: a case presentation.We report the antibiotic treatments administered to a female dog with mastitis and successive pyoderma. Microbiological investigations allowed the identification of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius after 54 days of various antibiotic treatments. The isolate carried the mecA gene and was resistant to 9 of 15 tested antibiotics. Consistent antibiotic treatment of the infection was possible only after accurate microbiological diagnosis.201121866514
molecular characterization of staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains isolated from clinical samples of animal origin.the aim of this study was to determine the species distribution among 44 randomly selected clinical isolates (30 meca-positive and 14 meca-negative) of animal origin previously identified as staphylococcus intermedius by phenotypic tests and species-specific pcr amplification of the 16s rrna gene. for this purpose, we used a multiplex pcr for the detection of the nuc gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of pta gene amplified by pcr. both methods allow discrimination of stap ...201121874595
detection and characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius in healthy dogs in la rioja, spain.the objective was to identify the methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (mrcops) nasal carriage rate of healthy dogs in la rioja (spain) and to characterize the recovered isolates by different molecular techniques. nasal samples from 196 dogs were obtained (98 household-dogs, 98 pound-dogs). isolates were identified and characterized by spa-, sccmec- and mlst-typing, smai-pfge, antimicrobial susceptibility, determination of antimicrobial resistance and toxin genes profiling. s. ...201121903268
Prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in northern Colorado shelter animals.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have been recognized as significant pathogens in veterinary medicine. There have been documented cases of MRSA infection and colonization in veterinary critical care units, in veterinary personnel, and in equine and feline patients. To date, there have been no studies examining the prevalence of MRSA or MRSP colonization of cats and dogs in animal shelters in the United States. The purpose of the curren ...201121908352
In vitro killing of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by enrofloxacin in combination with its active metabolite ciprofloxacin using clinically relevant drug concentrations in the dog and cat.Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent used to treat infections in companion animals. Enrofloxacin's antimicrobial spectrum includes Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria and demonstrates concentration-dependent bacteriocidal activity. In dogs and cats, enrofloxacin is partially metabolized to ciprofloxacin and both active agents circulate simultaneously in treated animals at ratios of approximately 60-70% enrofloxacin to 30-40% ciprofloxacin. We were interested in determining ...201121925810
methicillin-resistant staphylococci (mrs) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbl)-producing enterobacteriaceae in companion animals: nosocomial infections as one reason for the rising prevalence of these potential zoonotic pathogens in clinical samples.the ongoing change in the relationship between humans and companion animals is hallmarked by the increasing intensive care provided to companion animals in veterinary medicine, resulting in growing numbers of high-risk animal patients. the emergence of nosocomial infections in small animal clinics is one of the major drawbacks of this development, especially in terms of multidrug-resistance and potentially zoonotic pathogens. this mini-review therefore addresses recent findings regarding the inc ...201122000738
review on methicillin-resistant staphylococcus pseudintermedius.staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important opportunistic pathogen of companion animals, especially dogs. since 2006 there has been a significant emergence of methicillin-resistant s. pseudintermedius (mrsp) mainly due to clonal spread. this article reviews research on mrsp with a focus on occurrence, methods used for identification, risk factors for colonization and infection, zoonotic potential and control options. potential areas for future research are also discussed.201121930571
staphylococccus pseudintermedius surface proteins spsd and spso mediate adherence to ex vivo canine corneocytes.the gram-positive bacterium staphylococcus pseudintermedius is regarded as the major cause of canine bacterial pyoderma. despite its clinical importance, there is only very limited knowledge about the pathogenesis of s. pseudintermedius infection and the specific bacterial virulence factors involved in causing disease. using a whole-genome approach, we have previously identified 18 predicted cell-wall-anchored surface proteins representing possible virulence factors in a clinical isolate of s. p ...201122112246
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