first report of typhlitis/typhlohepatitis caused by tetratrichomonas gallinarum in three duck species.two red-breasted mergansers (mergus serrator), one hooded merganser (lophodytes cucullatus), and one common eider (somateria mollissima) from a german zoological collection died of necrotizing typhlitis/typhlohepatitis within 2 years. using a newly established chromogenic in situ hybridization assay, numerous intralesional trophozoites of tetratrichomonas gallinarum could be detected in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from the caeca and livers of the affected birds. partial sequenci ...201021154060
developing a wintering waterfowl community baseline for environmental monitoring of narragansett bay, rhode 2004, the atlantic ecology division of the us environmental protection agency's office of research and development began an annual winter waterfowl survey of rhode island's narragansett bay. herein, we explore the survey data gathered from 2004 to 2011 in order to establish a benchmark understanding of our waterfowl communities and to establish a statistical framework for future environmental monitoring. the abundance and diversity of wintering waterfowl were relatively stable during the init ...201527019692
pcbs, dioxins and furans in hooded merganser (lophodytes cucullatus), common merganser (mergus merganser) and mink (mustela vison) collected along the st. maurice river near la tuque, quebec.a pulp and paper mill located in la tuque on the st. maurice river, quebec, and using the kraft bleaching process was historically the largest pulp and paper industry point source of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in quebec. a study was undertaken to document the bioaccumulation of pcbs, dioxins and furans in piscivorous birds and mammals in this area. hooded and common merganser eggs were collected in nest boxes along the st. maurice river and common merganser fledglings were c ...199615091394
complete sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of scaly-sided merganser (mergus squamatus) and phylogeny of some anatidae species.the scaly-sided merganser (mergus squamatus) is an endangered bird species on the iucn red list with the estimated global population of less than 2,500 individuals at present. in the present study, we studied the complete mitochondrial genome (mtdna) and the phylogenetic of m. squamatus by pcr amplification and genbank data. the genome was 16,595 bp in length and contained 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, two rrnas, and 22 trnas) and a non-coding control region (d-loop). all protein-coding gen ...201221655953
two cases of neoplasia of basal cell origin affecting the axillary region in anseriform species.neoplasms of the skin are occasionally seen in domestic birds but are uncommon in nondomestic birds. an 8-year-old male hooded merganser (lophodytes cucullatus) was presented with bilateral axillary ulcerative lesions that improved but did not resolve with empiric antibiotic and antifungal therapy. skin biopsies were taken, and bilateral feather folliculomas were diagnosed on histopathologic examination. the duck was euthanatized because of the poor prognosis. a 9-year-old indian runner duck (an ...200919999766
antimicrobial activity of the anseriform outer eggshell and cuticle.the avian eggshell is a complex, multifunctional biomineral composed of a calcium carbonate mineral phase and an organic phase of lipids and proteins. the outermost layer of the eggshell, the eggshell cuticle, is an organic layer of variable thickness composed of polysaccharides, hydroxyapatite crystals, lipids and glycoprotein. in addition to regulating gas exchanges, the eggshell cuticle may contain antimicrobial elements. in this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of eggshell c ...200818289902
the functional anatomy of the ciliary muscle in four avian species.the functional anatomy of avian ciliary muscles has been difficult to describe, due to the muscle's inaccessible location inside the eye. the ciliary muscle of the chicken (gallus gallus domesticus), the pigeon (columbia livia), the kestrel (falco sparverius) and the hooded merganser (margus cucullatus) (four species with differing accommodative needs) was examined histologically in both the relaxed and contracted states. the ciliary muscle of all four species can be divided into three main musc ...19979167856
species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury.we injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. for 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (lc(50)). based on the dose-response curves and lc(50)s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value ...200918421496
enhanced c-type lysozyme content of wood duck (aix sponsa) egg white: an adaptation to cavity nesting?abstract wild waterfowl species often nest in conditions where high humidity and microbial contamination may influence egg survival and quality. albumen is traditionally regarded as the major impediment to microbial contamination of eggs, and its composition and activity may be selected by environmental pressures. egg white protein from the eggs of wood duck (aix sponsa), hooded merganser (lophodytes cucullatus), canada goose (branta canadensis), and mute swan (cygnus olor) was evaluated in orde ...200818190286
dioxins and congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls in three avian species from the wisconsin river, wisconsin.sediments from the wisconsin river. wi. usa are contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dioxin (tcdd) and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs). wet weight concentrations of tcdd and pcbs in eggs were at background levels and highest in the piscivorous = 7 pg/g tcdd a hooded merganser (lophodytes cucullatus; geometric m ean nd 0.92 microg/g pcbs) a nd lowest in the omnivorous wood duck (aix sponsa) (< 1 pg/g and 0.07 microg/g); concentrations in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow (tachycineta bic ...200212166666
an occurrence of avian tuberculosis in hooded merganser (lophodytes cucullatus).two imported male hooded mergansers (lophodytes cucullatus) were introduced into a zoological aviary in japan, and one of them died 10 mo later. postmortem revealed numerous white yellowish nodules of various sizes in the liver. two large nodules were also observed below the right lung and on the top of the left kidney. histopathologically, a large number of tubercles with acid-fast bacilli were seen in the liver. the amyloid was deposited in the connective tissue of the tubercles. bacteriologic ...19968980830
magnitude and rate of accommodation in diving and nondiving birds.accommodation was measured in a variety of waterfowl by projecting parallel low power helium-neon laser beams through the pupils of excised eyes placed in saline. the posterior globe was removed, allowing the beams, refracted only by the lens, to focus well behind the eye. electrical stimulation of the ciliary muscle results in accommodative movement of the focal point toward the eye. study of video recordings show that diving ducks (mergus cucullatus and bucephala clangala) can accommodate the ...19854049742
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