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comparative pathology and pathogenesis of african swine fever infection in swine.african swine fever (asf) is a viral disease that affects animals of the suidae family, and soft ticks from the genus ornithodoros can also be infected by the asf virus (asfv). the disease was first described in africa at the beginning of the twentieth century as an acute disease characterized by high mortality and fatal hemorrhages. asf has caused outbreaks in numerous countries and it continues to be devastating nowadays for the porcine sector in those countries affected, and a massive threat ...202032509811
a preliminary survey of medium and large-sized mammals from lebu natural protected forest, southwest showa, ethiopia.this study was conducted to determine the species composition and diversity of medium and large-sized mammals from lebu natural protected forest, ethiopia. surveys were conducted to record mammals through direct observation and indirect evidence from three habitat types, namely: natural forest, bushland, and riverine forest. a total of 15 mammalian species were recorded. the species recorded were papio anubis, chlorocebus aethiops, tragelaphus scriptus, canis aureus, crocuta crocuta, panthera pa ...201931832163
gastrointestinal helminths from the common warthog, phacochoerus africanus (gmelin) (suidae), in kwazulu-natal province, south africa, with comments on helminths of suidae and tayassuidae worldwide.thirty warthogs, phacochoerus africanus, were collected in the pongola game reserve, south africa and examined for helminths. gastrointestinal helminth assemblages comprised gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, the cestode genus moniezia and seven species of nematodes. a single warthog harboured a metacestode of taenia hydatigena in the mesenteries. no helminths were found in the heart, lungs or liver of the warthogs. probstmayria vivipara and murshidia spp. were the most prevalent as well as abundant helm ...201931106726
land use, redd+ and the status of wildlife populations in yaeda valley, northern tanzania.redd+ projects primarily focus on reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. these projects are regularly evaluated against their core objective of conserving carbon stocks, but their contribution to biodiversity conservation has rarely been assessed. to assess the conservation value of the area and the relative performance of a redd+ land use plan in yaeda valley, a semi-arid savannah ecosystem in northern tanzania, we implemented an annual wild ...201930947305
epidemiology of african swine fever in africa today: sylvatic cycle versus socio-economic imperatives.african swine fever (asf) is believed to have evolved in eastern and southern africa in a sylvatic cycle between common warthogs (phacochoerus africanus) and argasid ticks of the ornithodoros moubata complex that live in their burrows. the involvement of warthogs and possibly other wild suids in the maintenance of asf virus means that the infection cannot be eradicated from africa, but only prevented and controlled in domestic pig populations. historically, outbreaks of asf in domestic pigs in a ...201930633851
comparison of three methods to assess the potential for bushpig-domestic pig interactions at the wildlife-livestock interface in uganda.bushpigs (potamochoerus larvatus) are considered a nuisance to farmers because of their crop raiding habits. through their incursions into farmlands, they may interact with free-ranging domestic pigs and potentially cause transmission of infectious diseases such as african swine fever (asf). the role of the bushpig in the epidemiology of asf is poorly known and one of the gaps of knowledge is precisely the nature of interaction between bushpigs and domestic pigs. thus, in this study, we investig ...201830619893
genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of kenyan domestic pigs.the genetic diversity of african pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. available data suggests that african domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. we evaluated two domestic pig populations in western kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for african swine fev ...201829357367
nutritional ecology and life history tactics in the bushpig (potamochoerus porcus): development of an interactive model.a study of the ecology of the bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) showed that there were regional differences in relative investments made in reproduction and maintenance. southern cape populations had relatively low reproductive rates, but levels of energy storage and survival rates were high. the reverse applied to eastern cape populations. the diets of the two populations differed, with a higher ratio of available production nutrients (npk) to maintenance nutrients (c) in the eastern cape. a life ...199228312277
wildlife population dynamics in human-dominated landscapes under community-based conservation: the example of nakuru wildlife conservancy, kenya.wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in africa, including in kenya. we analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the nakuru wildlife conservancy (nwc), located in the nakuru-naivasha region of kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from march 1996 to may 2015. rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component an ...201728103269
wild and domestic pig interactions at the wildlife-livestock interface of murchison falls national park, uganda, and the potential association with african swine fever outbreaks.bushpigs (bps) (potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (whs) (phacochoerus africanus), which are widely distributed in eastern africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs (dps), facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. however, potential interactions between bp, wh, and dp, and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in africa to date. in order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potentia ...201627148545
evolutionary patterns of toll-like receptor signaling pathway genes in the suidae.the toll-like receptor (tlr) signaling pathway constitutes an essential component of the innate immune system. highly conserved proteins, indicative of their critical roles in host survival, characterize this pathway. selective constraints could vary depending on the gene's position within the pathway as tlr signaling is a sequential process and that genes downstream of the tlrs may be more selectively constrained to ensure efficient immune responses given the important role of downstream genes ...201626860534
functional analysis and transcriptional output of the göttingen minipig genome.in the past decade the göttingen minipig has gained increasing recognition as animal model in pharmaceutical and safety research because it recapitulates many aspects of human physiology and metabolism. genome-based comparison of drug targets together with quantitative tissue expression analysis allows rational prediction of pharmacology and cross-reactivity of human drugs in animal models thereby improving drug attrition which is an important challenge in the process of drug development.201526573612
expansion of the hsfy gene family in pig lineages : hsfy expansion in suids.amplified gene families on sex chromosomes can harbour genes with important biological functions, especially relating to fertility. the y-linked heat shock transcription factor (hsfy) family has become amplified on the y chromosome of the domestic pig (sus scrofa), in an apparently independent event to an hsfy expansion on the y chromosome of cattle (bos taurus). although the biological functions of hsfy genes are poorly understood, they appear to be involved in gametogenesis in a number of mamm ...201526055083
adaptive evolution of toll-like receptors (tlrs) in the family suidae.members of the family suidae have diverged over extended evolutionary periods in diverse environments, suggesting that adaptation in response to endemic infectious agents may have occurred. toll-like receptors (tlrs) comprise a multigene family that acts as the first line of defense against infectious microbes at the host-environment interface. we hypothesized that across the suidae, positive selection mediated by infectious agents has contributed to the evolution of tlr diversity. thus, we anal ...201525894218
chemoecological role of mammalian urine in host location by tsetse,glossina spp. (diptera: glossinidae).trap catch size was used to investigate whetherglossina pallidipes andg. longipennis could distinguish between the urine of the african buffalo, cattle, and waterbuck at nguruman in southwest kenya. ng2g traps baited with aged urine of these bovids caught significantly more of each tsetse than did the controls. the mean catch of either tsetse species in traps baited with aged urine of buffalo and cattle (tsetse hosts) and waterbuck (a nonhost) did not differ significantly. aged urine from both t ...199624225937
parasites of south african wildlife. xix. the prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the limpopo province, south africa.little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. the aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. ten impalas (aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), two bla ...201123327219
comparison of african swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in south-west and central kenya.we describe a horizontal survey of african swine fever virus (asfv) prevalence and risk factors associated with virus infection in domestic pigs in two contrasting production systems in kenya. a free range/tethering, low input production system in ndhiwa district of south-western kenya is compared with a medium input stall fed production system in kiambu district of central kenya. analysis of variance (anova) of data derived from cluster analysis showed that number of animals, number of breeding ...201323219357
review of the sylvatic cycle of african swine fever in sub-saharan africa and the indian ocean.african swine fever (asf) is a major limiting factor for pig production in most of the countries in sub-saharan africa and the indian ocean. in the absence of vaccine, a good understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the disease is fundamental to implement effective control measures. in selected countries of southern and east africa, the association between ornithodoros moubata ticks and warthogs has been described in detail in the literature. however, for many other countries in the regi ...201323142551
trichinella infections in animals and humans in sub-saharan africa: a review.the aim of this review is to provide information on trichinella infection in humans, livestock and wildlife in sub-saharan africa mainly focusing on geographical distribution of species/genotypes, biology, host range, life cycles and to identify research gaps. trichinella britovi, trichinella nelsoni and trichinella zimbabwensis and one genotype (trichinella t8) are known to occur in sub-saharan africa. distinct geographic ranges with overlapping of some taxa in some areas have been observed. ge ...201323041114
viral metagenomic analysis of bushpigs (potamochoerus larvatus) in uganda identifies novel variants of porcine parvovirus 4 and torque teno sus virus 1 and 2.as a result of rapidly growing human populations, intensification of livestock production and increasing exploitation of wildlife habitats for animal agriculture, the interface between wildlife, livestock and humans is expanding, with potential impacts on both domestic animal and human health. wild animals serve as reservoirs for many viruses, which may occasionally result in novel infections of domestic animals and/or the human population. given this background, we used metagenomics to investig ...201222967311
african swine fever among slaughter pigs in mubende district, uganda.owing to frequent reports of suspected outbreaks and the presence of reservoir hosts and vectors (warthogs, bushpigs and o. moubata ticks), african swine fever (asf) is believed to be an endemic disease in uganda. there have, however, been very few studies carried out to confirm its existence in uganda. this study was carried out to describe the prevalence of asf based on pathologic lesions and analysis of serum samples from slaughtered pigs during a suspected outbreak in the mubende district of ...201222367736
assessment of interactions between african swine fever virus, bushpigs (potamochoerus larvatus), ornithodoros ticks and domestic pigs in north-western madagascar.since its introduction in madagascar in 1998, african swine fever (asf) has severely affected national pig production and persists as a common disease in that country. two of its natural hosts in the african continent, the bushpig (potamochoerus larvatus) and tick vectors of the ornithodoros moubata complex, are reported in west and central regions of the island. however, their role in the maintenance and transmission of the virus has been insufficiently studied. in this work, we tried to assess ...201121320295
experimental infection of common warthogs (phacochoerus africanus) and bushpigs (potamochoerus larvatus) with classical swine fever virus. i: susceptibility and transmission.an incursion of classical swine fever virus (csfv) into the domestic pig population in south africa, identified in 2005, raised the concern that infection might spread to wildlife species and be maintained in these hosts. this study sought to determine whether two wildlife suidae species present in south africa, the bushpig (potamochoerus larvatus) and the common warthog (phacochoerus africanus), could support productive csfv infection. both species could be infected with csfv and transmitted in ...201121294855
experimental infection of common warthogs (phacochoerus africanus) and bushpigs (potamochoerus larvatus) with classical swine fever virus ii: a comparative histopathological study.wild african suidae, the common warthog (phacochoerus africanus) and bushpig (potamochoerus larvatus), were experimentally infected with classical swine fever (csf) virus following the diagnosis of csf subtype 2.1 in domestic pigs in south africa in 2005. no data regarding the susceptibility or potential lesions of these african wild suids are available. seven subadult warthogs and six bushpigs were captured and infected intranasally with the south african isolate. two in-contact control animals ...201021176120
molecular characterisation of african swine fever viruses from nigeria (2003-2006) recovers multiple virus variants and reaffirms cvr epidemiological utility.samples collected from wild and domestic suids in nigeria, over a 3-year period (2003-2006), were evaluated for african swine fever (asf) virus genome presence by targeting three discrete genome regions, namely the 478-bp c-terminal p72 gene region advocated for genotype assignment, a 780-bp region spanning the 5'-ends of the pb125r and pb646l (p72) genes and the hypervariable central variable region (cvr) encoded within the 9rl orf (pb602l). asf virus (asfv) presence was confirmed in 23 of the ...201020052526
were snares and traps used in the middle stone age and does it matter? a review and a case study from sibudu, south africa.the concept of remote capture involved in the creation and use of snares and traps is one of several indicators that can be used for the recognition of enhanced working memory and complex cognition. it can be argued that this humble technology is a more reliable indicator of complex cognition than encounter hunting, for example with spears. it is difficult to recognize snares and traps archaeologically because they are generally made from materials that do not preserve well. to infer their prese ...201020031191
expression, cellular localization and antibody responses of the african swine fever virus genes b602l and k205r.previously, we identified serological immunodeterminants of african swine fever virus (asfv), including pk205r and pb602l, without homologues in the database. pk205r is expressed as a 33-kd protein from 4 h post-infection onward, initially diffusely distributed throughout cells, and subsequently in viral factories. pk205r was not found in purified virus. both pk205r and pb602l are recognised by hyperimmune antisera from domestic pigs and bushpigs at late time points after infection, suggesting t ...200819011730
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis isolates from free-ranging wildlife in south african game reserves.bovine tuberculosis is endemic in african buffalo and a number of other wildlife species in the kruger national park (knp) and hluhluwe-imfolozi park (hip) in south africa. it was thought that the infection had been introduced into the knp ecosystem through direct contact between cattle and buffalo, a hypothesis which was confirmed in this study by is6110 and pgrs restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) typing. the molecular characterisation of 189 mycobacterium bovis isolates from nine ...200918786785
chimpanzees as fauna: comparisons of sympatric large mammals across long-term study sites.although much research has shown otherwise, chimpanzees are still often classed as rainforest-dwellers. most long-term studies of wild chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) are not situated in evergreen, closed-canopy equatorial forests, but instead are conducted in more open habitats. this study aims to elucidate the extent of chimpanzee ecological diversity by scrutinizing (recently) sympatric mammalian fauna at established study sites. we compiled presence or absence data on large mammal species at e ...200818246594
conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in tanzania.large carnivores inspire opposition to conservation efforts owing to their impact on livestock and human safety. here we analyse the pattern of lion attacks over the past 15 years on humans in tanzania, which has the largest population of lions in africa, and find that they have killed more than 563 tanzanians since 1990 and injured at least 308. attacks have increased dramatically during this time: they peak at harvest time each year and are most frequent in areas with few prey apart from bush ...200516107828
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from zimbabwe.one hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from zimbabwe were tested for igg antibodies to toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (mat). significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34) and farm-reared struthionidae (struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. among the bovidae, the nyala (tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence o ...200515777687
african swine fever virus proteins involved in evading host defence systems.african swine fever virus (asfv) can cause an acutely fatal haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs although in its natural hosts, warthogs, bushpigs and the soft tick vector, ornithodoros moubata, asfv causes inapparent persistent infections. the virus is a large, cytoplasmic, double-stranded dna virus which has a tropism for macrophages. as it is the only member of the asfarviridae family, asfv encodes many novel genes not encoded by other virus families. the ability of the virus to persist in its ...200415207450
[african swine fever introduction into madagascar, history and lessons from an emergence].african swine fever (asf) was diagnosed for the first time in madagascar in 1998. asf has apparently been introduced from the african continent to the southern part of the island with a subsequent spread to other regions except for areas in the north and in the west. the epidemic has had severe economic consequences for the home market of pork meat production. this article reviews the course of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the vectors involved in the transmission of the virus, such a ...200112471744
african swine fever virus infection of porcine aortic endothelial cells leads to inhibition of inflammatory responses, activation of the thrombotic state, and apoptosis.african swine fever (asf) is an asymptomatic infection of warthogs and bushpigs, which has become an emergent disease of domestic pigs, characterized by hemorrhage, lymphopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. it is caused by a large icosohedral double-stranded dna virus, african swine fever virus (asfv), with infection of macrophages well characterized in vitro and in vivo. this study shows that virulent isolates of asfv also infect primary cultures of porcine aortic endothelial cel ...200111581405
ornithodoros porcinus ticks, bushpigs, and african swine fever in madagascar.african swine fever (asf) has recently made its appearance in madagascar. ticks of the ornithodoros moubata group, considered to be o. porcinus walton, 1962 were formerly known to occur in western madagascar, but seem to have disappeared from that region. however, three new sites where they occur were found in the humid and cool central highlands of anatananarivo province. these ticks are known to be efficient reservoirs and vectors of asf and constitute a considerable complication to the contro ...200111523921
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of domestic pigs and some wild game species from zimbabwe.serum samples of domestic pigs (sus scrofa), elands (taurotragus oryx), sable antelopes (hippotragus niger), warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus), bushpigs (koiropotamus [potamochoerus] koiropotamus), white rhinos (ceratotherium simus), african buffalos (syncerus caffer), wildebeest (connochaetas taurinus), and african elephants (loxodonta africana) from zimbabwe were tested for toxoplasma gondii igg antibodies by the modified agglutination test (mat) with whole formalized tachyzoites and mercapt ...199910219323
detection of african swine fever virus in infected pig tissues by immunocytochemistry and in sity hybridisation.the techniques for determining cellular sites of establishment and persistence of african swine fever virus (asfv) were established in susceptible domestic pigs and the resistant african reservoir hosts, the warthog and bushpig. detection, both in vitro and in vivo, was achieved by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry, focusing principally on specific probes for vp73, a major capsid protein. hybridisation of radio-labelled probes for dna and rna was relatively insensitive and time consu ...19989694328
african swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease.warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) are known to be susceptible to infection with african swine fever (asf) virus. little however, is known about the ecology of the disease in the bushpig. this study has shown that the bushpig remains viraemic for between 35 and 91 days following infection during which time it is able to infect the tick vector o. moubata. these ticks were able to transmit the disease to pigs. the vi ...19989659687
the pathogenesis of african swine fever in the resistant bushpig.bushpigs and warthogs are natural reservoir hosts of african swine fever virus (asfv) in the wild, showing no clinical signs of disease when infected with the same highly virulent isolates of asfv that induce rapid, haemorrhagic death in domestic pigs. in contrast to domestic pigs, infection of bushpigs with malawi isolate results in low levels of virus replication and lymphocyte apoptosis within the spleen, and a relatively low spread of virus to other lymphoid tissues. however, at 10 days post ...19989634086
host preferences of tsetse (diptera: glossinidae) based on bloodmeal identifications.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to identify the origin of vertebrate blood in the guts of 29 245 wild-caught flies of eleven glossina species from various ecological zones of africa. depending on the quality of the bloodmeal samples, 62.8% of the samples were identified and could be assigned to a host-group (e.g. ruminant), family (e.g. bovidae) or species (e.g. bos spp.). a total of 13 145 samples (44.9%) was identifiable up to the species level. with a few exceptions ...19989622371
growth of cowdria ruminantium in tissue culture endothelial cell lines from wild african mammals.endothelial cell cultures were established from several wild african mammalian species. long-term cultures were established from three ruminants, stable antelope (hippotragus niger), buffalo (syncerus caffer), and eland (tragelaphus oryx), and from an omnivore, the bushpig (potamochoerus porcus). cowdria ruminanntium was isolated from plasma of clinically affected animals in these four cell lines and in bovine endothelial cells used routinely for c. ruminantium propagation. nineteen different st ...19989577776
comparative study on the susceptibility of different laboratory strains of glossina species to trypanosoma simiae.teneral tsetse of four glossina species from laboratory-reared colonies were fed on four large white pigs infected with three different stocks of trypanosoma simiae isolated in coast province, kenya. thereafter the tsetse were maintained on goats and dissected on day 28 to determine the trypanosome infection rates. glossina brevipalpis was as susceptible as g.pallidipes whilst g.palpalis gambiensis was not susceptible to t.simiae cp 11 a stock causing acute infection, which was isolated from a w ...19947949313
studies on glossina pallidipes, g. fuscipes fuscipes and g. brevipalpis in terms of the epidemiology and epizootiology of trypanosomiases in south-eastern uganda.glossina pallidipes, g. f. fuscipes and g. brevipalpis in stages i and ii of hunger were caught from bukunya and buyundo villages in south-east uganda during the period december 1969 to february 1971, and the origins of their blood meals identified. g. pallidipes fed mainly on bovids in the two villages; bushbuck was the most favoured host (44.9% of all blood feeds) though in buyundo buffalo provided a significant alternative (20.8%). g. f. fuscipes frequently fed on bovids (75.6%), particularly ...19807436606
tsetse fly feeding preference as determined by vehicular trapping in tanzania.in eastern tanzania an electric grid trap carried in the back of a moving pick-up truck was used to capture engorged glossina morsitans morsitans and g. pallidipes for an analysis of their food sources. although 12 000 head of domestic cattle represented c. 75% of the animal biomass in the survey area, they provided only 5.6% of the total blood meals, while 74.8% were from warthogs and bushpigs. the percentage of females among the captured flies was 12 and 47 for g. m. morsitans and g. pallidipe ...19846486936
the hosts and trypanosome infection rates of glossina pallidipes in the lambwe and roo valleys.several thousand glossina pallidipes flies were dissected to determine trypanosome infection rates in the lambwe valley and to collect information on the hosts of this tsetse. a total of 1 450 (19.3%) flies had mature trypanosome infections but the rate varied between 9.6% and 30.9% in the lambwe valley. in the roo valley the rate was 19.7-28.6%. blood-meal squashes from tsetse collected in the roo valley and obaluanda areas and in the ruma, otuok, and rari thickets showed that the important hos ...19724544830
periodontal disease in southern african bushpigs (potamochoerus porcus) and warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus).periodontal lesions were found in 14 of 100 bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) skulls and nine of 103 warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) skulls from southern africa. the prevalence of periodontal disease showed a significant increase with age in the bushpig but not in the warthog skulls. all the lesions affected the cheek teeth, particularly the molars. the lower prevalence of lesions in older warthogs may be associated with their specialised molars and abrasive diet.19892915404
the feeding habits of the tsetse, glossina pallidipes austen on the south kenya coast, in the context of its host range and trypanosome infection rates in other parts of east africa.the results of blood-meal identifications for 651 glossina pallidipes from 5 subpopulations near the kenya coast south of mombasa, and one, 70 km inland, are presented. bushpigs and/or warthogs were important hosts for g. pallidipes at all sites. other major hosts included elephant, buffalo and bushbuck where they were present, and on a dairy ranch nearly 30% of feeds were taken from cattle. there was a general relationship between the numbers and diversity of wild herbivores and the abundance o ...19882907261
ixodid ticks and lice infesting red duikers and bushpigs in north-eastern natal.eighteen red duikers, cephalophus natalensis, from the charters creek nature reserve and 2 from fanies island nature reserve were processed for arthropod parasite recovery. they harboured 8 species of ixodid ticks and 2 lice species. all were infested with haemaphysalis parmata and the nymphs of rhipicephalus muehlensi. two bushpigs, potamochoerus porcus, from the ndumu nature reserve, 5 from the eastern shores nature reserve and 1 from cape vidal were examined for ectoparasites. they were infes ...19911780129
vitamin b12 and its binding proteins in the serum of some wild game species.the concentration of vitamin b12 and its binding proteins was measured in the impala, nyala, wildebeest, zebra, bushpig, warthog, and rhino, all existing in their natural state. marked differences were found between some species. the variations observed are probably true species differences, unrelated to environmental factors.19751162511
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